WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor-expressing monocytes inhibit

  1. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenstein, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.breitenstein@usz.ch [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland); Akhmedov, Alexander; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Tanner, Felix C. [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells was achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  2. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  3. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  4. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone inhibits osteopontin expression and differentiation in cultured human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Xu, Hua; McGrath, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Monocyte activation and polarization play essential roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance of M1 and M2 macrophage activation (pro-inflammatory and alternatively activated, respectively) is believed to be a key aspect in the etiology of these diseases, thus a therapeutic approach that regulates macrophage activation could be of broad clinical relevance. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a regulator of polyamine metabolism, has recently been shown to be concentrated in monocytes and macrophages, and interfere with HIV integration into the DNA of these cells in vitro. RNA expression analysis of monocytes from HIV+ and control donors with or without MGBG treatment revealed the only gene to be consistently down regulated by MGBG to be osteopontin (OPN). The elevated expression of this pro-inflammatory cytokine and monocyte chemoattractant is associated with various chronic inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate that MGBG is a potent inhibitor of secreted OPN (sOPN) in cultured monocytes with 50% inhibition achieved at 0.1 μM of the drug. Furthermore, inhibition of OPN RNA transcription in monocyte cultures occurs at similar concentrations of the drug. During differentiation of monocytes into macrophages in vitro, monocytes express cell surface CD16 and the cells undergo limited DNA synthesis as measured by uptake of BrdU. MGBG inhibited both activities at similar doses to those regulating OPN expression. In addition, monocyte treatment with MGBG inhibited differentiation into both M1 and M2 classes of macrophages at non-toxic doses. The inhibition of differentiation and anti-OPN effects of MGBG were specific for monocytes in that differentiated macrophages were nearly resistant to MGBG activities. Thus MGBG may have potential therapeutic utility in reducing or normalizing OPN levels and regulating monocyte activation in diseases that involve chronic inflammation.

  5. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Séguier

    Full Text Available We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  6. Minocycline Inhibition of Monocyte Activation Correlates with Neuronal Protection in SIV NeuroAIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer H.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Autissier, Patrick; Bombardier, Jeffrey P.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Soulas, Caroline; González, R. Gilberto; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. Methods Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Seven received minocycline (4 mg/kg) daily starting at day 28 post-infection (pi). Monocyte expansion and activation were assessed by flow cytometry, cell traffic to lymph nodes, CD16 regulation, viral replication, and cytokine production were studied. Results Minocycline treatment decreased plasma virus and pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes, and reduced their expression of CD11b, CD163, CD64, CCR2 and HLA-DR. There was reduced recruitment of monocyte/macrophages and productively infected cells in axillary lymph nodes. There was an inverse correlation between brain NAA/Cr (neuronal injury) and circulating CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes. Minocycline treatment in vitro reduced SIV replication CD16 expression on activated CD14+CD16+ monocytes, and IL-6 production by monocytes following LPS stimulation. Conclusion Neuroprotective effects of minocycline are due in part to reduction of activated monocytes, monocyte traffic. Mechanisms for these effects include CD16 regulation, reduced viral replication, and inhibited immune activation. PMID:21494695

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Lajczak, Natalia K; Keyes, Jennifer A; Ward, Joseph B; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Monocytes are critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they infiltrate the mucosa and release cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid with anti-inflammatory actions, has been proposed as a potential new therapy for IBD. However, its effects on monocyte function are not yet known. Primary monocytes from healthy volunteers or cultured U937 monocytes were treated with either the proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα (5 ng/ml) or the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/ml) for 24 h, in the absence or presence of UDCA (25-100 μM). IL-8 release into the supernatant was measured by ELISA. mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR and changes in cell signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Toxicity was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated TNFα-, but not LPS-driven, release of IL-8 from both primary and cultured monocytes. UDCA inhibition of TNFα-driven responses was associated with reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Both TNFα and LPS stimulated NFκB activation in monocytes, while IL-8 release in response to both cytokines was attenuated by an NFκB inhibitor, BMS-345541. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited TNFα-, but not LPS-stimulated, NFκB activation. Finally, TNFα, but not LPS, induced phosphorylation of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF2), while UDCA cotreatment attenuated this response. We conclude that UDCA specifically inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes by inhibiting TRAF2 activation. Since such actions would serve to dampen mucosal immune responses in vivo, our data support the therapeutic potential of UDCA for IBD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Soluble fibrin inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells: implications for cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Shonak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibrin (sFn is a marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation and may have prognostic significance, especially in metastasis. However, a role for sFn in the etiology of metastatic cancer growth has not been extensively studied. We have reported that sFn cross-linked platelet binding to tumor cells via the major platelet fibrin receptor αIIbβ3, and tumor cell CD54 (ICAM-1, which is the receptor for two of the leukocyte β2 integrins (αLβ2 and aMβ2. We hypothesized that sFn may also affect leukocyte adherence, recognition, and killing of tumor cells. Furthermore, in a rat experimental metastasis model sFn pre-treatment of tumor cells enhanced metastasis by over 60% compared to untreated cells. Other studies have shown that fibrin(ogen binds to the monocyte integrin αMβ2. This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of sFn on β2 integrin mediated monocyte adherence and killing of tumor cells. Methods The role of sFn in monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells was initially studied using static microplate adherence and cytotoxicity assays, and under physiologically relevant flow conditions in a microscope perfusion incubator system. Blocking studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies specific for β2 integrins and CD54, and specific peptides which inhibit sFn binding to these receptors. Results Enhancement of monocyte/tumor cell adherence was observed when only one cell type was bound to sFn, but profound inhibition was observed when sFn was bound to both monocytes and tumor cells. This effect was also reflected in the pattern of monocyte cytotoxicity. Studies using monoclonal blocking antibodies and specific blocking peptides (which did not affect normal coagulation showed that the predominant mechanism of fibrin inhibition is via its binding to αMβ2 on monocytes, and to CD54 on both leukocytes and tumor cells. Conclusion sFn inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity of

  9. Thioredoxin 80-Activated-Monocytes (TAMs) Inhibit the Replication of Intracellular Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes-Bratti, Ximena; Brasseres, Eugenie; Herrera-Rodriquez, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thioredoxin 80 (Trx80) is an 80 amino acid natural cleavage product of Trx, produced primarily by monocytes. Trx80 induces differentiation of human monocytes into a novel cell type, named Trx80-activated-monocytes (TAMs). Principal Findings: In this investigation we present evidence...... for a role of TAMs in the control of intracellular bacterial infections. As model pathogens we have chosen Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus which replicate in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum respectively. Our data indicate that TAMs efficiently inhibit intracellular growth of both L...... in TAMs compared to that observed in control cells 24 h post-infection, indicating that TAMs kill bacteria by preventing their escape from the endosomal compartments, which progress into a highly degradative phagolysosome. Significance: Our results show that Trx80 potentiates the bactericidal activities...

  10. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by overexpression of NDRG2 in monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyeongah; Nam, Sorim; Kim, Bomi; Lim, Ji Hyun; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok, E-mail: jslim@sookmyung.ac.kr

    2015-12-25

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a member of the NDRG family of differentiation-related genes, has been characterized as a regulator of dendritic cell differentiation from monocytes, CD34{sup +} progenitor cells, and myelomonocytic leukemic cells. In this study, we show that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits the differentiation of U937 cells into osteoclasts in response to stimulation with a combination of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). U937 cells stably expressing NDRG2 are unable to differentiate into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells and display reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and resorption pit formation. Furthermore, NDRG2 expression significantly suppresses the expression of genes that are crucial for the proliferation, survival, differentiation, and function of osteoclasts, including c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, RANK, and OSCAR. The activation of ERK1/2 and p38 is also inhibited by NDRG2 expression during osteoclastogenesis, and the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by NDRG2 correlates with the down-regulation of the expression of the transcription factor PU.1. Taken together, our results suggest that the expression of NDRG2 potentially inhibits osteoclast differentiation and plays a role in modulating the signal transduction pathway responsible for osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • The expression of NDRG2 significantly impairs osteoclast differentiation. • PU.1 and p38 MAPK inhibitions by NDRG2 are critical for the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. • Knockdown of NDRG2 rescues the ability of monocytes to differentiate into osteoclasts. • NDRG2 expression in BM and primary macrophages also impairs osteoclast differentiation. • This study implies the potential of NDRG2 expression in the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.

  11. Monocytic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M T

    1980-05-01

    The monocytic leukemias may be subdivided into acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, and subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The clinical features of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias are similar and are manifestations of bone marrow failure. Gingival hypertrophy and skin infiltration are more frequent in acute monocytic leukemia. Cytomorphologically the blast cells in acute monocytic leukemia may be undifferentiated or differentiated, whereas in the acute myelomonocytic variety there are mixed populations of monocytic and myeloblastic cells. Cytochemical characteristics include strongly positive reactions for nonspecific esterase, inhibited by fluoride. The functional characteristics of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic cells resemble those of monocytes and include glass adherence and phagocytoses, the presence of Fc receptors for IgG and C'3, and the production of colony stimulating activity. Subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias are insidious and slowly progressive diseases characterized by anemia and peripheral blood monocytosis. Atypical monocytes called paramyeloid cells are characteristic. The drugs used in the treatment of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias include cytosine arabinoside, the anthracyclines, and VP 16-213. Drug therapy in subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias is not usually indicated, although VP 16-213 has been claimed to be effective.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits extrarenal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sea, Jessica L; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Gales, Barbara; Adams, John S; Salusky, Isidro B; Hewison, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is a potent stimulator of monocyte innate immunity, and this effect is mediated via intracrine conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2) D). In the kidney, synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2) D is suppressed by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), via transcriptional suppression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). We hypothesized that FGF23 also suppresses CYP27B1 in monocytes, with concomitant effects on intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)(2) D. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell monocytes (PBMCm) and peritoneal dialysate monocyte (PDm) effluent from kidney disease patients were assessed at baseline to confirm the presence of mRNA for FGF23 receptors (FGFRs), with Klotho and FGFR1 being more strongly expressed than FGFR2/3/4 in both cell types. Immunohistochemistry showed coexpression of Klotho and FGFR1 in PBMCm and PDm, with this effect being enhanced following treatment with FGF23 in PBMCm but not PDm. Treatment with FGF23 activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) pathways in PBMCm, demonstrating functional FGFR signaling in these cells. FGF23 treatment of PBMCm and PDm decreased expression of mRNA for CYP27B1. In PBMCm this was associated with downregulation of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)(2) D metabolism, and concomitant suppression of intracrine induced 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and antibacterial cathelicidin (LL37). FGF23 suppression of CYP27B1 was particularly pronounced in PBMCm treated with interleukin-15 to stimulate synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2) D. These data indicate that FGF23 can inhibit extra-renal expression of CYP27B1 and subsequent intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)(2) D in two different human monocyte models. Elevated expression of FGF23 may therefore play a crucial role in defining immune responses to vitamin D and this, in turn, may be a key determinant of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  13. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides containing TTAGGG motifs inhibit cGAS activation in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhagen, Folkert; Zillinger, Thomas; Peukert, Konrad; Fox, Mario; Thudium, Marcus; Barchet, Winfried; Putensen, Christian; Klinman, Dennis; Latz, Eicke; Bode, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is a critical mediator of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). The recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) induces the production of type I IFN in response to cytosolic DNA and is potentially linked to SLE and AGS. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs present in mammalian telomeres have proven useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including SLE. In this study, we demonstrate that the suppressive ODN A151 effectively inhibits activation of cGAS in response to cytosolic DNA, thereby inhibiting type I IFN production by human monocytes. In addition, A151 abrogated cGAS activation in response to endogenous accumulation of DNA using TREX1-deficient monocytes. We demonstrate that A151 prevents cGAS activation in a manner that is competitive with DNA. This suppressive activity of A151 was dependent on both telomeric sequence and phosphorothioate backbone. To our knowledge this report presents the first cGAS inhibitor capable of blocking self-DNA. Collectively, these findings might lead to the development of new therapeutics against IFN-driven pathologies due to cGAS activation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. FGF23 inhibits extra-renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sea, Jessica L; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Gales, Barbara; Adams, John S.; Salusky, Isidro B; Hewison, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is a potent stimulator of monocyte innate immunity, with this effect being mediated via intracrine conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). In the kidney synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D is suppressed by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), via transcriptional suppression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). We hypothesized that FGF23 also suppresses CYP27B1 in monocytes, with concomitant effects on intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)2D. Monocytes from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCm) and from peritoneal dialysate effluent from kidney disease patients (PDm) were assessed at baseline to confirm the presence of mRNA for FGF23 receptors (FGFRs), with Klotho and FGFR1 being more strongly expressed than FGFR2/3/4 in both cell types. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of Klotho and FGFR1 in PBMCm and PDm, with this effect being enhanced following treatment with FGF23 in PBMCm but not PDm. Treatment with FGF23 activated MAP kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in PBMCm, demonstrating functional FGFR signaling in these cells. FGF23 treatment of PBMCm and PDm decreased expression of mRNA for CYP27B1. In PBMCm this was associated with downregulation of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)2D metabolism, and concomitant suppression of intracrine induced 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and antibacterial cathelicidin (LL37). FGF23 suppression of CYP27B1 was particularly pronounced in PBMCm treated with interleukin-15 to stimulate synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. These data indicate that FGF23 can inhibit extra-renal expression of CYP27B1 and subsequent intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)2D in two different human monocyte models. Elevated expression of FGF23 may therefore play a crucial role in defining immune responses to vitamin D and this, in turn, may be a key determinant of infection in patients with CKD. PMID:22886720

  15. A monocyte chemotaxis inhibiting factor in serum of HIV infected men shares epitopes with the HIV transmembrane protein gp41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes that gp41, the transmembranous envelope protein of HIV, is able to inhibit monocyte chemotaxis (measured as FMLP-induced polarization). To study the presence of such immunosuppressive HIV env proteins in the circulation of HIV-infected men, fractions were prepared from serum

  16. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail: camilab@icb.usp.br; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  17. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-labled Active Site Inhibited Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is up regulated in many solid tumors and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. A non-invasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII (FVII) is the natural ligand to TF. Here we...... report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of FVII. METHODS: Active site inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4......-[(18)F]-fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) and purified. The corresponding product, [(18)F]FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2 and 4 hours after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed...

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor activity is mediated by monocytic lineages maintained by continuous inhibition of extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Jessica M; Smith, Amber M; Weinlich, Ricardo; Dillon, Christopher P; Qualls, Joseph E; Neale, Geoffrey; Koss, Brian; Kim, Young; Bronte, Vincenzo; Herold, Marco J; Green, Douglas R; Opferman, Joseph T; Murray, Peter J

    2014-12-18

    Nonresolving inflammation expands a heterogeneous population of myeloid suppressor cells capable of inhibiting T cell function. This heterogeneity has confounded the functional dissection of individual myeloid subpopulations and presents an obstacle for antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. Using genetic manipulation of cell death pathways, we found the monocytic suppressor-cell subset, but not the granulocytic subset, requires continuous c-FLIP expression to prevent caspase-8-dependent, RIPK3-independent cell death. Development of the granulocyte subset requires MCL-1-mediated control of the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway. Monocytic suppressors tolerate the absence of MCL-1 provided cytokines increase expression of the MCL-1-related protein A1. Monocytic suppressors mediate T cell suppression, whereas their granulocytic counterparts lack suppressive function. The loss of the granulocytic subset via conditional MCL-1 deletion did not alter tumor incidence implicating the monocytic compartment as the functionally immunosuppressive subset in vivo. Thus, death pathway modulation defines the development, survival, and function of myeloid suppressor cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphodiesterase III inhibition affects platelet-monocyte aggregate formation depending on the axis of stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.A.; Anastase, D.M.; Hecker, K.E.; Baumert, J.H.; Scheffer, G.J.; Rossaint, R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 3 inhibitor milrinone on the adhesion of platelets to monocytes in vitro. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University experimental laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy volunteers.

  20. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-Labeled Active Site-Inhibited Factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E; Jensen, Mette M; Kristensen, Lotte K; Madsen, Jacob; Petersen, Lars C; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is upregulated in many solid tumors, and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis. A noninvasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII is the natural ligand to TF. Here we report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of factor VII. Active site-inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate and purified. The corresponding product, (18)F-FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small-animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2, and 4 h after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed after the last imaging session, and tumor tissue was preserved for molecular analysis. A blocking experiment was performed in a second set of mice. The expression pattern of TF in the tumors was visualized by immunohistochemistry and the amount of TF in tumor homogenates was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumors measured in vivo by PET imaging. The PET images showed high uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumor regions, with a mean uptake of 2.5 ± 0.3 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) (mean ± SEM) 4 h after injection of 7.3-9.3 MBq of (18)F-FVIIai and with an average maximum uptake in the tumors of 7.1 ± 0.7 %ID/g at 4 h. In comparison, the muscle uptake was 0.2 ± 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h. At 4 h, the tumors had the highest uptake of any organ. Blocking with FVIIai significantly reduced the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai from 2.9 ± 0.1 to 1.4 ± 0.1 %ID/g (P < 0.001). The uptake of (18)F-FVIIai measured in vivo by PET imaging correlated (r = 0.72, P < 0.02) with TF protein level measured ex vivo. (18)F-FVIIai is a promising PET tracer for

  1. Chronic Inhibition of PDE5 Limits Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Polarization in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Mary Anna; Giannetta, Elisa; Panio, Giuseppe; De Gaetano, Rita; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Masciarelli, Silvia; Fazi, Francesco; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Isidori, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by changes in endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment, increase classic (M1-type) tissue macrophage infiltration and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Our and other groups recently showed that chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5i) affects circulating cytokine levels in patients with diabetes; whether PDE5i also affects circulating monocytes and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration remains to be established. Using murine streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in human vitro cell-cell adhesion models we show that chronic hyperglycemia induces changes in myeloid and endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Continuous PDE5i with sildenafil (SILD) expanded tissue anti-inflammatory TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs), which are known to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Specifically, SILD: 1) normalizes the frequency of circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes triggered by hyperglycemia (53.7 ± 7.9% of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in STZ vs. 30.4 ± 8.3% in STZ+SILD and 27.1 ± 1.6% in CTRL, PTEMs (30.9 ± 3.6% in STZ+SILD vs. 6.9 ± 2.7% in STZ, P TEMs are defective in chronic hyperglycemia and that SILD normalizes their levels by facilitating the shift from classic (M1-like) to alternative (M2-like)/TEM macrophage polarization. Restoration of tissue TEMs with PDE5i could represent an additional pharmacological tool to prevent end-organ diabetic complications.

  2. MIR144* inhibits antimicrobial responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocytes and macrophages by targeting the autophagy protein DRAM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hye-Mi; Park, Ki-Sun; Shin, Dong-Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Yi Sak; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, In Soo; Kim, Jin-Man; Son, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Jung, Sung Soo; Chung, Chaeuk; Han, Sang-Bae; Yang, Chul-Su; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages. Mtb infection downregulated, whereas the autophagy activators upregulated, DRAM2 expression in human monocytes and macrophages by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. In addition, overexpression of MIR144* decreased DRAM2 expression and formation of autophagosomes in human monocytes, whereas inhibition of MIR144* had the opposite effect. Moreover, the levels of MIR144* were elevated, whereas DRAM2 levels were reduced, in human peripheral blood cells and tissues in TB patients, indicating the clinical significance of MIR144* and DRAM2 in human TB. Notably, DRAM2 interacted with BECN1 and UVRAG, essential components of the autophagic machinery, leading to displacement of RUBCN from the BECN1 complex and enhancement of Ptdlns3K activity. Furthermore, MIR144* and DRAM2 were critically involved in phagosomal maturation and enhanced antimicrobial effects against Mtb. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of human MIR144* in the inhibition of antibacterial autophagy and the innate host immune response to Mtb. Additionally, these data reveal that DRAM2 is a key coordinator of autophagy activation that enhances antimicrobial activity against Mtb.

  3. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) negatively regulates endothelial adhesion of monocytes via inhibition of NF κB activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengye, Zhan; Daixing, Zhou, E-mail: dxzhou7246@hotmail.com; Qiang, Zhong; Shusheng, Li

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •First time to display that LPS downregulate the expression of PRC. •First time to show that PRC inhibits the induction of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. •First time to show that PRC inhibit monocytes attachment to endothelial cells. •First time to display that PRC inhibits transcriptional activity of NF-κB. •PRC protects the respiration rate and suppresses the glycolysis rate against LPS. -- Abstract: PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) is a growth-regulated transcriptional cofactor known to activate many of the nuclear genes specifying mitochondrial respiratory function. Endothelial dysfunction is a prominent feature found in many inflammatory diseases. Adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, mediate the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, thereby playing an important role in endothelial inflammation. The effects of PRC in regards to endothelial inflammation remain unknown. In this study, our findings show that PRC can be inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine LPS in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the presence of LPS, the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecular, such as VCAM1 and E-selectin, is found to be increased. These effects can be negated by overexpression of PRC. Importantly, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells caused by LPS is significantly attenuated by PRC. In addition, overexpression of PRC protects mitochondrial metabolic function and suppresses the rate of glycolysis against LPS. It is also found that overexpression of PRC decreases the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These findings suggest that PRC is a negative regulator of endothelial inflammation.

  4. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10μg/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4μg/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated

  5. Chronic Inhibition of PDE5 Limits Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Polarization in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Venneri

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is characterized by changes in endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment, increase classic (M1-type tissue macrophage infiltration and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Our and other groups recently showed that chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5i affects circulating cytokine levels in patients with diabetes; whether PDE5i also affects circulating monocytes and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration remains to be established. Using murine streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes and in human vitro cell-cell adhesion models we show that chronic hyperglycemia induces changes in myeloid and endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Continuous PDE5i with sildenafil (SILD expanded tissue anti-inflammatory TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs, which are known to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Specifically, SILD: 1 normalizes the frequency of circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes triggered by hyperglycemia (53.7 ± 7.9% of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in STZ vs. 30.4 ± 8.3% in STZ+SILD and 27.1 ± 1.6% in CTRL, P<0.01; 2 prevents STZ-induced tissue inflammatory infiltration (4-fold increase in F4/80+ macrophages in diabetic vs. control mice by increasing renal and heart anti-inflammatory TEMs (30.9 ± 3.6% in STZ+SILD vs. 6.9 ± 2.7% in STZ, P <0.01, and 11.6 ± 2.9% in CTRL mice; 3 reduces vascular inflammatory proteins (iNOS, COX2, VCAM-1 promoting tissue protection; 4 lowers monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells in vitro through the TIE2 receptor. All these changes occurred independently from changes of glycemic status. In summary, we demonstrate that circulating renal and cardiac TEMs are defective in chronic hyperglycemia and that SILD normalizes their levels by facilitating the shift from classic (M1-like to alternative (M2-like/TEM macrophage polarization. Restoration of tissue TEMs with PDE5i could represent an additional pharmacological tool to prevent

  6. Haloperidol Abrogates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression by Inhibition of NF-κB Activation in Stimulated Human Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence has indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs participate in the progression of neuroinflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the antipsychotic haloperidol on MMP activation in the stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells. Haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α-induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis of THP-1 cells. A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of haloperidol was observed in TNF-α-induced protein and mRNA expression of MMP-9. On the other hand, haloperidol slightly affected cell viability and tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase-1 levels. It significantly inhibited the degradation of inhibitor-κB-α (IκBα in activated cells. Moreover, it suppressed activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB detected by a mobility shift assay, NF-κB reporter gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. Consistent with NF-κB inhibition, haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis but not of transforming growth factor-β1-induced MMP-2. In in vivo studies, administration of haloperidol significantly attenuated LPS-induced intracerebral MMP-9 activation of the brain homogenate and the in situ in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, the selective anti-MMP-9 activation of haloperidol could possibly involve the inhibition of the NF-κB signal pathway. Hence, it was found that haloperidol treatment may represent a bystander of anti-MMP actions for its conventional psychotherapy.

  7. The cytomegalovirus homolog of interleukin-10 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity for inhibition of cytokine synthesis in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Juliet V

    2007-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has evolved numerous strategies for evading host immune defenses, including piracy of cellular cytokines. A viral homolog of interleukin-10, designated cmvIL-10, binds to the cellular IL-10 receptor and effects potent immune suppression. The signaling pathways employed by cmvIL-10 were investigated, and the classic IL-10R/JAK1/Stat3 pathway was found to be activated in monocytes. However, inhibition of JAK1 had little effect on cmvIL-10-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway had a more significant impact on TNF-alpha levels but did not completely relieve the immune suppression, demonstrating that cmvIL-10 stimulates multiple signaling pathways to modulate cell function.

  8. MiR-155 is upregulated in patients with active tuberculosis and inhibits apoptosis of monocytes by targeting FOXO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Jiao, Junhua; Xu, Weihua; Zhao, Huayang; Zhang, Chunxiao; Shi, Yan; Xiao, Zhijian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between microRNA (miR)-155 and apoptosis of monocytes infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to examine the effect of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) on miR‑155. The present study analysed the apoptosis of CD14+ in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis, disposed the THP‑1 human monocytic cell line by BCG and examined the expression of miR‑155. Furthermore, the expression of FOXO3 in THP‑1 cells was determined, and wild- and mutant-type luciferase reporter plasmids containing FOXO3 3'‑untranslated regions (UTRs) were constructed to analyse the expression of luciferase. Finally, an over‑expression plasmid was constructed, and THP-1 cells were transfected with control miRNA, miR‑155 and the plasmid, which revealed that miR‑155 inhibited the apoptosis of THP‑1 cells. miR‑155 in the THP‑1 cells infected by BCG was upregulated and apoptosis also increased. However, the apoptosis declined when the cells were transfected with the control miRNA and miR‑155. Folllowing transfection with miR‑155, the expression of FOXO3 decreased. Transfection with miR‑155 and the FOXO3 3'-UTRs significantly reduced luciferase, and overexpression of FOXO3 reversed the inhibitory role of miR‑155. From these results, it was concluded that mycobacteria can improve the level of miR‑155, while BCG can induce apoptosis in THP‑1 cells. The results suggested FOXO3 is a downstream target gene of miR‑155, which combines 3'-UTRs to inhibit the expression of FOXO3.

  9. Live Brugia malayi microfilariae inhibit transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Hendrik Schroeder

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by the parasite Brugia malayi. Microfilariae (Mf circulate in the peripheral blood for 2-3 hours in synchronisation with maximal feeding of the mosquito vector. When absent from the peripheral blood, Mf sequester in the capillaries of the lungs. Mf are therefore in close contact with vascular endothelial cells (EC and may induce EC immune function and/or wound repair mechanisms such as angiogenesis. In this study, Mf were co-cultured with human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC or human lung microvascular EC (HLMVEC and the transendothelial migration of leukocyte subsets was analysed. In addition, the protein and/or mRNA expression of chemokine, cytokine and angiogenic mediators in endothelial cells in the presence of live microfilariae were measured by a combination of cDNA arrays, protein arrays, ELISA and fluorescence antibody tests.Surprisingly, our findings indicate that Mf presence partially blocked transendothelial migration of monocytes and neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. However, Mf exposure did not result in altered vascular EC expression of key mediators of the tethering stage of extravasation, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and various chemokines. To further analyse the immunological function of vascular EC in the presence of Mf, we measured the mRNA and/or protein expression of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators. We found that expression levels of the mediators tested were predominantly unaltered upon B. malayi Mf exposure. In addition, a comparison of angiogenic mediators induced by intact Mf and Wolbachia-depleted Mf revealed that even intact Mf induce the expression of remarkably few angiogenic mediators in vascular EC. Our study suggests that live microfilariae are remarkably inert in their induction and/or activation of vascular cells in their immediate local environment. Overall, this work presents important insights into the immunological function of the vascular endothelium during

  10. The MAPK ERK5, but not ERK1/2, inhibits the progression of monocytic phenotype to the functioning macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuening [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Pesakhov, Stella [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Harrison, Jonathan S [Department of Medicine, Rutgers, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kafka, Michael; Danilenko, Michael [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Studzinski, George P, E-mail: studzins@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways present targets for pharmacological agents with potential for treatment of neoplastic diseases, with some disease remissions already recorded. However, cellular compensatory mechanisms usually negate the initial success. For instance, attempts to interrupt aberrant signaling downstream of the frequently mutated ras by inhibiting ERK1/2 has shown only limited usefulness for cancer therapy. Here, we examined how ERK5, that overlaps the functions of ERK1/2 in cell proliferation and survival, functions in a manner distinct from ERK1/2 in human AML cells induced to differentiate by 1,25D-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D). Using inhibitors of ERK1/2 and of MEK5/ERK5 at concentrations specific for each kinase in HL60 and U937 cells, we observed that selective inhibition of the kinase activity of ERK5, but not of ERK1/2, in the presence of 1,25D resulted in macrophage-like cell morphology and enhancement of phagocytic activity. Importantly, this was associated with increased expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), but was not seen when M-CSFR expression was knocked down. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 led to activation of ERK5 in these cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ERK5 negatively regulates the expression of M-CSFR, and thus has a restraining function on macrophage differentiation. The addition of pharmacological inhibitors of ERK5 may influence trials of differentiation therapy of AML. - Highlights: • ERK5 has at least some functions in AML cells which are distinct from those of ERK1/2. • ERK5 activity negatively controls the expression of M-CSFR. • ERK5 retards the progression of differentiation from monocyte to functional macrophage.

  11. Recruitment of classical monocytes can be inhibited by disturbing heteromers of neutrophil HNP1 and platelet CCL5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alard, Jean-Eric; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Wichapong, Kanin; Bongiovanni, Dario; Horckmans, Michael; Megens, Remco T. A.; Leoni, Giovanna; Ferraro, Bartolo; Rossaint, Jan; Paulin, Nicole; Ng, Judy; Ippel, Hans; Suylen, Dennis; Hinkel, Rabea; Blanchet, Xavier; Gaillard, Fanny; D'Amico, Michele; von Hundelshausen, Phillipp; Zarbock, Alexander; Scheiermann, Christoph; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Steffens, Sabine; Kupatt, Christian; Nicolaes, Gerry A. F.; Weber, Christian; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In acute and chronic inflammation, neutrophils and platelets, both of which promote monocyte recruitment, are often activated simultaneously. We investigated how secretory products of neutrophils and platelets synergize to enhance the recruitment of monocytes. We found that neutrophil-borne human

  12. Requirement of the coiled-coil domain of PML-RARα oncoprotein for localization, sumoylation, and inhibition of monocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Eui; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jang-Mi; Kim, Seong-Tae; Han, Tae-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Homo-oligomerization via a coiled-coil (C-C) domain has been shown to be necessary for the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) fusion protein to acquire oncogenic potential in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We show here that PML(ΔC-C)-RARα, which contains a deletion in its C-C domain, is neither localized as characteristic microspeckles nor modified by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The absence of sumoylation of the ΔC-C mutant was due to the lack of binding to Ubc9, a SUMO conjugation enzyme. The integrity of RING finger domain was also needed for both sumoylation and microspeckle formation. In GAL4-DNA tethering assays, the ΔC-C mutant completely lost the inhibitory effect on retinoic acid (RA)-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, the expression of CD14 in U937 cells expressing the ΔC-C mutant in response to vitamin D3 was markedly higher than in cells expressing PML-RARα. However, the RA-mediated induction of C/EBPβ in cells expressing the ΔC-C mutant was comparable to that of control cells. Thus, our results suggest that the C-C domain-associated functions of sumoylation, localization as microspeckles, and the inhibition of monocyte differentiation all contribute to the oncogenic activity of PML-RARα

  13. The role of monocytes and T cells in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediated inhibition of B cell function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Heilmann, C; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits immunoglobulin production by human mononuclear cells (MNC) in vitro. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of T cells and monocytes in 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced suppression of B cell functions. The synthetic vitamin D3 analogue MC 903...... was examined in parallel. 1,25-(OH)2D3 and MC 903 showed a dose-related inhibition of IgM, IgG and IgA plaque-forming cells in poke-weed mitogen (PWM) activated cultures of MNC. This effect was most likely mediated through impairment of T cell and monocyte functions. First, the inhibitory effect was seen after...

  14. miR-582-5p is upregulated in patients with active tuberculosis and inhibits apoptosis of monocytes by targeting FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xinjing; Zhai, Fei; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage apoptosis is a host innate defense mechanism against tuberculosis (TB). In this study, we found that percentage of apoptotic cells in peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active TB was lower than that from healthy controls (pmicroRNAs can modulate apoptosis of monocytes, we investigated differentially expressed microRNAs in patients with active TB. miR-582-5p was mainly expressed in monocytes and was upregulated in patients with active TB. The apoptotic percentage of THP-1 cells transfected with miR-582-5p mimics was significantly lower than those transfected with negative control of microRNA mimics (pmicroRNA mimics were transfected into THP-1 cells. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the miR-582-5p could suppress both FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression. Co-transfection of miR-582-5p and FOXO1 3'UTR-luciferase reporter vector into cells demonstrated that significant decrease in luciferase activity was only found in reporter vector that contained a wild type sequence of FOXO1 3'UTR, suggesting that miR-582-5p could directly target FOXO1. In conclusion, miR-582-5p inhibited apoptosis of monocytes by down-regulating FOXO1 expression and might play an important role in regulating anti-M. tuberculosis directed immune responses.

  15. Monoclonal antibody OKM5 inhibits the in vitro binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to monocytes, endothelial, and C32 melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnwell, J.W.; Ockenhouse, C.F.; Knowles, D.M. II

    1985-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind in vitro to human endothelial cells, monocytes, and a certain melanoma cell line. Evidence suggests that this interaction is mediated by similar mechanisms which lead to the sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in vivo through their attachment to endothelial cells of small blood vessels. They show here the monoclonal antibody OKM5, previously shown to react with the membranes of endothelial cells, monocyte,s and platelets, also reacts with the C32 melanoma cell line which also binds P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. At relatively low concentrations, OKM5 inhibits and reverses the in vitro adherence of infected erythrocytes to target cells. As with monocytes, OKM5 antibody recognizes an 125 I-labeled protein of approximately 88 Kd on the surface of C32 melanoma cells. It seems likely, therefore, that the 88 Kd polypeptide plays a role in cytoadherence, possibly as the receptor or part of a receptor for a ligand on the surface of infected erythrocytes

  16. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. miR-582-5p is upregulated in patients with active tuberculosis and inhibits apoptosis of monocytes by targeting FOXO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Liu

    Full Text Available Macrophage apoptosis is a host innate defense mechanism against tuberculosis (TB. In this study, we found that percentage of apoptotic cells in peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active TB was lower than that from healthy controls (p<0.001. To understand whether microRNAs can modulate apoptosis of monocytes, we investigated differentially expressed microRNAs in patients with active TB. miR-582-5p was mainly expressed in monocytes and was upregulated in patients with active TB. The apoptotic percentage of THP-1 cells transfected with miR-582-5p mimics was significantly lower than those transfected with negative control of microRNA mimics (p<0.001, suggesting that miR-582-5p could inhibit apoptosis of monocytes. To our knowledge, the role of miR-582-5p in regulating apoptosis of monocytes has not been reported so far. Systematic bioinformatics analysis indicated that FOXO1 might be a target gene for miR-582-5p and its 3'UTR contains potential binding sites for miR-582-5p. To determine whether miR-582-5p could influence FOXO1 expression, miR-582-5p mimics or negative control of microRNA mimics were transfected into THP-1 cells. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the miR-582-5p could suppress both FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression. Co-transfection of miR-582-5p and FOXO1 3'UTR-luciferase reporter vector into cells demonstrated that significant decrease in luciferase activity was only found in reporter vector that contained a wild type sequence of FOXO1 3'UTR, suggesting that miR-582-5p could directly target FOXO1. In conclusion, miR-582-5p inhibited apoptosis of monocytes by down-regulating FOXO1 expression and might play an important role in regulating anti-M. tuberculosis directed immune responses.

  19. Inhibition of Urease Enzyme Production and some Other Virulence Factors Expression in Proteus mirabilis by N-Acetyl Cysteine and Dipropyl Disulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baky, Rehab Mahmoud; Ali, Mohamed Abdullah; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din Ali A; AbdelAziz, Neveen

    2017-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens that colonize the urinary tract and catheters resulting in various complications, such as blockage of the catheters and the formation of infective stones. In this study we evaluated the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and dipropyl disulphide on some virulence factors expressed by a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a catheterized patient. Antibacterial activity of both compounds was determined by broth microdilution method. Their effect on different types of motility was determined by LB medium with variable agar content and sub-MIC of each drug. Their effect on adherence and mature biofilms was tested by tissue culture plate assay. Inhibitory effect on urease production was determined and supported by molecular docking studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NAC and dipropyl disulphide was 25 mM and 100 mM, respectively. Both compounds decreased the swarming ability and biofilm formation of the tested isolate in a dose-dependent manner. NAC had higher urease inhibitory activity (IC50 249 ±0.05 mM) than that shown by dipropyl disulphide (IC 50 10±0.2 mM). Results were supported by molecular docking studies which showed that NAC and dipropyl disulphide interacted with urease enzyme with binding free energy of -4.8 and -8.528 kcal/mol, respectively. Docking studies showed that both compounds interacted with Ni ion and several amino acids (His-138, Gly-279, Cysteine-321, Met-366 and His-322) which are essential for the enzyme activity. NAC and dipropyl disulphide could be used in the control of P. mirabilis urinary tract infections.

  20. Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Release From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A New Treatment Opportunity for Obesity-Related Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Stabler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL to determine its impact on MCP-1 release. Chondroitin sulfate, a natural glycosaminoglycan of connective tissue including the cartilage extracellular matrix, was chosen on the basis of our previous studies demonstrating its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Because the main action of MCP-1 is to induce monocyte migration, cultured THP-1 monocytes were used to test whether CS at the highest physiologically relevant concentration could inhibit cell migration induced by human recombinant MCP-1. Chondroitin sulfate (100-200 µg/mL inhibited MCP-1 release from inflamed adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner ( P  < .01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.89 to −3.858 at 100 µg/mL and P  < .001, 95% CI: −6.028 to −3.996 at 200 µg/mL but had no effect on MCP-1–driven chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes. In summary, CS could be expected to reduce macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by reduction in adipocyte expression and release of MCP-1 and as such might reduce adipose tissue inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, now increasingly recognized to be relevant in vivo.

  1. Frontline Science: ATF3 is responsible for the inhibition of TNF-α release and the impaired migration of acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaojie; Meng, Xiaoming; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking represses host innate immunity and leads to a high risk of infection. Acute EtOH-pretreated macrophages exhibit a decreased production of proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS. ATF3 is induced and counter-regulates the LPS/TLR4 inflammatory cascade. Here, we investigated the potential role of ATF3 in LPS tolerance in acute ethanol-pretreated macrophages. We found that there was an inverse correlation between ATF3 and LPS-induced TNF-α production in acute ethanol-pretreated murine monocytes and macrophages. The knockdown of ATF3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of acute ethanol treatment on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Furthermore, ChIP assays and co-IP demonstrated that ATF3, together with HDAC1, negatively modulated the transcription of TNF-α. In binge-drinking mice challenged with LPS, an up-regulation of ATF3 and HDAC1 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-α were observed. Given that HDAC1 was concomitantly induced in acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages, we used the HDACi TSA or silenced HDAC1 to explore the role of HDAC1 in acute ethanol-treated macrophages. Our results revealed that TSA treatment and HDAC1 knockdown prevented acute ethanol-induced ATF3 expression and the inhibition of TNF-α transcription. These data indicated a dual role for HDAC1 in acute ethanol-induced LPS tolerance. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of ATF3 led to the impaired migration of BM monocytes and macrophages. Overall, we present a novel role for ATF3 in the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and in the impairment of monocyte and macrophage migration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  2. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  3. The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Yannick; Vliegen, Gwendolyn; Maes, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Declerck, Ken; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien; De Meester, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 expression seems relatively low in mouse monocytes and macrophages. Viability of primary mouse macrophages is unaffected by DPP4 or DPP8/9 inhibition. Importantly, DPP8/9 inhibition attenuates macrophage activation as IL-6 secretion is significantly decreased. Mouse macrophages respond similarly to DPP inhibition, compared to human macrophages. This shows that the mouse could become a valid model species for the study of DPPs as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

  4. Melatonin prevents human pancreatic carcinoma cell PANC-1-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peilin; Yu, Minghua; Peng, Xingchun; Dong, Lv; Yang, Zhaoxu

    2012-03-01

    Melatonin is an important natural oncostatic agent, and our previous studies have found its inhibitory action on tumor angiogenesis, but the mechanism remains unclear. It is well known that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays key roles in tumor angiogenesis and has become an important target for antitumor therapy. Pancreatic cancer is a representative of the most highly vascularized and angiogenic solid tumors, which responds poorly to chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, seeking new treatment strategies targeting which have anti-angiogenic capability is urgent in clinical practice. In this study, a co-culture system between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1) was used to investigate the direct effect of melatonin on the tumor angiogenesis and its possible action on VEGF expression. We found HUVECs exhibited an increased cell proliferation and cell migration when co-cultured with PANC-1 cells, but the process was prevented when melatonin added to the incubation medium. Melatonin at concentrations of 1 μm and 1 mm inhibited the cell proliferation and migration of HUVECs and also decreased both the VEGF protein secreted to the cultured medium and the protein produced by the PANC-1 cells. In addition, the VEGF mRNA expression was also down-regulated by melatonin. Taken together, our present study shows that melatonin at pharmacological concentrations inhibited the elevated cell proliferation and cell migration of HUVECs stimulated by co-culturing them with PANC-1 cells; this was associated with a suppression of VEGF expression in PANC-1 cells. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Hung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM, DOW-cultured CM (DCM, synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA. The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1 expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  6. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-06-08

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  7. Different Regulation of Interleukin-1 Production and Activity in Monocytes and Macrophages: Innate Memory as an Endogenous Mechanism of IL-1 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz P. Madej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and activity of interleukin (IL-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Here, we investigated how innate immune memory could modulate production and activity of IL-1β by human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived tissue-like/deactivated macrophages in vitro. Cells were exposed to Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria for 24 h, then allowed to rest, and then re-challenged with the same stimuli. The presence of biologically active IL-1β in cell supernatants was calculated as the ratio between free IL-1β (i.e., the cytokine that is not bound/inhibited by sIL-1R2 and its receptor antagonist IL-1Ra. As expected, we observed that the responsiveness of tissue-like/deactivated macrophages to bacterial stimuli was lower than that of monocytes. After resting and re-stimulation, a memory effect was evident for the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas production of alarm signals (chemokines was minimally affected. We observed a high variability in the innate memory response among individual donors. This is expected since innate memory largely depends on the previous history of exposure or infections, which is different in different subjects. Overall, innate memory appeared to limit the amount of active IL-1β produced by macrophages in response to a bacterial challenge, while enhancing the responsiveness of monocytes. The functional re-programming of mononuclear phagocytes through modulation of innate memory may provide innovative approaches in the management

  8. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 inhibits migration of human monocytic THP-1 cells in response to VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cansheng; Xiong, Zhaojun; Chen, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhengqi; Zhou, Guoyu; Wang, Dunjing; Bao, Jian; Hu, Xueqiang

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the regulation and contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and sFlt-1(1-3) to human monocytic THP-1 migration. Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG, a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human sFlt-1(1-3) (the first three extracellular domains of FLT-1, the hVEGF receptor-1) gene, was constructed. L929 cells were infected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG and the expression of sFlt-1 was detected by immunofluorescent assay and ELISA. Corning(®) Transwell(®) Filter Inserts containing polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes with pore sizes of 3 μm were used as an experimental model to simulate THP-1 migration. Five VEGF concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), four concentrations of sFlt-1(1-3)/FLAG expression supernatants (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 10 ng/ml) were used to test the ability of THP-1 cells to migrate through PET membranes. The sFlt-1(1-3) gene was successfully recombined into Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. sFlt-1(1-3) was expressed in L929 cells transfected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. THP-1 cell migration increased with increasing concentrations of VEGF, while cell migration decreased with increasing concentrations of sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG. sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG had no effect on MCP-1-induced cell migration. This study demonstrated that VEGF is able to elicit a migratory response in THP-1 cells, and that sFlt-1(1-3) is an effective inhibitor of THP-1 migration towards VEGF.

  9. Induction of autophagy is essential for monocyte-macrophage differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Morgan, Michael J.; Chen, Kun; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-gang

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes are programmed to undergo apoptosis in the absence of stimulation. Stimuli that promote monocyte-macrophage differentiation not only cause cellular changes, but also prevent the default apoptosis of monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that autophagy is induced when monocytes are triggered to differentiate and that the induction of autophagy is pivotal for the survival and differentiation of monocytes. We also show that inhibition of autophagy results in apoptosis of cell...

  10. Vitamin D inhibits the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by Porphyromonas gingivalis and blocks activation of the nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, D; Morin, M-P; Fournier-Larente, J; Chen, H

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone, has a positive impact on periodontal health through diverse mechanisms. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. The effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on P. gingivalis-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor in monocytes was also assessed. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . The modulation of virulence factor gene expression in P. gingivalis was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. NF-κB activation was assessed using a human monocytic cell line stably transfected with a luciferase reporter containing NF-κB binding sites. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1,25(OH)2 D3 against P. gingivalis ranged from 3.125 to 6.25 μg/mL. Moreover, a partial synergistic effect was observed when 1,25(OH)2 D3 was used in association with metronidazole. 1,25(OH)2 D3 attenuated the virulence of P. gingivalis by reducing the expression of genes coding for important virulence factors, including adhesins (fimA, hagA and hagB) and proteinases (rgpA, rgpB and kgp). 1,25(OH)2 D3 dose-dependently prevented P. gingivalis-induced NF-κB activation in a monocyte model. Our study suggested that 1,25(OH)2 D3 selectively inhibits the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by P. gingivalis, in addition to attenuating NF-κB activation by this periodontopathogen. This dual action on P. gingivalis and the inflammatory response of host cells may be of particular interest with a view to developing a novel and inexpensive preventive/therapeutic strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inhibition of TNF-α production in LPS-activated THP-1 monocytic cells by the crude extracts of seven Bhutanese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai

    2013-07-30

    Seven studied medicinal plants; Aconitum laciniatum, Ajania nubigena, Codonopsis bhutanica, Corydalis crispa, Corydalis dubia, Meconopsis simplicifolia and Pleurospermum amabile, are currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) for the management of different types of disorders including the diseases that bore relevance to various inflammatory conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibition of TNF-α production in LPS-activated THP-1 monocytic cells by the crude extracts of seven selected Bhutanese medicinal plants. It is expected to; (a) generate a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and (b) form a basis for prioritization of the seven plants for further phytochemical and anti-inflammatory studies. Seven plants were selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach and their crude extracts were prepared using four different solvents (methanol, hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform). The TNF-α inhibitory activity of these extracts was determined by cytokine-specific sandwich quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The results were quantified statistically and the statistical significance were evaluated by GraphPad Prism version 5.01 using Student's t-test with one-tailed distribution. A p-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the seven plants studied, the crude extracts of six of them inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α in LPS-activated THP-1 monocytic cells. Amongst the six plants, Corydalis crispa gave the best inhibitory activity followed by Pleurospermum amabile, Ajania nubigena, Corydalis dubia, Meconopsis simplicifolia and Codonopsis bhutanica. Of the 13 extracts that exhibited statistically significant TNF-α inhibitory activity (p<0.05; p<0.01), five of them showed very strong inhibition when compared to the DMSO control and RPMI media. Six medicinal plants studied here showed promising TNF-α inhibitory activity. These findings rationalize the traditional

  12. Cafestol Inhibits Cyclic-Strain-Induced Interleukin-8, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wen-Rui; Sung, Li-Chin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Chen, Jin-Jer

    2018-01-01

    Moderate coffee consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality; however, mechanisms underlying this causal effect remain unclear. Cafestol, a diterpene found in coffee, has various properties, including an anti-inflammatory property. This study investigated the effect of cafestol on cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion in vascular endothelial cells. Cells were cultured under static or cyclic strain conditions, and the secretion of inflammatory molecules was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of cafestol on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. Cafestol attenuated cyclic-strain-stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, and interleukin- (IL-) 8 secretion. Cafestol inhibited the cyclic-strain-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAPK. By contrast, cafestol upregulated cyclic-strain-induced HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. The addition of zinc protoporphyrin IX, sirtinol, or Sirt1 silencing (transfected with Sirt1 siRNA) significantly attenuated cafestol-mediated modulatory effects on cyclic-strain-stimulated ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-8 secretion. This is the first study to report that cafestol inhibited cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion, possibly through the activation of HO-1 and Sirt1 in endothelial cells. The results provide valuable insights into molecular pathways that may contribute to the effects of cafestol. PMID:29854096

  13. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M

    1992-01-01

    was not caused by impaired production of mRNA. Taken together, the study demonstrates a vitamin D-induced inhibitory effect of LPS-driven monokine production, which is most likely a vitamin D-receptor mediated phenomenon exerted at a post-transcriptional, presecretory level. Impaired monokine production may...... be of importance in 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte functions in vitro.......1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha...

  14. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  15. shRNA-mediated EMMPRIN silencing inhibits human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 cell proliferation and increases chemosensitivity to adriamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Yantao; Peng, Jianjun; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    EMMPRIN is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, which plays an important role in tumor progression and confers resistance to some chemotherapeutic drugs. Recent studies have shown that EMMPRIN overexpression indicates poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little was known on the role of EMMPRIN in leukemia. Human leukemia cell line U937 was stably transfected with a EMMPRIN-targeted shRNA-containing vector to investigate the effect of EMMPRIN on cellular functions. EMMPRIN expression was monitored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by trypan blue exclusion and BrdU labeling, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin on cells was assessed by MTT assay. Knockdown of EMMPRIN gene significantly inhibited cell viability and decreased cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed that the reduced EMMPRIN expression resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, western blotting analysis showed that EMMPRIN knockdown was associated with downregulation of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related molecules including cyclin D1, cyclin E, as well as increase in cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. This study also showed that silencing of EMMPRIN sensitized U937 cells to Adriamycin. EMMPRIN is involved in proliferation, growth, and chemosensitivity of human AML line U937, indicating that EMMPRIN may be a promising therapeutic target for AML.

  16. L-Cysteine in vitro can restore cellular glutathione and inhibits the expression of cell adhesion molecules in G6PD-deficient monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsanathan, Rajesh; Jain, Sushil K

    2018-04-06

    L-Cysteine is a precursor of glutathione (GSH), a potent physiological antioxidant. Excess glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in African Americans and low levels of L-cysteine diet in Hispanics can contributes to GSH deficiency and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion was considered to be an initial event in the progression of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, no previous study has investigated the contribution of GSH/G6PD deficiency to the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules. Using human U937 monocytes, this study examined the effect of GSH/G6PD deficiency and L-cysteine supplementation on monocyte adhesion molecules. G6PD/GSH deficiency induced by either siRNA or inhibitors (6AN/BSO, respectively) significantly (p adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, SELL, ITGB1 and 2); NADPH oxidase (NOX), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MCP-1 were upregulated, and decreases in levels of GSH, and nitric oxide were observed. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels increased in high glucose, MCP-1 or TNF-α-treated G6PD-deficient compared to G6PD-normal cells. L-Cysteine treatment significantly (p adhesion molecules. Thus, GSH/G6PD deficiency increases susceptibility to monocyte adhesion processes, whereas L-cysteine supplementation can restore cellular GSH/G6PD and attenuates NOX activity and expression of cell adhesion molecules.

  17. High Uric Acid Activates the ROS-AMPK Pathway, Impairs CD68 Expression and Inhibits OxLDL-Induced Foam-Cell Formation in a Human Monocytic Cell Line, THP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohuan Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1. Methods: We primed THP-1 cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA for differentiation, then exposed cells to HUA and detected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and analyzed the level of phospho-AMPKα. THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, or HUA before PMA, to assess CD68 expression and phospho-AMPKα level. PMA-primed THP-1 cells were pre-treated with oxLDL before Compound C and HUA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to examine the levels of phospho-AMPKα, CD68, ABCG1, ABCA1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and NF-κB (p65. Flow cytometry was used to assess ROS production and CD68 expression in live cells. Oil-red O staining was used to observe oxLDL uptake in cells. Results: HUA treatment increased ROS production in PMA-primed THP-1 cells; NAC blocked HUA-induced oxidative stress. HUA treatment time-dependently increased phospho-AMPKα level in PMA-primed THP-1 cells. The HUA-induced oxidative stress increased phospho-AMPKα levels, which was blocked by NAC. HUA treatment impaired CD68 expression during cell differentiation by activating the AMPK pathway, which was reversed by Compound C treatment. Finally, HUA treatment inhibited oxLDL uptake in the formation of foam cells in THP-1 cells, which was blocked by Compound C treatment. HUA treatment

  18. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by dihydroxyphenylethanol, a product from olive oil, blocks microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1/vascular endothelial growth factor expression and reduces tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel; Melillo, Giovanni; Ziche, Marina

    2010-08-15

    2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenil)-ethanol (DPE), a polyphenol present in olive oil, has been found to attenuate the growth of colon cancer cells, an effect presumably related to its anti-inflammatory activity. To further explore the effects of DPE on angiogenesis and tumor growth we investigated the in vivo efficacy of DPE in a HT-29 xenograft model and in vitro activities in colon cancer cells exposed to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). DPE (10 mg/kg/day for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth, reducing vessel lumina and blood perfusion to tumor, and diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1). In vitro, DPE (100 mumol/L) neither affected cell proliferation nor induced apoptosis in HT-29 and WiDr cells. DPE prevented the IL-1beta-mediated increase of mPGEs-1 expression and PGE-2 generation, as it did the silencing of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, DPE blocked mPGEs-1-dependent expression of VEGF and inhibited endothelial sprouting induced by tumor cells in a coculture system. PGE-2 triggers a feed-forward loop involving HIF-1alpha, which impinges on mPGEs-1 and VEGF expression, events prevented by DPE via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. The reduction of PGE-2 and VEGF levels, caused by DPE, was invariably associated with a marked decrease in HIF-1alpha expression and activity, independent of proteasome activity, indicating that the DPE effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation. We show that the in vivo DPE antitumor effect is associated with anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities resulting from the downregulation of the HIF-1alpha/mPGEs-1/VEGF axis.

  19. EMMPRIN (CD147/basigin) mediates platelet-monocyte interactions in vivo and augments monocyte recruitment to the vascular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C; von Brühl, M-L; Barocke, V; Cullen, P; Mayer, K; Okrojek, R; Steinhart, A; Ahmad, Z; Kremmer, E; Nieswandt, B; Frampton, J; Massberg, S; Schmidt, R

    2011-05-01

    Platelets play a central role in hemostasis, in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and during thrombus formation following vascular injury. Thereby, platelets interact intensively with monocytes and enhance their recruitment to the vascular wall. To investigate the role of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in platelet-monocyte interactions. Isolated human monocytes were perfused in vitro over firmly adherent platelets to allow investigation of the role of EMMPRIN in platelet-monocyte interactions under flow conditions. Monocytes readily bound to surface-adherent platelets. Both antibody blockade and gene silencing of monocyte EMMPRIN substantially attenuated firm adhesion of monocytes to platelets at arterial and venous shear rates. In vivo, platelet interactions with the murine monocyte cell line ANA-1 were significantly decreased when ANA-1 cells were pretreated with EMMPRIN-silencing small interfering RNA prior to injection into wild-type mice. Using intravital microscopy, we showed that recruitment of EMMPRIN-silenced ANA-1 to the injured carotid artery was significantly reduced as compared with control cells. Further silencing of EMMPRIN resulted in significantly fewer ANA-1-platelet aggregates in the mouse circulation as determined by flow cytometry. Finally, we identified glycoprotein (GP)VI as a critical corresponding receptor on platelets that mediates interaction with monocyte EMMPRIN. Thus, blocking of GPVI inhibited the effect of EMMPRIN on firm monocyte adhesion to platelets under arterial flow conditions in vitro, and abrogated EMMPRIN-mediated platelet-monocyte aggregate formation in vivo. EMMPRIN supports platelet-monocyte interactions and promotes monocyte recruitment to the arterial wall. Therefore, EMMPRIN might represent a novel target to reduce vascular inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion development. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Identification of Therapeutic Targets of Inflammatory Monocyte Recruitment to Modulate the Allogeneic Injury to Donor Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, T.; Zaher, S. S.; Haas, C. T.; Becker, D. L.; Thrasivoulou, C.; Chain, B. M.; Larkin, D. F. P.; Noursadeghi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to test the hypothesis that monocytes contribute to the immunopathogenesis of corneal allograft rejection and identify therapeutic targets to inhibit monocyte recruitment. Methods: Monocytes and proinflammatory mediators within anterior chamber samples during corneal graft rejection were quantified by flow cytometry and multiplex protein assays. Lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) was used to generate inflammatory conditioned me...

  1. Oxidative Mechanisms of Monocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephen J.; Lobuglio, Albert F.; Kessler, Howard B.

    1980-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate were able to rapidly destroy autologous erythrocyte targets. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was related to phorbol myristate acetate concentration and monocyte number. Purified preparations of lymphocytes were incapable of mediating erythrocyte lysis in this system. The ability of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes to lyse erythrocyte targets was markedly impaired by catalase or superoxide dismutase but not by heat-inactivated enzymes or albumin. Despite a simultaneous requirement for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the cytotoxic event, a variety of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers did not effect cytolysis. However, tryptophan significantly inhibited cytotoxicity. The myeloperoxidase inhibitor cyanide enhanced erythrocyte destruction, whereas azide reduced it modestly. The inability of cyanide to reduce cytotoxicity coupled with the protective effect of superoxide dismutase suggests that cytotoxicity is independent of the classic myeloperoxidase system. We conclude that monocytes, stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, generate superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which together play an integral role in this cytotoxic mechanism.

  2. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  3. Soluble β-(1,3)-glucans enhance LPS-induced response in the monocyte activation test, but inhibit LPS-mediated febrile response in rabbits: Implications for pyrogenicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Ruiz, Zenia; Menéndez-Sardiñas, Dalia E; Pacios-Michelena, Anabel; Gabilondo-Ramírez, Tatiana; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of β-(1,3)-d-glucans on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response in the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for pyrogens, and on the LPS-induced febrile response in the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), thus evaluating the resulting effect in the outcome of each test. It was found that β-(1,3)-d-glucans elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, also known as endogenous pyrogens, but not enough to classify them as pyrogenic according to MAT. The same β-(1,3)-d-glucans samples were non-pyrogenic by RPT. However, β-(1,3)-d-glucans significantly enhanced the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines response in MAT, insomuch that samples containing non-pyrogenic concentrations of LPS become pyrogenic. On the other hand, β-(1,3)-d-glucans had no effect on sub-pyrogenic LPS doses in the RPT, but surprisingly, inhibited the LPS-induced febrile response of pyrogenic LPS concentrations. Thus, while β-(1,3)-d-glucans could mask the LPS pyrogenic activity in the RPT, they exerted an overstimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the MAT. Hence, MAT provides higher safety since it evidences an unwanted biological response, which is not completely controlled and is overlooked by the RPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-α with BCAR1 and Traf6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Lisa J.; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L.; Blair, Harry C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at ∼ 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-β-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ERα. However, ERα was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ERα in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid (∼ 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ERα-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-κB activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-κB nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ERα.

  5. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-{alpha} with BCAR1 and Traf6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Lisa J., E-mail: robinsonlj@msx.upmc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Blair, Harry C. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Veteran' s Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15243 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at {approx} 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-{beta}-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ER{alpha}. However, ER{alpha} was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ER{alpha} in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid ({approx} 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ER{alpha}-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-{kappa}B activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ER{alpha}.

  6. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  7. Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) regulates proinflammatory activation of monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Hiranmoy; Kumar, Ajay; Lin, Zhiyong; Patino, Willmar D.; Hwang, Paul M.; Feinberg, Mark W.; Majumder, Pradip K.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating activation of monocytes remain incompletely understood. Herein we provide evidence that Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) inhibits proinflammatory activation of monocytes. In vitro, KLF2 expression in monocytes is reduced by cytokine activation or differentiation. Consistent with this observation, KLF2 expression in circulating monocytes is reduced in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the LPS-mediated induction of proinflammatory factors, cytokines, and chemokines and reduces phagocytosis. Conversely, short interfering RNA-mediated reduction in KLF2 increased inflammatory gene expression. Reconstitution of immunodeficient mice with KLF2-overexpressing monocytes significantly reduced carrageenan-induced acute paw edema formation. Mechanistically, KLF2 inhibits the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and activator protein 1, in part by means of recruitment of transcriptional coactivator p300/CBP-associated factor. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel negative regulator of monocytic activation. PMID:16617118

  8. Transfecting Human Monocytes with RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannull, Jens; Nair, Smita K

    2016-01-01

    Targeting monocytes as a delivery system for drugs or nucleic acids, and thereby harnessing their natural tissue-infiltrating capacity, has become an area of intense investigation in both basic and clinical research. Herein we describe an efficient method to deliver mRNA (messenger RNA) or siRNA (small interfering RNA) into human monocytes by electroporation. This method can be applied in the laboratory to monocytes isolated via magnetic bead-based techniques, or in a clinical setting using monocytes that were collected via counterflow centrifugation elutriation using the Elutra(®) Cell Separation System. We further demonstrate that electroporation of monocytes with RNA represents a robust and highly relevant approach to modify monocytes for cell-based therapies. Last, the procedure described can readily be adapted to monocytes from different species, hence facilitating research in animal models.

  9. Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function

  10. Ex vivo expanded human regulatory T cells delay islet allograft rejection via inhibiting islet-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in CD34+ stem cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang; Ma, Liang; Zhao, Min; Huang, Guocai; Mirenda, Vincenzo; Dorling, Anthony; Lechler, Robert; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Near complete dependence on exogenous insulin makes T1DM very difficult to control, with the result that patients are exposed to high blood glucose and risk of diabetic complications and/or intermittent low blood glucose that can cause unconsciousness, fits and even death. Allograft transplantation of pancreatic islets restores normoglycemia with a low risk of surgical complications. However, although successful immediately after transplantation, islets are progressively lost, with most of the patients requiring exogenous insulin within 2 years post-transplant. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the development of new strategies to prevent islet rejection. In this study, we explored the importance of human regulatory T cells in the control of islets allograft rejection. We developed a pre-clinical model of human islet transplantation by reconstituting NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice with cord blood-derived human CD34+ stem cells and demonstrated that although the engrafted human immune system mediated the rejection of human islets, their survival was significantly prolonged following adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human Tregs. Mechanistically, Tregs inhibited the infiltration of innate immune cells and CD4+ T cells into the graft by down-regulating the islet graft-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Our findings might contribute to the development of clinical strategies for Treg therapy to control human islet rejection. We also show for the first time that CD34+ cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mouse model could be beneficial for investigating human innate immunity in vivo.

  11. Ex Vivo Expanded Human Regulatory T Cells Delay Islet Allograft Rejection via Inhibiting Islet-Derived Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production in CD34+ Stem Cells-Reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang; Ma, Liang; Zhao, Min; Huang, Guocai; Mirenda, Vincenzo; Dorling, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Near complete dependence on exogenous insulin makes T1DM very difficult to control, with the result that patients are exposed to high blood glucose and risk of diabetic complications and/or intermittent low blood glucose that can cause unconsciousness, fits and even death. Allograft transplantation of pancreatic islets restores normoglycemia with a low risk of surgical complications. However, although successful immediately after transplantation, islets are progressively lost, with most of the patients requiring exogenous insulin within 2 years post-transplant. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the development of new strategies to prevent islet rejection. In this study, we explored the importance of human regulatory T cells in the control of islets allograft rejection. We developed a pre-clinical model of human islet transplantation by reconstituting NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice with cord blood-derived human CD34+ stem cells and demonstrated that although the engrafted human immune system mediated the rejection of human islets, their survival was significantly prolonged following adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human Tregs. Mechanistically, Tregs inhibited the infiltration of innate immune cells and CD4+ T cells into the graft by down-regulating the islet graft-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Our findings might contribute to the development of clinical strategies for Treg therapy to control human islet rejection. We also show for the first time that CD34+ cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mouse model could be beneficial for investigating human innate immunity in vivo. PMID:24594640

  12. Ex vivo expanded human regulatory T cells delay islet allograft rejection via inhibiting islet-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in CD34+ stem cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiao

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Near complete dependence on exogenous insulin makes T1DM very difficult to control, with the result that patients are exposed to high blood glucose and risk of diabetic complications and/or intermittent low blood glucose that can cause unconsciousness, fits and even death. Allograft transplantation of pancreatic islets restores normoglycemia with a low risk of surgical complications. However, although successful immediately after transplantation, islets are progressively lost, with most of the patients requiring exogenous insulin within 2 years post-transplant. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the development of new strategies to prevent islet rejection. In this study, we explored the importance of human regulatory T cells in the control of islets allograft rejection. We developed a pre-clinical model of human islet transplantation by reconstituting NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice with cord blood-derived human CD34+ stem cells and demonstrated that although the engrafted human immune system mediated the rejection of human islets, their survival was significantly prolonged following adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human Tregs. Mechanistically, Tregs inhibited the infiltration of innate immune cells and CD4+ T cells into the graft by down-regulating the islet graft-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Our findings might contribute to the development of clinical strategies for Treg therapy to control human islet rejection. We also show for the first time that CD34+ cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mouse model could be beneficial for investigating human innate immunity in vivo.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of monocyte-HIV interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of genome-wide microarray analysis and focused gene expression profiling on monocytes from patients in different stages of HIV infection and/or ART to further characterise these dysfunctions. Results Processes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, proteasome function, protein trafficking and transcriptional regulation were identified as areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection. Individual genes potentially contributing to these monocyte dysfunctions included several novel factors. One of these is the adipocytokine NAMPT/visfatin, which we show to be capable of inhibiting HIV at an early step in its life cycle. Roughly half of all genes identified were restored to control levels under ART, while the others represented a persistent dysregulation. Additionally, several candidate biomarkers (in particular CCL1 and CYP2C19 for the development of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction were suggested. Conclusions Previously described areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection were confirmed, and novel themes were identified. Furthermore, individual genes associated with these dysfunctions and with ART-associated disorders were pinpointed. These genes form a useful basis for further functional studies concerning the contribution of monocytes/macrophages to HIV pathogenesis. One such gene, NAMPT/visfatin, represents a possible novel restriction factor for HIV. Background Both macrophages and T lymphocyte subsets express the CD4 receptor and either the CXCR4 and/or the CCR5 coreceptor which confer susceptibility to infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  14. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  15. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghae Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells.

  16. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor, E-mail: leonorhh@biomedicas.unam.mx

    2017-03-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  17. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4"+ T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  18. Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 interferes with the function of human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A L; Hey, A S; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    In the present study the effect of Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 on the chemotaxis and oxidative burst response of human peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils was investigated. It was shown that prior incubation of cells with Gp63 inhibited chemotaxis of neutrophils but not monocytes...... towards the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe. On the other hand, chemotaxis of both neutrophils and monocytes towards zymosan-activated serum containing C5a was inhibited by Gp63. Monocyte and neutrophil chemiluminescence response to opsonized zymosan was reduced by preincubation of the cells with Gp63...... in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, monocytes were inhibited to a much greater degree than neutrophils by a given concentration of Gp63, and they were also inhibited at much lower concentrations of the protease. The inhibitory effect of Gp63 on chemotaxis and chemiluminescence was completely abolished...

  19. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Zhang, Chang-Le; Meng, Xiang-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN), which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical patients and animal experiments. Thus, STAT3 in tumor

  20. Effect and possible mechanism of monocyte-derived VEGF on monocyte-endothelial cellular adhesion after electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qiongfang; Zhao, Chaoli; Ye, Ziqing; Ruan, Jingjing; Xie, Qionghui; Xie, Weiguo

    2015-06-01

    One of the major obstacles in the treatment of severe electrical burns is properly handling the resulting uncontrolled inflammation. Such inflammation often causes secondary injury and necrosis, thus complicating patient outcomes. Vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) has emerged as an important mediator for the recruitment of monocytes to the site inflammation. This study was designed to explore the effects and possible mechanism of VEGF on monocyte-endothelial cellular adhesion. To do so, we used a cultured human monocytic cell line (THP-1) that was stimulated with serum derived from rats that had received electrical burns. Serum was obtained from rats that had received electrical burns. Both the VEGF and soluble flt-1 (sflt-1) concentrations of the serum were determined by double-antibody sandwich ELISA. The concentrations of VEGF, sflt-1, and TNF-α obtained from the cell-free cultured supernatant of THP-1 cells that had been exposed to the serum were then determined by double-antibody sandwich ELISA. Serum-stimulated THP-1 cells were added to wells with a monolayer of endothelial cells to detect the level of monocyte-endothelial cells adhesion. Finally, the state of phosphorylation of AKT was determined by Western blotting. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that compared to controls, the levels of VEGF were significantly increased after electrical burns. This increased was accompanied by a reduction of sflt-1 levels. Furthermore, the serum of rats that had received electrical burns was able to both activate monocytes to secrete TNF-α and enhance monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Treatment with the serum also resulted in an up-regulation of the phosphorylation of AKT, but had no effect on the total levels of AKT. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibition decreased the number of THP-1 cells that were adhered to endothelial cells. Finally, sequestering VEGF with sflt-1 was able to reduce the effect on monocyte-endothelial cells adhesion by

  1. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  2. Protective role of klotho protein on epithelial cells upon co-culture with activated or senescent monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mytych, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifermytych@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Centre of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wos, Izabela; Solek, Przemyslaw; Koziorowski, Marek [Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Centre of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    Monocytes ensure proper functioning and maintenance of epithelial cells, while good condition of monocytes is a key factor of these interactions. Although, it was shown that in some circumstances, a population of altered monocytes may appear, there is no data regarding their effect on epithelial cells. In this study, using direct co-culture model with LPS-activated and Dox-induced senescent THP-1 monocytes, we reported for the first time ROS-induced DNA damage, reduced metabolic activity, proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest followed by p16-, p21- and p27-mediated DNA damage response pathways activation, premature senescence and apoptosis induction in HeLa cells. Also, we show that klotho protein possessing anti-aging and anti-inflammatory characteristics reduced cytotoxic and genotoxic events by inhibition of insulin/IGF-IR and downregulation of TRF1 and TRF2 proteins. Therefore, klotho protein could be considered as a protective factor against changes caused by altered monocytes in epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Activated and senescent THP-1 monocytes induced cyto- and genotoxicity in HeLa cells. • Altered monocytes provoked oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced DNA damage. • DNA damage activated DDR pathways and lead to premature senescence and apoptosis. • Klotho reduced ROS/RNS-mediated toxicity through insulin/IGF-IR pathway inhibition. • Klotho protects HeLa cells from cyto- and genotoxicity induced by altered monocytes.

  3. Protective role of klotho protein on epithelial cells upon co-culture with activated or senescent monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wos, Izabela; Solek, Przemyslaw; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes ensure proper functioning and maintenance of epithelial cells, while good condition of monocytes is a key factor of these interactions. Although, it was shown that in some circumstances, a population of altered monocytes may appear, there is no data regarding their effect on epithelial cells. In this study, using direct co-culture model with LPS-activated and Dox-induced senescent THP-1 monocytes, we reported for the first time ROS-induced DNA damage, reduced metabolic activity, proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest followed by p16-, p21- and p27-mediated DNA damage response pathways activation, premature senescence and apoptosis induction in HeLa cells. Also, we show that klotho protein possessing anti-aging and anti-inflammatory characteristics reduced cytotoxic and genotoxic events by inhibition of insulin/IGF-IR and downregulation of TRF1 and TRF2 proteins. Therefore, klotho protein could be considered as a protective factor against changes caused by altered monocytes in epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Activated and senescent THP-1 monocytes induced cyto- and genotoxicity in HeLa cells. • Altered monocytes provoked oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced DNA damage. • DNA damage activated DDR pathways and lead to premature senescence and apoptosis. • Klotho reduced ROS/RNS-mediated toxicity through insulin/IGF-IR pathway inhibition. • Klotho protects HeLa cells from cyto- and genotoxicity induced by altered monocytes.

  4. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: biochemical characterization and effect on human neutrophil and monocyte function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, K E; Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N

    1991-01-01

    concentrations of this lipase preparation were preincubated with human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. The chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of these cells were then determined. It was shown that lipase inhibited the monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence, whereas it had no or very little effect...... on neutrophils. The inhibitory effect was concentration dependent and was abolished by heat treatment of the enzyme at 100 degrees C. Since monocytes are one of the important cells of the host defence system the inhibition of the function of these cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of infections caused...

  5. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  6. Regulatory NK cells mediated between immunosuppressive monocytes and dysfunctional T cells in chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Zhai, Naicui; Wang, Zhongfeng; Song, Hongxiao; Yang, Yang; Cui, An; Li, Tianyang; Wang, Guangyi; Niu, Junqi; Crispe, Ian Nicholas; Su, Lishan; Tu, Zhengkun

    2017-09-12

    HBV infection represents a major health problem worldwide, but the immunological mechanisms by which HBV causes chronic persistent infection remain only partly understood. Recently, cell subsets with suppressive features have been recognised among monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we examine the effects of HBV on monocytes and NK cells. Monocytes and NK cells derived from chronic HBV-infected patients and healthy controls were purified and characterised for phenotype, gene expression and cytokines secretion by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR, ELISA and western blotting. Culture and coculture of monocytes and NK cells were used to determine NK cell activation, using intracellular cytokines staining. In chronic HBV infection, monocytes express higher levels of PD-L1, HLA-E, interleukin (IL)-10 and TGF-β, and NK cells express higher levels of PD-1, CD94 and IL-10, compared with healthy individuals. HBV employs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to induce suppressive monocytes with HLA-E, PD-L1, IL-10 and TGF-β expression via the MyD88/NFκB signalling pathway. HBV-treated monocytes induce NK cells to produce IL-10, via PD-L1 and HLA-E signals. Such NK cells inhibit autologous T cell activation. Our findings reveal an immunosuppressive cascade, in which HBV generates suppressive monocytes, which initiate regulatory NK cells differentiation resulting in T cell inhibition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  8. Intermediate Monocytes but Not TIE2-Expressing Monocytes Are a Sensitive Diagnostic Indicator for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Reiter, Christian; Jahn, Nikolaus; Zajc, Philipp; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas; Bergmann, Michael; Stift, Anton; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted the first study to determine the diagnostic potential of the CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes as compared to the pro-angiogenic subset of CD14++CD16+TIE2+ TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in cancer. These monocyte populations were investigated by flow cytometry in healthy volunteers (N = 32) and in colorectal carcinoma patients with localized (N = 24) or metastatic (N = 37) disease. We further determined blood levels of cytokines associated with monocyte regulation. The results revealed the intermediate monocyte subset to be significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients and to show the highest frequencies in localized disease. Multivariate regression analysis identified intermediate monocytes as a significant independent variable in cancer prediction. With a cut-off value at 0.37% (intermediate monocytes of total leukocytes) the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity ranged at 69% and 81%, respectively. In contrast, TEM levels were elevated in localized cancer but did not differ significantly between groups and none of the cytokines correlated with monocyte subpopulations. Of interest, in vitro analyses supported the observation that intermediate monocytes were more potently induced by primary as opposed to metastatic cancer cells which may relate to the immunosuppressive milieu established in the advanced stage of metastatic disease. In conclusion, intermediate monocytes as compared to TIE2-expressing monocytes are a more sensitive diagnostic indicator of colorectal cancer. PMID:22973451

  9. Intermediate monocytes but not TIE2-expressing monocytes are a sensitive diagnostic indicator for colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Schauer

    Full Text Available We have conducted the first study to determine the diagnostic potential of the CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes as compared to the pro-angiogenic subset of CD14++CD16+TIE2+ TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs in cancer. These monocyte populations were investigated by flow cytometry in healthy volunteers (N = 32 and in colorectal carcinoma patients with localized (N = 24 or metastatic (N = 37 disease. We further determined blood levels of cytokines associated with monocyte regulation. The results revealed the intermediate monocyte subset to be significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients and to show the highest frequencies in localized disease. Multivariate regression analysis identified intermediate monocytes as a significant independent variable in cancer prediction. With a cut-off value at 0.37% (intermediate monocytes of total leukocytes the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity ranged at 69% and 81%, respectively. In contrast, TEM levels were elevated in localized cancer but did not differ significantly between groups and none of the cytokines correlated with monocyte subpopulations. Of interest, in vitro analyses supported the observation that intermediate monocytes were more potently induced by primary as opposed to metastatic cancer cells which may relate to the immunosuppressive milieu established in the advanced stage of metastatic disease. In conclusion, intermediate monocytes as compared to TIE2-expressing monocytes are a more sensitive diagnostic indicator of colorectal cancer.

  10. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  11. Kaempferol impedes IL-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-08-25

    Kaempferol possesses a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The present study sought to evaluate the effects and possible pharmacological mechanisms of kaempferol on interleukin (IL)-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In this study, we performed flow cytometry assay, immunocytochemical staining, quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting to observe the effects and underlying mechanisms of kaempferol using the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The flow cytometry, immunocytochemical staining, and real-time PCR results show that kaempferol attenuated IL-32-induced monocyte differentiation to product macrophage-like cells. Kaempferol decreased the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in this case thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-8. Furthermore, kaempferol inhibited the IL-32-induced activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Kaempferol also ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators TSLP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and nitric oxide of macrophage-like cells differentiated by IL-32. In brief, our findings may provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sympathetic Release of Splenic Monocytes Promotes Recurring Anxiety Following Repeated Social Defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Daniel B; Patterson, Jenna M; Wohleb, Eric S; Jarrett, Brant L; Reader, Brenda F; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F

    2016-05-15

    Neuroinflammatory signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic anxiety disorders. Previous work showed that repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice promoted stress-sensitization that was characterized by the recurrence of anxiety following subthreshold stress 24 days after RSD. Furthermore, splenectomy following RSD prevented the recurrence of anxiety in stress-sensitized mice. We hypothesize that the spleen of RSD-exposed mice became a reservoir of primed monocytes that were released following neuroendocrine activation by subthreshold stress. Mice were subjected to subthreshold stress (i.e., single cycle of social defeat) 24 days after RSD, and immune and behavioral measures were taken. Subthreshold stress 24 days after RSD re-established anxiety-like behavior that was associated with egress of Ly6C(hi) monocytes from the spleen. Moreover, splenectomy before RSD blocked monocyte trafficking to the brain and prevented anxiety-like behavior following subthreshold stress. Splenectomy, however, had no effect on monocyte accumulation or anxiety when determined 14 hours after RSD. In addition, splenocytes cultured 24 days after RSD exhibited a primed inflammatory phenotype. Peripheral sympathetic inhibition before subthreshold stress blocked monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain and prevented the re-establishment of anxiety in RSD-sensitized mice. Last, β-adrenergic antagonism also prevented splenic monocyte egress after acute stress. The spleen served as a unique reservoir of primed monocytes that were readily released following sympathetic activation by subthreshold stress that promoted the re-establishment of anxiety. Collectively, the long-term storage of primed monocytes in the spleen may have a profound influence on recurring anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Galectin-2 induces a proinflammatory, anti-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Galectin-2 is a monocyte-expressed carbohydrate-binding lectin, for which increased expression is genetically determined and associated with decreased collateral arteriogenesis in obstructive coronary artery disease patients. The inhibiting effect of galectin-2 on arteriogenesis was confirmed in vivo, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to explore the effects of galectin-2 on monocyte/macrophage phenotype in vitro and vivo, and to identify the receptor by which galectin-2 exerts these effects. We now show that the binding of galectin-2 to different circulating human monocyte subsets is dependent on monocyte surface expression levels of CD14. The high affinity binding is blocked by an anti-CD14 antibody but not by carbohydrates, indicating a specific protein-protein interaction. Galectin-2 binding to human monocytes modulated their transcriptome by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting pro-arteriogenic factors, while attenuating monocyte migration. Using specific knock-out mice, we show that galectin-2 acts through the CD14/toll-like receptor (TLR-4 pathway. Furthermore, galectin-2 skews human macrophages to a M1-like proinflammatory phenotype, characterized by a reduced motility and expression of an anti-arteriogenic cytokine/growth factor repertoire. This is accompanied by a switch in surface protein expression to CD40-high and CD206-low (M1. In a murine model we show that galectin-2 administration, known to attenuate arteriogenesis, leads to increased numbers of CD40-positive (M1 and reduced numbers of CD206-positive (M2 macrophages surrounding actively remodeling collateral arteries. In conclusion galectin-2 is the first endogenous CD14/TLR4 ligand that induces a proinflammatory, non-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes/macrophages. Interference with CD14-Galectin-2 interaction may provide a new intervention strategy to stimulate growth of collateral arteries in genetically compromised cardiovascular

  14. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  15. All trans retinoic acid abrogates spontaneous monocytic growth in juvenile chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, N; Menot, M L; Schlageter, M H; Balitrand, N; Leblanc, T; Bordigoni, P; Rohrlich, P; Lamagnère, J P; Donadieu, J; Herbelin, C; Puissant, C; Gourand, F; Baruchel, A; Chomienne, C

    2001-01-01

    All trans retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, exerts profound effects on cell differentiation. On normal myeloid progenitors, retinoids switch the differentiation program of granulo-macrophagic progenitors towards the granulocytic lineage and consequently reduce CFU-M colony formation. Bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with Juvenile Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukaemia show typical spontaneous monocytic growth. We questioned whether in this disease, retinoids could switch myelomonocytic growth and inhibit the abnormal CFU-M colony proliferation. Ten JCML samples were studied in the presence of ATRA in methyl cellulose colony assay, before (CFU-C) or after (pre-CFU) liquid suspension culture. In vitro characteristics of JCML such as spontaneous monocytic growth in the absence of growth factor was noted in all patients. In the presence of leucocyte-conditioned medium, nine samples showed only CFU-M growth and one sample CFU-GM growth. Incubation with ATRA inhibited CFU-M colony formation in nine cases. Enhancement of granulocytic differentiation (CFU-G) was noted in nine cases. ATRA also inhibited CD34+ JCML monocytic growth and GM-CSF hypersensitivity. These data suggest that, in JCML progenitors, retinoid pathways are functional and inhibition of immature monocytic progenitors cells may be achieved with retinoids, without impeding granulocytic cell growth.

  16. MONOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES IN PREGNANCY AND PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized byhypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalizedactivation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in thepathogenesis of preeclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in thisinflammatory response. Monocytes are short lived cells, that mature in thecirculation and invade into tissues upon an inflammatory stimulus anddevelop into macrophages. Macrophages are abundantly present in theendometrium and play a role in implantation and placentation in normalpregnancy. In preeclampsia, these macrophages appear to be present in largernumbers and are also activated. In the present review we focused on the roleof monocytes and macrophages in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  17. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  18. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic .... several instances where the isotype control antibodies stained in a similar position but at a ..... responses in young and older adults. J. Infect. Dis. 195.

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of Monocyte and Macrophage Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key players in tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Epigenetic processes tightly regulate cellular functioning in health and disease. Recent Advances: Recent technical developments have allowed detailed characterizations of the transcriptional circuitry underlying

  20. Monocyte scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis: the dynamics of monocyte migration in immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier M Thurlings

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are principal drivers of synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a prototype immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Conceivably, synovial macrophages are continuously replaced by circulating monocytes in RA. Animal studies from the 1960s suggested that macrophage replacement by monocytes is a slow process in chronic inflammatory lesions. Translation of these data into the human condition has been hampered by the lack of available techniques to analyze monocyte migration in man.We developed a technique that enabled us to analyze the migration of labelled autologous monocytes in RA patients using single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT. We isolated CD14+ monocytes by CliniMACS in 8 patients and labeled these with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO. Monocytes were re-infused into the same patient. Using SPECT we calculated that a very small but specific fraction of 3.4 x 10(-3 (0.95-5.1 x 10(-3 % of re-infused monocytes migrated to the inflamed joints, being detectable within one hour after re-infusion.The results indicate monocytes migrate continuously into the inflamed synovial tissue of RA patients, but at a slow macrophage-replacement rate. This suggests that the rapid decrease in synovial macrophages that occurs after antirheumatic treatment might rather be explained by an alteration in macrophage retention than in monocyte influx and that RA might be particularly sensitive to treatments targeting inflammatory cell retention.

  1. Osteopontin Prevents Monocyte Recirculation and Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Burdo, Tricia H.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2007-01-01

    Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage have been shown to be the principal targets for productive HIV-1 replication within the central nervous system. In addition, HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) has been shown to correlate with macrophage abundance in the brain. While increased entry of monocytes into the brain is thought to initiate this process, mechanisms that prevent macrophage egress from the brain and means that prevent macrophage death may also contribute to cell accumulation. We hy...

  2. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  3. Platelet-derived stromal cell-derived factor-1 is required for the transformation of circulating monocytes into multipotential cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Seta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously described a primitive cell population derived from human circulating CD14(+ monocytes, named monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs, which are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. To generate MOMCs in vitro, monocytes are required to bind to fibronectin and be exposed to soluble factor(s derived from circulating CD14(- cells. The present study was conducted to identify factors that induce MOMC differentiation. METHODS: We cultured CD14(+ monocytes on fibronectin in the presence or absence of platelets, CD14(- peripheral blood mononuclear cells, platelet-conditioned medium, or candidate MOMC differentiation factors. The transformation of monocytes into MOMCs was assessed by the presence of spindle-shaped adherent cells, CD34 expression, and the potential to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. RESULTS: The presence of platelets or platelet-conditioned medium was required to generate MOMCs from monocytes. A screening of candidate platelet-derived soluble factors identified stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1 as a requirement for generating MOMCs. Blocking an interaction between SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 inhibited MOMC generation, further confirming SDF-1's critical role in this process. Finally, circulating MOMC precursors were found to reside in the CD14(+CXCR4(high cell population. CONCLUSION: The interaction of SDF-1 with CXCR4 is essential for the transformation of circulating monocytes into MOMCs.

  4. miR-223 is upregulated in monocytes from patients with tuberculosis and regulates function of monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Wang, Ruo; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Bingfen; Cao, Zhihong; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that most commonly affects the lungs. Macrophages are among the first line defenders against establishment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lungs. In this study, we found that activation and cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from patients with active TB was impaired. miR-223 expression was significantly elevated in monocytes and MDM from patients with TB compared with healthy controls. To determine the functional role of miR-223 in macrophages, stable miR-223-expressing and miR-223 antisense-expressing U937 cells were established. Compared with empty vector controls, expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12p40 genes was significantly higher in miR-223 antisense-expressing U937 cells, but lower in miR-223-expressing U937 cells. miR-223 can negatively regulate activation of NF-κB by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. It is concluded that miR-223 can regulate macrophage function by inhibition of cytokine production and NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d’ El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington LC

    2015-01-01

    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55–89] μm2 for uninfected and 41 [34–51] μm2 for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15 μm2 s−1 ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5 μm2 s−1 ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39 ± 21% to 14 ± 3%); and LFA1 (from 37 ± 32% to 18 ± 16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis. PMID:26249106

  6. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Zapolski-Downar, Andrzej; Naruszewicz, Marek; Siennicka, Aldona; Krasnodebska, Barbara; Kołdziej, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    It is currently believed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in atherogenesis. Artichoke extract exhibits hypolipemic properties and contains numerous active substances with antioxidant properties in vitro. We have studied the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke on intracellular oxidative stress stimulated by inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha and LPS) and ox-LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes. Oxidative stress which reflects the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was followed by measuring the oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Agueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke were found to inhibit basal and stimulated ROS production in endothelial cells and monocytes in dose dependent manner. In endothelial cells, the ethanolic extract (50 microg/ml) reduced ox-LDL-induced intracellular ROS production by 60% (partichoke extracts have marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and ox-LDL in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

  7. Transcellular lipoxygenase metabolism between monocytes and platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigby, T.D.; Meslier, N. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have examined the effects of co-culture and in vitro co-stimulation on lipoxygenase metabolism in monocytes and platelets. Monocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by discontinuous gradient centrifugation and adherence to tissue culture plastic. Platelets were obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of the same donor. When 10(9) platelets and 2.5 x 10(6) monocytes were co-stimulated with 1 microM A23187, these preparations released greater quantities of 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5(S),12-(S)dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene C4, 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-glutathionyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic (LTC4) when compared with monocytes alone. Release of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, delta 6-trans-LTB4, and delta 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 from monocytes was decreased in the presence of platelets. A dose-response curve was constructed and revealed that the above changes became evident when the platelet number exceeded 10(7). Dual radiolabeling experiments with 3H- and 14C-arachidonic acid revealed that monocytes provided arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, and LTA4 for further metabolism by the platelet. Monocytes did not metabolize platelet intermediates detectably. In addition, as much as 1.2 microM 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid had no effect on monocyte lipoxygenase metabolism. Platelets were capable of converting LTA4 to LTC4, but conversion of LTA4 to LTB4 was not detected. We conclude that the monocyte and platelet lipoxygenase pathways undergo a transcellular lipoxygenase interaction that differs from the interaction of the neutrophil and platelet lipoxygenase pathways. In this interaction monocytes provide intermediate substrates for further metabolic conversion by platelets in an unidirectional manner.

  8. Binding of recombinant HIV coat protein gp120 to human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finbloom, D.S.; Hoover, D.L.; Meltzer, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Inasmuch as the exact level of CD4 Ag expression on macrophages is controversial and because HIV may interact with macrophages in a manner different from that on T cells, we analyzed the binding of gp120 to freshly isolated and cultured monocytes. rgp120 was iodinated using the lactoperoxidase method to a sp. act. of 600 Ci/mmol. Highly purified monocytes (greater than 90%) were isolated from the leukapheresed blood of normal volunteers by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation followed by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation and cultured 7 days in DMEM supplemented with 1000 U/ml macrophage CSF in 10% human serum. Whereas MOLT/4 cells consistently bound freshly prepared 125I-rgp120 at 80% specificity with 5100 +/- 700 mol/cell, MCSF cultured monocytes bound rgp120 at only 0 to 20% specificity and 420 +/- 200 mol/cell. Most of the radioactivity bound by these cells could not be blocked by the addition of unlabeled rgp120. In contrast, the U937 myeloid cell line bound rgp120 with 50% specificity and about 2500 mol/cell. Whereas the antibody OKT4a (anti-CD4) blocked 80% of the binding on MOLT/4 cells and 50% on U937 cells, binding was only inhibited on the average of 6% on cultured monocytes. When soluble rCD4 was used as an inhibitor, binding to MOLT/4 cells was blocked by 80%. In contrast, binding to cultured monocytes was inhibited by 28%. HIV infectivity was blocked by similar concentrations of OKT4a. These observations suggest that although most binding of gp120 to cultured monocytes is not to the CD4 determinant, several hundred molecules do bind to a CD4-like molecule which promotes virus entry and replication

  9. Cinnamic Acid Is Partially Involved in Propolis Immunomodulatory Action on Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Conti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a beehive product used in traditional medicine due to its biological properties. It shows a complex chemical composition including phenolics, such as cinnamic acid (Ci. The mechanisms of action of propolis have been the subject of research recently; however, the involvement of Ci on propolis activity was not investigated on immune cells. Ci effects were evaluated on human monocytes, assessing the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, HLA-DR, and CD80. Cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10 and the fungicidal activity of monocytes were evaluated as well. Data showed that Ci downregulated TLR-2, HLA-DR, and CD80 and upregulated TLR-4 expression by human monocytes. High concentrations of Ci inhibited both TNF-α and IL-10 production, whereas the same concentrations induced a higher fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. TNF-α and IL-10 production was decreased by blocking TLR-4, while the fungicidal activity of monocytes was not affected by blocking TLRs. These results suggest that Ci modulated antigen receptors, cytokine production, and the fungicidal activity of human monocytes depending on concentration, and TLR-4 may be involved in its mechanism of action. Ci seemed to be partially involved in propolis activities.

  10. Fatty Acid Oxidation Compensates for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Warburg Effect in Glucose-Deprived Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Raulien

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes enter sites of microbial or sterile inflammation as the first line of defense of the immune system and initiate pro-inflammatory effector mechanisms. We show that activation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces them to undergo a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis, similar to the Warburg effect observed in cancer cells. At sites of inflammation, however, glucose concentrations are often drastically decreased, which prompted us to study monocyte function under conditions of glucose deprivation and abrogated Warburg effect. Experiments using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer revealed that limited glucose supply shifts monocyte metabolism toward oxidative phosphorylation, fueled largely by fatty acid oxidation at the expense of lipid droplets. While this metabolic state appears to provide sufficient energy to sustain functional properties like cytokine secretion, migration, and phagocytosis, it cannot prevent a rise in the AMP/ATP ratio and a decreased respiratory burst. The molecular trigger mediating the metabolic shift and the functional consequences is activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Taken together, our results indicate that monocytes are sufficiently metabolically flexible to perform pro-inflammatory functions at sites of inflammation despite glucose deprivation and inhibition of the LPS-induced Warburg effect. AMPK seems to play a pivotal role in orchestrating these processes during glucose deprivation in monocytes.

  11. TLR4 accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 regulates monocyte-driven arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J N M Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: RP105-/- and wild type (WT mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105-/- mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105-/- mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery.

  12. FC-99 ameliorates sepsis-induced liver dysfunction by modulating monocyte/macrophage differentiation via Let-7a related monocytes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Haining; Ding, Liang; Xu, Lizhi; Chen, Dai; Shen, Sunan; Hou, Yayi; Dou, Huan

    2018-03-13

    The liver is a vital target for sepsis-related injury, leading to inflammatory pathogenesis, multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality rates. Monocyte-derived macrophage transformations are key events in hepatic inflammation. N 1 -[(4-methoxy)methyl]-4-methyl-1,2-benzenediamine (FC-99) previously displayed therapeutic potential on experimental sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism of this protective effect is still not clear. FC-99 treatment attenuated the liver dysfunction in septic mice that was accompanied with reduced numbers of pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes in the peripheral blood and CD11b + F4/80 lo monocyte-derived macrophages in the liver. These effects were attributed to the FC-99-induced apoptosis of CD11b + cells. In PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, FC-99 repressed the expression of CD11b, CD14 and caspase3 and resulted in a high proportion of Annexin V + cells. Moreover, let-7a-5p expression was abrogated upon CLP stimulation in vivo , whereas it was restored by FC-99 treatment. TargetScan analysis and luciferase assays indicated that the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL was targeted by let-7a-5p. BCL-XL was inhibited by FC-99 in order to induce monocyte apoptosis, leading to the impaired monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Murine acute liver failure was generated by caecal ligation puncture surgery after FC-99 administration; Blood samples and liver tissues were collected to determine the monocyte/macrophage subsets and the induction of apoptosis. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells were pretreated with FC-99 followed by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, in order to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. The target of FC-99 and the mechanistic analyses were conducted by microarrays, qRT-PCR validation, TargetScan algorithms and a luciferase report assay. FC-99 exhibits potential therapeutic effects on CLP-induced liver dysfunction by restoring let-7a-5p levels.

  13. Mitigation of monocyte inflammation by inhibition of sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : 1596-5996 (print); ... Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and 25(OH)D3 were detected by .... tubes and the plasma samples obtained used for ... membranes were treated with ECL (Thermo ..... Revising the Declaration of Helsinki. World. Med.

  14. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  15. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    De Nicola, Milena D.; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-01-01

    -competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes

  16. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  17. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  18. In vivo imaging of monocyte trafficking with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose labeled monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jin Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Han, Yu Mi; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2000-01-01

    Since the ability to monitor in vivo monocyte trafficking would contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders, we investigated the feasibility of labeling human monocytes with 18 F-FDG. Human monocytes were separated by Ficoll/Hypaque gradient and purity was assessed by flow cytometry. The influence of insulin and/or glucose on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Cell viability and activation was measured with trypan blue exclusion and hydrogen peroxide assays, respectively. Label stability was measured for up to 18 hr, and the effect of insulin pre-incubation on FDG washout was investigated. PET images were acquired in SD rats at various time points after injection of FDG labeled monocytes. Monocytes were >85% pure, and labeling efficiency was 35% for 1x106 cells after 40 min incubation with 2 mCi 18 F-FDG without insulin. Pre-incubation with 10∼100 nM insulin significantly increased FDG uptake which reached 400% of baseline levels, whereas presence of glucose or serum decreased FDG uptake. Labeled cells were >90% viable for up to 22 hr, and the labeling process did appear to significantly activate cells, Washout studies however, demonstrated gradual washout of the FDG from monocytes after initial uptake PET images of FDG labeled monocytes in SD rats showed consistent findings. Utilizing insulin effects on cellular glucose metabolism may be a feasible way of labeling monocytes with 18 F-FDG for PET imaging. However, gradual washout of FDG after initial uptake poses as a potential problem which needs to be addressed before practical application

  19. Mycobacterium leprae upregulates IRGM expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Degang; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Linglin; Cha, Zhanshan; Han, Song; Shi, Weiwei; Ding, Ru; Ma, Lan; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Chao; Jing, Zhichun; Song, Ningjing

    2014-08-01

    Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection.

  20. TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role in monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is known to mediate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, however, its role on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR4 on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules, and determined the functional role of TLR4-induced adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. When THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA, a specific TLR4 agonist, Mac-1 expression was markedly increased in association with an increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. These were attenuated by anti-Mac-1 antibody, suggesting a functional role of TLR4-induced Mac-1 on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In monocytes treated with MK886, a 5-lipoxygenase (LO inhibitor, both Mac-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by KLA were markedly attenuated. Moreover, KLA increased the expression of mRNA and protein of 5-LO, suggesting a pivotal role of 5-LO on these processes. In in vivo studies, KLA increased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelium of wild-type (WT mice, which was attenuated in WT mice treated with anti-Mac-1 antibody as well as in TLR4-deficient mice. Taken together, TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, leading to increased foam cell formation in the development of atherosclerosis.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine Extracts on Endothelial-Dependent Adhesive Interactions with Monocytes Induced by Oxysterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Naito

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenolic compounds have been demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties, and several studies have suggested that they might constitute a relevant dietary factor in the protection from coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study is to examine whether red wine extracts (RWE can ameliorate oxysterol-induced endothelial response, and whether inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is involved in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Surface expression and mRNA levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR performed on human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC monolayers stimulated with 7b-hydroxycholesterol or 25-hydroxycholesterol. Incubation of HAEC with oxysterols (10 muM increased expression of adhesion molecules in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of HAEC with RWE at final concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml significantly inhibited the increase of surface protein expression and mRNA levels. Adherence of monocytes to oxysterol-stimulated HAEC was increased compared to that of unstimulated cells. Treatment of HAEC with RWE significantly inhibited adherence of monocytes. These results suggest that RWE works as an anti-atherogenic agent through the inhibition of endothelial-dependent adhesive interactions with monocytes induced by oxysterols

  2. Human monocytes undergo excessive apoptosis following temozolomide activating the ATM/ATR pathway while dendritic cells and macrophages are resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bauer

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is a severe therapy-limiting side effect of anticancer chemotherapy resulting from sensitivity of immunocompetent cells to DNA damaging agents. A central role in the immune system is played by monocytes that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. In this study we compared human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood and cytokine matured macrophages and DCs derived from them and assessed the mechanism of toxicity of the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ in these cell populations. We observed that monocytes, but not DCs and macrophages, were highly sensitive to the killing effect of TMZ. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed that the initial DNA incision was efficient in monocytes while the re-ligation step of base excision repair (BER can not be accomplished, resulting in an accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs. Furthermore, monocytes accumulated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs following TMZ treatment, while DCs and macrophages were able to repair DSBs. Monocytes lack the DNA repair proteins XRCC1, ligase IIIα and PARP-1 whose expression is restored during differentiation into macrophages and DCs following treatment with GM-CSF and GM-CSF plus IL-4, respectively. These proteins play a key role both in BER and DSB repair by B-NHEJ, which explains the accumulation of DNA breaks in monocytes following TMZ treatment. Although TMZ provoked an upregulation of XRCC1 and ligase IIIα, BER was not enhanced likely because PARP-1 was not upregulated. Accordingly, inhibition of PARP-1 did not sensitize monocytes, but monocyte-derived DCs in which strong PARP activation was observed. TMZ induced in monocytes the DNA damage response pathways ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 resulting in p53 activation. Finally, upon activation of the Fas-receptor and the mitochondrial pathway apoptosis was executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The downregulation of DNA repair in monocytes, resulting in their selective

  3. Curcumin modulates endothelial permeability and monocyte transendothelial migration by affecting endothelial cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Mercier, Sylvie; Bayle, Dominique; Tamaian, Radu; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Morand, Christine; Milenkovic, Dragan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3h prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). Endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were conducted under static condition and shear stress that mimics blood flow. We further investigated the impact of curcumin on signaling pathways and on the expression of genes using macroarrays. Pre-exposure of endothelial cells to curcumin reduced monocyte adhesion and their transendothelial migration in both static and shear stress conditions. Curcumin also prevented changes in both endothelial permeability and the area of HUVECs when induced by TNF-α. We showed that curcumin modulated the expression of 15 genes involved in the control of cytoskeleton and endothelial junction dynamic. Finally, we showed that curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling likely through an antagonist interplay with several kinases as suggested by molecular docking analysis. Our findings demonstrate the ability of curcumin to reduce monocyte TEM through a multimodal regulation of the endothelial cell dynamics with a potential benefit on the vascular endothelial function barrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-01-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE 2 anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes

  5. The proliferative human monocyte subpopulation contains osteoclast precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Roya; Kitchener, Peter D; Hamilton, John A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Immediate precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Particularly during clinical conditions showing bone loss, it would appear that osteoclast precursors are mobilized from bone marrow into the circulation prior to entering tissues undergoing such loss. The observed heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes has led to the notion that different monocyte subpopulations may have special or restricted functions, including as osteoclast precursors. Methods Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted based upon their degree of proliferation and cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Results The monocyte subpopulation that is capable of proliferation gave rise to significantly more multinucleated, bone-resorbing osteoclasts than the bulk of the monocytes. Conclusions Human peripheral blood osteoclast precursors reside in the proliferative monocyte subpopulation. PMID:19222861

  6. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytose antibody-opsonised Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes more efficiently than other monocyte subsets, and require CD16 and complement to do so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingling; Feng, Gaoqian; Beeson, James; Hogarth, P Mark; Rogerson, Stephen J; Yan, Yan; Jaworowski, Anthony

    2015-07-07

    With more than 600,000 deaths from malaria, mainly of children under five years old and caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, comes an urgent need for an effective anti-malaria vaccine. Limited details on the mechanisms of protective immunity are a barrier to vaccine development. Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria and monocytes are key effectors in antibody-mediated protection by phagocytosing antibody-opsonised infected erythrocytes (IE). Eliciting antibodies that enhance phagocytosis of IE is therefore an important potential component of an effective vaccine, requiring robust assays to determine the ability of elicited antibodies to stimulate this in vivo. The mechanisms by which monocytes ingest IE and the nature of the monocytes which do so are unknown. Purified trophozoite-stage P. falciparum IE were stained with ethidium bromide, opsonised with anti-erythrocyte antibodies and incubated with fresh whole blood. Phagocytosis of IE and TNF production by individual monocyte subsets was measured by flow cytometry. Ingestion of IE was confirmed by imaging flow cytometry. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytosed antibody-opsonised IE and produced TNF more efficiently than CD14(hi)CD16- and CD14(lo)CD16+ monocytes. Blocking experiments showed that Fcγ receptor IIIa (CD16) but not Fcγ receptor IIa (CD32a) or Fcγ receptor I (CD64) was necessary for phagocytosis. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes ingested antibody-opsonised IE when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reconstituted with autologous serum but not heat-inactivated autologous serum. Antibody-opsonised IE were rapidly opsonised with complement component C3 in serum (t1/2 = 2-3 minutes) and phagocytosis of antibody-opsonised IE was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by an inhibitor of C3 activation, compstatin. Compared to other monocyte subsets, CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes expressed the highest levels of complement receptor 4 (CD11c) and activated complement receptor 3 (CD11b) subunits

  7. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Bjarne; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Schmalzbauer, Ruediger; Vassallo, Neville; Herms, Jochen; Kretzschmar, Hans A.

    2006-01-01

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP C ), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP C fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP C fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK 1,2 and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP C in monocytes and macrophages

  8. Statins attenuate polymethylmethacrylate-mediated monocyte activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Alan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis precipitates aseptic loosening of components, increases the risk of periprosthetic fracture and, through massive bone loss, complicates revision surgery and ultimately is the primary cause for failure of joint arthroplasty. The anti-inflammatory properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors belonging to the statin family are well recognized. We investigated a possible role for status in initiating the first stage of the osteolytic cycle, namely monocytic activation. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of the human monocyte\\/macrophage inflammatory response to poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles after pretreat-ing cells with cerivastatin, a potent member of the statin family. Cell activation based upon production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 cytokines was analyzed and the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway was evaluated using western blot analysis, to identify its role in cell activation and in any cerivastatin effects observed. RESULTS: We found that pretreatment with cerivastatin significantly abrogates the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and MCP-1 by human monocytes in response to polymethylmethacrylate particle activation. This inflammatory activation and attenuation appear to be mediated through the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. INTERPRETATION: We propose that by intervening at the upstream activation stage, subsequent osteoclast activation and osteolysis can be suppressed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may potentially play a prophylactic role in the setting of aseptic loosening, and in so doing increase implant longevity.

  9. Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT suppresses accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Zetterqvist

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Diabetic patients have a much more widespread and aggressive form of atherosclerosis and therefore, higher risk for myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and stroke, but the molecular mechanisms leading to accelerated damage are still unclear. Recently, we showed that hyperglycemia activates the transcription factor NFAT in the arterial wall, inducing the expression of the pro-atherosclerotic protein osteopontin. Here we investigate whether NFAT activation may be a link between diabetes and atherogenesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in apolipoprotein E(-/- mice resulted in 2.2 fold increased aortic atherosclerosis and enhanced pro-inflammatory burden, as evidenced by elevated blood monocytes, endothelial activation- and inflammatory markers in aorta, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma. In vivo treatment with the NFAT blocker A-285222 for 4 weeks completely inhibited the diabetes-induced aggravation of atherosclerosis, having no effect in non-diabetic mice. STZ-treated mice exhibited hyperglycemia and higher plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, but these were unaffected by A-285222. NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity was examined in aorta, spleen, thymus, brain, heart, liver and kidney, but only augmented in the aorta of diabetic mice. A-285222 completely blocked this diabetes-driven NFAT activation, but had no impact on the other organs or on splenocyte proliferation or cytokine secretion, ruling out systemic immunosuppression as the mechanism behind reduced atherosclerosis. Instead, NFAT inhibition effectively reduced IL-6, osteopontin, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD68 and tissue factor expression in the arterial wall and lowered plasma IL-6 in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting NFAT signaling may be a novel and attractive approach for the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications.

  10. Monocyte-Derived Signals Activate Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Leishmania Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messlinger, Helena; Sebald, Heidi; Heger, Lukas; Dudziak, Diana; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Activated natural killer (NK) cells release interferon (IFN)-γ, which is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In contrast to experimental murine leishmaniasis, the human NK cell response to Leishmania is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the interaction of human blood NK cells with promastigotes of different Leishmania species (Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania donovani). When peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified NK cells and monocytes (all derived from healthy blood donors from Germany without a history of leishmaniasis) were exposed to promastigotes, NK cells showed increased surface expression of the activation marker CD69. The extent of this effect varied depending on the Leishmania species; differences between dermotropic and viscerotropic L. infantum strains were not observed. Upregulation of CD69 required direct contact between monocytes and Leishmania and was partly inhibitable by anti-interleukin (IL)-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 was undetectable in most of the supernatants (SNs) of monocyte/parasite cocultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of non-permeabilized cells revealed that Leishmania-infected monocytes trans-presented IL-18 to NK cells. Native, but not heat-treated SNs of monocyte/Leishmania cocultures also induced CD69 on NK cells, indicating the involvement of a soluble heat-labile factor other than IL-18. A role for the NK cell-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and IFN-α/β was excluded. The increase of CD69 was not paralleled by NK cell IFN-γ production or enhanced cytotoxicity. However, prior exposure of NK cells to Leishmania parasites synergistically increased their IFN-γ release in response to IL-12, which was dependent on endogenous IL-18. CD1c+ dendritic cells were identified as possible source of Leishmania-induced IL-12. Finally, we observed that direct contact between Leishmania and NK cells reduced the

  11. Monocyte-Derived Signals Activate Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Leishmania Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Messlinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural killer (NK cells release interferon (IFN-γ, which is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In contrast to experimental murine leishmaniasis, the human NK cell response to Leishmania is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the interaction of human blood NK cells with promastigotes of different Leishmania species (Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania donovani. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified NK cells and monocytes (all derived from healthy blood donors from Germany without a history of leishmaniasis were exposed to promastigotes, NK cells showed increased surface expression of the activation marker CD69. The extent of this effect varied depending on the Leishmania species; differences between dermotropic and viscerotropic L. infantum strains were not observed. Upregulation of CD69 required direct contact between monocytes and Leishmania and was partly inhibitable by anti-interleukin (IL-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 was undetectable in most of the supernatants (SNs of monocyte/parasite cocultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of non-permeabilized cells revealed that Leishmania-infected monocytes trans-presented IL-18 to NK cells. Native, but not heat-treated SNs of monocyte/Leishmania cocultures also induced CD69 on NK cells, indicating the involvement of a soluble heat-labile factor other than IL-18. A role for the NK cell-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and IFN-α/β was excluded. The increase of CD69 was not paralleled by NK cell IFN-γ production or enhanced cytotoxicity. However, prior exposure of NK cells to Leishmania parasites synergistically increased their IFN-γ release in response to IL-12, which was dependent on endogenous IL-18. CD1c+ dendritic cells were identified as possible source of Leishmania-induced IL-12. Finally, we observed that direct contact between Leishmania and NK cells

  12. The effect of metformin on monocyte secretory function in simvastatin-treated patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether metformin affects monocyte secretory function in patients with impaired fasting glucose receiving chronic statin therapy. The study included 48 patients with impaired fasting glucose treated for at least three months with simvastatin (40 mg daily). These patients were randomized to either metformin (3 g daily) or placebo, which was administered together with simvastatin for 90 days. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, monocyte cytokine release and plasma C-reactive protein levels were determined before randomization and at the end of the treatment. Compared to placebo, metformin reduced monocyte release of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8, as well as decreased plasma C-reactive protein levels, which were accompanied by an improvement in insulin sensitivity. The obtained results suggest that metformin may inhibit monocyte secretory function and reduce systemic inflammation in statin-treated patients with prediabetes. Impaired fasting glucose patients with high cardiovascular risk may receive the greatest benefits from concomitant treatment with a statin and metformin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  14. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  16. Glatiramer acetate (GA) prevents TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells through interfering with the NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Guoqian; Zhang, Xueyan; Su, Zhendong; Li, Xueqi, E-mail: xueqili075@yeah.net

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • GA inhibited TNF-α-induced binding of monocytes to endothelial cells. • GA inhibited the induction of adhesion molecules MCP-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. • GA inhibits NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. • GA inhibits TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation. - Abstract: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is considered to be the major one contributing to the process of development of endothelial dysfunction. Exposure to TNF-α induces the expression of a number of proinflammatory chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, which mediate the interaction of invading monocytes with vascular endothelial cells. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a licensed clinical drug for treating patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of GA in vascular disease have not shown before. In this study, we found that GA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced binding of monocytes to endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we found that GA ameliorated the upregulation of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin induced by TNF-α. Notably, this process is mediated by inhibiting the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB. Our results also indicate that GA pretreatment attenuates the up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS. These data suggest that GA might have a potential benefit in therapeutic endothelial dysfunction related diseases.

  17. Abnormal monocyte recruitment and collateral artery formation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Michiel; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Royen, Niels; Hua, Jing; de Graaf, Stijn; Bode, Christoph; Buschmann, Ivo R.; Piek, Jan J.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been shown to be effective for the stimulation of collateral artery formation in small and large animal models. The availability of a genetic knockout mouse enables evaluation of the importance of the role of MCP-1 in the natural course of collateral

  18. Outside-in HLA class I signaling regulates ICAM-1 clustering and endothelial cell-monocyte interactions via mTOR in transplant antibody-mediated rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sahar; Sosa, Rebecca A; Jin, Yi-Ping; Kageyama, Shoichi; Fishbein, Michael C; Rozengurt, Enrique; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Reed, Elaine F

    2018-05-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) resulting in transplant allograft vasculopathy (TAV) is the major obstacle for long-term survival of solid organ transplants. AMR is caused by donor-specific antibodies to HLA, which contribute to TAV by initiating outside-in signaling transduction pathways that elicit monocyte recruitment to activated endothelium. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can attenuate TAV; therefore, we sought to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of mTOR signaling in HLA class I Ab-mediated endothelial cell activation and monocyte recruitment. We used an in vitro model to assess monocyte binding to HLA I Ab-activated endothelial cells and found mTOR inhibition reduced ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) phosphorylation, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) clustering, and monocyte firm adhesion to HLA I Ab-activated endothelium. Further, in a mouse model of AMR, in which C57BL/6. RAG1 -/- recipients of BALB/c cardiac allografts were passively transferred with donor-specific MHC I antibodies, mTOR inhibition significantly reduced vascular injury, ERM phosphorylation, and macrophage infiltration of the allograft. Taken together, these studies indicate mTOR inhibition suppresses ERM phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which impedes ICAM-1 clustering in response to HLA class I Ab and prevents macrophage infiltration into cardiac allografts. These findings indicate a novel therapeutic application for mTOR inhibitors to disrupt endothelial cell-monocyte interactions during AMR. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Postprandial Monocyte Activation in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilvira M.; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Dadu, Razvan T.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Wu, Huaizhu

    2016-01-01

    Context: Postprandial hyperlipidemia has been suggested to contribute to atherogenesis by inducing proinflammatory changes in monocytes. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS), shown to have higher blood triglyceride concentration and delayed triglyceride clearance, may thus have increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective: Our objective was to examine fasting levels and effects of a high-fat meal on phenotypes of monocyte subsets in individuals with obesity and MS and in healthy controls. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention: Individuals with obesity and MS and gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Blood was collected from participants after an overnight fast (baseline) and at 3 and 5 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. At each time point, monocyte phenotypes were examined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels of activation markers and postprandial inflammatory response in each of the three monocyte subsets were measured. Results: At baseline, individuals with obesity and MS had higher proportions of circulating lipid-laden foamy monocytes than controls, which were positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels. Additionally, the MS group had increased counts of nonclassical monocytes, higher CD11c, CX3CR1, and human leukocyte antigen-DR levels on intermediate monocytes, and higher CCR5 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels on classical monocytes in the circulation. Postprandial triglyceride increases in both groups were paralleled by upregulation of lipid-laden foamy monocytes. MS, but not control, subjects had significant postprandial increases of CD11c and percentages of IL-1β+ and tumor necrosis factor-α+ cells in nonclassical monocytes. Conclusions: Compared to controls, individuals with obesity and MS had increased fasting and postprandial monocyte lipid accumulation and activation. PMID:27575945

  20. A simple method for human peripheral blood monocyte Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C de Almeida

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple method using percoll gradient for isolation of highly enriched human monocytes. High numbers of fully functional cells are obtained from whole blood or buffy coat cells. The use of simple laboratory equipment and a relatively cheap reagent makes the described method a convenient approach to obtaining human monocytes.

  1. Monocyte function is severely impaired by the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czepluch, Frauke S.; Olieslagers, Serve J.F.; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    For rapid chemotaxis quantification, cell prelabelling is often performed with the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester (calcein AM). We investigated whether calcein AM-prelabelling is reliable for monocyte migration analysis. Human monocytes were either preexposed to calcein AM or unlabelled. Monocyte migration towards the potent chemoattractants transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and N-formyl-Methionin-Leucin-Phenylalanin (fMLP) was assessed using a 48-well micro-chemotaxis chamber. For quantification, cells were visualized by light microscopy and counted. Surprisingly, random migration of calcein AM-prelabelled cells was significantly impaired compared to the unlabelled control. Accordingly, monocyte chemotaxis towards either TGF-β1 or fMLP dramatically declined. Adherence of calcein AM-labelled monocytes on plastic was also significantly decreased compared to control cells. As adhesion is regarded as an essential component of monocyte migration, the reduced migration observed in calcein AM-labelled monocytes might be explained by a fluorochrome-induced adhesion defect. Therefore, use of the fluorochrome calcein AM cannot be recommended for functional testing of monocytes

  2. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  3. Blood monocyte oxidative burst activity in acute P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Theander, T G

    1989-01-01

    The release of superoxide anion from blood monocytes was studied in eight patients with acute primary attack P. falciparum malaria. Before treatment a significant enhancement of the oxidative burst prevailed, which contrasts with previous findings of a depressed monocyte chemotactic responsiveness...

  4. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes

  5. Phenotypic heterogeneity of peripheral monocytes in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Natalie; Goulart, Michelle R; Chang, Yu-Mei; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Purcell, Robert; Wu, Ying; Peters, Laureen M; Turmaine, Mark; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    Monocytes are key cells of the innate immune system. Their phenotypic and functional roles have been investigated in humans, mice and other animals, such as the rat, pig and cow. To date, detailed phenotypic analysis of monocytes has not been undertaken in dogs. Two important surface markers in human monocytes are CD14 and MHC class II (MHC II). By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that canine monocytes can be subdivided into three separate populations: CD14 pos MHC II neg , CD14 pos MHC II pos and CD14 neg MHC II pos . Both light and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the monocytic identity of all three populations. The CD14 pos MHC II neg population could be distinguished on an ultrastructural level by their smaller size, the presence of more numerous, larger granules, and more pseudopodia than both of the other populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  7. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  8. Exercise promotes collateral artery growth mediated by monocytic nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Millenaar, Dominic N; Werner, Christian; Schuh, Lisa; Degen, Achim; Bettink, Stephanie I; Lipp, Peter; van Rooijen, Nico; Meyer, Tim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is an important adaptive response to hampered arterial perfusion. It is unknown whether preventive physical exercise before limb ischemia can improve arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed at investigating the effects of endurance exercise before arterial occlusion on MNC function and collateral artery growth. After 3 weeks of voluntary treadmill exercise, ligation of the right femoral artery was performed in mice. Hindlimb perfusion immediately after surgery did not differ from sedentary mice. However, previous exercise improved perfusion restoration ≤7 days after femoral artery ligation, also when exercise was stopped at ligation. This was accompanied by an accumulation of peri-collateral macrophages and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hindlimb collateral and in MNC of blood and spleen. Systemic monocyte and macrophage depletion by liposomal clodronate but not splenectomy attenuated exercise-induced perfusion restoration, collateral artery growth, peri-collateral macrophage accumulation, and upregulation of iNOS. iNOS-deficient mice did not show exercise-induced perfusion restoration. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNC from iNOS-deficient mice into wild-type animals inhibited exercise-induced collateral artery growth. In contrast to sedentary controls, thrice weekly aerobic exercise training for 6 months in humans increased peripheral blood MNC iNOS expression. Circulating mononuclear cell-derived inducible nitric oxide is an important mediator of exercise-induced collateral artery growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the β isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  10. IκK-16 decreases miRNA-155 expression and attenuates the human monocyte inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman James Galbraith

    Full Text Available Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs, such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB. Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK, on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0.05. miR-155 and miR-138 levels were significantly upregulated at 17 h in the impaired monocyte (P < 0.05. Notably, IκK-16 decreased miR-155 expression with a corresponding dose-dependent decrease in TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0.05, and impaired monocyte function was associated with increased miR-155 and miR-138 expression. In the context of IκK-16 inhibition, miR-155 mimics increased TNF-α production, while miR-155 antagomirs decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 production. These data demonstrate that IκK-16 treatment attenuates the monocyte inflammatory response, which may occur through a miR-155-mediated mechanism, and that IκK-16 is a promising approach to limit the magnitude of an excessive innate inflammatory response to LPS.

  11. Captopril increases the intensity of monocyte infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and induces human T helper type 17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho dos Santos, J S; Menezes, C A S; Villani, F N A; Magalhães, L M D; Scharfstein, J; Gollob, K J; Dutra, W O

    2010-12-01

    The anti-hypertensive drug captopril is used commonly to reduce blood pressure of patients with severe forms of Chagas disease, a cardiomyopathy caused by chronic infection with the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Captopril acts by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the vasopressor metallopeptidase that generates angiotensin II and promotes the degradation of bradykinin (BK). Recent studies in mice models of Chagas disease indicated that captopril can potentiate the T helper type 1 (Th1)-directing natural adjuvant property of BK. Equipped with kinin-releasing cysteine proteases, T. cruzi trypomastigotes were shown previously to invade non-professional phagocytic cells, such as human endothelial cells and murine cardiomyocytes, through the signalling of G protein-coupled bradykinin receptors (B(2) KR). Monocytes are also parasitized by T. cruzi and these cells are known to be important for the host immune response during infection. Here we showed that captopril increases the intensity of T. cruzi infection of human monocytes in vitro. The increased parasitism was accompanied by up-regulated expression of ACE in human monocytes. While T. cruzi infection increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 by monocytes significantly, compared to uninfected cells, T. cruzi infection in association with captopril down-modulated IL-10 expression by the monocytes. Surprisingly, studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that addition of the ACE inhibitor in association with T. cruzi increased expression of IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells in a B(2) KR-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that captopril might interfere with host-parasite equilibrium by enhancing infection of monocytes, decreasing the expression of the modulatory cytokine IL-10, while guiding development of the proinflammatory Th17 subset. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Improvement in the Function of rat Peripheral Blood Monocytes Following Oral Administration of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zirak Marangalu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, it seems that curcumin is a natural source to intervene the monocytes functions especially in autoimmune diseases so that monocytes hyperactivity causes immunopathological conditions.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates fresh human monocytes to lyse actinomycin D-treated WEHI-164 target cells via increased secretion of a monokine similar to tumor necrosis factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.R.; McKinnon, K.P.; Koren, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on tumoricidal activity of human monocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood were studied. Actinomycin D-treated WEHI-164 cells were used as targets because they are NK insensitive and are lysed rapidly by monocytes in 6-hr 51 Cr-release assays. Monocytes exhibited significant spontaneous activity without endotoxin. Monocytes either pretreated for 1 hr with LPS or assayed in the presence of LPS exhibited 100- to 1000-fold increased cytolytic activity. Cytolytic activity was heat labile and trypsin sensitive, and was recovered from Sepharose S-200 columns in a single peak with an apparent m.w. between 25,000 and 40,000. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide treatment of monocytes before the addition of LPS inhibited cytolytic monokine production. Cytolytic monokine activity was practically neutralized by specific rabbit antisera to human tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It was concluded that, although fresh human monocytes exhibit spontaneous tumoricidal activity, LPS is a potent activating agent. Its stimulatory effects depend on new transcription and translation and are mediated by enhanced secretion of a cytolytic monokine similar to TNF

  14. Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S P; Hutchinson, J L; Dorward, D A; Rossi, A G; Norman, J E

    2015-08-01

    Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of monocytes on myometrial smooth muscle cell inflammatory cytokine production both alone and in response to LPS, a TLR4 agonist used to trigger PTL in vivo. We also investigated the effect of monocytes on myocyte contraction. Monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood samples from term pregnant women, were cultured alone, or co-cultured with PHM1-41 myometrial smooth muscle cells, for 24 h. In a third set of experiments, PHM1-41 myocytes were cultured for 24 h in isolation. Cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA or multiplex assays. Co-culture of monocytes and myocytes led to synergistic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1, with the secretion being further enhanced by LPS (100 ng/ml). The synergistic secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from co-cultures was mediated in part by direct cell-cell contact, and by TNF. Conditioned media from co-cultures stimulated contraction of PHM1-41 myocytes, and the effect was inhibited by progesterone. Both progesterone and IL-10 inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from co-cultures, while progesterone also inhibited chemokine secretion. These data suggest that monocytes infiltrating the myometrium at labour participate in crosstalk that potentiates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, an effect that is enhanced by LPS, and can augment myocyte contraction. These effects are all partially inhibited by progesterone. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  15. Intriguing interplay between feline infectious peritonitis virus and its receptors during entry in primary feline monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Evelien; Desmarets, Lowiese; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2011-09-01

    Two potential receptors have been described for the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV): feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN) and feline dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing non-integrin (fDC-SIGN). In cell lines, fAPN serves as a receptor for serotype II, but not for serotype I FIPV. The role of fAPN in infection of in vivo target cells, monocytes, is not yet confirmed. Both serotype I and II FIPVs use fDC-SIGN for infection of monocyte-derived cells but how is not known. In this study, the role of fAPN and fDC-SIGN was studied at different stages in FIPV infection of monocytes. First, the effects of blocking the potential receptor(s) were studied for the processes of attachment and infection. Secondly, the level of co-localization of FIPV and the receptors was determined. It was found that FIPV I binding and infection were not affected by blocking fAPN while blocking fDC-SIGN reduced FIPV I binding to 36% and practically completely inhibited infection. Accordingly, 66% of bound FIPV I particles co-localized with fDC-SIGN. Blocking fAPN reduced FIPV II binding by 53% and infection by 80%. Further, 60% of bound FIPV II co-localized with fAPN. fDC-SIGN was not involved in FIPV II binding but infection was reduced with 64% when fDC-SIGN was blocked. In conclusion, FIPV I infection of monocytes depends on fDC-SIGN. Most FIPV I particles already interact with fDC-SIGN at the plasma membrane. For FIPV II, both fAPN and fDC-SIGN are involved in infection with only fAPN playing a receptor role at the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  17. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Association of Canine Osteosarcoma and Monocyte Phenotype and Chemotactic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, J L; Lascelles, B D X; Griffith, E H; Fogle, J E

    2016-07-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are likely key cells in immune modulation in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA). Increased peripheral monocyte counts are negatively correlated with shorter disease-free intervals in dogs with OSA. Understanding the monocyte/macrophage's modulatory role in dogs with OSA can direct further studies in immunotherapy development for OSA. That OSA evades the immune response by down-regulating monocyte chemokine receptor expression and migratory function, and suppresses host immune responses. Eighteen dogs with OSA that have not received definitive treatment and 14 healthy age-matched controls Clinical study-expression of peripheral blood monocyte cell surface receptors, monocyte mRNA expression and cytokine secretion, monocyte chemotaxis, and survival were compared between clinical dogs with OSA and healthy control dogs. Cell surface expression of multiple chemokine receptors is significantly down-regulated in peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA. The percentage expression of CCR2 (median 58%, range 2-94%) and CXCR2 expression (median 54%, range 2-92%) was higher in control dogs compared to dogs with OSA (CCR2 median 29%, range 3-45%, P = 0.0006; CXCR2 median 23%, range 0.2-52%, P = 0.0007). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) (OSA, median 347.36 pg/mL, range 103.4-1268.5; control, 136.23 pg/mL, range 69.93-542.6, P = .04) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (P = .02) levels are increased in OSA monocyte culture supernatants compared to controls. Peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA exhibit decreased chemotactic function when compared to control dogs (OSA, median 1.2 directed to random migration, range 0.8-1.25; control, 1.6, range of 0.9-1.8, P = .018). Dogs with OSA have decreased monocyte chemokine receptor expression and monocyte chemotaxis, potential mechanisms by which OSA might evade the immune response. Reversal of monocyte dysfunction using immunotherapy could improve survival in dogs with OSA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of

  19. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazawwi, Nora; Le, Khuong; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2017-10-18

    The present study examined the effects of wild rice on monocyte adhesion, inflammatory and fibrinolytic mediators in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. Male LDLr-KO mice received a cholesterol (0.06%, w/w)-supplemented diet with or without white or wild rice (60%, w/w) for 20 weeks. White rice significantly increased monocyte adhesion and abundances of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tissue necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor in aortae and hearts of LDLr-KO mice compared to the control diet. Wild rice inhibited monocyte adhesion to the aorta, atherosclerosis, and abundances of the inflammatory and fibrinolytic regulators in the cardiovascular tissue of LDLr-KO mice compared to white rice. White or wild rice did not significantly alter the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or antioxidant enzymes in plasma. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of wild rice may result from its inhibition on monocyte adhesion and inflammatory modulators in LDLr-KO mice.

  20. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells

  1. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  2. Complement-Mediated Enhancement of Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells by HLA Antibodies, and Blockade by a Specific Inhibitor of the Classical Complement Cascade, TNT003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole M.; Thomas, Kimberly A.; Mulder, Arend; Parry, Graham C.; Panicker, Sandip; Reed, Elaine F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of most solid organs is characterized by evidence of complement activation and/or intragraft macrophages (C4d + and CD68+ biopsies). We previously demonstrated that crosslinking of HLA I by antibodies triggered endothelial activation and monocyte adhesion. We hypothesized that activation of the classical complement pathway at the endothelial cell surface by HLA antibodies would enhance monocyte adhesion through soluble split product generation, in parallel with direct endothelial activation downstream of HLA signaling. Methods Primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were stimulated with HLA class I antibodies in the presence of intact human serum complement. C3a and C5a generation, endothelial P-selectin expression, and adhesion of human primary and immortalized monocytes (Mono Mac 6) were measured. Alternatively, HAEC or monocytes were directly stimulated with purified C3a or C5a. Classical complement activation was inhibited by pretreatment of complement with an anti-C1s antibody (TNT003). Results Treatment of HAEC with HLA antibody and human complement increased the formation of C3a and C5a. Monocyte recruitment by human HLA antibodies was enhanced in the presence of intact human serum complement or purified C3a or C5a. Specific inhibition of the classical complement pathway using TNT003 or C1q-depleted serum significantly reduced adhesion of monocytes in the presence of human complement. Conclusions Despite persistent endothelial viability in the presence of HLA antibodies and complement, upstream complement anaphylatoxin production exacerbates endothelial exocytosis and leukocyte recruitment. Upstream inhibition of classical complement may be therapeutic to dampen mononuclear cell recruitment and endothelial activation characteristic of microvascular inflammation during AMR. PMID:28640789

  3. Functional role of CD11c+ monocytes in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocyte activation and migration into the arterial wall are key events in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia. CD11c/CD18, a beta2 integrin expressed on human monocytes and a subset of mouse monocytes, has been shown to play a distinct role in human monocyte adhesion on endothelial c...

  4. CD14CD16 Monocyte Subset Levels in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barisione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to define the distribution of monocyte subsets in a cohort of congestive heart failure (CHF patients, to verify whether increased severity of CHF is linked to the expansion of specific monocyte subsets, and finally to investigate the relationship between monocyte subset relative frequencies, laboratory parameters of inflammation, and monocyte ACE expression.

  5. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  6. Olopatadine Suppresses the Migration of THP-1 Monocytes Induced by S100A12 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine is an antiallergic drug with histamine H 1 receptor antagonistic activity. Recently, olopatadine has been shown to bind to S100A12 which is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, and exerts multiple proinflammatory activities including chemotaxis for monocytes and neutrophils. In this study, we examined the possibility that the interaction of olopatadine with S100A12 inhibits the proinflammatory effects of S100A12. Pretreatment of olopatadine with S100A12 reduced migration of THP-1, a monocyte cell line, induced by S100A12 alone, but did not affect recombinant human regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES-induced migration. Amlexanox, which also binds to S100A12, inhibited the THP-1 migration induced by S100A12. However, ketotifen, another histamine H 1 receptor antagonist, had little effect on the activity of S100A12. These results suggest that olopatadine has a new mechanism of action, that is, suppression of the function of S100A12, in addition to histamine H 1 receptor antagonistic activity.

  7. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Milena; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  8. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Milena, E-mail: milena.de.nicola@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy); Mirabile Gattia, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.mirabile@enea.it [UTTMAT, ENEA-C.R. Casaccia (Italy); Traversa, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Traversa@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Division of Physical Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ghibelli, Lina, E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 {mu}m) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  9. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  10. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Milena; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10–50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  11. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    De Nicola, Milena D.

    2013-05-17

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Katrin; Rehli, Michael; Singer, Katrin; Renner-Sattler, Kathrin; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors

  13. Unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPARγ promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPARβ/δ in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPARα. Here, we show that in contrast to PPARγ, expression of PPARα and PPARβ/δ overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPARα and PPARβ/δ do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  14. PECAM-1 polymorphism affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Reyna S; Kirton, Christopher M; Oostingh, Gertie J; Schön, Michael P; Clark, Michael R; Bradley, J Andrew; Taylor, Craig J

    2008-02-15

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) plays an important role in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transmigration. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PECAM-1 encoding amino acid substitutions at positions 98 leucine/valine (L/V), 536 serine/asparagine (S/N), and 643 arginine/glycine (R/G) occur in strong genetic linkage resulting in two common haplotypes (LSR and VNG). These PECAM-1 polymorphisms are associated with graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with cardiovascular disease, but whether they influence PECAM-1 function is unknown. We examined the effect of homozygous and heterozygous expression of the PECAM-1 LSR and VNG genotypes on the adhesive interactions of peripheral blood monocytes and activated endothelial cell monolayers under shear stress in a flow-based cell adhesion assay. There was no difference in monocyte adhesion between the two homozygous genotypes of PECAM-1 but when monocytes expressed both alleles in heterozygous form, firm adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells was markedly increased. PECAM-1 polymorphism expressed in homozygous or heterozygous form by endothelial cells did not influence monocyte adhesion. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that PECAM-1 genotype can alter the level of monocyte binding to endothelial cells and a demonstration that heterozygous expression of a polymorphic protein may lead to altered function.

  15. Age-related changes in expression and signaling of TAM receptor inflammatory regulators in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Malawista, Anna; Qian, Feng; Ramsey, Christine; Allore, Heather G; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2018-02-09

    The multifactorial immune deterioration in aging--termed "inflamm-aging"--is comprised of a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation and complex dysregulation of responses to immune stimulation. The TAM family (Tyro 3, Axl, and Mer) of receptor tyrosine kinases are negative regulators of Toll like receptor-mediated immune responses that broadly inhibit cytokine receptor cascades to inhibit inflammation. Here we demonstrate elevated expression of TAM receptors in monocytes of older adults, and an age-dependent difference in signaling mediator AKT resulting in dysregulated responses to signaling though Mer. Our results may be especially significant in tissue, where levels of Mer are highest, and may present avenues for modulation of chronic tissue inflammation noted in aging.

  16. Tissue factor expression by myeloid cells contributes to protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TF(Δ) ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2-like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  18. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Domenis

    Full Text Available A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression, proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs. Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  19. Diclofenac inhibits 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Young; Son, Yonghae; Eo, Seong-Kug; Park, Young Chul; Kim, Koanhoi

    2016-09-23

    27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) is a cholesterol oxidation product that induces inflammation. In the current study we investigated the effects of diclofenac on inflammatory responses caused by 27OHChol using human monocyte/macrophage (THP-1) cells. Transcription and secretion of CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 chemokines enhanced by 27OHChol were significantly attenuated by diclofenac in a concentration dependent manner. Migrations of monocytic cells and CCR5-positive Jurkat T cells were reduced proportionally to the concentrations of diclofenac. Superproduction of CCL2 and monocytic cell migration induced by 27OHChol plus LPS were significantly attenuated by diclofenac. Diclofenac also attenuated transcription of MMP-9 and release of its active gene product. These results indicate that diclofenac inhibits 27OHChol-induced inflammatory responses, thereby suppressing inflammation in a milieu rich in cholesterol oxidation products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Instruct Monocytes Towards an IL10-producing Phenotype by Secreting IL6 and HGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinan; Zhang, Yingcai; Ye, Linsen; Zhang, Tong; Cheng, Jintao; Chen, Guihua; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human UC-MSCs are regarded as an attractive alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications due to their easy preparation, higher proliferation and lower immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying immune suppression by UC-MSCs are still unclear. We studied the mechanism of inhibition by UC-MSCs during the differentiation of monocytes into DCs and focused on the specific source and the role of the involved cytokines. We found that UC-MSCs suppressed monocyte differentiation into DCs and instructed monocytes towards other cell types, with clear decreases in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, in the secretion of inflammatory factors and in allostimulatory capacity. IL6, HGF and IL10 might be involved in this process because they were detected at higher levels in a coculture system. UC-MSCs produce IL-6 and HGF, and neutralization of IL-6 and HGF reversed the suppressive effect of UC-MSCs. IL10 was not produced by UC-MSCs but was exclusively produced by monocytes after exposure to UC-MSCs, IL-6 or HGF. In summary, we found that the UC-MSC-mediated inhibitory effect was dependent on IL6 and HGF secreted by UC-MSCs and that this effect induced monocyte-derived cells to produce IL10, which might indirectly strengthen the suppressive effect of UC-MSCs. PMID:27917866

  1. Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Instruct Monocytes Towards an IL10-producing Phenotype by Secreting IL6 and HGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinan; Zhang, Yingcai; Ye, Linsen; Zhang, Tong; Cheng, Jintao; Chen, Guihua; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-05

    Human UC-MSCs are regarded as an attractive alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications due to their easy preparation, higher proliferation and lower immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying immune suppression by UC-MSCs are still unclear. We studied the mechanism of inhibition by UC-MSCs during the differentiation of monocytes into DCs and focused on the specific source and the role of the involved cytokines. We found that UC-MSCs suppressed monocyte differentiation into DCs and instructed monocytes towards other cell types, with clear decreases in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, in the secretion of inflammatory factors and in allostimulatory capacity. IL6, HGF and IL10 might be involved in this process because they were detected at higher levels in a coculture system. UC-MSCs produce IL-6 and HGF, and neutralization of IL-6 and HGF reversed the suppressive effect of UC-MSCs. IL10 was not produced by UC-MSCs but was exclusively produced by monocytes after exposure to UC-MSCs, IL-6 or HGF. In summary, we found that the UC-MSC-mediated inhibitory effect was dependent on IL6 and HGF secreted by UC-MSCs and that this effect induced monocyte-derived cells to produce IL10, which might indirectly strengthen the suppressive effect of UC-MSCs.

  2. Maggot secretions skew monocyte-macrophage differentiation away from a pro-inflammatory to a pro-angiogenic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; van Dissel, Jaap T; Nibbering, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Earlier we reported maggot secretions to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maggot secretions on the differentiation...... for 18 h. The expression of cell surface molecules and the levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in supernatants were measured. Our results showed secretions to affect monocyte-macrophage differentiation leading to MØ-1 with a partial MØ-2-like morphology but lacking CD163, which...... is characteristic for MØ-2. In response to LPS or LTA, secretions-differentiated MØ-1 produced less pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p40 and MIF) than control cells. Similar results were observed for MØ-2 when stimulated with low concentrations of LPS. Furthermore, secretions dose-dependently led to MØ-1...

  3. Mycobacterium leprae alters classical activation of human monocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Dorothy; Peixoto, Blas; Kaplan, Gilla; Manca, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The polarized clinical presentations in leprosy are associated with differential immune activation. In tuberculoid leprosy, macrophages show a classical activation phenotype (M1), while macrophages in lepromatous disease display characteristics of alternative activation (M2). Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, which protects against leprosy, can promote sustained changes in monocyte response to unrelated pathogens and may preferentially direct monocytes towards an M1 protective phenotype. We previously reported that M. leprae can dampen the response of naïve human monocytes to a strong inducer of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as BCG. Here, we investigated the ability of the pathogen to alter the direction of macrophage polarization and the impact of BCG vaccination on the monocyte response to M. leprae. We show that in vitro exposure of monocytes from healthy donors to M. leprae interferes with subsequent M1 polarization, indicated by lower levels of M1-associated cytokine/chemokines released and reduced expression of M1 cell surface markers. Exposure to M. leprae phenolic glycolipid (PGL) 1, instead of whole bacteria, demonstrated a similar effect on M1 cytokine/chemokine release. In addition, we found that monocytes from 10-week old BCG-vaccinated infants released higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in response to M. leprae compared to those from unvaccinated infants. Exposure to M. leprae has an inhibitory effect on M1 macrophage polarization, likely mediated through PGL-1. By directing monocyte/macrophages preferentially towards M1 activation, BCG vaccination may render the cells more refractory to the inhibitory effects of subsequent M. leprae infection.

  4. The continuum of monocyte phenotypes: Experimental evidence and prognostic utility in assessing cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarella, Andrea; Tedesco, Serena; Cappellari, Roberta; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2018-03-30

    The monocyte-macrophage cell lineage represents a major player in innate immunity, and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Particularly, monocyte-macrophages play a very important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Monocyte heterogeneity is well recognized but the biologic and clinical meaning of the various monocyte subtypes is not entirely understood. Traditionally, monocytes can be divided in classical, intermediate, and nonclassical based on expression of the surface antigens CD14 and CD16. While macrophage diversity is now well recognized to organize as a continuum, monocyte subsets have long been considered as separated entities. However, mounting evidence obtained by tracking the ontology of human monocytes help clarifying that monocytes mature from classical to nonclassical ones, through an intermediate phenotype. This concept is therefore best depicted as a continuum, whereas the subdivision into discrete CD14/CD16 subsets appears an oversimplification. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a monocyte continuum along with the technical challenges of monocyte characterization. In particular, we describe the advantage of considering monocytes along a continuous distribution for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk. We make the point that small transition along the monocyte continuum better reflects cardiovascular risk than a simplified analysis of discrete monocyte subsets. Recognizing the monocyte continuum can be helpful to model other pathophysiologic conditions where these cells are involved. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. [Peptide fragments of chemokine domain of fractalkine: effect on human monocyte migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtina, N B; Aref'eva, T I; Ruleva, N Iu; Sidorova, M V; Az'muko, A A; Bespalova, Zh D; Krasnikova, T L

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte chemotaxis to the area of tissue damage is mediated by chemokines. According to the primary structure, chemokines are divided into four families, fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the only one member of CX3C family and the only membrane-bound chemokine. Fractalkine molecule includes the extracellular N-terminal chemokine domain, mucin-like rod, the transmembrane and the intracellular domains. In membrane-bound state fractalkine has the properties of an adhesion molecule. Chemokine domain of fractalkine (CDF) is released from cell membrane by proteolysis, and this soluble form acts as a chemoattractant for leukocytes expressing fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. Fractalkine is involved in development of a number of pathological processes caused by inflammation, and therefore a search for fractalkine inhibitors is very important. For this purpose we identified several antigenic determinants--the fragments of CDF, and the following peptides were synthesized--P41-52 H-Leu-Glu-Thr-Arg-Gln-His-Arg-Leu-Phe-Cys-Ala-Asp-NH2, P53-60 H-Pro-Lys-Glu-Gln-Trp-Val-Lys-Asp-NH2 and P60-71 H-Asp-Ala-Met-Gln-His-Leu-Asp-Arg-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ala-NH2. The peptide effects on adhesion and migration of human peripheral blood monocytes expressing fractalkine receptors were investigated. In the presence of CDF and P41-52 we observed the increased adhesion and migration of monocytes compared with spontaneous values. Peptides P53-60 and P60-71 significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion and migration stimulated by CDF. Since the chemotactic activity of chemokines was shown to be dependent on their binding to glycosaminoglycans of the cell surface and extracellular matrix, the effect ofpeptides on the interaction of CDF with heparin was analyzed by ELISA. Peptide P41-52 competed with CDF for heparin binding, while peptides P53-60 and P60-71 had no significant activity.

  6. Tolerance of monocytes and macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Wiśnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes belong to myeloid effector cells, which constitute the first line of defense against pathogens, also called the nonspecific immune system and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In response to stimulation, monocytes differentiate into macrophages capable of microorganism phagocytosis and secrete factors that play a key role in the regulation of immune responses. However excessive exposure of monocytes/macrophages to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram negative bacteria leads to the acquisition of immune tolerance by these cells. Such state results from disruption of different biological processes, for example intracellular signaling pathways and is accompanied by a number of disease states (immune, inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Regulation of monocytes/macrophages activity is controlled by miRNAs, which are involved in the modulation of immune tolerance acquired by these cells. Moreover, the tolerance to endotoxin is conditioned by the posttranscriptional processes and posttranslational epigenetic modifications leading to the impairment of normal immune response for example by alterations in the expression of many genes encoding immune signaling mediators. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview existing knowledge on the modulation of activity of monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin and impaired immune responses.

  7. The acute monocytic leukemias: multidisciplinary studies in 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D J; Mertelsmann, R; Koziner, B; McKenzie, S; de Harven, E; Arlin, Z A; Kempin, S; Broxmeyer, H; Moore, M A; Menendez-Botet, C J; Gee, T S; Clarkson, B D

    1980-11-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of 37 patients with variants of acute monocytic leukemia are described. Three of these 37 patients who had extensive extramedullary leukemic tissue infiltration are examples of true histiocytic "lymphomas." Three additional patients with undifferentiated leukemias, one patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one patient with B-lymphocyte diffuse "histiocytic" lymphoma and one patient with "null" cell, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma had bone marrow cells with monocytic features. Another patient had dual populations of lymphoid and monocytoid leukemic cells. The true monocytic leukemias, acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMOL), are closely related to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) morphologically and by their response to chemotherapy. like AML, the leukemic cells from the AMMOL and AMOL patients form leukemic clusters in semisolid media. Cytochemical staining of leukemic cells for nonspecific esterases, presence of Fc receptor on the cell surface, phagocytic ability, low TdT activity, presence of surface "ruffles" and "ridges" on scanning EM, elevations of serum lysozyme, and clinical manifestations of leukemic tissue infiltration are features which accompanied monocytic differentiation in these cases.

  8. Differential regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β production from endotoxin stimulated human monocytes by phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Molnar-Kimber

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selective PDE-I (vinpocetine, PDE-III (milrinone, CI-930, PDE-IV (rolipram, nitroquazone, and PDE-V (zaprinast isozyme inhibitors on TNF-α and IL-1β production from LPS stimulated human monocytes was investigated. The PDE-IV inhibitors caused a concentration dependent inhibition of TNF-α production, but only partially inhibited IL-1β at high concentrations. High concentrations of the PDE-III inhibitors weakly inhibited TNF-α, but had no effect on IL-1β production. PDE-V inhibition was associated with an augmentation of cytokine secretion. Studies with combinations of PDE isozyme inhibitors indicated that PDE-III and PDE-V inhibitors modulate rolipram's suppression of TNF production in an additive manner. These data confirm that TNF-α and IL-1β production from LPS stimulated human monocytes are differentially regulated, and suggest that PDE-IV inhibitors have the potential to suppress TNF levels in man.

  9. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons

  10. Analysis of the Effects of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) Inhibitor Ibrutinib on Monocyte Fcγ Receptor (FcγR) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Campbell, Amanda; Fang, Huiqing; Gautam, Shalini; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Mehta, Payal; Stiff, Andrew; Reader, Brenda F; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C; Carson, William E; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2016-02-05

    The irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has shown efficacy against B-cell tumors such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on immune cells such as macrophages play an important role in tumor-specific antibody-mediated immune responses, but many such responses involve Btk. Here we tested the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated activities in monocytes. We found that ibrutinib did not affect monocyte FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, even at concentrations higher than those achieved physiologically, but suppressed FcγR-mediated cytokine production. We confirmed these findings in macrophages from Xid mice in which Btk signaling is defective. Because calcium flux is a major event downstream of Btk, we tested whether it was involved in phagocytosis. The results showed that blocking intracellular calcium flux decreased FcγR-mediated cytokine production but not phagocytosis. To verify this, we measured activation of the GTPase Rac, which is responsible for actin polymerization. Results showed that ibrutinib did not inhibit Rac activation, nor did the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester). We next asked whether the effect of ibrutinib on monocyte FcγR-mediated cytokine production could be rescued by IFNγ priming because NK cells produce IFNγ in response to antibody therapy. Pretreatment of monocytes with IFNγ abrogated the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated cytokine production, suggesting that IFNγ priming could overcome this Btk inhibition. Furthermore, in monocyte-natural killer cell co-cultures, ibrutinib did not inhibit FcγR-mediated cytokine production despite doing so in single cultures. These results suggest that combining ibrutinib with monoclonal antibody therapy could enhance chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell killing without affecting macrophage effector function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry

  11. Analysis of the Effects of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) Inhibitor Ibrutinib on Monocyte Fcγ Receptor (FcγR) Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Campbell, Amanda; Fang, Huiqing; Gautam, Shalini; Elavazhagan, Saranya; Fatehchand, Kavin; Mehta, Payal; Stiff, Andrew; Reader, Brenda F.; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C.; Carson, William E.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2016-01-01

    The irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has shown efficacy against B-cell tumors such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on immune cells such as macrophages play an important role in tumor-specific antibody-mediated immune responses, but many such responses involve Btk. Here we tested the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated activities in monocytes. We found that ibrutinib did not affect monocyte FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, even at concentrations higher than those achieved physiologically, but suppressed FcγR-mediated cytokine production. We confirmed these findings in macrophages from Xid mice in which Btk signaling is defective. Because calcium flux is a major event downstream of Btk, we tested whether it was involved in phagocytosis. The results showed that blocking intracellular calcium flux decreased FcγR-mediated cytokine production but not phagocytosis. To verify this, we measured activation of the GTPase Rac, which is responsible for actin polymerization. Results showed that ibrutinib did not inhibit Rac activation, nor did the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester). We next asked whether the effect of ibrutinib on monocyte FcγR-mediated cytokine production could be rescued by IFNγ priming because NK cells produce IFNγ in response to antibody therapy. Pretreatment of monocytes with IFNγ abrogated the effects of ibrutinib on FcγR-mediated cytokine production, suggesting that IFNγ priming could overcome this Btk inhibition. Furthermore, in monocyte-natural killer cell co-cultures, ibrutinib did not inhibit FcγR-mediated cytokine production despite doing so in single cultures. These results suggest that combining ibrutinib with monoclonal antibody therapy could enhance chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell killing without affecting macrophage effector function. PMID:26627823

  12. Ureaplasma Species Differentially Modulate Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses in Newborn and Adult Human Monocytes Pushing the State Toward Pro-Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Silwedel, Christine; Fehrholz, Markus; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M.; Henrich, Birgit; Claus, Heike; Speer, Christian P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ureaplasma species have been associated with chorioamnionitis and preterm birth and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal short and long-term morbidity. However, being mostly commensal bacteria, controversy remains on the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma. Discussions are ongoing on the incidence and impact of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal infection. The present study addressed the impact of Ureaplasma isolates on monocyte-driven inflammation. Methods: Cord blood monocytes of term neonates and adult monocytes, either native or LPS-primed, were cultured with Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) serovar 8 (Uu8) and Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (Up3). Using qRT-PCR, cytokine flow cytometry, and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Results: Uu8 and Up3 induced mRNA expression and protein release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in term neonatal and adult monocytes (p Ureaplasma-stimulated cells paralleled those results. Ureaplasma-induced cytokine levels did not significantly differ from LPS-mediated levels except for lower intracellular IL-1β in adult monocytes (Uu8: p ureaplasmas did not induce IL-12p40 response and promoted lower amounts of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-1ra than LPS, provoking a cytokine imbalance more in favor of pro-inflammation (IL-1β/IL-10, IL-8/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-1ra: p Ureaplasma isolates in human monocytes. Stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine responses while hardly inducing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, ureaplasmas might push monocyte immune responses toward pro-inflammation. Inhibition of LPS-induced cytokines in adult monocytes in contrast to sustained inflammation in term neonatal monocytes indicates a differential modulation of host immune responses to a second stimulus. Modification of

  13. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  14. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  15. A fragment of alpha-actinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luikart, S; Wahl, D; Hinkel, T; Masri, M; Oegema, T

    1999-02-01

    Conditioned media (CM) from cultures of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells grown on extracellular bone marrow matrix contains a factor that induces macrophage-like maturation of HL-60 cells. This factor was purified from the CM of HL-60 cells grown on bone marrow stroma by ammonium sulfate precipitation, then sequential chromatography on DEAE, affi-gel blue affinity, gel exclusion, and wheat germ affinity columns, followed by C-4 reverse phase HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. The maturation promoting activity of the CM was identified in a single 31 kD protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of four internal tryptic peptides of this protein confirmed significant homology with amino acid residues 48-60, 138-147, 215-220, and 221-236 of human cytoskeletal alpha-actinin. An immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-chicken alpha-actinin inhibited the activity of HL-60 conditioned media. A 27 kD amino-terminal fragment of alpha-actinin produced by thermolysin digestion of chicken gizzard alpha-actinin, but not intact alpha-actinin, had maturation promoting activity on several cell types, including blood monocytes, as measured by lysozyme secretion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We conclude that an extracellular alpha-actinin fragment can promote monocyte/macrophage maturation. This represents the first example of a fragment of a cytoskeletal component, which may be released during tissue remodeling and repair, playing a role in phagocyte maturation.

  16. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins may induce expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Kim, Ji Young; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kang, Mi Ae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg; Nam, Kyung Tak; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    Genes induced or suppressed by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in human monocytic THP-1 cells were searched using the differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. One of the differentially expressed (up-regulated) cDNA fragments was found to contain sequences corresponding to monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3). The stimulatory effect of the oxLDL on the expression of MCP-3 mRNA was both time- and dose-dependent. Treatment with GF109203X and genistein, inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, had no effect on the induction of MCP-3 mRNA by oxLDL, while treatment with cycloheximide inhibited the induction. The induction was reproduced by the lipid components in oxLDL such as 9-HODE and 13-HODE, which are known to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Introduction of an endogenous PPARγ ligand, 15d-PGJ2, in the culture of THP-1 cells resulted in the induction of MCP-3 gene expression. Furthermore, analyses of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed that the expressional pattern of MCP-3 in the regions of neointimal and necrotic core overlapped with that of PPARγ. These results suggest that oxLDL delivers its signal for MCP-3 expression via PPARγ, which may be further related to the atherogenesis

  17. Gastrin-releasing peptide induces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium by upregulating endothelial adhesion molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Yeon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells. In addition, GRP activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, and AKT, and the inhibition of these signaling pathways significantly reduced GRP-induced monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Overall, our results suggested that GRP may cause endothelial dysfunction, which could be of particular relevance in the development of vascular inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • GRP induces adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium. • GRP increases the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of NF-κB. • ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and Akt pathways are involved in the GRP-induced leukocyte adhesiveness to endothelium.

  18. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Malagnac

    Full Text Available In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium. The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  19. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Fabret, Céline; Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  20. Alterations in calcium metabolism during human monocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scully, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes have been prepared from plateletpheresis residues by counterflow centrifugal elutriation in sufficient quantities to enable quantitative studies of cell calcium. Kinetic analysis of 45 Ca exchange data in resting monocytes was compatible with a model of cellular calcium containing three exchangeable calcium pools. These pools are thought to represent a putative ectocellular pool, a putative cytoplasmic chelated pool, and a putative organelle sequestered pool. Exposure of monocytes to the plant lectin Con A at a concentration that maximally simulated superoxide production caused an increase in the size and a doubling in the exchange rate of the putative cytoplasmic pool without a change in the other cellular pools. The cytoplasmic ionized calcium, [Ca]/sub i/, measured with the fluorescent probe, Quin 2 rose from a resting level of 83 nM to 165 mN within 30 sec of exposure to Con A. This increase in cytoplasmic calcium preceded the release of superoxide radicals. Calcium transport and calcium ATPase activities were identified and characterized in plasma membrane vesicles prepared from monocytes. Both activities were strictly dependent on ATP and Mg, had a Km/sub Ca/ in the submicromolar range and were stimulated by calmodulin. Thus, it seems that monocyte calcium is in a dynamic steady state that is a balance between efflux and influx rates, and that the activation of these cells results in the transition to a new steady state. The alteration in [Ca]/sub i/ that accompany the new steady state are essential for superoxide production by human monocytes

  1. Monocytes/Macrophages Control Resolution of Transient Inflammatory Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Carbajal, Anibal Garza; Wang, Huijing; Mack, Matthias; Zijlstra, Jitske; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    Insights into mechanisms governing resolution of inflammatory pain are of great importance for many chronic pain–associated diseases. Here we investigate the role of macrophages/monocytes and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the resolution of transient inflammatory pain. Depletion of mice from peripheral monocytes/macrophages delayed resolution of intraplantar IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia from 1 to 3 days to >1 week. Intrathecal administration of a neutralizing IL-10 antibody also markedly delayed resolution of IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Recently, we showed that IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is significantly prolonged in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, which have reduced levels of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in LysM+ myeloid cells. Here we show that adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not of GRK2+/−, bone marrow-derived monocytes normalizes the resolution of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Adoptive transfer of IL-10−/− bone marrow-derived monocytes failed to normalize the duration of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Mechanistically, we show that GRK2+/− macrophages produce less IL-10 in vitro. In addition, intrathecal IL-10 administration attenuated IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, whereas it had no effect in wild-type mice. Our data uncover a key role for monocytes/macrophages in promoting resolution of inflammatory hyperalgesia via a mechanism dependent on IL-10 signaling in dorsal root ganglia. Perspective We show that IL-10-producing monocytes/macrophages promote resolution of transient inflammatory hyperalgesia. Additionally, we show that reduced monocyte/macrophage GRK2 impairs resolution of hyperalgesia and reduces IL-10 production. We propose that low GRK2 expression and/or impaired IL-10 production by monocytes/macrophages represent peripheral biomarkers for the risk of developing

  2. Pharmacodynamic Monitoring of Tacrolimus-based Immunosuppression in CD14+ Monocytes after Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Kannegieter (Nynke); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); M. Dieterich (Marjolein); G.N. de Graav (Gretchen); R. Kraaijeveld (Rens); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); C.C. Baan (Carla)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Monocytes significantly contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury and allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the knowledge about the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on monocyte activation is limited. Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Reduction Differentially Modulates to Classical and Nonclassical Monocyte Subpopulations in Metabolic Syndrome Patients and in LPS-Stimulated Primary Human Monocytes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Johanna L.; Manjarrez-Reyna, Aaron N.; Gómez-Arauz, Angélica Y.; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Bueno-Hernández, Nallely; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The effect of metabolic syndrome on human monocyte subpopulations has not yet been studied. Our main goal was to examine monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients, while also identifying the risk factors that could directly influence these cells. Eighty-six subjects were divided into metabolic syndrome patients and controls. Monocyte subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β secretion levels were measured by ELISA. Primary human monocytes were cultured in low or elevated concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The nonclassical monocyte (NCM) percentage was significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients as compared to controls, whereas classical monocytes (CM) were reduced. Among all metabolic syndrome risk factors, HDL reduction exhibited the most important correlation with monocyte subpopulations and then was studied in vitro. Low HDL concentration reduced the CM percentage, whereas it increased the NCM percentage and IL-1β secretion in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS effect was abolished when monocytes were cultured in elevated HDL concentrations. Concurring with in vitro results, IL-1β serum values significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients with low HDL levels as compared to metabolic syndrome patients without HDL reduction. Our data demonstrate that HDL directly modulates monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome. PMID:29850624

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein Reduction Differentially Modulates to Classical and Nonclassical Monocyte Subpopulations in Metabolic Syndrome Patients and in LPS-Stimulated Primary Human Monocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L. Grün

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metabolic syndrome on human monocyte subpopulations has not yet been studied. Our main goal was to examine monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients, while also identifying the risk factors that could directly influence these cells. Eighty-six subjects were divided into metabolic syndrome patients and controls. Monocyte subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry, and interleukin- (IL- 1β secretion levels were measured by ELISA. Primary human monocytes were cultured in low or elevated concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The nonclassical monocyte (NCM percentage was significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients as compared to controls, whereas classical monocytes (CM were reduced. Among all metabolic syndrome risk factors, HDL reduction exhibited the most important correlation with monocyte subpopulations and then was studied in vitro. Low HDL concentration reduced the CM percentage, whereas it increased the NCM percentage and IL-1β secretion in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS effect was abolished when monocytes were cultured in elevated HDL concentrations. Concurring with in vitro results, IL-1β serum values significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients with low HDL levels as compared to metabolic syndrome patients without HDL reduction. Our data demonstrate that HDL directly modulates monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome.

  5. Platelet density per monocyte predicts adverse events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Bert; Roest, Mark; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Sels, Jan W; Stubbs, Andrew; Jukema, J Wouter; Doevendans, Pieter A; Waltenberger, Johannes; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Pasterkamp, Gerard; De Groot, Philip G; Hoefer, Imo E

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte recruitment to damaged endothelium is enhanced by platelet binding to monocytes and contributes to vascular repair. Therefore, we studied whether the number of platelets per monocyte affects the recurrence of adverse events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet-monocytes complexes with high and low median fluorescence intensities (MFI) of the platelet marker CD42b were isolated using cell sorting. Microscopic analysis revealed that a high platelet marker MFI on monocytes corresponded with a high platelet density per monocyte while a low platelet marker MFI corresponded with a low platelet density per monocyte (3.4 ± 0.7 vs 1.4 ± 0.1 platelets per monocyte, P=0.01). Using real-time video microscopy, we observed increased recruitment of high platelet density monocytes to endothelial cells as compared with low platelet density monocytes (P=0.01). Next, we classified PCI scheduled patients (N=263) into groups with high, medium and low platelet densities per monocyte and assessed the recurrence of adverse events. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, we observed a 2.5-fold reduction in the recurrence of adverse events in patients with a high platelet density per monocyte as compared with a low platelet density per monocyte [hazard ratio=0.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8), P=0.01]. We show that a high platelet density per monocyte increases monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells and predicts a reduction in the recurrence of adverse events in patients after PCI. These findings may imply that a high platelet density per monocyte protects against recurrence of adverse events.

  6. Gefitinib and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decrease viral replication and cytokine production in dengue virus infected human monocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Anyelo; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Fuenmayor, Edgard; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2017-12-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) are important in cancer and in microbial recognition, respectively. These molecules trigger intracellular signaling pathways inducing the expression of inflammatory genes by NF-kB translocation. Gefitinib (GBTC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) are capable of inhibiting EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. In earlier stages of dengue virus (DENV) infection, monocytes are capable of sustaining viral replication and increasing cytokine production, suggesting that monocyte/macrophages play an important role in early DENV replication. GBTC and PDTC have not been used to modify the pathogenesis of DENV in infected cells. This study was aimed to determine the effect of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-infected human monocyte cultures. GBTC and PDTC were used to inhibit EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA and viral replication by plaque forming unit assay. Increased DENV2 replication and anti-viral cytokine production (IFN-α/β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-18) in infected cultures were found. These parameters were decreased after EGFR/NOD2 or NF-kB inhibitions. The inhibitory effects of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production can be beneficial in the treatment of patients infected by dengue and suggest a possible role of EGFR/NOD2 receptors and NF-kB in dengue pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a Monocyte Receptor on Herpesvirus-Infected Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingin, Orli R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hajjar, David P.

    1991-08-01

    The adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium may be an initial step in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and wound healing. One mechanism for promoting cell-cell adhesion involves the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of the target cell. Herpes simplex virus infection of endothelium induces arterial injury and has been implicated in the development of human atherosclerosis. We now demonstrate that HSV-infected endothelial cells express the adhesion molecule GMP140 and that this requires cell surface expression of HSV glycoprotein C and local thrombin generation. Monocyte adhesion to HSV-infected endothelial cells was completely inhibited by anti-GMP140 antibodies but not by antibodies to other adhesion molecules such as VCAM and ELAM-1. The induction of GMP140 expression on HSV-infected endothelium may be an important pathophysiological mechanism in virus-induced cell injury and inflammation.

  8. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  9. Tissue factor expression in rheumatoid synovium: a potential role in pannus invasion of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lujun; Lu, Yahua; Chu, Yang; Xie, Jun; Ding, Wen'ge; Wang, Fengming

    2013-09-01

    Angiogenesis, as well as pannus formation within the joint, plays an important role in the erosion of articular cartilage and bone in the pathological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tissue factor (TF), an essential initiator of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, is also involved in the angiogenesis and the pannus formation of RA progression. In the present study, we used immunofluorescence and confocal scanning methods to characterize TF immunolocalization in RA synovium. We showed that positive staining of TF could be immunolocalized in synoviocytes, CD19(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages, whereas weak or negative staining of tissue factor could be found in CD34(+) endothelial cells of neo-vessels, CD3(+) T cells and CD14(+) monocytes in RA synovium tissues. Our study demonstrates a detailed local expression of TF in the rheumatoid synovium, and supports the notion that TF, expressed not only by the synoviocytes themselves, but also the infiltrating CD19(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages, is involved in the pannus invasion in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...tml) (.csml) Show Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Titl...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Has

  11. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  12. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Alvarez X, Williams K. J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Nov;74(5):650-6. Epub 2003 Aug 11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte/macrophage... traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr

  13. Effect of Triptolide on Functions of Monocytes/ Macrophages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of monocytes/macrophages under the varying conditions was subsequently determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The supernatants were collected after 24-h culture, and the content of VEGF and VEGF-C in each supernatant measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  14. Phenotypic and functional modulation of porcine monocyte-derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... monocyte-derived dendritic cells for foot-and-mouth disease virus. Hai-yan Shen1# ... tissues, to migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and to provide the ... innate and adaptive immune responses mentioned earlier led us to ...

  15. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2011-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  16. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2012-02-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  17. Monocytes and macrophages in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Spaans, Floor; De Vos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalized activation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in this

  18. Altered monocyte function in experimental preeclampsia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Broekema, Martine; Moes, Henk; van der Schaaf, Gerda; Heineman, Maas Jan; de Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated functional activity of monocytes in experimental preeclampsia induced by low-dose endotoxin infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant (n = 12) and cyclic rats (n = 12) were equipped with a permanent jugular vein cannula and infused with either low-dose endotoxin

  19. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kakazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

  20. Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Dayton, Andrew; Hewlett, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Significant sex specific differences in the progression of HIV/AIDS have been reported. Several studies have implicated steroid hormones in regulating host factor expression and modulating HIV transmission and replication. However, the exact mechanism exerted by steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in the regulation of HIV-1 replication is still unclear. Results from the current study indicated a dose dependent down regulation of HIV-1 replication in monocyte derived macrophages pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the down regulation of HIV-1 replication by estrogen and progesterone we used PCR arrays to analyze the expression profile of host genes involved in antiviral responses. Several chemokines, cytokines, transcription factors, interferon stimulated genes and genes involved in type-1 interferon signaling were down regulated in cells infected with HIV-1 pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone compared to untreated HIV-1 infected cells or HIV-1 infected cells treated with low concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. The down regulation of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines and IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines in response to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment in HIV-1 infected cells was confirmed at the protein level by quantitating chemokine and cytokine concentrations in the culture supernatant. These results demonstrate that a potent anti-inflammatory response is mediated by pre-treatment with high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Thus, our study suggests a strong correlation between the down-modulation of anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses mediated by estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment and the down regulation of HIV-1 replication. These findings may be relevant to clinical observations of sex specific differences in patient populations and point to the need for further investigation.

  1. Novel keto-phospholipids are generated by monocytes and macrophages, detected in cystic fibrosis, and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Victoria J; Morgan, Alwena H; Lauder, Sarah; Thomas, Christopher P; Brown, Sarah; Freeman, Bruce A; Lloyd, Clare M; Davies, Jane; Bush, Andrew; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Kansanen, Emilia; Villacorta, Luis; Chen, Y Eugene; Porter, Ned; Garcia-Diaz, Yoel M; Schopfer, Francisco J; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2012-12-07

    12/15-Lipoxygenases (LOXs) in monocytes and macrophages generate novel phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids. Here, we report the generation of two additional families of related lipids comprising 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (KETE) attached to four phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). The lipids are generated basally by 15-LOX in IL-4-stimulated monocytes, are elevated on calcium mobilization, and are detected at increased levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cystic fibrosis patients (3.6 ng/ml of lavage). Murine peritoneal macrophages generate 12-KETE-PEs, which are absent in 12/15-LOX-deficient mice. Inhibition of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase prevents their formation from exogenous 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE in human monocytes. Both human and murine cells also generated analogous hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PEs. The electrophilic reactivity of KETE-PEs is shown by their Michael addition to glutathione and cysteine. Lastly, both 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE and 15-KETE-PE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ reporter activity in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, we demonstrate novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-activating oxidized phospholipids generated enzymatically by LOX and 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in primary monocytic cells and in a human Th2-related lung disease. The lipids are a new family of bioactive mediators from the 12/15-LOX pathway that may contribute to its known anti-inflammatory actions in vivo.

  2. Effects of Platelets on Platelet Concentrate Product on the Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadat Razavi Hoseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.

  3. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  4. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Differential induction from X-irradiated human peripheral blood monocytes to dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Takahashi, Kenji; Monzen, Satoru; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of antigen-presenting cell which plays an essential role in the immune system. To clarify the influences of ionizing radiation on the differentiation to DCs, we focused on human peripheral blood monocytes and investigated whether X-irradiated monocytes can differentiate into DCs. The non-irradiated monocytes and 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were induced into immature DCs (iDCs) and mature DCs (mDCs) with appropriate cytokine stimulation, and the induced cells from each monocyte expressed each DC-expressing surface antigen such as CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR. However, the expression levels of CD40 and CD86 on the iDCs derived from the 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were higher than those of iDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. Furthermore, the mDCs derived from 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes had significantly less ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells in comparison to the mDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. There were no significant differences in the phagocytotic activity of the iDCs and cytokines detected in the supernatants conditioned by the DCs from the non-irradiated and irradiated monocytes. These results suggest that human monocytes which are exposed to ionizing radiation can thus differentiate into DCs, but there is a tendency that X-irradiation leads to an impairment of the function of DCs. (author)

  6. In vitro differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages: change of PDE profile and its relationship to suppression of tumour necrosis factor-α release by PDE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Florian; Kupferschmidt, Rochus; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1997-01-01

    During in vitro culture in 10% human AB serum, human peripheral blood monocytes acquire a macrophage-like phenotype. The underlying differentiation was characterized by increased activities of the macrophage marker enzymes unspecific esterase (NaF-insensitive form) and acid phosphatase, as well as by a down-regulation in surface CD14 expression. In parallel, a dramatic change in the phosphodiesterase (PDE) profile became evident within a few days that strongly resembled that previously described for human alveolar macrophages. Whereas PDE1 and PDE3 activities were augmented, PDE4 activity, which represented the major cyclic AMP-hydrolysing activity of peripheral blood monocytes, rapidly declined. Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). In line with the change in CD14 expression, the EC50 value of LPS for induction of TNF release increased from approximately 0.1 ng ml−1 in peripheral blood monocytes to about 2 ng ml−1 in macrophages. Both populations of cells were equally susceptible towards inhibition of TNF release by cyclic AMP elevating agents such as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin, which all led to a complete abrogation of TNF production in a concentration-dependent manner and which were more efficient than the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In monocytes, PDE4 selective inhibitors (rolipram, RP73401) suppressed TNF formation by 80%, whereas motapizone, a PDE3 selective compound, exerted a comparatively weak effect (10–15% inhibition). Combined use of PDE3 plus PDE4 inhibitors resulted in an additive effect and fully abrogated LPS-induced TNF release as did the mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine. In monocyte-derived macrophages, neither PDE3- nor PDE4-selective drugs markedly affected TNF generation when used alone (<15% inhibition), whereas in combination, they led to a maximal inhibition of TNF formation by about 40–50

  7. Adding exercise to rosuvastatin treatment: influence on C-reactive protein, monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression, and inflammatory monocyte (CD14+CD16+) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Paul M; Flynn, Michael G; Markofski, Melissa M; Pence, Brandt D; Hannemann, Robert E

    2010-12-01

    Statin treatment and exercise training can reduce markers of inflammation when administered separately. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rosuvastatin treatment and the addition of exercise training on circulating markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and CD14+CD16+ monocyte population size. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic and physically inactive subjects were randomly assigned to rosuvastatin (R) or rosuvastatin/exercise (RE) groups. A third group of physically active hypercholesterolemic subjects served as a control (AC). The R and RE groups received rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/d) for 20 weeks. From week 10 to week 20, the RE group also participated in an exercise training program (3d/wk). Measurements were made at baseline (Pre), week 10 (Mid), and week 20 (Post), and included TLR4 expression on CD14+ monocytes and CD14+CD16+ monocyte population size as determined by 3-color flow cytometry. Serum CRP was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR4 expression on CD14+ monocytes was higher in the R group at week 20. When treatment groups (R and RE) were combined, serum CRP was lower across time. Furthermore, serum CRP and inflammatory monocyte population size were lower in the RE group compared with the R group at the Post time point. When all groups (R, RE, and AC) were combined, TLR4 expression was greater on inflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16+) compared with classic monocytes (CD14+CD16⁻) at all time points. In conclusion, rosuvastatin may influence monocyte inflammatory response by increasing TLR4 expression on circulating monocytes. The addition of exercise training to rosuvastatin treatment further lowered CRP and reduced the size of the inflammatory monocyte population, suggesting an additive anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of connective tissue growth factor expression in primary cultures of human tubular epithelial cells: modulation by hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroening, Sven; Neubauer, Emily; Wullich, Bernd; Aten, Jan; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    Kroening S, Neubauer E, Wullich B, Aten J, Goppelt-Struebe M. Characterization of connective tissue growth factor expression in primary cultures of human tubular epithelial cells: modulation by hypoxia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298:F796-F806, 2010. First published December 23, 2009;

  9. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...... at similar concentrations to the passive adsorption process, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the bound IL-4 did not leak into solution to any measurable extent during cell culture. However, covalently bound IL-4 was incapable of inducing monocyte differentiation. This may be caused...

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in patients with monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, A; Kruithof, E K; Grob, J P

    1991-06-01

    Plasma and tumor cells from 103 patients with leukemia or lymphoma at initial presentation were investigated for the presence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) antigen, a potent inhibitor of urokinase. PAI-2 was detected in plasma and leukemic cells of the 21 patients with leukemia having a monocytic component [acute myelomonocytic (M4), acute monoblastic (M5), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias], and in the three patients with acute undifferentiated myeloblastic leukemia (M0). In contrast, this serine protease inhibitor was undetectable in 79 patients with other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia or other hematological malignancies. Serial serum PAI-2 determinations in 16 patients with acute leukemia at presentation, during therapy, remission, and relapse revealed that in the five patients with M4-M5, elevated PAI-2 levels rapidly normalized under therapy and during remission, but increased again in the patients with a relapse associated with an M4-M5 phenotype. Thus, PAI-2 seems to be a marker highly specific for the active stages of monocytic leukemia, i.e. presentation and relapse. The presence of PAI-2 in the plasma and cells of patients with M0 may give a clue to a monocytic origin of these cells.

  11. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  12. [Changes of monocyte and monocyte-platelet aggregates in different subgroups of thrombotic events in patients with acute myocardial infarction during PCI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Sun, Cuifang; Liao, Wang; Wu, Zhongwei; Wang, Yudai; Huang, Xiuxian; Lu, Sijia; Dong, Xiaoli; Shuai, Fujie; Li, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of thrombotic events on the alterations of monocyte and monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Blood was collected before PCI for flow cytometry. Monocyte subsets and MPAs were detected by four-color platform (CDl4-APC, CDl6-PE-Cy7, CD86-PE and CD41-Alexa Fluor R 488). According to the expression of the platelet surface marker CD41, the number of monocyte subsets and MPAs was analyzed using the fluorescent microspheres of absolute counting tube. The Wilcoxon rank sum test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. Results CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes in intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) group were significantly fewer than those in non-IPTE group, and the percentage in total mononuclear cells decreased. Compared with non-IPTE group, MPA binding ratio and monocyte subset MPA binding ratio were significantly higher in IPTE group. ROC analysis showed that MPA binding ratio and subgroup MPA binding ratio had a better predictive value for IPTE in patients with AMI. Conclusion The CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes in IPTE group were significantly fewer than those in the non-IPTE group. MPA binding ratio and MPA binding ratio of monocyte subsets were significantly higher in the IPTE group than in the non-IPTE group, so they have a good predictive value for IPTE in patients with AMI.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide regulated protein expression is only partly impaired in monocytes from patients with type I diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abke Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocytes play an important role in innate immunity and atherosclerosis. A disturbed secretion of cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated monocytes from type 1 diabetes (T1D patients has been described and may contribute to the impaired inflammatory response in these individuals. In the present study the influence of LPS on five different proteins with a function in immunity and atherosclerosis was analyzed in monocytes from controls and T1D patients. Methods Monocytes were isolated from controls and T1D patients and the LPS-stimulated increase of IL-6, CXCL8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (CCL2, MCP-1 and superoxide dismutase (SOD 2, as well as the LPS-mediated decrease of apolipoprotein E (Apo E in primary human monocytes from controls and T1D patients was determined. Results CCL2 and IL-6 secretion in response to LPS was found significantly reduced in monocytes from T1D patients when compared to controls whereas basal CCL2 release was similar in control and T1D cells. In contrast, CXCL8 and apolipoprotein E secretion and SOD 2 expression upon LPS stimulation is similar from T1D and control monocytes. Conclusion These data indicate that LPS-mediated protein expression is only partly disturbed in monocytes from T1D patients. Reduced secretion of IL-6 and CCL2 in activated monocytes of these patients may contribute to an impaired inflammatory response and vascular disease.

  14. Monocyte enrichment from leukapheresis products by using the Elutra cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun-Jung; Choi, Youjeong; Kim, Han-Soo; Lee, Min-Geul

    2007-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), used in clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy, require processing on an expanded scale to conform to current good manufacturing practice guidelines. This study evaluated a large-scale monocyte enrichment procedure with a commercially available cell separator (Elutra, Gambro BCT) and analyzed the capacity of enriched monocytes to differentiate into DCs. Mononuclear cells were collected in two patients with malignant melanoma and seven healthy donors by leukapheresis. Continuous-counterflow elutriation with the Elutra was performed to enrich and purify monocytes from leukapheresis products. Purity and recovery of enriched monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. DCs were generated from the elutriated monocytes and characterized by phenotypic surface marker and stimulatory capacity in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. In the leukapheresis products, the total MNC count was 7.3 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9) and the mean percentage of CD14+ monocytes was 16.5 +/- 3.8 percent, which increased to 68.9 +/- 7.4 percent after elutriation with the Elutra. The mean monocyte recovery was 94.3 percent. Elutriated monocytes were successfully cultured into phenotypically and functionally mature DCs. These results indicate that the Elutra cell separator allows for fast and easy enrichment of monocytes within a closed system. Furthermore, these monocytes can be differentiated into functionally mature DCs. Compared to plastic adherence and immunomagnetic selection methods, the elutriation procedure is inexpensive, efficient, and very effective.

  15. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT–PRAS40 autophagy pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O.; Cleophas, Maartje C. P.; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Netea, Mihai G.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP–overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt–PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype. PMID:28484006

  16. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT-PRAS40 autophagy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP-overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt-PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype.

  17. Flagella from five Cronobacter species induce pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens linked to lie-threatening infections in neonates and contaminated powdered infant formula that has been epidemiologically associated with these cases. Clinical symptoms of Cronobacter include necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteremia, and meningitis. Flagella from C. sakazakii are involved in biofilm formation and its adhesion to epithelial cells. We investigated the role of flagella from C. sakazakii ST1 and ST4, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. dublinensis during the activation of cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes, which has not been extensively studied. The production and identity of flagella from the five Cronobacter species were visualized and recognized with anti-flagella antibodies by immunogold labeling through transmission electron microscopy. Purified flagella were dissociated into monomers in 12% SDS-PAGE Coomassie blue-stained gels showing a band of ∼28 kDa and, in addition, mass spectrometry revealed the presence of several peptides that correspond to flagellin. Flagella (100 ng induced the release of IL-8 (3314-6025 pg/ml, TNF-α (39-359 pg/ml, and IL-10 (2-96 pg/ml, in macrophage isolates from human monocytes and similar results were obtained when flagella were dissociated into monomers. Inhibition assays using three dilutions of anti-flagella antibodies (1∶10, 1∶100, and 1∶200 suppressed the secretion of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 between 95-100% using 100 ng of protein. A transfection assay using 293-hTLR5 cells showed IL-8 release of 197 pg/ml and suppression in the secretion of IL-8 when anti-hTLR5-IgA antibodies were used at different concentrations. These observations suggest that flagella and flagellin are involved in an inflammatory response dependent on TLR5 recognition, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacteria.

  18. Death of Monocytes through Oxidative Burst of Macrophages and Neutrophils: Killing in Trans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ponath

    Full Text Available Monocytes and their descendants, macrophages, play a key role in the defence against pathogens. They also contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, a mechanism maintaining a balance in the monocyte/macrophage population must be postulated. Our previous studies have shown that monocytes are impaired in DNA repair, rendering them vulnerable to genotoxic stress while monocyte-derived macrophages are DNA repair competent and genotoxic stress-resistant. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that monocytes can be selectively killed by reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by activated macrophages. We also wished to know whether monocytes and macrophages are protected against their own ROS produced following activation. To this end, we studied the effect of the ROS burst on DNA integrity, cell death and differentiation potential of monocytes. We show that monocytes, but not macrophages, stimulated for ROS production by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA undergo apoptosis, despite similar levels of initial DNA damage. Following co-cultivation with ROS producing macrophages, monocytes displayed oxidative DNA damage, accumulating DNA single-strand breaks and a high incidence of apoptosis, reducing their ability to give rise to new macrophages. Killing of monocytes by activated macrophages, termed killing in trans, was abolished by ROS scavenging and was also observed in monocytes co-cultivated with ROS producing activated granulocytes. The data revealed that monocytes, which are impaired in the repair of oxidised DNA lesions, are vulnerable to their own ROS and ROS produced by macrophages and granulocytes and support the hypothesis that this is a mechanism regulating the amount of monocytes and macrophages in a ROS-enriched inflammatory environment.

  19. Glucose transporter expression differs between bovine monocyte and macrophage subsets and is influenced by milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, M; Hussen, J; Koy, M; Dänicke, S; Schuberth, H-J; Breves, G

    2016-03-01

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is characterized by negative energy balance and higher incidences of infectious diseases such as mastitis or metritis. With the onset of lactation, milk production is prioritized and large amounts of glucose are transported into the mammary gland. Decreased overall energy availability might impair the function of monocytes acting as key innate immune cells, which give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells and link innate and adaptive immunity. Information on glucose requirements of bovine immune cells is rare. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate glucose transporter expression of the 3 bovine monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) and monocyte-derived macrophages and to identify influences of the peripartal period. Blood samples were either collected from nonpregnant healthy cows or from 16 peripartal German Holstein cows at d -14, +7, and +21 relative to parturition. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine mRNA expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 in monocyte subsets and monocyte-derived macrophages. The low GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in nonclassical monocytes was unaltered during differentiation into macrophages, whereas in classical and intermediate monocytes GLUT expression was downregulated. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages consumed more glucose compared with classically activated M1 macrophages. The GLUT4 mRNA was only detectable in unstimulated macrophages. Neither monocytes nor macrophages were insulin responsive. In the peripartum period, monocyte GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression and the GLUT3/GLUT1 ratio were negatively correlated with lactose production. The high-affinity GLUT3 transporter appears to be the predominant glucose transporter on bovine monocytes and macrophages, especially in the peripartal period when blood glucose levels decline. Glucose transporter expression in monocytes is downregulated as a function of lactose production, which

  20. Transcript and protein analysis reveals better survival skills of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to monocytes during oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Brussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to initiate primary T-cell responses, are present in atherosclerotic lesions where they are exposed to oxidative stress that generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. A large body of evidence indicates that cell death is a major modulating factor of atherogenesis. We examined antioxidant defence systems of human monocyte-derived (moDCs and monocytes in response to oxidative stress. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by addition of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP, 30 min. Cellular responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal live cell imaging (both using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, CM-H(2DCFDA. Viability was assessed by the neutral red assay. Total RNA was extracted for a PCR profiler array. Five genes were selected for confirmation by Taqman gene expression assays, and by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry for protein levels. RESULTS: Tert-BHP increased CM-H(2DCFDA fluorescence and caused cell death. Interestingly, all processes occurred more slowly in moDCs than in monocytes. The mRNA profiler array showed more than 2-fold differential expression of 32 oxidative stress-related genes in unstimulated moDCs, including peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2, an enzyme reducing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. PRDX2 upregulation was confirmed by Taqman assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Silencing PRDX2 in moDCs by means of siRNA significantly increased CM-DCF fluorescence and cell death upon tert-BHP-stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that moDCs exhibit higher intracellular antioxidant capacities, making them better equipped to resist oxidative stress than monocytes. Upregulation of PRDX2 is involved in the neutralization of ROS in moDCs. Taken together, this points to better survival skills of DCs in oxidative stress environments, such as atherosclerotic plaques.

  1. Human β-Defensin 3 Reduces TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Monocyte Adhesion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianying Bian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3 in the initiation stage of atherosclerosis with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs triggered by tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. The effects of hBD3 on TNF-α-induced endothelial injury and inflammatory response were evaluated. Our data revealed that first, hBD3 reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hBD3 significantly prevented intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production by HUVECs. Second, western blot analysis demonstrated that hBD3 dose-dependently suppressed the protein levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. As a result, hBD3 inhibited monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. Additionally, hBD3 suppressed TNF-α-induced F-actin reorganization in HUVECs. Third, hBD3 markedly inhibited NF-κB activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, IκB, and p65 subunit within 30 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway were also inhibited by hBD3 in HUVECs. In conclusion, hBD3 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in endothelial cells in response to TNF-α by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  2. Activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kun; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules

  3. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoskeleton of human peripheral blood monocytes with whole mount cell electron microscopy in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaomei; Guo Yuhua; Yin Zhiwei

    1992-01-01

    Whole mount cell electron microscopy was used in combination with selective extraction to prepare cytoskeletal framework. Cytoskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes appeared on electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. By three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons it was demonstrated that different doses of 60 Co γ-rays caused distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeleton of intact human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The alterations were similar to those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers'studies, it is presumed that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  4. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Venneri, Mary Anna; De Palma, Michele; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Pucci, Ferdinando; Scielzo, Cristina; Zonari, Erika; Mazzieri, Roberta; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), have been implicated in tumor progression. We recently described a lineage of mouse monocytes characterized by expression of the Tie2 angiopoietin receptor and required for the vascularization and growth of several tumor models. Here, we report that TIE2 expression in human blood identifies a subset of monocytes distinct from classical inflammatory monocytes and comprised within the less abundant "resident" popul...

  5. Downregulation of monocytic differentiation via modulation of CD147 by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda V Sasidhar

    Full Text Available CD147 is an activation induced glycoprotein that promotes the secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and is upregulated during the differentiation of macrophages. Interestingly, some of the molecular functions of CD147 rely on its glycosylation status: the highly glycosylated forms of CD147 induce MMPs whereas the lowly glycosylated forms inhibit MMP activation. Statins are hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that block the synthesis of mevalonate, thereby inhibiting all mevalonate-dependent pathways, including isoprenylation, N-glycosylation and cholesterol synthesis. In this study, we investigated the role of statins in the inhibition of macrophage differentiation and the associated process of MMP secretion through modulation of CD147. We observed that differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 to a macrophage phenotype led to upregulation of CD147 and CD14 and that this effect was inhibited by statins. At the molecular level, statins altered CD147 expression, structure and function by inhibiting isoprenylation and N-glycosylation. In addition, statins induced a shift of CD147 from its highly glycosylated form to its lowly glycosylated form. This shift in N-glycosylation status was accompanied by a decrease in the production and functional activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, these findings describe a novel molecular mechanism of immune regulation by statins, making them interesting candidates for autoimmune disease therapy.

  6. Downregulation of monocytic differentiation via modulation of CD147 by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, Manda V; Chevooru, Sai Krishnaveni; Eickelberg, Oliver; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Neuhaus, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    CD147 is an activation induced glycoprotein that promotes the secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and is upregulated during the differentiation of macrophages. Interestingly, some of the molecular functions of CD147 rely on its glycosylation status: the highly glycosylated forms of CD147 induce MMPs whereas the lowly glycosylated forms inhibit MMP activation. Statins are hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that block the synthesis of mevalonate, thereby inhibiting all mevalonate-dependent pathways, including isoprenylation, N-glycosylation and cholesterol synthesis. In this study, we investigated the role of statins in the inhibition of macrophage differentiation and the associated process of MMP secretion through modulation of CD147. We observed that differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 to a macrophage phenotype led to upregulation of CD147 and CD14 and that this effect was inhibited by statins. At the molecular level, statins altered CD147 expression, structure and function by inhibiting isoprenylation and N-glycosylation. In addition, statins induced a shift of CD147 from its highly glycosylated form to its lowly glycosylated form. This shift in N-glycosylation status was accompanied by a decrease in the production and functional activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, these findings describe a novel molecular mechanism of immune regulation by statins, making them interesting candidates for autoimmune disease therapy.

  7. Cardioprotective effect of valsartan in mice with short-term high-salt diet by regulating cardiac aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hui-Yan; Zheng, Sheng; Mu, Shang-Qiang; Ma, Meng-Ni; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chun-Xue; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common risk factor for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that affects approximately 61 million, or 25% of the population in United States. The dietary salt intake is one of the most important but modifiable factors for hypertension. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the role of aquaporin 1 in high-salt-induced hypertension and cardiac injuries and whether angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan could ameliorate the effect of high salt on blood pressure. Mice were fed with normal diet, high-salt diet in the presence or absence of valsartan for 4 weeks. The body weight gain, feeding behavior, blood pressure, and cardiac pathology changes were monitored after 4 weeks. The expression of aquaporin 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor β1, and basic fibroblast growth factor were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. Valsartan partially reversed the effects of high-salt diet on hypertension, cardiac injuries such as fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, and inhibition of aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factors; valsartan alone did not exert such effects. The current data demonstrated that the reduction of cardiac aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factor expression level might be associated with high-salt-induced hypertension and cardiac injuries in mice, which could be ameliorated by angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate pluripotency factor expression by ZNF217- and ALKBH5-mediated modulation of RNA methylation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Zhi, Wanqing Iris; Lu, Haiquan; Samanta, Debangshu; Chen, Ivan; Gabrielson, Edward; Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-10-04

    Exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia increases the percentage of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are required for tumor initiation and metastasis, and this response is dependent on the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). We previously reported that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia induces the ALKBH5-mediated demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in NANOG mRNA leading to increased expression of NANOG, which is a pluripotency factor that promotes BCSC specification. Here we report that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia also induces ZNF217-dependent inhibition of m6A methylation of mRNAs encoding NANOG and KLF4, which is another pluripotency factor that mediates BCSC specification. Although hypoxia induced the BCSC phenotype in all breast-cancer cell lines analyzed, it did so through variable induction of pluripotency factors and ALKBH5 or ZNF217. However, in every breast cancer line, the hypoxic induction of pluripotency factor and ALKBH5 or ZNF217 expression was HIF-dependent. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of HIF-1α and ALKBH5 was concordant in all human breast cancer biopsies analyzed. ALKBH5 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly decreased metastasis from breast to lungs in immunodeficient mice. Thus, HIFs stimulate pluripotency factor expression and BCSC specification by negative regulation of RNA methylation.

  9. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD.

  10. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of [35S]chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the [35S]CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains

  11. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89 Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after 89 Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after 89 Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before 89 Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after 89 Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the 89 Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with 89 Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment

  12. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...... at similar concentrations to the passive adsorption process, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the bound IL-4 did not leak into solution to any measurable extent during cell culture. However, covalently bound IL-4 was incapable of inducing monocyte differentiation. This may be caused...

  13. Inhibitory effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract on monocyte adhesion and cellular reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigome, Satoru; Yoshida, Izumi; Ito, Shihomi; Inohana, Shuichi; Fushimi, Kei; Nagai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Satoyama, Toshiya; Katsuda, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Shinobu; Watai, Masatoshi; Hirose, Naoto; Mitsue, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Komai, Michio

    2017-04-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is used in traditional Thai medicine. In this study, we investigated the effects of an ethanol KP extract and two of its components [5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) and 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF)] on monocyte adhesion and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which provide an in vitro model of events relevant to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. RAW264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells were incubated with various concentrations of KP extract or polymethoxyflavonoids and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide prior to measuring nitrite levels in the culture media. Monocyte adhesion was evaluated by measuring the fluorescently labeled human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells that is attached to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs. Cellular ROS production was assessed by measuring cellular antioxidant activity using pyocyanin-stimulated HUVECs. KP extract and DMF reduced nitrite levels (as indicator of nitric oxide production) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and also inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These treatments induced mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs and downregulated that of various cell adhesion molecules, inflammatory mediators, and endothelial function-related genes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity was inhibited by KP extract in vitro. Furthermore, KP extract, DMF, and TMF inhibited the production of cellular ROS in pyocyanin-stimulated HUVECs. KP extract, DMF, and TMF showed potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in these in vitro models, properties that would inhibit the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  14. Involvement of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in HIV infection: inhibition by monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the alpha- and beta-chain of lymphocyte-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) were examined for inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro. Infection of the T cell line MT4 and the monocytic cell line U937 by isolates HTLVIIIB and SSI-002, respectively was inhibited...

  15. Geranylated flavanone tomentodiplacone B inhibits proliferation of human monocytic leukaemia (THP-1) cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollár, P.; Bárta, Tomáš; Závalová, V.; Šmejkal, K.; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 7 (2011), s. 1534-1541 ISSN 0007-1188 Grant - others:GA MŠk.(CZ) LC06077 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : flavonoids * CDK2 * antiproliferative effect Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2011

  16. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  17. Dasatinib inhibits both osteoclast activation and prostate cancer PC-3-cell-induced osteoclast formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, John C; Poblenz, Ann; Corn, Paul; Parikh, Nila U; Starbuck, Michael W; Thompson, Jerry T; Lee, Francis; Logothetis, Christopher J; Darnay, Bryant G

    2009-11-01

    Therapies to target prostate cancer bone metastases have only limited effects. New treatments are focused on the interaction between cancer cells, bone marrow cells and the bone matrix. Osteoclasts play an important role in the development of bone tumors caused by prostate cancer. Since Src kinase has been shown to be necessary for osteoclast function, we hypothesized that dasatinib, a Src family kinase inhibitor, would reduce osteoclast activity and prostate cancer (PC-3) cell-induced osteoclast formation. Dasatinib inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes with an EC(50) of 7.5 nM. PC-3 cells, a human prostate cancer cell line, were able to differentiate RAW 264.7 cells, a murine monocytic cell line, into osteoclasts, and dasatinib inhibited this differentiation. In addition, conditioned medium from PC-3 cell cultures was able to differentiate RAW 264.7 cells into osteoclasts and this too, was inhibited by dasatinib. Even the lowest concentration of dasatinib, 1.25 nmol, inhibited osteoclast differentiation by 29%. Moreover, dasatinib inhibited osteoclast activity by 58% as measured by collagen 1 release. We performed in vitro experiments utilizing the Src family kinase inhibitor dasatinib to target osteoclast activation as a means of inhibiting prostate cancer bone metastases. Dasatinib inhibits osteoclast differentiation of mouse primary bone marrow-derived monocytes and PC-3 cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Dasatinib also inhibits osteoclast degradation activity. Inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activity may be an effective targeted therapy in patients with prostate cancer bone metastases.

  18. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases.We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection.Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  19. Increased MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients and under intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Wen-Shan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as a critical factor for monocyte infiltration, is known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the MCP-1 expression of monocytes. Peripheral blood was sampled from 61 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of MCP-1. The effect of in vitro intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of MCP-1 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and human monocytes. The mRNA and secreted protein levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Monocytic MCP-1 gene expression was found to be increased significantly in severe OSA patients. In vitro intermittent hypoxia was demonstrated to increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of MCP-1 dose- and time-dependently in THP-1 monocytic cells. The MCP-1 mRNA expression in monocytes isolated from OSA patient was induced to a much higher level compared to that from normal control. Pre-treatment with inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of MCP-1 expression by intermittent hypoxia. This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. In addition, monocytic MCP-1 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia.

  20. Gallic Acid Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation in High Glucose-Induced Human Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wooje; Lee, Sang Yeol; Son, Young-Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to diabetes and several diabetes-related complications. Gallic acid is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound found in various natural products. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of gallic acid on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in high glucose-induced human monocytes (THP-1 cells). THP-1 cells were cultured under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, in the absence or presence of gallic acid. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, whereas gallic acid suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. It also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300, a NF-κB coactivator) gene expression, acetylation levels, and CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. In addition, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression was significantly induced. These results suggest that gallic acid inhibits hyperglycemic-induced cytokine production in monocytes through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. Therefore, gallic acid may have potential for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  1. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  2. Mouse CD23 regulates monocyte activation through an interaction with the adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoanet-Henchoz, S; Plater-Zyberk, C; Graber, P; Gretener, D; Aubry, J P; Conrad, D H; Bonnefoy, J Y

    1997-09-01

    CD23 is expressed on a variety of hemopoietic cells. Recently, we have reported that blocking CD23 interactions in a murine model of arthritis resulted in a marked improvement of disease severity. Here, we demonstrate that CD11b, the alpha chain of the beta 2 integrin adhesion molecule complex CD11b/CD18 expressed on monocytes interacts with CD23. Using a recombinant fusion protein (ZZ-CD23), murine CD23 was shown to bind to peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood cells isolated from mice as well as the murine macrophage cell line, RAW. The interactions between mouse ZZ-CD23 and CD11b/CD18-expressing cells were significantly inhibited by anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies. A functional consequence was then demonstrated by inducing an up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production following ZZ-CD23 incubation with monocytes. The addition of Fab fragments generated from the monoclonal antibody CD11b impaired this cytokine production by 50%. Interestingly, a positive autocrine loop was identified as IL-6 was shown to increase CD23 binding to macrophages. These results demonstrate that similar to findings using human cells, murine CD23 binds to the surface adhesion molecule, CD11b, and these interactions regulate biological activities of murine myeloid cells.

  3. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coordinate viral induction of tumor necrosis factor α and interferon β in human B cells and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfeld, A.E.; Maniatis, T.

    1989-01-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene expression can be induced primarily in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage by a variety of inducers, including lipopolysaccharide, phorbol esters such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and virus or synthetic double-stranded RNA [poly(I)·poly(C)]. In this paper the authors show that the TNF-α gene also responds to virus and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in B lymphocytes and that virus is the most potent inducer of TNF-α mRNA in both monocyte and B-cell lines. In addition, they show that viral infection coinduces the expression of TNF-α and interferon β mRNA and that viral induction of both genes is blocked by the kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide had no effect on mRNA expression of the genes in one of three cell lines tested (U937) but blocked the viral induction of both genes in another (Namalwa). Thus, the regulatory factors required for mRNA induction of both genes are present prior to the addition of virus in U937 but not in Namalwa cells. However, in a third cell line (JY), cycloheximide blocked viral induction of the interferon β gene but not the TNF-α gene. Taken together, these observations suggest that viral induction of TNF-α and interferon β gene expression may involve overlapping pathways with both common and distinct regulatory factors

  5. A case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted by hematophagous arthropods - ticks. In humans, it occurs as monocytic, granulocytic, and ewingii ehrlichiosis. Pathological process is based on parasitic presence of Ehrlichia organisms within peripheral blood cells - monocytes and granulocytes. Case Outline. Fifty-two year old patient was admitted to hospital due to high fever of over 40°C that lasted two days, accompanied with chills, muscle aches, malaise, loss of appetite, headache, confusion, breathing difficulties, and mild dry cough. The history suggested tick bite that occurred seven days before the onset of disease. Doxycycline was introduced and administered for 14 days, causing the disease to subside. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to analyze three serum samples obtained from this patient for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies, and peripheral blood smear was evaluated for the presence of Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia aggregation into morulae. Conclusion. Ehrlichiosis should be considered in each case where there is a history of tick bite together with the clinical picture (high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, generalized weakness and malaise, and possible maculopapular rash. The presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies was confirmed in a patient with the history of tick bite, appropriate clinical picture and indirect immunofluorescence assay. This confirmed the presence of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, a disease that is uncommonly identified in our country.

  6. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, John S; Ren, Songyang; Liu, Philip T

    2009-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) enhances innate immunity by inducing the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP). In monocytes/macrophages, this occurs primarily in response to activation of TLR, that induce expression of the vitamin D receptor and localized...... synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2)D from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25OHD). To clarify the relationship between vitamin D and innate immunity, we assessed changes in hCAP expression in vivo and ex vivo in human subjects attending a bone clinic (n = 50). Of these, 38% were vitamin D-insufficient (...) and received supplementation with vitamin D (50,000 IU vitamin D(2) twice weekly for 5 wk). Baseline 25OHD status or vitamin D supplementation had no effect on circulating levels of hCAP. Therefore, ex vivo changes in hCAP for each subject were assessed using peripheral blood monocytes cultured with 10...

  7. Phenotypic differences between oral and skin fibroblasts in wound contraction and growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Diane B; McKeown, Scott T W; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Irwin, Chris R

    2006-01-01

    Wounds of the oral mucosa heal in an accelerated fashion with reduced scarring compared with cutaneous wounds. The differences in healing outcome between oral mucosa and skin could be because of phenotypic differences between the respective fibroblast populations. This study compared paired mucosal and dermal fibroblasts in terms of collagen gel contraction, alpha-smooth muscle actin expression (alpha-SMA), and production of the epithelial growth factors: keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF). The effects of transforming growth factor -beta1 and -beta3 on each parameter were also determined. Gel contraction in floating collagen lattices was determined over a 7-day period. alpha-SMA expression by fibroblasts was determined by Western blotting. KGF and HGF expression were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oral fibroblasts induced accelerated collagen gel contraction, yet surprisingly expressed lower levels of alpha-SMA. Oral cells also produced significantly greater levels of both KGF and HGF than their dermal counterparts. Transforming growth factor-beta1 and -beta3, over the concentration range of 0.1-10 ng/mL, had similar effects on cell function, stimulating both gel contraction and alpha-SMA production, but inhibiting KGF and HGF production by both cell types. These data indicate phenotypic differences between oral and dermal fibroblasts that may well contribute to the differences in healing outcome between these two tissues.

  8. Effects of 17β-estradiol on the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MAPK activity in monocytes stimulated with peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Na, Young-Jin; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2012-03-01

    Hormones and inflammation have been implicated in the pathological process of endometriosis; therefore, we investigated the combined effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) or a control peritoneal fluid (cPF) obtained from patients without endometriosis on the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by monocytes and the role of signaling pathways. Monocytes were cultured with ePF and cPF in the presence of E2; the MCP-1 levels in the supernatants were then measured by ELISA. In addition, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was measured by Western blotting of phosphorylated proteins. E2 down-regulated MCP-1 release by lipopolysaccharide- or cPF-treated monocytes, but failed to suppress its release by ePF-treated monocytes. The release of MCP-1 by ePF- and cPF-treated monocytes was efficiently abrogated by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors; however, the MCP-1 release by cPF-treated monocytes, but not by ePF-treated monocytes, was blocked by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. In addition, ePF and cPF induced the phosphorylation of extracellular stress regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). E2 decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2 in ePF-treated monocytes; however, E2 decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK in cPF-treated monocytes. The ability of E2 to modulate MCP-1 production is impaired in ePF-treated monocytes, which may be related to regulation of MAPK activity. These findings suggest that the failure of E2 to suppress ePF-treated production of MCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Stimulated monocyte IL-6 secretion predicts survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Jan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed in order to determine whether monocyte in vitro function is associated with presence, stage and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC disease. Methods Prospective study describing outcome, after at least five years observation, of patients treated for HNSCC disease in relation to their monocyte function. Sixty-five patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC and eighteen control patients were studied. Monocyte responsiveness was assessed by measuring levels of monocyte in vitro interleukin (IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic peptide (MCP-1 secretion after 24 hours of endotoxin stimulation in cultures supplied either with 20% autologous serum (AS or serum free medium (SFM. Survival, and if relevant, cause of death, was determined at least 5 years following primary diagnosis. Results All patients, as a group, had higher in vitro monocyte responsiveness in terms of IL-6 (AS (t = 2.03; p t = 2.49; p in vitro monocyte IL-6 endotoxin responsiveness under the SFM condition was associated with decreased survival rate (Hazard ratio (HR = 2.27; Confidence interval (CI = 1.05–4.88; p p p Conclusion In HNSCC patients, changed monocyte in vitro response to endotoxin, as measured by increased IL-6 (SFM and decreased MCP-1 (AS responsiveness, are negative prognostic factors.

  10. Induction of Chemokine Secretion and Monocyte Migration by Human Choroidal Melanocytes in Response to Proinflammatory Cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehs, Tina; Faber, Carsten; Udsen, Maja S.

    2016-01-01

    of 10 HCM donors induced a high initial level of monocyte migration, which decreased upon stimulation with either TCM or IFN-γ and TNF-α. The supernatants from three HCM donors initially showed a low level of monocyte attraction, which increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. Direct...

  11. In Vitro experimental model of trained innate immunity in human primary monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkering, S.; Blok, B. A.; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-01-01

    experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). We investigated and optimized a protocol of monocyte trained immunity induced by an initial....... All Rights Reserved....

  12. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  13. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  14. DYSFUNCTION OF MONOCYTES AND DENDRITIC CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEK, A; VAN KASTEREN, Y; DE HAAN-MEULMAN, M; SCHOEMAKER, J; DREXHAGE, HA

    1993-01-01

    PROBLEM: Due to the presence of ovarian antibodies it has been suggested that premature ovarian failure (POF) belongs to the autoimmune endocrinopathies. Monocytes and the monocyte-derived dendritic cells play a prominent role in the initial stages of endocrine autoimmune reactions: the accumulation

  15. HCMV Reprogramming of Infected Monocyte Survival and Differentiation: A Goldilocks Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V. Stevenson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of disease pathologies seen in multiple organ sites associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection results from the systemic hematogenous dissemination of the virus, which is mediated predominately by infected monocytes. In addition to their role in viral spread, infected monocytes are also known to play a key role in viral latency and life-long persistence. However, in order to utilize infected monocytes for viral spread and persistence, HCMV must overcome a number of monocyte biological hurdles, including their naturally short lifespan and their inability to support viral gene expression and replication. Our laboratory has shown that HCMV is able to manipulate the biology of infected monocytes in order to overcome these biological hurdles by inducing the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral gene expression and replication. In this current review, we describe the unique aspects of how HCMV promotes monocyte survival and differentiation by inducing a “finely-tuned” macrophage cell type following infection. Specifically, we describe the induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes, which we argue is the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host.

  16. Monocyte gene expression in childhood obesity is associated with obesity and complexity of atherosclerosis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keustermans, G C; Kofink, Daniel; Eikendal, A.L.; de Jager, W.; Meerding, J.; Nuboer, R.; Waltenberger, J.; Kraaijeveld, A.O.; Jukema, J Wouter; Sels, J.W.; Garssen, J; Prakken, Berent J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Kalkhoven, E.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, G.; Schipper, Henk S

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity coincides with increased numbers of circulating classical CD14++CD16- and intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes. Monocytes are key players in the development and exacerbation of atherosclerosis, which prompts the question as to whether the monocytosis in childhood obesity contributes

  17. Generation of dendritic cells for immunotherapy is minimally impaired by granulocytes in the monocyte preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, Anja; Karsten, Miriam L; Dieker, Miranda C; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Vrielink, Hans; Marieke van Ham, S

    2006-01-01

    The growing number of clinical studies, using monocyte-derived DC therapy, requires protocols where a sufficient number of dendritic cell (DCs) are produced according to current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Therefore, a closed culture system for the generation of DCs is inevitable. One cost-effective way to isolate monocytes directly from leukapheresis material in a closed system is by elutriation with the Elutra cell separation system. In the Elutra, granulocytes co-purify with the monocytes. Therefore, we studied if and to what extent the presence of granulocytes in a monocyte product affects the generation of mature DCs. The presence of up to 16% granulocytes in the monocyte product had no significant effects on the quality of the DCs formed. The presence of higher granulocyte percentages, however, gradually altered DC quality. In this respect, the presence of higher number of granulocytes induced significant lower migratory capacity of the DCs and lower expression levels of CD80, CD40 and CD86. No effects were observed on the DC yield, cytokine production or the stimulatory capacity of the DCs in MLR. In conclusion, the presence of 20-30% granulocytes in a monocyte product has no major influence on the quality of the DCs generated from monocytes. Therefore, the Elutra is a suitable closed system apparatus to separate monocytes from other blood components for the generation of DCs, even from leukapheresis material which contains a high number of granulocytes.

  18. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Hendrixson, D R; Baker, E N; Murphy, T F; St Geme, J W; Plaut, A G

    1998-10-13

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of otitis media and other respiratory tract disease in children. The pathogenesis of disease begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process that involves evasion of local immune mechanisms and adherence to epithelial cells. Several studies have demonstrated that human milk is protective against H. influenzae colonization and disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of human milk on the H. influenzae IgA1 protease and Hap adhesin, two autotransported proteins that are presumed to facilitate colonization. Our results demonstrated that human milk lactoferrin efficiently extracted the IgA1 protease preprotein from the bacterial outer membrane. In addition, lactoferrin specifically degraded the Hap adhesin and abolished Hap-mediated adherence. Extraction of IgA1 protease and degradation of Hap were localized to the N-lobe of the bilobed lactoferrin molecule and were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that the lactoferrin N-lobe may contain serine protease activity. Additional experiments revealed no effect of lactoferrin on the H. influenzae P2, P5, and P6 outer-membrane proteins, which are distinguished from IgA1 protease and Hap by the lack of an N-terminal passenger domain or an extracellular linker region. These results suggest that human milk lactoferrin may attenuate the pathogenic potential of H. influenzae by selectively inactivating IgA1 protease and Hap, thereby interfering with colonization. Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas.

  19. Placental growth factor expression is reversed by antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-Yi; Bai, Yu-Jing; Zhao, Min; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Huang, Lv-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials have revealed that the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are effective in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). But the low level of VEGF was necessary as a survival signal in healthy conditions, and endogenous placental growth factor (PIGF) is redundant for development. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the PIGF expression under hypoxia as well as the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF. CoCl2-induced hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for an in vitro study, and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice models were used for an in vivo study. The expression patterns of PIGF under hypoxic conditions and the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). The retinal avascular areas and neovascularization (NV) areas of anti-VEGF, anti-PIGF and combination treatments were calculated. Retina PIGF concentration was evaluated by ELISA after treatment. The vasoactive effects of exogenous PIGF on HUVECs were investigated by proliferation and migration studies. PIGF mRNA expression was reduced by hypoxia in OIR mice, in HUVECs under hypoxia and anti-VEGF treatment. However, PIGF expression was reversed by anti-VEGF therapy in the OIR model and in HUVECs under hypoxia. Exogenous PIGF significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation and migration under normal conditions, but it stimulated cell proliferation and migration under hypoxia. Anti-PIGF treatment was effective for neovascular tufts in OIR mice (P<0.05). The finding that PIGF expression is iatrogenically up-regulated by anti-VEGF therapy provides a consideration to combine it with anti-PIGF therapy.

  20. CD16+ monocytes and skewed macrophage polarization toward M2 type hallmark heart transplant acute cellular rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.P. van den Bosch (Thierry); K. Caliskan (Kadir); M.D. Kraaij (Marina); A.A. Constantinescu (Alina); O.C. Manintveld (Olivier); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); J. von der Thusen (Jan); M.C. Clahsen-van Groningen (Marian); C.C. Baan (Carla); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during

  1. A distinguishing gene signature shared by tumor-infiltrating Tie2-expressing monocytes, blood "resident" monocytes, and embryonic macrophages suggests common functions and developmental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Ferdinando; Venneri, Mary Anna; Biziato, Daniela; Nonis, Alessandro; Moi, Davide; Sica, Antonio; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele

    2009-07-23

    We previously showed that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) have nonredundant proangiogenic activity in tumors. Here, we compared the gene expression profile of tumor-infiltrating TEMs with that of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), spleen-derived Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) neutrophils/myeloid-derived suppressor cells, circulating "inflammatory" and "resident" monocytes, and tumor-derived endothelial cells (ECs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based gene arrays. TEMs sharply differed from ECs and Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) cells but were highly related to TAMs. Nevertheless, several genes were differentially expressed between TEMs and TAMs, highlighting a TEM signature consistent with enhanced proangiogenic/tissue-remodeling activity and lower proinflammatory activity. We validated these findings in models of oncogenesis and transgenic mice expressing a microRNA-regulated Tie2-GFP reporter. Remarkably, resident monocytes and TEMs on one hand, and inflammatory monocytes and TAMs on the other hand, expressed coordinated gene expression profiles, suggesting that the 2 blood monocyte subsets are committed to distinct extravascular fates in the tumor microenvironment. We further showed that a prominent proportion of embryonic/fetal macrophages, which participate in tissue morphogenesis, expressed distinguishing TEM genes. It is tempting to speculate that Tie2(+) embryonic/fetal macrophages, resident blood monocytes, and tumor-infiltrating TEMs represent distinct developmental stages of a TEM lineage committed to execute physiologic proangiogenic and tissue-remodeling programs, which can be co-opted by tumors.

  2. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB. This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp.

  3. IL-4 induces cAMP and cGMP in human monocytic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dugas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human monocytes, preincubated with IFN-γ respond to IL-4 by a cGMP increase through activation of an inducible NO synthase. Here, IL-4 was found to induce an accumulation of cGMP (1 – 3 min and cAMP (20 – 25 min in unstimulated monocytes. This was impaired with NOS inhibitors, but also with EGTA and calcium/calmodulin inhibitors. These results suggest that: (1 IL-4 may stimulate different NOS isoforms in resting and IFN-γ activated monocytes, and (2 cAMP accumulation may be partially dependent on the NO pathway. By RT-PCR, a type III constitutive NOS mRNA was detected in U937 monocytic cells. IL-4 also increased the [Ca2+]i in these cells. Different NOS may thus be expressed in monocytic cells depending on their differentiation and the signals they receive.

  4. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFκB in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weidong; Alexis, Neil E.; Chen Xian; Bromberg, Philip A.; Peden, David B.

    2008-01-01

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NFκB were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NFκB activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NFκB activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NFκB activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NFκB activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NFκB

  5. Peripheral blood monocyte subsets predict antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Y; Martín-Vílchez, S; López-Rodríguez, R; Hernández-Bartolomé, A; Trapero-Marugán, M; Borque, M J; Moreno-Otero, R; Sanz-Cameno, P

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection evolves into chronic progressive liver disease in a significant percentage of patients. Monocytes constitute a diverse group of myeloid cells that mediate innate and adaptive immune response. In addition to proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes, a Tie-2+ subgroup - Tie-2 expressing monocytes (TEMs) - that has robust proangiogenic potential has been recently defined. To study the heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and to examine their proposed pathophysiological roles on disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. We studied CD16+ and Tie-2+ peripheral monocyte subpopulations in 21 healthy subjects and 39 CHC patients in various stages of disease and responses to antiviral treatment using flow cytometry. Expression profiles of proangiogenic and tissue remodelling factors in monocyte supernatants were measured using ELISA and protein arrays. Intrahepatic expression of CD14, CD31 and Tie-2 was analysed using immunofluorescence. Increases of certain peripheral monocyte subsets were observed in the blood of CHC patients, wherein those cells with proinflammatory (CD16+) or proangiogenic (TEMs) potential expanded (P TEMs were significantly increased in nonresponders, particularly those with lower CD16 expression. In addition, many angiogenic factors were differentially expressed by peripheral monocytes from control or CHC patients, such as angiopoietin-1 and angiogenin (P TEMs were distinguished within portal infiltrates of CHC patients. These findings suggest for the first time the relevance of peripheral monocytes phenotypes for the achievement of response to treatment. Hence, the study of monocyte subset regulation might effect improved CHC prognoses and adjuvant therapies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Modulation of monocytic leukemia cell function and survival by high gradient magnetic fields and mathematical modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Syrovets, Tatiana; Schmidt, Zoe W; Dejneka, Alexandr; Simmet, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The influence of spatially modulated high gradient magnetic fields on cellular functions of human THP-1 leukemia cells is studied. We demonstrate that arrays of high-gradient micrometer-sized magnets induce i) cell swelling, ii) prolonged increased ROS production, and iii) inhibit cell proliferation, and iv) elicit apoptosis of THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells in the absence of chemical or biological agents. Mathematical modeling indicates that mechanical stress exerted on the cells by high magnetic gradient forces is responsible for triggering cell swelling and formation of reactive oxygen species followed by apoptosis. We discuss physical aspects of controlling cell functions by focused magnetic gradient forces, i.e. by a noninvasive and nondestructive physical approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  8. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  9. DMPD: Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10380893 Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both s...ides. Heidenreich S. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Jun;65(6):737-43. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte CD14: a multifunction...al receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. PubmedID 10380893 Title Monocyte CD14: a multifunction

  10. IL-17A influences essential functions of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is involved in advanced murine and human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Christian; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Okuyucu, Deniz; Wangler, Susanne; Dietz, Alex; Zhao, Li; Stellos, Konstantinos; Little, Kristina M; Lasitschka, Felix; Doesch, Andreas; Hakimi, Maani; Dengler, Thomas J; Giese, Thomas; Blessing, Erwin; Katus, Hugo A; Gleissner, Christian A

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Lesion progression is primarily mediated by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine, which modulates immune cell trafficking and is involved inflammation in (auto)immune and infectious diseases. But the role of IL-17A still remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated effects of IL-17A on advanced murine and human atherosclerosis, the common disease phenotype in clinical care. The 26-wk-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a standard chow diet and treated either with IL-17A mAb (n = 15) or irrelevant Ig (n = 10) for 16 wk. Furthermore, essential mechanisms of IL-17A in atherogenesis were studied in vitro. Inhibition of IL-17A markedly prevented atherosclerotic lesion progression (p = 0.001) by reducing inflammatory burden and cellular infiltration (p = 0.01) and improved lesion stability (p = 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IL-17A plays a role in chemoattractance, monocyte adhesion, and sensitization of APCs toward pathogen-derived TLR4 ligands. Also, IL-17A induced a unique transcriptome pattern in monocyte-derived macrophages distinct from known macrophage types. Stimulation of human carotid plaque tissue ex vivo with IL-17A induced a proinflammatory milieu and upregulation of molecules expressed by the IL-17A-induced macrophage subtype. In this study, we show that functional blockade of IL-17A prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression and induces plaque stabilization in advanced lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The underlying mechanisms involve reduced inflammation and distinct effects of IL-17A on monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, translational experiments underline the relevance for the human system. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracellular glutathione status regulates mouse bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation and phagocytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Soo Young; Chung, Sung-Chang; Jeong, Dae-Won; Min, Byung-Moo

    2004-01-01

    Although a redox shift can regulate the development of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, the role of the glutathione (GSH) redox status in macrophage differentiation remains unclear. In order to elucidate the role of a redox shift, macrophage-like cells were differentiated from the bone marrow-derived monocytes that were treated with a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) for 3 days. The macrophagic cells were characterized by a time-dependent increase in three major symptoms: the number of phagocytic cells, the number of adherent cells, and the mRNA expression of c-fms, a M-CSF receptor that is one of the macrophage-specific markers and mediates development signals. Upon M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower on day 1 than that observed on day 0 but was constant on days 1-3. To assess the effect of the GSH-depleted and -repleted status on the differentiation and phagocytosis of the macrophages, GSH depletion by BSO, a specific inhibitor of the de novo GSH synthesis, inhibited the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells by the down-regulation of c-fms, but did not affect the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. To the contrary, GSH repletion by the addition of NAC, which is a GSH precursor, or reduced GSH in media had no effect on macrophage differentiation, and led to a decrease in the phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we observed that there is checkpoint that is capable of releasing from the inhibition of the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells according to GSH depletion by BSO. Summarizing, these results indicate that the intracellular GSH status plays an important role in the differentiation and phagocytosis of macrophages

  13. Effects of bee venom against Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation in human keratinocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; An, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Young-Chae; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Yoon-Yub; Pak, Sok Cheon; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) cause inflammatory acne and play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing inflammatory mediators. P. acnes contributes to the inflammatory responses of acne by activating inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8. Bee venom has traditionally been used in the treatment of certain immune-related diseases. However, there has not yet been a robust trial to prove the therapeutic effect of bee venom in skin inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of bee venom in skin inflammation induced by P. acnes using keratinocytes (HaCaT) and monocytes (THP-1). P. acnes is known to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α. In the present study, the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α was increased by P. acnes treatment in HaCaT and THP-1 cells. By contrast, bee venom effectively inhibited the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α. Furthermore, P. acnes treatment activated the expression of IL-8 and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in HaCaT cells. However, bee venom inhibited the expression of IL-8 and TLR2 in heat-killed P. acnes. Based on these results, it is concluded that bee venom has an effective anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes in HaCaT and THP-1 cells. Therefore, we suggest that bee venom is an alternative treatment to antibiotic therapy of acne.

  14. Local Delivery Is Critical for Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Mediated Site-Specific Murine Aneurysm Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Siham; Motwani, Kartik; Wajima, Daisuke; Fazal, Hanain; Jones, Chad H; Doré, Sylvain; Hosaka, Koji; Hoh, Brian L

    2018-01-01

    Local delivery of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) via our drug-eluting coil has been shown to promote intrasaccular aneurysm healing via an inflammatory pathway. In this study, we validate the importance of local MCP-1 in murine aneurysm healing. Whether systemic, rather than local, delivery of MCP-1 can direct site-specific aneurysm healing has significant translational implications. If systemic MCP-1 is effective, then MCP-1 could be administered as a pill rather than by endovascular procedure. Furthermore, we confirm that MCP-1 is the primary effector in our MCP-1 eluting coil-mediated murine aneurysm healing model. We compare aneurysm healing with repeated intraperitoneal MCP-1 versus vehicle injection, in animals with control poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-coated coils. We demonstrate elimination of the MCP-1-associated tissue-healing response by knockout of MCP-1 or CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) and by selectively inhibiting MCP-1 or CCR2. Using immunofluorescent probing, we explore the cell populations found in healed aneurysm tissue following each intervention. Systemically administered MCP-1 with PLGA coil control does not produce comparable aneurysm healing, as seen with MCP-1 eluting coils. MCP-1-directed aneurysm healing is eliminated by selective inhibition of MCP-1 or CCR2 and in MCP-1-deficient or CCR2-deficient mice. No difference was detected in M2 macrophage and myofibroblast/smooth muscle cell staining with systemic MCP-1 versus vehicle in aneurysm wall, but a significant increase in these cell types was observed with MCP-1 eluting coil implant and attenuated by MCP-1/CCR2 blockade or deficiency. We show that systemic MCP-1 concurrent with PLGA-coated platinum coil implant is not sufficient to produce site-specific aneurysm healing. MCP-1 is a critical, not merely complementary, actor in the aneurysm healing pathway.

  15. Outer membrane vesicles from Brucella abortus promote bacterial internalization by human monocytes and modulate their innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora N Pollak

    Full Text Available Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by some gram-negative bacteria have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects that favor the establishment of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction of OMVs from Brucella abortus with human epithelial cells (HeLa and monocytes (THP-1, and the potential immunomodulatory effects they may exert. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, FITC-labeled OMVs were shown to be internalized by both cell types. Internalization was shown to be partially mediated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with Brucella OMVs inhibited some cytokine responses (TNF-α and IL-8 to E. coli LPS, Pam3Cys or flagellin (TLR4, TLR2 and TLR5 agonists, respectively. Similarly, pretreatment with Brucella OMVs inhibited the cytokine response of THP-1 cells to B. abortus infection. Treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs during IFN-γ stimulation reduced significantly the inducing effect of this cytokine on MHC-II expression. OMVs induced a dose-dependent increase of ICAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells and an increased adhesion of these cells to human endothelial cells. The addition of OMVs to THP-1 cultures before the incubation with live B. abortus resulted in increased numbers of adhered and internalized bacteria as compared to cells not treated with OMVs. Overall, these results suggest that OMVs from B. abortus exert cellular effects that promote the internalization of these bacteria by human monocytes, but also downregulate the innate immune response of these cells to Brucella infection. These effects may favor the persistence of Brucella within host cells.

  16. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  18. Role of cytochemical staining in diagnosis of monocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yan; Yan Chenhua; Shi Huilin; Liu Yanrong; Qiu Jingying; Jiang Bing; Wang Debing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of cytochemical staining in MIC(morphology ,immunology and cytogenetics) typing of acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4). Methods: The authors analyzed the characteristics of morphology, immunology and cytogenetics in 47 cases of diagnosed AML. Results: Eventually, they were diagnosed with MIC. There were 25 cases with AML-M5, 19 cases with AML-M4(consisted of 5 cases diagnosed AML-M4Eo), 2 cases with acute myeloid leukemia with t(8:21) and 1 case with T-ALL. Conclusions: During MIC typing of AML-M4 and AML-M5, the diagnostic value of morphology remains important, for immunophenotype, cytogenetics and morphology are interdependent. Immunophenotype and cytogenetics are necessary for improvement of the accuracy rate of diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in monocytes and keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orłowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are of interest to be used as antimicrobial agents in wound dressings and coatings in medical devices, but potential adverse effects have been reported in the literature. The possible local inflammatory response to silver nanoparticles and the role of cell death in determining...... these effects are largely unknown. Effects of the mixture of silver nanoparticles of different sizes were compared in in vitro assays for cytotoxicity, caspase-1 and caspase-9 activity and bax expression. In all tested concentrations, silver nanoparticles were more toxic for RAW 264.7 monocytes than for 291.03C...... keratinocytes and induced significant caspase-1 activity and necrotic cell death. In keratinocytes, more significantly than in macrophages, silver nanoparticles led to increase of caspase-9 activity and apoptosis. These results indicate that effects of silver nanoparticles depend on the type of exposed cells...

  20. Gliadin peptides activate blood monocytes from patients with celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cinová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Smythies, L.; Černá, M.; Pecharová, Barbara; Dvořák, M.; Fruhauf, P.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Smith, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-209 ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IAA5020205; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR KJB5020407; GA MZe 1B53002 Grant - others:US(US) DK-064400; US(US) DK-47322; US(US) DK-54495; US(US) HD-41361; US(US) DK-064400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : celiac disease * innate immunity * blood monocytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2007

  1. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysary, Avi; Amram, Lili; Keren, Gershon; Sthoeger, Zev; Potasman, Israel; Jacob, Amir; Strenger, Carmella; Dawson, Jacqueline E.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective serosurvey of 1,000 persons in Israel who had fever of undetermined cause to look for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies. Four of five cases with antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis were diagnosed in the summer, when ticks are more active. All patients had influenzalike symptoms with high fever. None of the cases was fatal. Three serum samples were also seroreactive for antibodies to E. canis, and one was also reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. The titer to the HGE agent in this patient was higher than the serum titer to E. chaffeensis, and the Western blot analysis also indicated that the HGE agent was the primary cause of infection. We present the first serologic evidence that the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and HGE are present in Israel. Therefore, human ehrlichiosis should be included in the differential diagnoses for persons in Israel who have been exposed to ticks and have influenzalike symptoms. PMID:10603210

  2. Glucocorticoid receptors in monocytes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Binder, C

    1989-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor binding characteristics were investigated in 8 males with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus and 14 healthy males. The cell type studied was monocytes, and a method for correction for heterogeneity in glucocorticoid binding in a mononuclear leucocyte population...... or with HbA1c. In conclusion, no major abnormalities in glucocorticoid receptor binding characteristics could be demonstrated in Type 1 diabetes mellitus....... was introduced. The number of receptors and the dissociation constant KD were, respectively, 13,699 and 2.93 X 10(-8) mol/l for the control group and 15,788 and 2.75 X 10(-8) mol/l for diabetics (p greater than 0.05). In diabetics, KD correlated negatively with blood glucose (r = 0.762, p less than 0...

  3. Interleukin 17 receptor A modulates monocyte subsets and macrophage generation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwang Ge

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17A signaling via Interleukin 17 receptor A (Il17ra contributes to the inflammatory host response by inducing recruitment of innate immune cells, but also plays a role in homeostatic neutrophilic granulocyte regulation. Monocytes, the other main innate immune cell, have a longer life span and can pursue multiple differentiation pathways towards tissue macrophages. Monocytes are divided into two subpopulations by expression of the Ly6C/Gr1 surface marker in mice. We here investigated the role of Il17ra in monocyte homeostasis and macrophage generation. In Il17ra(-/- and in mixed bone marrow chimeric wt/Il17ra(-/- mice, the concentrations of circulating Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low monocytes were significantly decreased compared to wt cells. Pulmonary, splenic and resident peritoneal Il17ra(-/- macrophages were significantly fewer than of wt origin. Bone marrow progenitor and monocyte numbers were equal, but the proportion of Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low monocytes was already decreased at bone marrow level. After monocyte depletion, initial Gr1(high and Gr1(low monocyte regeneration of Il17ra(-/- and wt cells was very similar. However, Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low counts were not sustained. After labeling with either fluorescent beads or BrdU, Il17ra(-/- Gr1(high monocyte transition to Gr1(low cells was not detectable unlike wt cells. Monocyte recruitment in acute peritonitis, which is known to be largely due to Gr1(high cell migration, was unaffected in an identical environment. Unilateral ureteral obstruction induces a less acute inflammatory and fibrotic kidney injury. Compared to wt cells in the same environment, Il17ra(-/- macrophage accumulation in the kidney was decreased. In the absence of Il17ra on all myeloid cells, renal fibrosis was significantly attenuated. Our data show that Il17ra modulates Gr1(low monocyte counts and suggest defective Gr1(high to Gr1(low monocyte transition as an underlying mechanism. Lack of Il17ra altered homeostatic tissue

  4. Evaluating the Use of Monocytes with a Degradable Polyurethane for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Kyle Giovanni

    Monocytes are one of the first cell types present following the implantation of a biomaterial or tissue engineered construct. Depending on the monocyte activation state supported by the biomaterial, monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDMs) can act as positive contributors to tissue regeneration and wound healing, or conversely promote a chronic inflammatory response that leads to fibrous encapsulation and implant rejection. A degradable polar hydrophobic iconic polyurethane (D-PHI) has been shown to reduce pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage response compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a substrate routinely used for in vitro culture of cells, as well as poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA), a standard synthetic biodegradable biomaterial in the tissue engineering field. D-PHI has also shown properties suitable for use in a vascular tissue engineering context. In order to understand the mechanism through which D-PHI attenuates pro-inflammatory monocyte response, this thesis investigated the ability of D-PHI to modulate interactions with adsorbed serum proteins and the properties of D-PHI that were important for this activity. D-PHI was shown to regulate protein adsorption in a manner that produced divergent monocyte responses compared to TCPS and PLGA when coated with the serum proteins alpha2-macroglobulin or immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the case of IgG, D-PHI was shown to reduce pro-inflammatory binding site exposure as a function of the material's polar, hydrophobic, and ionic character. Due to the favourable monocyte activation state supported by D-PHI, and the importance of monocytes/macrophages in regulating the response of tissue-specific cell types in vivo, the ability of a D-PHI-stimulated monocyte/macrophage activation state to contribute to modulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a vascular tissue engineering context was investigated. D-PHI- stimulated monocytes promoted VSMC growth and migration through biomolecule

  5. Curcumin as a natural regulator of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Maryam Saberi; Pirro, Matteo; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant/chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine family, is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Its role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases has been widely recognized, thus making MCP-1 a possible target for anti-inflammatory treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric). Anti-inflammatory action underlies numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin in the control and prevention of several diseases. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on the regulation of MCP-1 as a key mediator of chemotaxis and inflammation, and the biological consequences thereof. In vitro studies have shown that curcumin can decrease MCP-1 production in various cell lines. Animal studies have also revealed that curcumin can attenuate MCP-1 expression and improve a range of inflammatory diseases through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. There is limited data from human clinical trials showing the decreasing effect of curcumin on MCP-1 concentrations and improvement of the course of inflammatory diseases. Most of the in vitro and animal studies confirm that curcumin exert its MCP-1-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathway. As yet, there is limited data from human clinical trials showing the effect of curcumin on MCP-1 levels and improvement of the course of inflammatory diseases. More evidence, especially from human studies, is needed to better assess the effects of curcumin on circulating MCP-1 in different human diseases and the role of this modulatory effect in the putative anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for unfolded protein response activation in monocytes from individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2010-04-15

    The hereditary disorder alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and presents with emphysema in young adults and liver disease in childhood. The most common form of AAT deficiency occurs because of the Z mutation, causing the protein to fold aberrantly and accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This leads to ER stress and contributes significantly to the liver disease associated with the condition. In addition to hepatocytes, AAT is also synthesized by monocytes, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. In this study we show for the first time that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in quiescent monocytes from ZZ individuals. Activating transcription factor 4, X-box binding protein 1, and a subset of genes involved in the UPR are increased in monocytes from ZZ compared with MM individuals. This contributes to an inflammatory phenotype with ZZ monocytes exhibiting enhanced cytokine production and activation of the NF-kappaB pathway when compared with MM monocytes. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular accumulation of AAT within the ER of ZZ monocytes. These are the first data showing that Z AAT protein accumulation induces UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. These findings change the current paradigm regarding lung inflammation in AAT deficiency, which up until now was derived from the protease-anti-protease hypothesis, but which now must include the exaggerated inflammatory response generated by accumulated aberrantly folded AAT in circulating blood cells.

  7. Expression profiling feline peripheral blood monocytes identifies a transcriptional signature associated with type two diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Caroline A; Sedhom, Mamdouh; Reeve-Johnson, Mia; Mallyon, John; Irvine, Katharine M

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. PBM may thus provide a useful window to study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in cats, however feline monocytes are poorly characterised. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Feline 1.0ST array to profile peripheral blood monocytes from 3 domestic cats with T2D and 3 cats with normal glucose tolerance. Feline monocytes were enriched for genes expressed in human monocytes, and, despite heterogeneous gene expression, we identified a T2D-associated expression signature associated with cell cycle perturbations, DNA repair and the unfolded protein response, oxidative phosphorylation and inflammatory responses. Our data provide novel insights into the feline monocyte transcriptome, and support the hypothesis that inflammatory monocytes contribute to T2D pathogenesis in cats as well as in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of EMMPRIN (CD147) on monocyte subsets in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturhan, Henrik; Ungern-Sternberg, Saskia N I v; Langer, Harald; Gawaz, Meinrad; Geisler, Tobias; May, Andreas E; Seizer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The role of individual monocyte subsets in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases is insufficiently understood. Although the Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) regulates important processes for inflammation such as MMP-release, its expression and regulation on monocyte subsets has not been characterized. In this clinical study, blood was obtained from 80 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), 49 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 34 healthy controls. Monocytes were divided into 3 subsets: CD14(++)CD16(-) (low), CD14(++)CD16(+) (intermediate), CD14(+)CD16(++) (high) according to phenotypic markers analyzed by flow cytometry. Surface expression of EMMPRIN was evaluated and compared with CD36 and CD47 expression. In all patients, EMMPRIN expression was significantly different among monocyte subsets with the highest expression on "classical" CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes. EMMPRIN was upregulated on all monocyte subsets in patients with AMI as compared to patients with stable CAD. Notably, neither CD47 nor CD36 revealed a significant difference in patients with AMI compared to patients with stable CAD. EMMPRIN could serve as a marker for classical monocytes, which is upregulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-11-14

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.

  10. Extracellular Histones Increase Tissue Factor Activity and Enhance Thrombin Generation by Human Blood Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in response to infection. Recently, it was demonstrated that histones released into the circulation by dying/activated cells may contribute to sepsis pathology. Although the ability of extracellular histones to modulate the procoagulant activities of several cell types has been investigated, the influence of histones on the hemostatic functions of circulating monocytes is unknown. To address this, we investigated the ability of histones to modulate the procoagulant potential of THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes, and examined the effects of plasmas obtained from septic patients to induce a procoagulant phenotype on monocytic cells. Tissue factor (TF) activity assays were performed on histone-treated THP-1 cells and blood monocytes. Exposure of monocytic cells to histones resulted in increases in TF activity, TF antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Histones modulate the procoagulant activity via engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and this effect was abrogated with inhibitory antibodies. Increased TF activity of histone-treated cells corresponded to enhanced thrombin generation in plasma determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Finally, TF activity was increased on monocytes exposed to plasma from septic patients, an effect that was attenuated in plasma from patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH). Our studies suggest that increased levels of extracellular histones found in sepsis contribute to dysregulated coagulation by increasing TF activity of monocytes. These procoagulant effects can be partially ameliorated in sepsis patients receiving UFH, thereby identifying extracellular histones as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment.

  11. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Chávez-Galán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoarabinomannan (LAM is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients. Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. Purification of monocytes from cryopreserved mobilized apheresis products by elutriation with the Elutra device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarie, Claude; Sugaye, Romina; Kaur, Indreshpaul; Taga, Tim; Chabannon, Christian; Schuyler, Robert; Mcmannis, John

    2007-01-10

    The Elutra biomedical device allows semi-automatic enrichment of monocytes by elutriation, using a single-use, closed and cGMP compliant tubing set, in a cost effective way. The procedure has been validated using fresh apheresis products from nonmobilized donors. We here evaluated the possibility of using Elutra to enrich monocytes from frozen/thawed apheresis products collected from mobilized healthy donors. Frozen apheresis products from 6 G CSF mobilized donors were thawed and used in 16 elutriation procedures. We compared the recovery and purity of enriched monocytes using different buffer compositions and elutriation profiles. Elutriated monocytes were cultured to generate mature dendritic cells (DCs). Depending in part of the initial granulocyte contamination in the apheresis product, the use of Desoxyribo Nuclease (DNAse) to avoid aggregation, was needed through only the initial steps or throughout the elutriation process. The average monocyte recovery was 85+/-31%. The average purity was 73+/-9%. The recovery of mature DC at d8 of culture was 20+/-6% of the input monocyte numbers. We conclude that Elutra allows the purification of monocytes from thawed mobilized apheresis. It requires no pre-processing of the cell product before elutriation, and allows the generation of phenotypically mature DC in quantities that are compatible with a clinical use.

  13. Decrease of miR-146b-5p in monocytes during obesity is associated with loss of the anti-inflammatory but not insulin signaling action of adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Hulsmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adiponectin, a well-recognized antidiabetic adipokine, has been associated with obesity-related inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Globular adiponectin is an important regulator of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK/NFκB pathway in monocytes of obese subjects. It protects against inflammation and oxidative stress by inducing IRAK3. microRNA (miR-146b-5p inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation by targeted repression of IRAK1 and TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6. Therefore, we measured the expression of miR-146b-5p in monocytes of obese subjects. Because it was low we determined the involvement of this miR in the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and insulin signaling action of globular adiponectin. METHODS: miR-146b-5p expression in monocytes of obese subjects was determined by qRT-PCR. The effect of miR-146b-5p silencing on molecular markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin signaling and the association with globular adiponectin was assessed in human THP-1 monocytes. RESULTS: miR-146b-5p was downregulated in monocytes of obese persons. Low globular adiponectin decreased miR-146b-5p and IRAK3 in THP-1 monocytes, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. Intracellular ROS and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1 protein were unchanged. Silencing of miR-146b-5p with an antisense inhibitor resulted in increased expression of IRAK1 and TRAF6 leading to more NFκB p65 DNA binding activity and TNFα. As a response IRAK3 and IRS1 protein increased. Mitochondrial and intracellular ROS production did not increase despite more inflammation. In addition, exposure of miR-146b-5p-depleted THP-1 monocytes to high levels of globular adiponectin resulted in an increased production of TNFα and intracellular ROS. Still, they did not lose their potential to increase IRAK3 and IRS1 protein and to decrease mitochondrial ROS. CONCLUSION: miR-146b-5p, decreased in monocytes

  14. Stimulated monocyte IL-6 secretion predicts survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimdal, John-Helge; Kross, Kenneth; Klementsen, Beate; Olofsson, Jan; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether monocyte in vitro function is associated with presence, stage and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) disease. Prospective study describing outcome, after at least five years observation, of patients treated for HNSCC disease in relation to their monocyte function. Sixty-five patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC and eighteen control patients were studied. Monocyte responsiveness was assessed by measuring levels of monocyte in vitro interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic peptide (MCP)-1 secretion after 24 hours of endotoxin stimulation in cultures supplied either with 20% autologous serum (AS) or serum free medium (SFM). Survival, and if relevant, cause of death, was determined at least 5 years following primary diagnosis. All patients, as a group, had higher in vitro monocyte responsiveness in terms of IL-6 (AS) (t = 2.03; p < 0.05) and MCP-1 (SFM) (t = 2.49; p < 0.05) compared to controls. Increased in vitro monocyte IL-6 endotoxin responsiveness under the SFM condition was associated with decreased survival rate (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.27; Confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–4.88; p < 0.05). The predictive value of monocyte responsiveness, as measured by IL-6, was also retained when adjusted for age, gender and disease stage of patients (HR = 2.67; CI = 1.03–6.92; p < 0.05). With respect to MCP-1, low endotoxin-stimulated responsiveness (AS), analysed by Kaplan-Meier method, predicted decreased survival (χ = 4.0; p < 0.05). In HNSCC patients, changed monocyte in vitro response to endotoxin, as measured by increased IL-6 (SFM) and decreased MCP-1 (AS) responsiveness, are negative prognostic factors

  15. Effects of acute exercise on monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonner, Ralph; Wallner, Stefan; Orsó, Evelyn; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-06-10

    Acute exercise induces numerous changes in peripheral blood, e.g. counts of leukocytes. CD16 pos monocytes, which play a role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), are among the blood cells with the highest fold increase through exercise. So far no studies have investigated the effect of exercise on the blood cell composition of patients with MetS. Blood cell counts, a wide panel of laboratory tests, as well as lipid and protein content of monocytes and granulocytes were determined in healthy subjects, persons with metabolic risk and MetS patients before and after one minute of exercise at 400 W. Leukocyte counts increased significantly in all groups with CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes showing the highest fold-change. In MetS patients the fold increase was smaller. They had a higher resting level of CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes and a lower basal ratio of CD16 neg /CD16 pos monocytes. A similar ratio of these cells was induced in control and risk subjects after exercise. However, absolute counts of mobilized pro-inflammatory monocytes did not differ significantly. Furthermore, we detected a decrease in protein content of monocytes in controls, but not in MetS patients. As strenuous exercise is able to mobilize the same amount of pro-inflammatory monocytes in MetS patients as in healthy persons, the elevated basal level of these cells in MetS patients is likely to be caused by enhanced maturation rather than chronic mobilization. The removal of these monocytes from the endothelium might be part of the beneficial effect of exercise on vascular disease. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Monocytes of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia show alterations in cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Muhidien

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma cholesterol promotes the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in which monocyte-derived lipid-laden macrophages are frequently found. To analyze, if circulating monocytes already show increased lipid content and differences in lipoprotein metabolism, we compared monocytes from patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH with those from healthy individuals. Methods Cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol metabolite serum levels of FH and of healthy, gender/age matched control subjects were measured by combined gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Monocytes from patients with FH and from healthy subjects were isolated by antibody-assisted density centrifugation. Gene expression profiles of isolated monocytes were measured using Affymetrix HG-U 133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. We compared monocyte gene expression profiles from FH patients with healthy controls using a Welch T-test with correction for multiple testing (p Results Using microarray analysis we found in FH patients a significant up-regulation of 1,617 genes and a down-regulation of 701 genes compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. These include genes of proteins that are involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, disposition, and cellular efflux of cholesterol. In addition, plasma from FH patients contains elevated amounts of sterols and oxysterols. An increased uptake of oxidized as well as of native LDL by FH monocytes combined with a down-regulation of NPC1 and ABCA1 explains the lipid accumulation observed in these cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that circulating FH monocytes show differences in cell physiology that may contribute to the early onset of atherosclerosis in this disease.

  17. Phenotype and Function of CD209+ Bovine Blood Dendritic Cells, Monocyte-Derived-Dendritic Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Taek Park

    Full Text Available Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2, plasmacytoid DC (pDC, and monocyte derived DC (MoDC. DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC. Because of the high volume of blood collections required to study DC, cattle offer the best opportunity to further our understanding of bDC and MoDC function in an outbred large animal species. As reported here, phenotyping DC using a monoclonal antibody (mAb to CD209 revealed CD209 is expressed on the major myeloid population of DC present in blood and MoDC, providing a phenotypic link between these two subsets. Additionally, the present study demonstrates that CD209 is also expressed on monocyte derived macrophages (MoΦ. Functional analysis revealed each of these populations can take up and process antigens (Ags, present them to CD4 and CD8 T cells, and elicit a T-cell recall response. Thus, bDC, MoDC, and MoΦ pulsed with pathogens or candidate vaccine antigens can be used to study factors that modulate DC-driven T-cell priming and differentiation ex vivo.

  18. M1 and M2 Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Contribution of Imbalance of M1/M2 Monocytes to Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Fukui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe investigated the relationships among M1 monocytes, M2 monocytes, osteoclast (OC differentiation ability, and clinical characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from RA patients and healthy donors, and we then investigated the number of M1 monocytes or M2 monocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also obtained and cultured CD14-positive cells from PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors to investigate OC differentiation in vitro.ResultsForty RA patients and 20 healthy donors were included. Twenty-two patients (55% were anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive. The median M1/M2 ratio was 0.59 (0.31–1.11, interquartile range. There were no significant differences between the RA patients and healthy donors. There was a positive correlation between the M1/M2 ratio and the differentiated OC number in vitro in RA patients (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.001. The ACPA-positive patients had significantly higher M1/M2 ratios in vivo (p = 0.028 and significantly greater numbers of OCs in vitro (p = 0.005 than the ACPA-negative patients. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the M1/M2 ratio was the sole significant contribution factor to in vitro osteoclastogenesis. RA patients with M1/M2 ratios >1 (having relatively more M1 monocytes had higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates than RA patients with M1/M2 ratios ≤1. M1-dominant monocytes in vitro produced higher concentrations of interleukin-6 upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide than M2 monocytes.ConclusionM1/M2 monocytes imbalance strongly contributes to osteoclastogenesis of RA patients. Our findings cast M1 and M2 monocyte subsets in a new light as a new target of treatments for RA to prevent progression of osteoclastic bone destruction.

  19. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  20. Modulation of the counts and functions of neutrophils and monocytes under in vivo hyperthermia conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1994-01-01

    reduced 2 h after hot WI. The total amount (per litre of blood) of superoxide production by PMN stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OZ) was significantly augmented at 39 and 39.5 degrees C and 2 h after WI. In vivo hyperthermia did not affect the function of monocytes, but when correlated to the changes...... in the concentrations of monocytes (response per litre blood) a significant increase in the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and OZ-enhanced superoxide production occurred at 38 and 39 degrees C, as well as 2 h after termination of hot WI. Furthermore the OZ-enhanced monocyte chemiluminescence response per litre...

  1. Curcumin inhibits TGF-β1-induced connective tissue growth factor expression through the interruption of Smad2 signaling in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Tsu; Wang, Chen-Ying; Chen, Min-Huey

    2018-01-13

    Many fibrotic processes are associated with an increased level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 can increase synthesis of matrix proteins and enhance secretion of protease inhibitors, resulting in matrix accumulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream profibrotic effector of TGF-β1 and is associated with the fibrosis in several human organs. Curcumin has been applied to reduce matrix accumulation in fibrotic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether curcumin could suppress TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression and its related signaling pathway involving in this inhibitory action in primary human gingival fibroblasts. The differences in CTGF expression among three types of gingival overgrowth and normal gingival tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Gingival fibroblast viability in cultured media with different concentrations of curcumin was studied by MTT assay. The effect of curcumin on TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression in primary human gingival fibroblasts was examined by immunoblotting. Moreover, the proteins involved in TGF-β1 signaling pathways including TGF-β1 receptors and Smad2 were also analyzed by immunoblotting. CTGF was highly expressed in fibroblasts, epithelial cells and some of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and inflammatory cells in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth tissues rather than in those of hereditary and inflammatory gingival overgrowth tissues. Moreover, CTGF expression in the epithelial and connective tissue layers was higher in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth tissues than in normal gingival tissues. Curcumin was nontoxic and could reduce TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression by attenuating the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2. Curcumin can suppress TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression through the interruption of Smad2 signaling. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Bone morphogenic protein 6 : a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seckinger, A.; Meissner, T.; Moreaux, J.; Goldschmidt, H.; Fuhler, G. M.; Benner, A.; Hundemer, M.; Reme, T.; Shaughnessy, J. D.; Barlogie, B.; Bertsch, U.; Hillengass, J.; Ho, A. D.; Pantesco, V.; Jauch, A.; De Vos, J.; Rossi, J. F.; Moehler, T.; Klein, B.; Hose, D.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism-modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly

  3. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mic...

  4. Antibodies against the Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein from naturally exposed individuals living in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area can inhibit in vitro parasite growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Bianco, Cesare; Totino, Paulo Renato Rivas

    2011-01-01

    The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region h...

  5. Gas6 Promotes Inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) Monocyte Recruitment in Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, Sandrine; Bertin, François-René; Ebrahimian, Talin; Kassim, Yusra; Rys, Ryan N; Lehoux, Stéphanie; Lemarié, Catherine A; Blostein, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are inter-related. Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) promotes venous thrombosis and participates to inflammation through endothelial-innate immune cell interactions. Innate immune cells can provide the initiating stimulus for venous thrombus development. We hypothesize that Gas6 promotes monocyte recruitment during venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis was induced in wild-type and Gas6-deficient (-/-) mice using 5% FeCl 3 and flow reduction in the inferior vena cava. Total monocyte depletion was achieved by injection of clodronate before deep venous thrombosis. Inflammatory monocytes were depleted using an anti-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antibody. Similarly, injection of an anti-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody induced CCL2 depletion. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the monocytes recruited to the thrombus. In vivo, absence of Gas6 was associated with a reduction of monocyte recruitment in both deep venous thrombosis models. Global monocyte depletion by clodronate leads to smaller thrombi in wild-type mice. Compared with wild type, the thrombi from Gas6 -/- mice contain less inflammatory (CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo ) monocytes, consistent with a Gas6-dependent recruitment of this monocyte subset. Correspondingly, selective depletion of CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes reduced the formation of venous thrombi in wild-type mice demonstrating a predominant role of the inflammatory monocytes in thrombosis. In vitro, the expression of both CCR2 and CCL2 were Gas6 dependent in monocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, impacting monocyte migration. Moreover, Gas6-dependent CCL2 expression and monocyte migration were mediated via JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). This study demonstrates that Gas6 specifically promotes the recruitment of inflammatory CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes through the regulation of both CCR2 and CCL2 during deep venous thrombosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Importance of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgazli, K M; Venker, C J; Mericliler, M; Atmaca, N; Parahuleva, M; Erdogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b (IL-1b) induced inflammation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and cultured. Endothelial cell membrane potential measurements were accomplished using the fluorescent dye DiBAC4(3). The role of BKCa was assessed using iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa inhibitor. Changes in the calcium intracellular calcium were investigated using Fura-2-AM imaging. Fluorescent dyes DCF-AM and DAF-AM were further used in order to measure the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, respectively. Endothelial cell adhesion tests were conducted with BCECF-AM adhesion assay and tritium thymidine uptake using human monocytic cells (U937). Expression of cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) was determined by flow cytometer. Interleukin-1b induced a BKCa dependent hyperpolarization of HUVECs. This was followed by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. Furthermore, IL-1b significantly increased the synthesis of NO and ROS. The increase of intracellular calcium, radicals and NO resulted in a BKCa dependent adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Endothelial cells treated with IL-1b expressed both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in significantly higher amounts as when compared to controls. It was further shown that the cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were responsible for the BKCa-dependent increase in cellular adhesion. Additionally, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase with DPI led to a significant downregulation of IL-1b-induced expression of ICAM and VCAM, as well as inhibition of eNOS by L-NMMA, and intracellular calcium by BAPTA. Activation of the endothelial BKCa plays an important role in the IL-1b-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

  7. Involvement of JNK and NF-κB pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BAG3 expression in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Qin; Meng, Xin; Liu, Bao-Qin; Li, Chao; Gao, Yan-Yan; Niu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Ning; Guan, Yifu; Du, Zhen-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an outer-membrane glycolipid component of Gram-negative bacteria known for its fervent ability to activate monocytic cells and for its potent proinflammatory capabilities. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a survival protein that has been shown to be stimulated during cell response to stressful conditions, such as exposure to high temperature, heavy metals, proteasome inhibition, and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. In addition, BAG3 regulates replication of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) replication, suggesting that BAG3 could participate in the host response to infection. In the current study, we found that LPS increased the expression of BAG3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Actinomycin D completely blocked the LPS-induced BAG3 accumulation, as well as LPS activated the proximal promoter of BAG3 gene, supported that the induction by LPS occurred at the level of gene transcription. LPS-induced BAG3 expression was blocked by JNK or NF-κB inhibition, suggesting that JNK and NF-κB pathways participated in BAG3 induction by LPS. In addition, we also found that induction of BAG3 was implicated in monocytic cell adhesion to extracellular matrix induced by LPS. Overall, the data support that BAG3 is induced by LPS via JNK and NF-κB-dependent signals, and involved in monocytic cell-extracellular matrix interaction, suggesting that BAG3 may have a role in the host response to LPS stimulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M

    2000-01-01

    as in adhesion and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report for the first time that aminopeptidase N/CD13 in monocytes is partially localized in detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, glycolipids, and glycosylphosphoinositol-anchored proteins, referred to as "rafts." Raft fractions...... of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin greatly...... reduces raft localization of aminopeptidase N/CD13 without affecting ala-p-nitroanilide cleaving activity of cells....

  9. CD13 is a novel mediator of monocytic/endothelial cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mina-Osorio, Paola; Winnicka, Beata; O'Conor, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    During inflammation, cell surface adhesion molecules guide the adhesion and migration of circulating leukocytes across the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels to access the site of injury. The transmembrane molecule CD13 is expressed on monocytes and endothelial cells and has been shown...... to mediate homotypic cell adhesion, which may imply a role for CD13 in inflammatory monocyte trafficking. Here, we show that ligation and clustering of CD13 by mAb or viral ligands potently induce myeloid cell/endothelial adhesion in a signal transduction-dependent manner involving monocytic cytoskeletal...... rearrangement and filopodia formation. Treatment with soluble recombinant (r)CD13 blocks this CD13-dependent adhesion, and CD13 molecules from monocytic and endothelial cells are present in the same immunocomplex, suggesting a direct participation of CD13 in the adhesive interaction. This concept...

  10. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  11. Prevention of UV irradiation induced suppression of monocyte functions by retinoids and carotenoids in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, D.J.; Watson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stimulation of human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro with retinoids and carotenoids, and subsequent exposure to ultraviolet light of the B wavelength were measured. The compounds were applied to the monocytes in culture for 24 h, and the washed cells were then exposed to UVB light up to 220 J/m 2 . The compounds tested protected the monocyte from UVB induced damage to phagocytic activity. This protection may be due to the antioxidant or UVB energy-quenching properties of these compounds. Monocyte cytotoxicity against a melanoma cell line was stimulated by exposure to the retinoids or carotenoids, but a protective effect in vitro against UVB damage was not seen for this cell function. (author)

  12. Innate immune responses of equine monocytes cultured in equine platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Norton, Natalie A; Copland, Ian B; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-01-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. In a first experiment, equine monocytes were isolated and incubated with donor horse serum (DHS), FBS, six individual donors ePL or pooled ePL from all horses. In a second experiment, monocytes were stimulated with E. coli LPS in the presence of 1, 5 or 10% DHS and/or pooled ePL. After 6h of incubation, cell culture supernatants were assayed via ELISA for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) as well as for the anti-inflammatory Interleukin 10 (IL-10). Equine monocytes incubated with pooled ePL produced significantly less TNF-α and significantly more IL-10 than monocytes incubated in FBS. A statistically significant difference was not identified for the production of IL-1β. The second experiment showed that pooled ePL added to LPS-stimulated equine monocytes resulted in a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β production. IL-10 production was not significantly upregulated by the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes. Finally, the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes in the presence of various concentrations of DHS resulted to statistically significant decrease of TNF-α and IL-1β compared to the control groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that ePL suppresses

  13. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weina; He, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer

  14. Effects of monascin on anti-inflammation mediated by Nrf2 activation in advanced glycation end product-treated THP-1 monocytes and methylglyoxal-treated wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Tao; Chang, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-13

    Hyperglycemia is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monascin on receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) signal and THP-1 monocyte inflammation after treatment with S100b, a specific ligand of RAGE. Monascin inhibited cytokine production by S100b-treated THP-1 monocytes via up-regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and alleviated p47phox translocation to the membrane. Methylglyoxal (MG, 600 mg/kg bw) was used to induce diabetes in Wistar rats. Inhibitions of RAGE and p47phox by monascin were confirmed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MG-induced rats. Silymarin (SM) was used as a positive control group. It was found that monascin promoted heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by Nrf2. Suppressions of AGEs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-β) in serum of MG-induced rats were attenuated in the monascin administration group treated with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment resulted in Nrf2 inactivation by increasing RA receptor-α (RARα) activity, suggesting that RA acts as an inhibitor of Nrf2. The results showed that monascin exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects mediated by Nrf2 to prevent the development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes caused by inflammation.

  15. Moderate Increase of Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Monocyte Transition into Profibrotic Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barisione

    Full Text Available The uremic toxin Indoxyl-3-sulphate (IS, a ligand of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR, raises in blood during early renal dysfunction as a consequence of tubular damage, which may be present even when eGFR is normal or only moderately reduced, and promotes cardiovascular damage and monocyte-macrophage activation. We previously found that patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs have higher CD14+CD16+ monocyte frequency and prevalence of moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD than age-matched control subjects. Here we aimed to evaluate the IS levels in plasma from AAA patients and to investigate in vitro the effects of IS concentrations corresponding to mild-to-moderate CKD on monocyte polarization and macrophage differentiation.Free IS plasma levels, monocyte subsets and laboratory parameters were evaluated on blood from AAA patients and eGFR-matched controls. THP-1 monocytes, treated with IS 1, 10, 20 μM were evaluated for CD163 expression, AhR signaling and then induced to differentiate into macrophages by PMA. Their phenotype was evaluated both at the stage of semi-differentiated and fully differentiated macrophages. AAA and control sera were similarly used to treat THP-1 monocytes and the resulting macrophage phenotype was analyzed.IS plasma concentration correlated positively with CD14+CD16+ monocytes and was increased in AAA patients. In THP-1 cells, IS promoted CD163 expression and transition to macrophages with hallmarks of classical (IL-6, CCL2, COX2 and alternative phenotype (IL-10, PPARγ, TGF-β, TIMP-1, via AhR/Nrf2 activation. Analogously, AAA sera induced differentiation of macrophages with enhanced IL-6, MCP1, TGF-β, PPARγ and TIMP-1 expression.IS skews monocyte differentiation toward low-inflammatory, profibrotic macrophages and may contribute to sustain chronic inflammation and maladaptive vascular remodeling.

  16. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    OpenAIRE

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocy...

  17. Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part 1: stimulatory effects on blood monocytes and monocyte-derived cells of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushchayev SV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sergiy V Kushchayev,1 Tejas Sankar,1 Laura L Eggink,4,5 Yevgeniya S Kushchayeva,5 Philip C Wiener,1,5 J Kenneth Hoober,5,6 Jennifer Eschbacher,3 Ruolan Liu,2 Fu-Dong Shi,2 Mohammed G Abdelwahab,4 Adrienne C Scheck,4 Mark C Preul11Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, 2Neuroimmunology Laboratory, 3Department of Pathology, 4Neurooncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, 5School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, 6Susavion Biosciences, Inc, Tempe, AZ, USAObjectives: Immunotherapy with immunostimulants is an attractive therapy against gliomas. C-type lectin receptors specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GCLR regulate cellular differentiation, recognition, and trafficking of monocyte-derived cells. A peptide mimetic of GCLR ligands (GCLRP was used to activate blood monocytes and populations of myeloid-derived cells against a murine glioblastoma.Methods: The ability of GCLRP to stimulate phagocytosis by human microglia and monocyte-derived cells of the brain (MDCB isolated from a human glioblastoma was initially assessed in vitro. Induction of activation markers on blood monocytes was assayed by flow cytometry after administration of GCLRP to naive mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells and were randomized for tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging, which was also used to assess increase in tumor size. Brain tumor tissues were analyzed using flow cytometry, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with respect to tumor, peritumoral area, and contralateral hemisphere regions.Results: GCLRP exhibited strong stimulatory effect on MDCBs and blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo. GCLRP was associated with an increased percentage of precursors of dendritic cells in the blood (P = 0.003, which differentiated into patrolling macrophages in tumoral (P = 0.001 and peritumoral areas (P = 0.04, rather than into dendritic cells

  18. Pluripotency gene expression and growth control in cultures of peripheral blood monocytes during their conversion into programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO: evidence for a regulatory role of autocrine activin and TGF-β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Ungefroren

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that peripheral blood monocytes can be converted in vitro to a stem cell-like cell termed PCMO as evidenced by the re-expression of pluripotency-associated genes, transient proliferation, and the ability to adopt the phenotype of hepatocytes and insulin-producing cells upon tissue-specific differentiation. However, the regulatory interactions between cultured cells governing pluripotency and mitotic activity have remained elusive. Here we asked whether activin(s and TGF-β(s, are involved in PCMO generation. De novo proliferation of PCMO was higher under adherent vs. suspended culture conditions as revealed by the appearance of a subset of Ki67-positive monocytes and correlated with down-regulation of p21WAF1 beyond day 2 of culture. Realtime-PCR analysis showed that PCMO express ActRIIA, ALK4, TβRII, ALK5 as well as TGF-β1 and the βA subunit of activin. Interestingly, expression of ActRIIA and ALK4, and activin A levels in the culture supernatants increased until day 4 of culture, while levels of total and active TGF-β1 strongly declined. PCMO responded to both growth factors in an autocrine fashion with intracellular signaling as evidenced by a rise in the levels of phospho-Smad2 and a drop in those of phospho-Smad3. Stimulation of PCMO with recombinant activins (A, B, AB and TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 but not Smad3. Inhibition of autocrine activin signaling by either SB431542 or follistatin reduced both Smad2 activation and Oct4A/Nanog upregulation. Inhibition of autocrine TGF-β signaling by either SB431542 or anti-TGF-β antibody reduced Smad3 activation and strongly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells. Furthermore, anti-TGF-β antibody moderately enhanced Oct4A/Nanog expression. Our data show that during PCMO generation pluripotency marker expression is controlled positively by activin/Smad2 and negatively by TGF-β/Smad3 signaling, while relief from growth inhibition is primarily the

  19. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Devyn D.; Curry, Heather M.; Cremer, Thomas; Ravneberg, David; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy A.; Wewers, Mark D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection. Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes. Conclusion: F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process. Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity. PMID:24783062

  1. Monocyte matrix metalloproteinase production in Type 2 diabetes and controls – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Isabel R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary plaque rupture may result from localised over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs within the plaque by infiltrating monocyte – macrophages. As MMP expression can be promoted by the modified lipoproteins, oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia that characterises Type 2 diabetes, we hypothesised that peripheral monocytes in these patients, exposed to these factors in vivo, would demonstrate increased MMP production compared to controls. Methods We examined peripheral venous monocyte expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in 18 controls and 22 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular complications. Results No significant difference in MMP-1, 3 or 9 or TIMP-1 production was observed between control and diabetes groups. Conclusions Monocyte MMP-1, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, production are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes. This data cannot be extrapolated to monocyte – macrophage behaviour in the vessel wall, but it does suggest MMP and TIMP-1 expression prior to monocyte infiltration and transformation are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes.

  2. Toxicity of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) on human monocytes and their mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbary, Fatemeh; Seydi, Enaytollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NP) in human monocytes is still unknown. Therefore, an understanding of probable cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes and underlining the mechanisms involved is of significant interest. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of TiO 2 -NP at 10 μg/ml concentration to monocytes induced cytotoxicity following 12 h. The TiO 2 -NP-induced cytotoxicity on monocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, TiO 2 -NP triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in monocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally, our findings suggest that use of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with TiO 2 -NP.

  3. Differential effects of malignant mesothelioma cells on THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Valerio; Chiurchiù, Valerio; D'Aquilio, Fabiola; Palumbo, Camilla; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Baldini, Patrizia M

    2009-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly fatal tumor arising from inner body membranes, whose extensive growth is facilitated by its week immunogenicity and by its ability to blunt the immune response which should arise from the huge mass of leukocytes typically infiltrating this tumor. It has been reported that the inflammatory infiltrate found in MM tissues is characterized by a high prevalence of macrophages. Thus, in this work we evaluated the ability of human MM cells to modulate the inflammatory phenotype of human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, a widely used in vitro model of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the exposure to MM cells could alter the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes favoring the development of alternatively activated, tumor-supporting macrophages. Our data prove for the first time that MM cells can polarize monocytes towards an altered inflammatory phenotype and macrophages towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that monocytes cocultivated with MM cells 'keep a memory' of their encounter with the tumor which influences their differentiation to macrophages. On the whole, we provide evidence that MM cells exert distinct, cell-specific effects on monocytes and macrophages. The thorough characterization of such effects may be of a crucial importance for the rational design of new immunotherapeutic protocols.

  4. The Role of Monocyte Percentage in Osteoporosis in Male Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Jih; Chen, Chao Tung; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Hung-Chen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Chih-Min; Hsiao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is easily overlooked in male patients, especially in the field of rheumatic diseases mostly prevalent with female patients, and its link to pathogenesis is still lacking. Attenuated monocyte apoptosis from a transcriptome-wide expression study illustrates the role of monocytes in osteoporosis. This study tested the hypothesis that the monocyte percentage among leukocytes could be a biomarker of osteoporosis in rheumatic diseases. Eighty-seven males with rheumatic diseases were evaluated in rheumatology outpatient clinics for bone mineral density (BMD) and surrogate markers, such as routine peripheral blood parameters and autoantibodies. From the total number of 87 patients included in this study, only 15 met the criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis. Both age and monocyte percentage remained independently associated with the presence of osteoporosis. Steroid dose (equivalent prednisolone dose) was negatively associated with BMD of the hip area and platelet counts were negatively associated with BMD and T score of the spine area. Besides age, monocyte percentage meets the major requirements for osteoporosis in male rheumatic diseases. A higher monocyte percentage in male rheumatic disease patients, aged over 50 years in this study, and BMD study should be considered in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures.

  5. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm 2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation.

  6. Differential oxidative stress induced by dengue virus in monocytes from human neonates, adult and elderly individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Valero

    Full Text Available Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4 and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease.

  7. Niacin results in reduced monocyte adhesion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavintharan, S; Woon, K; Pek, L T; Jauhar, N; Dong, X; Lim, S C; Sum, C F

    2011-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs and monocyte adhesion mediate essential processes in atherogenesis. It remains unclear if monocytes from patients on niacin have reduced adhesion function. We studied the variation of monocyte adhesion in patients with type 2 diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, taking either extended release niacin (Niaspan®, Abbott Laboratories) or controls not on niacin. Biochemical parameters including adiponectin, CAMs and fresh monocytes from whole blood for adhesion assays, were studied at baseline and 12-weeks. Niacin 1500 mg daily raised HDL-cholesterol from 0.8 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.7-0.9) to 0.9 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.8-1.1), p=0.10, and significantly reduced PECAM-1 by 24.9% (95% CI: 10.9-39.0; p<0.05), increased adiponectin by 30.5% (95% CI: 14.1-47.0; p<0.05), with monocyte adhesion reduced by 9.2% (95%CI: 0.7-17.7; p<0.05) in endothelial cells treated in basal conditions, and 7.8% (95% CI: 3.1-12.5; p<0.05) after TNF-α stimulation. Monocytes isolated from patients on niacin had reduced adhesion to endothelial cells. Our findings suggest niacin has broad range of effects apart from lipid-modification, and these could be important in cardiovascular risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress, Inflammation and Pain: A Potential Role for Monocytes in Fibromyalgia-related Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann Gill; Fischer-White, Tamara G; Anderson, Joel G; Adelstein, Katharine E; Murugesan, Maheswari; Lewis, Janet E; Scott, Michael M; Gaykema, Ronald P A; Goehler, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    The possibility that immunological changes might contribute to symptom severity in fibromyalgia (FM) prompted this proof-of-concept study to determine whether differences in monocyte subpopulations might be present in persons with FM compared with healthy controls. Relationships were assessed by comparing specific symptoms in those with FM (n = 20) and patterns of monocyte subpopulations with healthy age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 20). Within the same time frame, all participants provided a blood sample and completed measures related to pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, perceived stress, positive and negative affect and depressed mood (and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for those with FM). Monocyte subpopulations were assessed using flow cytometry. No differences were observed in total percentages of circulating monocytes between the groups; however, pain was inversely correlated with percentages of circulating classical (r = -0.568, p = 0.011) and intermediate (r = -0.511, p = 0.025) monocytes in the FM group. Stress and pain were highly correlated (r = 0.608, p = 0.004) in the FM group. The emerging pattern of changes in the percentages of circulating monocyte subpopulations concomitant with higher ratings of perceived pain and the correlation between stress and pain found in the FM group warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Mary Anna; De Palma, Michele; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Pucci, Ferdinando; Scielzo, Cristina; Zonari, Erika; Mazzieri, Roberta; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi

    2007-06-15

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), have been implicated in tumor progression. We recently described a lineage of mouse monocytes characterized by expression of the Tie2 angiopoietin receptor and required for the vascularization and growth of several tumor models. Here, we report that TIE2 expression in human blood identifies a subset of monocytes distinct from classical inflammatory monocytes and comprised within the less abundant "resident" population. These TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) accounted for 2% to 7% of blood mononuclear cells in healthy donors and were distinct from rare circulating endothelial cells and progenitors. In human cancer patients, TEMs were observed in the blood and, intriguingly, within the tumors, where they represented the main monocyte population distinct from TAMs. Conversely, TEMs were hardly detected in nonneoplastic tissues. In vitro, TEMs migrated toward angiopoietin-2, a TIE2 ligand released by activated endothelial cells and angiogenic vessels, suggesting a homing mechanism for TEMs to tumors. Purified human TEMs, but not TEM-depleted monocytes, markedly promoted angiogenesis in xenotransplanted human tumors, suggesting a potentially critical role of TEMs in human cancer progression. Human TEMs may provide a novel, biologically relevant marker of angiogenesis and represent a previously unrecognized target of cancer therapy.

  10. Differential Modulation of Annexin I Binding Sites on Monocytes and Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Euzger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific binding sites for the anti-inflammatory protein annexin I have been detected on the surface of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN. These binding sites are proteinaceous in nature and are sensitive to cleavage by the proteolytic enzymes trypsin, collagenase, elastase and cathepsin G. When monocytes and PMN were isolated independently from peripheral blood, only the monocytes exhibited constitutive annexin I binding. However PMN acquired the capacity to bind annexin I following co-culture with monocytes. PMN incubation with sodium azide, but not protease inhibitors, partially blocked this process. A similar increase in annexin I binding capacity was also detected in PMN following adhesion to endothelial monolayers. We propose that a juxtacrine activation rather than a cleavage-mediated transfer is involved in this process. Removal of annexin I binding sites from monocytes with elastase rendered monocytes functionally insensitive to full length annexin I or to the annexin I-derived pharmacophore, peptide Ac2-26, assessed as suppression of the respiratory burst. These data indicate that the annexin I binding site on phagocytic cells may have an important function in the feedback control of the inflammatory response and their loss through cleavage could potentiate such responses.

  11. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonsup; Wen, Beryl; Carter, Elizabeth A; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E R; Lay, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are involved in cell-cell interactions, including disease pathogenesis. Nondestructive Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from MVs were assessed as a technique to provide new biochemical insights into a LPS-induced monocyte model of septic shock. FTIR spectroscopy provided a quick method to investigate relative differences in biomolecular content of different MV populations that was complementary to traditional semiquantitative omics approaches, with which it is difficult to provide information on relative changes between classes (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates) or protein conformations. Time-dependent changes were detected in biomolecular contents of MVs and in the monocytes from which they were released. Differences in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine contents were observed in MVs released under stimulation, and higher relative concentrations of RNA and α-helical structured proteins were present in stimulated MVs compared with MVs from resting cells. FTIR spectra of stimulated monocytes displayed changes that were consistent with those observed in the corresponding MVs they released. LPS-stimulated monocytes had reduced concentrations of nucleic acids, α-helical structured proteins, and phosphatidylcholine compared with resting monocytes but had an increase in total lipids. FTIR spectra of MV biomolecular content will be important in shedding new light on the mechanisms of MVs and the different roles they play in physiology and disease pathogenesis.-Lee, J., Wen, B., Carter, E. A., Combes, V., Grau, G. E. R., Lay, P. A. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of monocytic microvesicles (microparticles) released upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. © FASEB.

  13. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocytosis of S. aureus and peptidoglycan as compared with that of purified cell walls. Lysostaphin digestion of peptidoglycan markedly reduced its pyrogenicity. To test whether the chemical composition of the ingested particles is important, latex particles were tested as possible stimuli for monocyte endogenous pyrogen release. Although 40 to 68% of monocytes ingested latex particles during the first hour, there was no evidence of endogenous pyrogen activity in the supernatant even when supernatants equivalent to 5.2 X 10(6) monocytes were tested. This study demonstrates that the pyrogenic moiety of the S. aureus cell wall resides in the peptidoglycan component. Phagocytosis is not in itself a pyrogenic stimulus, but rather serves as an effective mechanism to bring about contact between the chemical stimulus and the monocyte.

  14. Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, D.J.; Yanagishita, M.; Hascall, V.C.; Bickel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family

  15. Blood Monocyte Subsets and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis of Short Duration in relation to Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate blood monocyte subsets and functional monocyte properties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA of short duration in the context of cardiovascular (CV risk and disease activity. Methods. We studied conventional markers of CV risk, intima media thickness (IMT, and blood monocyte subsets in 27 patients aged 41 ± 10 years with RA of short duration (median 12 months and 22 healthy controls. The RA subjects were divided into low (DAS28: 2.6–5.1 and high (DAS28 > 5.1 disease activity. Results. RA patients exhibited increased levels of intermediate (CD14++CD16+ monocytes with decreased CD45RA expression compared to controls, increased counts of classical (CD14++CD16− monocytes, and decreased percentages of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Patients with high disease activity had lower HLA DR expression on classical monocytes compared to low disease activity patients. There were no differences in monocyte subsets between subjects with DAS > 5.1 and DAS ≤ 5.1. There were no significant intergroup differences in IMT and the majority of classical CV risk factors. Conclusions. Patients with RA of short duration show alteration in peripheral blood monocyte subsets despite the fact that there is no evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Disease activity assessed with DAS28 was associated with impaired functional properties but not with a shift in monocyte subpopulations.

  16. Novel ex vivo culture method for human monocytes uses shear flow to prevent total loss of transendothelial diapedesis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Frey, Jeremy M; Raines, Elaine W

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites and their transendothelial migration into tissues are critical to homeostasis and pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, even short-term suspension culture of primary human monocytes leads to phenotypic changes. In this study, we characterize the functional effects of ex vivo monocyte culture on the steps involved in monocyte transendothelial migration. Our data demonstrate that monocyte diapedesis is impaired by as little as 4 h culture, and the locomotion step is subsequently compromised. After 16 h in culture, monocyte diapedesis is irreversibly reduced by ∼90%. However, maintenance of monocytes under conditions mimicking physiological flow (5-7.5 dyn/cm²) is sufficient to reduce diapedesis impairment significantly. Thus, through the application of shear during ex vivo culture of monocytes, our study establishes a novel protocol, allowing functional analyses of monocytes not currently possible under static culture conditions. These data further suggest that monocyte-based therapeutic applications may be measurably improved by alteration of ex vivo conditions before their use in patients.

  17. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, Zuzana; Smart, Eric; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease and stroke is initiated in the vascular endothelium, and risk factors for its development include environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Caveolae are membrane microdomains involved in regulation of many signaling pathways, and in particular in endothelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that intact caveolae are required for coplanar PCB77-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of the atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis-prone LDL-R -/- mice (control) or caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice were treated with PCB77. PCB77 induced aortic mRNA expression and plasma protein levels of MCP-1 in control, but not caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice. To study the mechanism of this effect, primary endothelial cells were used. PCB77 increased MCP-1 levels in endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by caveolin-1 silencing using siRNA. Also, MCP-1 up-regulation by PCB77 was prevented by inhibiting p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2, suggesting regulatory functions via p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Finally, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) partially blocked MCP-1 up-regulation. Thus, our data demonstrate that coplanar PCB77 can induce MCP-1 expression by endothelial cells and that this effect is mediated by AhR, as well as p 38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Intact caveolae are required for these processes both in vivo and in vitro. This further supports a key role for caveolae in vascular inflammation induced by persistent organic pollutants.

  18. AB0 blood groups and rhesus factor expression as prognostic parameters in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer - a retrospective multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Veronika; Polterauer, Stephan; Reinthaller, Alexander; Koelbl, Heinz; Achleitner, Regina; Berger, Astrid; Concin, Nicole

    2018-04-19

    AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression have been associated with carcinogenesis, response to treatment and tumor progression in several malignancies. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression are associated with clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression were evaluated in a retrospective multicenter study including 518 patients with EOC. Their association with patients' survival was assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Neither AB0 blood groups nor Rhesus factor expression were associated with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence-free, cancer-specific, or overall survival. In a subgroup of patients with high-grade serous adenocarcinoma, however, blood groups B and AB were associated with a better 5-year cancer-specific survival rate compared to blood groups A and 0 (60.3 ± 8.6% vs. 43.8 ± 3.6%, p = 0.04). Yet, this was not significant in multivariable analysis. AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression are both neither associated with features of biologically aggressive disease nor clinical outcome in patients with EOC. Further investigation of the role of the blood group B antigen on cancer-specific survival in the subgroup of high-grade serous should be considered.

  19. Monocytes with angiogenic potential are selectively induced by liver resection and accumulate near the site of liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Zajc, Philipp; Alidzanovic, Lejla; Maier, Thomas; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Pop, Lorand; Gruenberger, Birgit; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2014-10-30

    Monocytes reportedly contribute to liver regeneration. Three subsets have been identified to date: classical, intermediate, non-classical monocytes. The intermediate population and a subtype expressing TIE2 (TEMs) were suggested to promote angiogenesis. In a clinical setting, we investigated which monocyte subsets are regulated after liver resection and correlate with postoperative liver function. In 38 patients monocyte subsets were evaluated in blood and subhepatic wound fluid by flow cytometry before and 1-3 days after resection of colorectal liver metastases. The monocyte-regulating cytokines macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), and angiopoietin 2 (ANG-2) were measured in patient plasma by ELISA. C-reactive protein (CRP) and liver function parameters were retrieved from routine hospital analyses. On post-operative day (POD) 1 blood monocytes shifted to significantly elevated levels of intermediate monocytes. In wound fluid, a delayed surge in intermediate monocytes was detected by POD 3. Furthermore, TEMs were highly enriched in wound fluid as compared to circulation. CRP and M-CSF levels were substantially increased in patient blood after surgery and correlated significantly with the frequency of intermediate monocytes. In addition, liver function parameters showed a significant association with intermediate monocyte levels on POD 3. The reportedly pro-angiogenic subsets of monocytes are selectively increased upon liver resection and accumulate next to the site of liver regeneration. As previously proposed by in vitro experiments, the release of CRP and M-CSF may trigger the induction of intermediate monocytes. The correlation with liver parameters points to a functional involvement of these monocyte populations in liver regeneration which warrants further investigation.

  20. Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simone A; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Arend, Sandra M; Prins, Corine; Oftung, Fredrik; Korsvold, Gro Ellen; Kik, Sandra V; Arts, Rob Jw; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G; Ottenhoff, Tom Hm

    2018-05-01

    The lack of defined correlates of protection hampers development of vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In vitro mycobacterial outgrowth assays are thought to better capture the complexity of the human host/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) interaction. Here, we used a mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate the capacity to control outgrowth of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interestingly, strong control of BCG outgrowth was observed almost exclusively in individuals with recent exposure to Mtb, but not in (long-term) latent TB infection, and only modestly in BCG vaccinees. Mechanistically, control of mycobacterial outgrowth strongly correlated with the presence of a CD14dim monocyte population, but also required the presence of T cells. The nonclassical monocytes produced CXCL10, and CXCR3 receptor blockade inhibited the capacity to control BCG outgrowth. Expression of CXCR3 splice variants was altered in recently Mtb-exposed individuals. Cytokines previously associated with trained immunity were detected in MGIA supernatants, and CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 represent new markers of trained immunity. These data indicate that CXCR3 ligands are associated with trained immunity and are critical factors in controlling mycobacterial outgrowth. In conclusion, control of mycobacterial outgrowth early after exposure to Mtb is the result of trained immunity mediated by a CXCL10-producing nonclassical CD14dim monocyte subset.

  1. ROLE OF MONOCYTE PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM IN FORMATION OF ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN MICE AFTER PRELIMINARY INJECTION OF CRYOPRESERVED CORD BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhina OYu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the task of preventive maintenance and search of biologically active substances, capable to make active the nonspecific immune response, remains an actual during flu epidemic. It has been previously established, that cryopreserved leucoconcentrate of human cord blood (cLHCB can act as modulator of activity of immunity. In the given work there was estimated influence of preventive injection of cLHCB and its components on functional activity of monocyte phagocytic system cells (MPSC in mice in the conditions of the induced influenzal infection. Preliminary introduction of cLHCB and its components 6 months prior to infection by flu virus makes 2 times increase of functional activity of macrophages, preventing inhibition of a nonspecific link of immunity. Thus, cLHCB inhibit of secondary immune deficiency development. The found increase in phagocytic activity of peritoneal cavity cells and 3 times increasesing of CD11b-marker expression after preventive injection of cLHCB testifies to rise of adherence and protective potential of MPSC that is one of possible mechanisms of formation of resistance to a flu virus. It is shown, that intranasal cLHCB injection before development of viral infection it can be o recommended as the method of preventive maintenance of flu.

  2. [Effect of DOT1L gene silence on proliferation of acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Juan; Li, Hua-Wen; Chang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Ju; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ya-Ni; Zhou, Jia-Xi; Li, Qing-Hua; Pang, Tian-Xiang

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on proliferation of human leukemia cell line THP-1. The shRNA targeting the site 732-752 of DOT1L mRNA was designed and chemically synthesized, then a single-vector lentiviral, tet-inducible shRNA-DOT1L system (Plko-Tet-On) was generated. Thereafter, the THP-1 cells with lentivirus were infected to create stable cell line with regulatable shRNA expression. The expression of DOT1L in the THP-1 cell line was assayed by RT-PCR. Effect of shRNA-DOT1L on the proliferation of THP-1 cells was detected with MTT method,and the change of colony forming potential of THP-1 cells was analyzed by colony forming unit test. Cell cycle distribution was tested by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the expression of DOT1L was statistically lower than that in the control groups. The proliferation and colony forming capacity of THP-1 cells were significantly inhibited. The percentage of cells at G0/G1 phase increased in THP-1/shRNA cells treated with Dox while the percentage of cells at S phase significantly decreased as compared with that in the control group. It is concluded that the shRNA targeting DOT1L can effectively inhibit the proliferation of acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.

  3. N-Acetylcysteine enhances the action of anti-inflammatory drugs as suppressors of prostaglandin production in monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Hoffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins. Since oxygen free radicals can act as second cellular messengers, especially to modulate the metabolism of arachidonic acid and the prostaglandin tract, it seems plausible that antioxidants might affect the production of prostaglandin by activated cells. This research is focused on the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 formation in activated monocytes by specific and non-specific COX inhibitors. We found that lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 formation was significantly reduced by rofecoxib and by diclofenac, two NSAIDs. Addition of NAC to each of these drugs enhanced the effect of the NSAIDs. These results suggest that one might expect either a potentiation of the anti-inflammatory effect of COX inhibitors by their simultaneous administration with NAC, or obtaining the same anti-inflammatory at lower drug levels.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPARα and PPARγ, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPARα and γ isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1β-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPARα agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1β-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPARα -/- mice and treated with the PPARα agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by ∼ 50% in IL-1β-stimulated PPARα-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1β effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPARα and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies suggest that PPARα agonists may be used therapeutically, not only for lipid

  5. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  6. CD1 molecule expression on human monocytes induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinrerk, W; Baumruker, T; Majdic, O; Knapp, W; Stockinger, H

    1993-01-15

    In this paper we demonstrate that granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) specifically induces the expression of CD1 molecules, CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, upon human monocytes. CD1 molecules appeared upon monocytes on day 1 of stimulation with rGM-CSF, and expression was up-regulated until day 3. Monocytes cultured in the presence of LPS, FMLP, PMA, recombinant granulocyte-CSF, rIFN-gamma, rTNF-alpha, rIL-1 alpha, rIL-1 beta, and rIL-6 remained negative. The induction of CD1 molecules by rGM-CSF was restricted to monocytes, since no such effect was observed upon peripheral blood granulocytes, PBL, and the myeloid cell lines Monomac1, Monomac6, MV4/11, HL60, U937, THP1, KG1, and KG1A. CD1a mRNA was detectable in rGM-CSF-induced monocytes but not in those freshly isolated. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of CD1a mAb VIT6 immunoprecipitate from lysate of rGM-CSF-activated monocytes revealed an appropriate CD1a polypeptide band of 49 kDa associated with beta 2-microglobulin. Expression of CD1 molecules on monocytes complements the distribution of these structures on accessory cells, and their specific induction by GM-CSF strengthens the suggestion that CD1 is a family of crucial structures required for interaction between accessory cells and T cells.

  7. Proangiogenic hematopoietic cells of monocytic origin: roles in vascular regeneration and pathogenic processes of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukie; Kuwana, Masataka

    2013-02-01

    New blood vessel formation is critical, not only for organ development and tissue regeneration, but also for various pathologic processes, such as tumor development and vasculopathy. The maintenance of the postnatal vascular system requires constant remodeling, which occurs through angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and arteriogenesis. Vasculogenesis is mediated by the de novo differentiation of mature endothelial cells from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Early studies provided evidence that bone marrow-derived CD14⁺ monocytes can serve as a subset of EPCs because of their expression of endothelial markers and ability to promote neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. However, the current consensus is that monocytic cells do not give rise to endothelial cells in vivo, but function as support cells, by promoting vascular formation and repair through their immediate recruitment to the site of vascular injury, secretion of proangiogenic factors, and differentiation into mural cells. These monocytes that function in a supporting role in vascular repair are now termed monocytic pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells (PHCs). Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by excessive fibrosis and microvasculopathy, along with poor vascular formation and repair. We recently showed that in patients with SSc, circulating monocytic PHCs increase dramatically and have enhanced angiogenic potency. These effects may be induced in response to defective vascular repair machinery. Since CD14⁺ monocytes can also differentiate into fibroblast-like cells that produce extracellular matrix proteins, here we propose a new hypothesis that aberrant monocytic PHCs, once mobilized into circulation, may also contribute to the fibrotic process of SSc.

  8. Gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes depend significantly on the choice of reference genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øvstebø Reidun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated monocytes is mainly studied by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR using GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or ACTB (beta-actin as reference gene for normalization. Expression of traditional reference genes has been shown to vary substantially under certain conditions leading to invalid results. To investigate whether traditional reference genes are stably expressed in LPS-stimulated monocytes or if RT-qPCR results are dependent on the choice of reference genes, we have assessed and evaluated gene expression stability of twelve candidate reference genes in this model system. Results Twelve candidate reference genes were quantified by RT-qPCR in LPS-stimulated, human monocytes and evaluated using the programs geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper. geNorm ranked PPIB (cyclophilin B, B2M (beta-2-microglobulin and PPIA (cyclophilin A as the best combination for gene expression normalization in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Normfinder suggested TBP (TATA-box binding protein and B2M as the best combination. Compared to these combinations, normalization using GAPDH alone resulted in significantly higher changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL10 (interleukin 10 expression. Moreover, a significant difference in TNF-α expression between monocytes stimulated with equimolar concentrations of LPS from N. meningitides and E. coli, respectively, was identified when using the suggested combinations of reference genes for normalization, but stayed unrecognized when employing a single reference gene, ACTB or GAPDH. Conclusions Gene expression levels in LPS-stimulated monocytes based on RT-qPCR results differ significantly when normalized to a single gene or a combination of stably expressed reference genes. Proper evaluation of reference gene stabiliy is therefore mandatory before reporting RT-qPCR results in LPS-stimulated monocytes.

  9. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  10. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  11. CD16+ Monocytes and Skewed Macrophage Polarization toward M2 Type Hallmark Heart Transplant Acute Cellular Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bosch, Thierry P. P.; Caliskan, Kadir; Kraaij, Marina D.; Constantinescu, Alina A.; Manintveld, Olivier C.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; von der Th?sen, Jan H.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Baan, Carla C.; Rowshani, Ajda T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during rejection. Here, we aimed to define and correlate monocyte-macrophage endomyocardial tissue profiles obtained at rejection and time points prior to rejection, with corresponding serial blood samples ...

  12. UCLA1 aptamer inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C primary isolates in macrophages and selection of resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mufhandu, Hazel T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available isolates in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Of 4 macrophage-tropic isolates tested, 3 were inhibited by UCLA1 in the low nanomolar range (IC80 <29 nM). One isolate that showed reduced susceptibility (<50 nM) to UCLA1 contained mutations in the a5 helix...

  13. C/EBPβ-LAP*/LAP Expression Is Mediated by RSK/eIF4B-Dependent Signalling and Boosted by Increased Protein Stability in Models of Monocytic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Martin; Friesenhagen, Judith; Westphal, Andreas; Pietsch, Daniel; Brand, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor C/EBPβ plays a key role in monocytic differentiation and inflammation. Its small isoform LIP is associated with proliferation at early premonocytic developmental stages and regulated via mTOR-dependent signalling. During later stages of (pre)monocytic differentiation there is a considerable increase in the large C/EBPβ isoforms LAP*/LAP which inhibit proliferation thus supporting terminal differentiation. Here, we showed in different models of monocytic differentiation that this dramatic increase in the LAP*/LAP protein and LAP/LIP ratio was accompanied by an only modest/retarded mRNA increase suggesting an important role for (post)translational mechanisms. We found that LAP*/LAP formation was induced via MEK/RSK-dependent cascades, whereas mTOR/S6K1 were not involved. Remarkably, LAP*/LAP expression was dependent on phosphorylated eIF4B, an acceleratory protein of RNA helicase eIF4A. PKR inhibition reduced the expression of eIF4B and C/EBPβ in an eIF2α-independent manner. Furthermore, under our conditions a marked stabilisation of LAP*/LAP protein occurred, accompanied by reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome/calpain activities and increased calpastatin levels. Our study elucidates new signalling pathways inducing LAP*/LAP expression and indicates new alternative PKR functions in monocytes. The switch from mTOR- to RSK-mediated signalling to orchestrate eIF4B-dependent LAP*/LAP translation, accompanied by increased protein stability but only small mRNA changes, may be a prototypical example for the regulation of protein expression during selected processes of differentiation/proliferation. PMID:26646662

  14. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tashiro

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2, resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation.BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes.The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung.IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation.

  15. A specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor limits the progression and monocyte-macrophage enrichment of hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, T M; Rosebury, W S; Mueller, S B; Kuchera, S; Welch, K; Daugherty, A; Cornicelli, J A

    1998-02-01

    Oxidant signalling and lipoprotein oxidation may play important roles in atherosclerotic lesion development. Given coincident localization of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), stereospecific products of 15-LO and epitopes of modified LDL in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that inhibition of 15-LO by PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-LO with an IC50 in cells or isolated enzyme of 0.5-0.8 microM, may limit atherosclerotic lesion development through regulation of monocyte-macrophage enrichment. Rabbits exposed to chronic endothelial denudation of the iliac-femoral artery were meal-fed a 0.25% cholesterol (C), 3% peanut oil (PNO), 3% coconut oil (CNO) diet twice daily with and without 175 mg/kg PD146176 for 12 weeks. In a second study, atherosclerotic lesions were pre-established in rabbits through chronic endothelial denudation and meal-fed a 0.5% C, 3% PNO, 3% CNO diet for 9 weeks and a 0% C/fat diet for 6 weeks prior to an 8 week administration of PD146176 at 175 mg/kg, q.d. Plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol exposure were similar in control and PD146176-treated animals in both studies but PD146176 increased plasma triglyceride exposure 2- to 4-fold. Plasma PD146176 concentrations ranged from 99 to 214 ng/ml at 2 h post-dose. In the progression study, the iliac-femoral monocyte-macrophage area was reduced 71%, cross-sectional lesion area was unchanged and cholesteryl ester (CE) content was reduced 63%. In the regression study, size and macrophage content of iliac-femoral, fibrous plaque-like lesions were decreased 34%, CE content was reduced 19% and gross extent of thoracic aortic lesions were reduced 41%. We conclude that PD146176 can limit monocyte macrophage enrichment of atherosclerotic lesions and can attenuate development of fibrofoamy and fibrous plaque lesions in the absence of changes in plasma total or lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

  16. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  17. Palmitate and insulin synergistically induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumpkin Charles K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is associated with a proinflammatory state that promotes the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and atherosclerosis. The metabolic stimuli that initiate and propagate proinflammatory cytokine production and the cellular origin of proinflammatory cytokines in insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Circulating proinflammatory monocytes show signs of enhanced inflammation in obese, insulin resistant subjects and are thus a potential source of proinflammatory cytokine production. The specific, circulating metabolic factors that might stimulate monocyte inflammation in insulin resistant subjects are poorly characterized. We have examined whether saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA and insulin, which increase in concentration with developing insulin resistance, can trigger the production of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in human monocytes. Methods Messenger RNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Luminex bioassays. Student's t-test was used with a significance level of p Results Esterification of palmitate with coenzyme A (CoA was necessary, while β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis were not required, for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 monocytes. Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-α protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways are important for cytokine induction by palmitate. MEK/ERK signalling is necessary for synergistic induction of IL-6 by palmitate and insulin. Conclusions High levels of saturated NEFA, such as palmitate, when combined with hyperinsulinemia, may activate human monocytes to produce

  18. Monocyte Proteomics Reveals Involvement of Phosphorylated HSP27 in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Daswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral monocytes, precursors of osteoclasts, have emerged as important candidates for identifying proteins relevant to osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD and increased susceptibility for fractures. We employed 4-plex iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification coupled with LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed monocyte proteins from premenopausal and postmenopausal women with low versus high BMD. Of 1801 proteins identified, 45 were differentially abundant in low versus high BMD, with heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 distinctly upregulated in low BMD condition in both premenopausal and postmenopausal categories. Validation in individual samples (n=80 using intracellular ELISA confirmed that total HSP27 (tHSP27 as well as phosphorylated HSP27 (pHSP27 was elevated in low BMD condition in both categories (P<0.05. Further, using transwell assays, pHSP27, when placed in the upper chamber, could increase monocyte migration (P<0.0001 and this was additive in combination with RANKL (receptor activator of NFkB ligand placed in the lower chamber (P=0.05. Effect of pHSP27 in monocyte migration towards bone milieu can result in increased osteoclast formation and thus contribute to pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Overall, this study reveals for the first time a novel link between monocyte HSP27 and BMD.

  19. “Omics” Signatures in Peripheral Monocytes from Women with Low BMD Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Daswani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO is a result of increased bone resorption compared to formation. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption, which are derived from circulating monocytes that undertake a journey from the blood to the bone for the process of osteoclastogenesis. In recent times, the use of high throughput technologies to explore monocytes from women with low versus high bone density has led to the identification of candidate molecules that may be deregulated in PMO. This review provides a list of molecules in monocytes relevant to bone density which have been identified by “omics” studies in the last decade or so. The molecules in monocytes that are deregulated in low BMD condition may contribute to processes such as monocyte survival, migration/chemotaxis, adhesion, transendothelial migration, and differentiation into the osteoclast lineage. Each of these processes may be crucial to the overall route of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in any/all of these processes can lead to increased bone resorption and subsequently low bone density. Whether these molecules are indeed the cause or effect is an arena currently unexplored.

  20. CD14+ monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Ke; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Here, the effect of CD14 + monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion capacities of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as an important soluble mediator. CD14 + monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, either exogenously added or produced by CD14 + monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE 2 by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE 2 expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14 + monocytes and partially restored CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  1. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes.

  2. The effects of exogenous fatty acids and niacin on human monocyte-macrophage plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rodriguez, Dolores; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Naranjo, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Autologous monocytes isolated at fasting were first induced to differentiate into naïve macrophages. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs, particularly in combination with niacin, enhance competence to monocytes to differentiate and polarise into M2 macrophages. Postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarised macrophages prone to an M1 phenotype. In contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs in the meals plus immediate-release niacin primed circulating monocytes for a reduced postprandial pro-inflammatory profile. Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and also brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness in humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Inflammatory Monocytes Mediate Early and Organ-Specific Innate Defense During Systemic Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y.; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)– and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity. PMID:23922372

  4. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

  5. A System Dynamics Model to Predict the Human Monocyte Response to Endotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is a powerful tool that allows modeling of complex and highly networked systems such as those found in the human immune system. We have developed a model that reproduces how the exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs induces an inflammatory state characterized by high production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, which is rapidly modulated to enter into a tolerant state, known as endotoxin tolerance (ET. The model contains two subsystems with a total of six states, seven flows, two auxiliary variables, and 14 parameters that interact through six differential and nine algebraic equations. The parameters were estimated and optimized to obtain a model that fits the experimental data obtained from human monocytes treated with various LPS doses. In contrast to publications on other animal models, stimulation of human monocytes with super-low-dose LPSs did not alter the response to a second LPSs challenge, neither inducing ET, nor enhancing the inflammatory response. Moreover, the model confirms the low production of TNFα and increased levels of C–C motif ligand 2 when monocytes exhibit a tolerant state similar to that of patients with sepsis. At present, the model can help us better understand the ET response and might offer new insights on sepsis diagnostics and prognosis by examining the monocyte response to endotoxins in patients with sepsis.

  6. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  7. Altered monocyte activation markers in Tourette’s syndrome: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Judith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections and immunological processes are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette’s syndrome (TS. To determine possible common underlying immunological mechanisms, we focused on innate immunity and studied markers of inflammation, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cytokines. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we used current methods to determine the number of monocytes and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in 46 children, adolescents, and adult patients suffering from TS and in 43 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6, soluble CD14 (sCD14, IL1-receptor antagonist (IL1-ra, and serum neopterin were detected by immunoassays. Results We found that CRP and neopterin levels and the number of monocytes were significantly higher in TS patients than in healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sIL1-ra, and sCD14 were significantly lower in TS patients. All measured values were within normal ranges and often close to detection limits. Conclusions The present results point to a monocyte dysregulation in TS. This possible dysbalance in innate immunity could predispose to infections or autoimmune reactions.

  8. Properties of human blood monocytes. I. CD91 expression and log orthogonal light scatter provide a robust method to identify monocytes that is more accurate than CD14 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudig, Dorothy; Hunter, Kenneth W; Diamond, W John; Redelman, Doug

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to improve identification of human blood monocytes by using antibodies to molecules that occur consistently on all stages of monocyte development and differentiation. We examined blood samples from 200 healthy adults without clinically diagnosed immunological abnormalities by flow cytometry (FCM) with multiple combinations of antibodies and with a hematology analyzer (Beckman LH750). CD91 (α2 -macroglobulin receptor) was expressed only by monocytes and to a consistent level among subjects [mean median fluorescence intensity (MFI) = 16.2 ± 3.2]. Notably, only 85.7 ± 5.82% of the CD91(+) monocytes expressed high levels of the classical monocyte marker CD14, with some CD91(+) CD16(+) cells having negligible CD14, indicating that substantial FCM under-counts will occur when monocytes are identified by high CD14. CD33 (receptor for sialyl conjugates) was co-expressed with CD91 on monocytes but CD33 expression varied by nearly ten-fold among subjects (mean MFI = 17.4 ± 7.7). In comparison to FCM analyses, the hematology analyzer systematically over-counted monocytes and eosinophils while lymphocyte and neutrophil differential values generally agreed with FCM methods. CD91 is a better marker to identify monocytes than CD14 or CD33. Furthermore, FCM (with anti-CD91) identifies monocytes better than a currently used clinical CBC instrument. Use of anti-CD91 together with anti-CD14 and anti-CD16 supports the identification of the diagnostically significant monocyte populations with variable expression of CD14 and CD16. Copyright © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. Jak3- and JNK-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Vetter-Kauczok, C S; Woetmann, A

    2006-01-01

    with small interfering RNA has no effect, whereas curcumin, an inhibitor of both Jak3 and the JNKs, almost completely blocks the VEGF production. In conclusion, we provide evidence of VEGF production in CTCL, which is promoted by aberrant activation of Jak3 and the JNKs. Inhibition of VEGF-inducing pathways...

  10. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.<...

  11. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects activation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ye, Z; Kijlstra, A; Zhou, Y; Yang, P

    2014-08-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known for mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-containing pollutants, but has also been shown to be involved in the natural regulation of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the differentiation, maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. In this study, we showed that AhR activation by FICZ and ITE down-regulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules including human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), CD80 and CD86, while it had no effect on the expression of CD83 and CD40 on DCs derived from BD patients and normal controls. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated dendritic cells (DCs) from active BD patients showed a higher level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. FICZ or ITE significantly inhibited the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α, but induced IL-10 production by DCs derived from active BD patients and normal controls. FICZ or ITE-treated DCs significantly inhibited the T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th1 cell response. Activation of AhR either by FICZ or ITE inhibits DC differentiation, maturation and function. Further studies are needed to investigate whether manipulation of the AhR pathway may be used to treat BD or other autoimmune diseases. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Nash, Gerard B; Mallat, Ziad; Chilvers, Edwin R; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-08-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that whereas BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergized with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase in monocyte recruitment in the presence of TNFα was associated with up-regulated expression levels of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Using siRNAs to type I and II BMP receptors and the signaling intermediaries (Smads), we demonstrated a key role for ALK2 in the BMP9/BMP10-induced surface expression of E-selectin, and both ALK1 and ALK2 in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The type II receptors, BMPR-II and ACTR-IIA were both required for this response, as was Smad1/5. The up-regulation of cell surface adhesion molecules by BMP9/10 in the presence of TNFα was inhibited by LDN193189, which inhibits ALK2 but not ALK1. Furthermore, LDN193189 inhibited monocyte recruitment induced by TNFα and BMP9/10. BMP9/10 increased basal IκBα protein expression, but did not alter p65/RelA levels. Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of BMP9/BMP10 synergize with TNFα to induce the up-regulation of endothelial selectins and adhesion molecules, ultimately resulting in increased monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium. This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Dasatinib inhibits both osteoclast activation and prostate cancer PC-3 cell-induced osteoclast formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, John C.; Poblenz, Ann; Corn, Paul G.; Parikh, Nila U.; Starbuck, Michael W.; Thompson, Jerry T.; Lee, Francis; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Darnay, Bryant G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Therapies to target prostate cancer bone metastases have only limited effects. New treatments are focused on the interaction between cancer cells, bone marrow cells and the bone matrix. Osteoclasts play an important role in the development of bone tumors caused by prostate cancer. Since Src kinase has been shown to be necessary for osteoclast function, we hypothesized that dasatinib, a Src family kinase inhibitor, would reduce osteoclast activity and prostate cancer (PC-3) cell-induced osteoclast formation. Results Dasatinib inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes with an EC50 of 7.5 nM. PC-3 cells, a human prostate cancer cell line, were able to differentiate RAW 264.7 cells, a murine monocytic cell line, into osteoclasts and dasatinib inhibited this differentiation. In addition, conditioned medium from PC-3 cell cultures was able to differentiate RAW 264.7 cells into osteoclasts and this too, was inhibited by dasatinib. Even the lowest concentration of dasatinib, 1.25 nmol, inhibited osteoclast differentiation by 29%. Moreover, dasatinib inhibited osteoclast activity by 58% as measured by collagen 1 release. Experimental design We performed in vitro experiments utilizing the Src family kinase inhibitor dasatinib to target osteoclast activation as a means of inhibiting prostate cancer bone metastases. Conclusion Dasatinib inhibits osteoclast differentiation of mouse primary bone marrow-derived monocytes and PC-3 cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Dasatinib also inhibits osteoclast degradation activity. Inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activity may be an effective targeted therapy in patients with prostate cancer bone metastases. PMID:19855158

  14. GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yong-hong; Li, Quan; Li, Ping; Liu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    LPS stimulation in macrophages/monocytes induces TNFα production. We here tested the potential effect of GSK621, a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, against the process. In RAW264.7 macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' monocytes, GSK621 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNFα protein secretion and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of AMPK, through AMPKα shRNA knockdown or dominant negative mutation (T172A), almost abolished GSK621's suppression on TNFα in RAW264.7 cells. Reversely, forced-expression of a constitutively-active AMPKα (T172D) mimicked GSK621 actions and reduced LPS-induced TNFα production. Molecularly, GSK621 suppressed LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. In vivo, GSK621 oral administration inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice. In summary, GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages/monocytes. - Highlights: • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in COPD patients' PBMCs. • GSK621's inhibition on TNFα production by LPS requires AMPK activation. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced ROS production and NFκB activation, dependent on AMPK. • GSK621 oral administration inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice.

  15. Development of pro-inflammatory phenotype in monocytes after engulfing Hb-activated platelets in hemolytic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Rashi; Chawla, Sheetal; Rathore, Deepak K; Bhasym, Angika; Annarapu, Gowtham K; Sharma, Vandana; Seth, Tulika; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2017-02-01

    Monocytes and macrophage combat infections and maintain homeostatic balance by engulfing microbes and apoptotic cells, and releasing inflammatory cytokines. Studies have described that these cells develop anti-inflammatory properties upon recycling the free-hemoglobin (Hb) in hemolytic conditions. While investigating the phenotype of monocytes in two hemolytic disorders-paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and sickle cell disease (SCD), we observed a high number of pro-inflammatory (CD14 + CD16 hi ) monocytes in these patients. We further investigated in vitro the phenotype of these monocytes and found an estimated 55% of CD14 + cells were transformed into the CD14 + CD16 hi subset after engulfing Hb-activated platelets. The CD14 + CD16 hi monocytes, which were positive for both intracellular Hb and CD42b (platelet marker), secreted significant amounts of TNF-α and IL-1β, unlike monocytes treated with only free Hb, which secreted more IL-10. We have shown recently the presence of a high number of Hb-bound hyperactive platelets in patients with both diseases, and further investigated if the monocytes engulfed these activated platelets in vivo. As expected, we found 95% of CD14 + CD16 hi monocytes with both intracellular Hb and CD42b in both diseases, and they expressed high TNF-α. Furthermore our data showed that these monocytes whether from patients or developed in vitro after treatment with Hb-activated platelets, secreted significant amounts of tissue factor. Besides, these CD14 + CD16 hi monocytes displayed significantly decreased phagocytosis of E. coli. Our study therefore suggests that this alteration of monocyte phenotype may play a role in the increased propensity to pro-inflammatory/coagulant complications observed in these hemolytic disorders-PNH and SCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  17. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16 + monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16 + monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rewiring monocyte glucose metabolism via C-type lectin signaling protects against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Andrés, Jorge; Arts, Rob J W; Ter Horst, Rob; Gresnigt, Mark S; Smeekens, Sanne P; Ratter, Jacqueline M; Lachmandas, Ekta; Boutens, Lily; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Joosten, Leo A B; Notebaart, Richard A; Ardavín, Carlos; Netea, Mihai G

    2017-09-01

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis. Experimental models of systemic candidiasis models validated a central role for glucose metabolism in anti-Candida immunity, as the impairment of glycolysis led to increased susceptibility in mice. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of understanding the complex network of metabolic responses triggered during infections, and unveil new potential targets for therapeutic approaches against fungal diseases.

  19. Suppression of blood monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis in acute human malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    tested monocyte chemotactic responsiveness in 19 patients with acute primary attack malaria. In addition, the neutrophil chemotaxis was measured in 12 patients. Before the initiation of antimalarial treatment a significant depression of monocyte chemotaxis was observed in approximately half...... of the patients when compared with healthy control subjects. The depression was found in Plasmodium falciparum malaria as well as in P. vivax or P. ovale malaria patients. The defective responsiveness was not receptor specific, since the responses towards casein and zymosan activated serum proved to be equally...... of treatment, and nearly normalized after 7 days (87% of controls). Furthermore, monocyte phagocytic and candidacidal activities were assessed in the same patients on admission and during the follow-up. In contrast to chemotaxis, these functions were normal in all of the patients whenever measured...

  20. Whole blood flow cytometric analysis of Ureaplasma-stimulated monocytes from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesised that circulating monocytes of women with vaginal colonisation with Ureaplasma spp., genital microorganisms known to cause inflammation-driven preterm birth, would elicit a tolerised cytokine response to subsequent in vitro Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) stimulation. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry, we found no differences with regard to maternal colonisation status in the frequency of TNF-α-, IL-6-, IL-8- and IL-1β-expressing monocytes in response to subsequent UpSV3 stimulation (P > 0.10 for all cytokines). We conclude that vaginal Ureaplasma spp. colonisation does not specifically tolerise monocytes of pregnant women towards decreased responses to subsequent stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on the mechanism of endogenous pyrogen production. III. Human blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodel, P

    1974-10-01

    The characteristics of pyrogen production and release by human blood monocytes were investigated. A dose-response assay of monocyte pyrogen in rabbits indicated a linear relationship of temperature elevation to dose of pyrogen at lower doses. Monocytes did not contain pyrogen when first obtained, nor did they release it spontaneously even after 5 days of incubation in vitro. Pyrogen production was apparent 4 h after stimulation by endotoxin or phagocytosis, and continued for 24 h or more. Puromycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, prevented both initiation and continuation of pyrogen production and release. Pyrogen-containing supernates retained most pyrogenic activity during overnight incubation even in the presence of activated cells. Lymphocytes appeared to play no role in either initiation or continuation of pyrogen production in these studies.

  2. An oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone reduces monocyte activation and traffic to the dorsal root ganglia in a primate model of HIV-peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Yalamanchili, Samshita; Polydefkis, Michael J; Miller, Andrew D; McGrath, Michael S; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages. Here, MGBG was administered to nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques at 21 days post-infection (dpi). An additional nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques were used as untreated controls. Cell traffic to tissues was measured by in vivo BrdU pulse labeling. MGBG treatment significantly diminished DRG histopathology and reduced the number of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in DRG tissue. The number of recently trafficked BrdU+ cells in the DRG was significantly reduced with MGBG treatment. Despite diminished DRG pathology, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) did not recover after treatment with MGBG. These data suggest that MGBG alleviated DRG pathology and inflammation.

  3. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the cytoskeleton of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaomei; Guo Yuhua; Yin Zhiwei; Mao Zijun

    1990-03-01

    The whole mount cell electron microscopy in combination with selective extraction method for preparing cytoskeletal framework was applied. Cy toskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes appeared in electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. Since such cytoskeletons are open membrane-free system, individual fibrous organizations can be identified by specific antibodies. An indirect immunogold procedure using monoclonal anti-tubulin or anti-actin antibodies was applied to visualize tubulin-or actin-containing structures. The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons had been used to demonstrate that different doses of 60 Co γ-ray caused a distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeletons of intact mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The results showed that there were some similar alterations with those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers' studies, it's likely that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  4. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of β-VLDL and AC-LDL metabolism by pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that monocyte-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions of White Carneau pigeons become lipid-filled through the uptake of lipoproteins including β-migrating very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDL) and acetylated low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL). Using iodinated forms of the above lipoproteins, specific and saturable receptors for both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL were detected on the surface of White Carneau pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture. Competition studies demonstrated the high degree of binding specificity for 125 I-Ac-LDL. Likewise, binding of 125 I-β-VLDL to its receptor was significantly inhibited by excess β-VLDL, however LDL from both hyper- and normocholesterolemic pigeons were also recognized by the receptor. Upon binding of β-VLDL and Ac-LDL to their respective receptors, the lipoproteins were rapidly internalized and delivered to intracellular sites of degradation. As measured by the amount of 14 C-oleate incorporated into cholesteryl 14 C-oleate, the cholesterole liberated from the degradation of both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL stimulated cholesteryl ester synthesis in the pigeon cells. Using lipoproteins conjugated to colloidal gold of visualization with transmission electron microscopy, a major difference in the binding and uptake properties of β-VLDL-Gold and Ac-LDL-Gold was documented

  5. Reduction of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Interleukin-8 Levels by Ticlopidine in TNF-α Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaur-Jong Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis and its associated complications represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized or Western countries. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is critical for the initiating and developing of atherosclerotic lesions. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, a CXC chemokine, stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis. Ticlopidine is one of the antiplatelet drugs used to prevent thrombus formation relevant to the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis. In this study, we found that ticlopidine dose-dependently decreased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α-stimulated MCP-1, IL-8, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Ticlopidine declined U937 cells adhesion and chemotaxis as compared to TNF-α stimulated alone. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects were neither due to decreased HUVEC viability, nor through NF-kB inhibition. These results suggest that ticlopidine decreased TNF-α induced MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 levels in HUVECs, and monocyte adhesion. Therefore, the data provide additional therapeutic machinery of ticlopidine in treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.

  6. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  7. The monocyte counts to HDL cholesterol ratio in obese and lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Akin; Avci, Eyup; Bulbul, Cagla Bahar; Kadi, Hasan; Adali, Ertan

    2018-04-10

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more likely to suffer from obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. In fact, the excessive activation of monocytes exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammation. However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol neutralizes the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects of monocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether monocyte counts to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio can predict the inflammatory condition in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 124 women (61 of them with polycystic ovary syndrome and 63 age-matched healthy volunteers) were included in the study population. Obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients (n = 30) with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 and lean polycystic ovary syndrome patients (n = 31) with a body mass index of polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in control subjects (p = 0.0018). Moreover, a regression analysis revealed that body mass index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were confounding factors that affected the monocyte counts to high density lipoprotein cholesterol values. Additionally, a univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the increased monocyte counts to high density lipoprotein cholesterol values were more sensitive than the other known risk factors (such as increased body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels) in the prediction of the inflammation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The present study demonstrated that the monocyte count to high density lipoprotein cholesterol may be a novel and useful predictor of the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  11. The monocytic lineage specific soluble CD163 is a plasma marker of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristoteli, Lina Panayiota; Møller, Holger Jon; Bailey, Brian

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163 is a monocyte-macrophage lineage specific scavenger receptor that mediates the uptake and clearance of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes, and soluble CD163 (sCD163) is also present in plasma. As atherosclerosis involves infiltration by monocyte-derived macrophages, we investigated...... whether sCD163 may act as a marker of coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical features were identified and plasma was collected from 147 consecutive patients presenting for coronary angiography. Patients were classified as having CAD+, or being free of CAD- haemodynamically...

  12. Upregulation of innate antiviral restricting factor expression in the cord blood and decidual tissue of HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; de Lima, Josenilson Feitosa; Branco, Anna Cláudia Calvielli Castelo; Ruocco, Rosa Maria de Souza Aveiro; Zugaib, Marcelo; de Oliveira Filho, João Bosco; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2013-01-01

    Programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection and have thereby increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Natural immunity to HIV-1 infection in both mothers and newborns needs to be further explored. In this study, we compared the expression of antiviral restricting factors in HIV-infected pregnant mothers treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy (n=23) and in cord blood (CB) (n=16), placental tissues (n=10-13) and colostrum (n=5-6) samples and compared them to expression in samples from uninfected (UN) pregnant mothers (n=21). Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were prepared from maternal and CB samples following deliveries by cesarean section. Maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villus) placental tissues were obtained, and colostrum was collected 24 h after delivery. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antiviral factors were then evaluated. We observed a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of antiviral factors in MNCs from HIV-infected mothers and CB, including the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (A3G), A3F, tripartite motif family-5α (TRIM-5α), TRIM-22, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) and IFN-β, compared with the levels detected in uninfected (UN) mother-CB pairs. Moreover, A3G transcript and protein levels and α-defensin transcript levels were decreased in the decidua of HIV-infected mothers. Decreased TRIM-5α protein levels in the villi and increased STING mRNA expression in both placental tissues were also observed in HIV-infected mothers compared with uninfected (UN) mothers. Additionally, colostrum cells from infected mothers showed increased tetherin and IFN-β mRNA levels and CXCL9 protein levels. The data presented here indicate that antiviral restricting factor expression can be induced in utero in HIV-infected mothers. Future studies are warranted to determine

  13. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandle, Anita T. [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Zahavi, David [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Melillo, Giovanni [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Libutti, Steven K., E-mail: slibutti@montefiore.org [Department of Surgery, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, 4th Floor 3400, Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  14. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface α5β1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1α mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1α plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1α activities.

  15. Increased migration of monocytes in essential hypertension is associated with increased transient receptor potential channel canonical type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ni, Yinxing; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performe...

  16. DMPD: The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10473535 The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbio.... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical and...onocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. Authors Chisolm GM 3rd, Hazen SL, Fox PL, Cathca

  17. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  18. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells are critically important for antiviral immunity. Devastating viruses like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are capable of directly infecting these cells, subverting host immunity. Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in ...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms That Underlie the Dynamic Adaptation of Innate Monocyte Memory to Varying Stimulant Strength of TLR Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoxi; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2016-01-01

    In adaptation to rising stimulant strength, innate monocytes can be dynamically programed to preferentially express either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Such dynamic innate adaptation or programing may bear profound relevance in host health and disease. However, molecular mechanisms that govern innate adaptation to varying strength of stimulants are not well understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the model stimulant of toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), we reported that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are preferentially sustained in monocytes adapted by lower doses of LPS, and suppressed/tolerized in monocytes adapted by higher doses of LPS. Mechanistically, monocytes adapted by super-low dose LPS exhibited higher levels of transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), and reduced levels of transcriptional modulator B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). Intriguingly, the inflammatory monocyte adaptation by super-low dose LPS is dependent upon TRAM/TRIF but not MyD88. Similar to LPS, we also observed biphasic inflammatory adaptation and tolerance in monocytes challenged with varying dosages of TLR7 agonist. In sharp contrast, rising doses of TLR3 agonist preferentially caused inflammatory adaptation without inducing tolerance. At the molecular level, the differential regulation of IRF5 and Blimp-1 coincides with unique monocyte adaptation dynamics by TLR4/7 and TLR3 agonists. Our study provides novel clue toward the understanding of monocyte adaptation and memory toward distinct TLR ligands.

  20. Molecular mechanisms that underlie the dynamic adaptation of innate monocyte memory to varying stimulant strength of TLR ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In adaptation to rising stimulant strength, innate monocytes can be dynamically programmed to preferentially express either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Such dynamic innate adaptation or programming may bear profound relevance in host health and disease. However, molecular mechanisms that govern innate adaptation to varying strength of stimulants are not well understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the model stimulant of Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4, we reported that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are preferentially sustained in monocytes adapted by lower doses of LPS, and suppressed/tolerized in monocytes adapted by higher doses of LPS. Mechanistically, monocytes adapted by super-low dose LPS exhibited higher levels of transcription factor IRF5 and reduced levels of transcriptional modulator BLIMP-1. Intriguingly, the inflammatory monocyte adaptation by super-low dose LPS is dependent upon TRAM/TRIF but not MyD88. Similar to LPS, we also observed biphasic inflammatory adaptation and tolerance in monocytes challenged with varying dosages of TLR7 agonist. In sharp contrast, rising doses of TLR3 agonist preferentially caused inflammatory adaptation without inducing tolerance. At the molecular level, the differential regulation of IRF5 and Blimp-1 coincides with unique monocyte adaptation dynamics by TLR4/7 and TLR3 agonists. Our study provides novel clue toward the understanding of monocyte adaptation and memory toward distinct TLR ligands.

  1. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  2. Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Tong

    Full Text Available The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB. This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. We demonstrated that freshly isolated monocytes had superior inflamed-brain homing ability over MDM cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, brain trafficking of IV infused monocytes was positively correlated with the number of adoptive transferred cells, and could be further enhanced by transient disruption of the BBB with IV administration of Mannitol, Bradykinin or Serotonin right before cell infusion. A small portion of transmigrated cells was detected to differentiate into IBA-1 positive cells with microglia morphology in the brain. Finally, with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SHP30, the ability of nanoscale agent-carriage monocytes to enter the inflamed brain region was validated. In addition, lentiviral vector DHIV-101 was used to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP gene into monocytes, and the exogenous GFP gene was detected in the brain at 48 hours following IV infusion of the transduced monocytes. All together, our study has set up the optimized conditions for the more-in-depth tests and development of monocyte-mediated delivery, and our data supported

  3. Chemoresistance of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells is regulated by IL-17A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Olsson Åkefeldt

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells initiate adaptive immune responses, leading either to control cancer by effector T cells or to exacerbate cancer by regulatory T cells that inhibit IFN-γ-mediated Th1-type response. Dendritic cells can also induce Th17-type immunity, mediated by IL-17A. However, the controversial role of this cytokine in cancer requires further investigations. We generated dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes to investigate lifespan, phenotype and chemoresistance of dendritic cells, treated with IL-17A with or without IFN-γ. Studying the expression of Bcl-2 family members, we demonstrated that dendritic cells constitutively express one pro-survival Bcl-2 member: MCL1. Immature dendritic cells were CD40(lowHLADR(low CD1a(+ MCL1(+, did not express CD14, CD68 or BCL2A1, and displayed a short 2-day lifespan. IL-17A-treated DC exhibited a semi-mature (CD40(high HLADR(low pre-M2 (CCL22(+ CD206(+ CD163(+ IL1RN(+ IL-10(- CXCL10(- IL-12(- mixed (CD1a(+ CD14+ CD68(+ macrophage-dendritic cell phenotype. They efficiently exerted mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis and did not produce superoxide anions, in the absence of TLR engagement. Interestingly, IL-17A promoted a long-term survival of dendritic cells, beyond 12 days, that correlated to BCL2A1 induction, a pro-survival Bcl-2 family member. BCL2A1 transcription was activated by NF-κB, downstream of IL-17A transduction. Thus, immature dendritic cells only express MCL1, whereas IL-17A-treated dendritic cells concomitantly expressed two pro-survival Bcl-2 family members: MCL1 and BCL2A1. These latter developed chemoresistance to 11 of the 17 chemotherapy agents tested. However, high doses of either vinblastine or cytarabine decreased MCL1 expression and induced dendritic cell death. When IL-17A is produced in vivo, administration of anti-IL-17A biotherapy may impair dendritic cell survival by targeting BCL2A1 expression. Consequently, depending on the effector or regulatory role of dendritic

  4. Influence of HFE variants and cellular iron on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Zachary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are relatively common in the general population and are most commonly associated with iron overload, but can promote subclinical cellular iron loading even in the absence of clinically identified disease. The effects of the variants as well as the resulting cellular iron dyshomeostasis potentially impact a number of disease-associated pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the two most common HFE variants, H63D and C282Y, would affect cellular secretion of cytokines and trophic factors. Methods We screened a panel of cytokines and trophic factors using a multiplexed immunoassay in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing different variants of HFE. The influence of cellular iron secretion on the potent chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 was assessed using ferric ammonium citrate and the iron chelator, desferroxamine. Additionally, an antioxidant, Trolox, and an anti-inflammatory, minocycline, were tested for their effects on MCP-1 secretion in the presence of HFE variants. Results Expression of the HFE variants altered the labile iron pool in SH-SY5Y cells. Of the panel of cytokines and trophic factors analyzed, only the release of MCP-1 was affected by the HFE variants. We further examined the relationship between iron and MCP-1 and found MCP-1 secretion tightly associated with intracellular iron status. A potential direct effect of HFE is considered because, despite having similar levels of intracellular iron, the association between HFE genotype and MCP-1 expression was different for the H63D and C282Y HFE variants. Moreover, HFE genotype was a factor in the effect of minocycline, a multifaceted antibiotic used in treating a number of neurologic conditions associated with inflammation, on MCP-1

  5. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  6. Malarial pigment haemozoin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and LPS do not stimulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in immuno-purified human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceretto Monica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO following upmodulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS by haemozoin (HZ, inflammatory cytokines and LPS may provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria by killing hepatic and blood forms of parasites and inhibiting the cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (RBC to endothelial cells. Monocytes and macrophages are considered to contribute importantly to protective upregulation of iNOS and production of NO. Data obtained with murine phagocytes fed with human HZ and synthetic HZ (sHZ indicate that supplemental treatment of those cells with IFN-gamma elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NO production, providing a potential mechanism linking HZ phagocytosis and increased production of NO. Purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of P. falciparum HZ and sHZ supplemental to treatment with IFN-gamma and/or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix on iNOS protein and mRNA expression in immuno-purified human monocytes. Methods Adherent immunopurified human monocytes (purity >85%, and murine phagocytic cell lines RAW 264.7, N11 and ANA1 were fed or not with P. falciparum HZ or sHZ and treated or not with IFN-gamma or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix. Production of NO was quantified in supernatants, iNOS protein and mRNA expression were measured after immunoprecipitation and Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCT, respectively. Results Phagocytosis of HZ/sHZ by human monocytes did not increase iNOS protein and mRNA expression and NO production either after stimulation by IFN-gamma or the cytokine-LPS mix. By contrast, in HZ/sHZ-laden murine macrophages, identical treatment with IFN-gamma and the cytokine-LPS mix elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NOS metabolites production, in agreement with literature data. Conclusion Results indicate that human monocytes fed or not with HZ/sHZ were constantly

  7. Enhancement of proinflammatory and procoagulant responses to silica particles by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic particles, such as drug carriers or contrast agents, are often introduced into the vascular system. Many key components of the in vivo vascular environment include monocyte-endothelial cell interactions, which are important in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. To better understand the effect of particles on vascular function, the present study explored the direct biological effects of particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and monocytes (THP-1 cells. In addition, the integrated effects and possible mechanism of particle-mediated monocyte-endothelial cell interactions were investigated using a coculture model of HUVECs and THP-1 cells. Fe3O4 and SiO2 particles were chosen as the test materials in the present study. Results The cell viability data from an MTS assay showed that exposure to Fe3O4 or SiO2 particles at concentrations of 200 μg/mL and above significantly decreased the cell viability of HUVECs, but no significant loss in viability was observed in the THP-1 cells. TEM images indicated that with the accumulation of SiO2 particles in the cells, the size, structure and morphology of the lysosomes significantly changed in HUVECs, whereas the lysosomes of THP-1 cells were not altered. Our results showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS generation; the production of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-1β; and the expression of CD106, CD62E and tissue factor in HUVECs and monocytes were significantly enhanced to a greater degree in the SiO2-particle-activated cocultures compared with the individual cell types alone. In contrast, exposure to Fe3O4 particles had no impact on the activation of monocytes or endothelial cells in monoculture or coculture. Moreover, using treatment with the supernatants of SiO2-particle-stimulated monocytes or HUVECs, we found that the enhancement of proinflammatory response by SiO2

  8. Synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules expression by the irradiated human monocyte/macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, I.

    1997-09-01

    As lesions induced by ionizing radiations are essentially noticed in organs the functional and structural organisation of which depend on the highly proliferative stem cell pool, the author reports an in-vivo investigation of the effect of a gamma irradiation on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines par human monocytes/macrophages. In order to study the role of the cell environment in the radiation-induced inflammation, the author studied whether a co-stimulation of monocytes/macrophages by gamma irradiation, or the exposure of co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, could modulate the regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The author also studied the modulation of the expression of adhesion molecules mainly expressed by the monocyte/macrophage, and the membrane density of the CD14 receptor after irradiation of monocytes/macrophages during 24 hours, and of totally differentiated macrophages after seven days of culture

  9. ALV-J infection induces chicken monocyte death accompanied with the production of IL-1β and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Manman; Feng, Min; Xie, Tingting; Li, Yuanfang; Ruan, Zhuohao; Shi, Meiqing; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-11-21

    Immunosuppression induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious reproduction problems and secondary infections in chickens. Given that monocytes are important precursors of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, we investigated the fate of chicken monocytes after ALV-J infection. Our results indicated that most monocytes infected with ALV-J including field or laboratory strains could not successfully differentiate into macrophages due to cells death. And cells death was dependent upon viral titer and accompanied with increased IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA levels. In addition, ALV-J infection up-regulated caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity in monocytes. Collectively, we found that ALV-J could cause cell death in chicken monocytes, especially pyroptosis, which may be a significant reason for ALV-J induced immunosuppression.

  10. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  11. Synthesis of complement factor B by the human monocyte U-937 cell line. Augmentation by immunostimulatory agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The human pre-monocytic cell line U-937 was shown to synthesize and to secrete increasing amounts of factor B in short term cultures in serum-free medium containing BSA. The kinetics of factor B production were higher on day 2 than on days 1 and 3. The production of factor B was reversibly inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating de novo synthesis. Metabolic labeling with [ 35 S]-methionine and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that both intracellular and secreted factor B were single-chain proteins with similar m.w. (90,000), which co-migrated with purified plasma factor B. Incubation of U-937 cells with the immunostimulants PMA, LPS, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 resulted in a dose-dependent augmentation of factor B production. A 24-h exposure to IL-1 was shown to be required for maximal stimulation. A combination of suboptimal doses of LPS and IFN-gamma was shown to exert a synergistic effect on factor B production. The U-937 cell line is thus a valuable model for the study of the regulation of the factor B gene expression

  12. Diminished Adherence and/or Ingestion of Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Patients with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, J.; Arias, M.; Maya, J. R.; García, L. F.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between the macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by a variety of macrophage membrane-associated proteins. Complement receptors have been implicated in the adherence of M. tuberculosis to macrophages. In the present work, the adherence and/or ingestion of M. tuberculosis H37Rv to human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy controls was measured by microscopical examination, [3H]uracil incorporation, and CFU. The adherence and/or ingestion was enhanced by fresh serum and inhibited by heat inactivation, EDTA treatment, and anti-CR1 and anti-CR3 antibodies. Comparison of MDM from TB patients and healthy controls showed that the former exhibited a significantly decreased capacity to adhere and/or ingest M. tuberculosis, as determined by the number of CFU and 3H incorporation. The expression of CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on MDM from TB patients and healthy controls, as determined by flow cytometry, did not show significant differences. These results suggest that the lower ingestion of M. tuberculosis by MDM from TB patients is not due to defects in complement receptors, and therefore, there might be other molecules involved in the adherence and/or ingestion process that render MDM from TB patients ingest less mycobacteria than those from healthy controls. PMID:9729537

  13. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-04-24

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:25739439

  15. Induction of antiproliferative connective tissue growth factor expression in Wilms' tumor cells by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hong; Sanchez, Teresa; Pappalardo, Anna; Lynch, Kevin R; Hla, Timothy; Ferrer, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the CCN family of secreted matricellular proteins, regulates fibrosis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor growth, and metastasis. However, the role of CTGF and its regulation mechanism in Wilms' tumor remains largely unknown. We found that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induced CTGF expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in a Wilms' tumor cell line (WiT49), whereas FTY720-phosphate, an S1P analogue that binds all S1P receptors except S1P2, did not. Further, the specific S1P2 antagonist JTE-013 completely inhibited S1P-induced CTGF expression, whereas the S1P1 antagonist VPC44116 did not, indicating that this effect was mediated by S1P2. This was confirmed by adenoviral transduction of S1P2 in WiT49 cells, which showed that overexpression of S1P2 increased the expression of CTGF. Induction of CTGF by S1P was sensitive to ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suggesting the requirement of RhoA/ROCK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways for S1P-induced CTGF expression. Interestingly, the expression levels of CTGF were decreased in 8 of 10 Wilms' tumor tissues compared with matched normal tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. In vitro, human recombinant CTGF significantly inhibited the proliferation of WiT49 cells. In addition, overexpression of CTGF resulted in significant inhibition of WiT49 cell growth. Taken together, these data suggest that CTGF protein induced by S1P2 might act as a growth inhibitor in Wilms' tumor.

  16. The kampo medicine Daikenchuto inhibits peritoneal fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mineaki; Nishino, Tomoya; Obata, Yoko; Oka, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi; Muta, Kumiko; Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis therapy causes inflammation and histological changes in the peritoneal membrane. Inflammation generally activates fibroblasts and results in fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation. Heat-shock protein 47 (HSP 47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is localized in myofibroblasts and is involved in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a Kampo medicine, is used to prevent postoperative colon adhesion. It inhibits inflammation and HSP 47 expression in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the effect of DKT on chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis in mice injected with 0.1% CG dissolved in 15% ethanol. DKT was dissolved in the drinking water. Histological changes were assessed using Masson trichrome staining. Cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were examined immunohistochemically. Compared with the control group, the peritoneal tissues of the CG group were markedly thickened, and the number of cells expressing α-SMA, HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly increased. However, these changes were inhibited in the DKT-treated group. These results indicate that DKT can prevent peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation and HSP 47 expression.

  17. Dielectrophoretic Separation of Live and Dead Monocytes Using 3D Carbon-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yildizhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood has been the most reliable body fluid commonly used for the diagnosis of diseases. Although there have been promising investigations for the development of novel lab-on-a-chip devices to utilize other body fluids such as urine and sweat samples in diagnosis, their stability remains a problem that limits the reliability and accuracy of readouts. Hence, accurate and quantitative separation and characterization of blood cells are still crucial. The first step in achieving high-resolution characteristics for specific cell subpopulations from the whole blood is the isolation of pure cell populations from a mixture of cell suspensions. Second, live cells need to be purified from dead cells; otherwise, dead cells might introduce biases in the measurements. In addition, the separation and characterization methods being used must preserve the genetic and phenotypic properties of the cells. Among the characterization and separation approaches, dielectrophoresis (DEP is one of the oldest and most efficient label-free quantification methods, which directly purifies and characterizes cells using their intrinsic, physical properties. In this study, we present the dielectrophoretic separation and characterization of live and dead monocytes using 3D carbon-electrodes. Our approach successfully removed the dead monocytes while preserving the viability of the live monocytes. Therefore, when blood analyses and disease diagnosis are performed with enriched, live monocyte populations, this approach will reduce the dead-cell contamination risk and achieve more reliable and accurate test results.

  18. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Div. of Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Tait, J.F. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  19. Epigenetic modulators of monocytic function: implication for steady state and disease in the CNS .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nina Papavasiliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations are necessary for the establishment of functional and phenotypic diversity in populations of immune cells of the monocytic lineage. The epigenetic status of individual genes at different time points defines their transcriptional responses throughout development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetic states are defined at the level of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications, as well as at the level of RNA base changes through RNA editing. Drawing from lessons regarding the epigenome and epitranscriptome of cells of the monocytic lineage in the periphery, and from recently published RNAseq data deriving from brain-resident monocytes, we discuss the impact of modulation of these epigenetic states and how they affect processes important for the development of a healthy brain, as well as mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and aging. An understanding of the varied brain responses and pathologies in light of these novel gene regulatory systems in monocytes will lead to important new insights in the understanding of the aging process and the treatment and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals activate gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and 3.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Kmoníčková, Eva; Křížková, Jana; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 59-66 ISSN 1021-7770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Acyclic nucleoside phosponate * HIV * Monocyte chemotactic protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2007

  1. Presence of estrogen receptors in human myeloid monocytic cells (THP-1 cell line).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, M; Villaggio, B; Bisso, A; Sulli, A; Coviello, D; Dayer, J M

    2001-01-01

    To test THP-1 cells for the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) since studies have demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, the influence of estrogens on cells involved in immune response (i.e. macrophages), and since it has been demonstrated that human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells acquire phenotypic and functional macrophage-like features after incubation with several cytokines or pharmacological agents. Stimulation of THP-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to prompt their differentiation into macrophage-like cells and evaluation of the possible induction of ER. The expression of ER was analyzed by immunocytochemical assay, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. After stimulation by PMA, the human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells showed the presence of ER, together with markers of monocytic cell differentiation such as CD68, CD54 and HLA-DR. Estrogen effects may be exerted directly through ER on monocytes/macrophages. PMA-treated THP-1 cells may constitute a useful in vitro model to determine the effects of estrogens on macrophage-like cells and their implications in the inflammatory and immune processes.

  2. Induction of oxygen free radical generation in human monocytes by lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Hansen, P; Kharazmi, A; Jauhiainen, M

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism behind the association of elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with atherosclerotic disease is unknown. In the present study, Lp(a) induced generation of oxygen free radicals by monocytes from selected healthy individuals in vitro. This observation may provide a link between...

  3. Static high-gradient magnetic fields affect the functionality of monocytic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrovets, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Buechele, B.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Dempsey, N.; Simmet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-2 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : static high-gradient * magnet ic fields * affect the functionality * monocytic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  4. Activated platelets enhance IL-10 secretion and reduce TNF-α secretion by monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Nielsen, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    ), Escherichia coli LPS, or intact Porphyromonas gingivalis. Addition of platelets activated by thrombin-receptor-activating peptide enhanced IL-10 production induced by LPS (p gingivalis (p ....05), and P. gingivalis (p gingivalis-stimulated cultures (p ... of activated platelets. Adherence of platelets increased TG- and TT-induced IL-10 secretion by monocytes (p gingivalis (p

  5. Cationic liposomal drug delivery system for specific targeting of human cd14+ monocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    blood when compared to adherence to granulocytes, T-lymphocytes, B- lymphocytes and/or NK cells in freshly drawn blood, to a lipid-based pharmaceutical composition comprising said liposomes and their use in monocytic associated prophylaxis, treatment or amelioration of a condition such as cancer...

  6. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenberg, F.G.; Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A.; Tait, J.F.; Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  7. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in monocytes derived from chronic kidney disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heevy Abdulkareem Musa Al-Chaqmaqchi

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m(2 and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients.

  8. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn D Gilette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity.

  9. Development and characterization of a bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocytes circulate in the blood, and later differentiate into macrophages in the tissues. They are components of the innate arm of the immune response and are one of the first lines of defense again invading pathogens. However, they also serve as host cells for intracellular pathogens such as Mycob...

  10. Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Monocytes Derived from Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chaqmaqchi, Heevy Abdulkareem Musa; Moshfegh, Ali; Dadfar, Elham; Paulsson, Josefin; Hassan, Moustapha; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Lundahl, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m2) and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:23935909

  11. Superoxide dismutase type 1 in monocytes of chronic kidney disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Krueger, Katharina; Diedrich, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 211 CKD patients, and 34 control subjects. Furthermore, we showed that different SOD1 protein species exist in human monocytes. SOD1 protein amount was significantly lower in HD (normalized SOD1 protein, 27.2 ± 2.8) compared to CKD patients (34.3 ± 2.8), or control subjects...

  12. Glycoengineering of therapeutic antibodies enhances monocyte/macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Birk, Martina C; Klein, Christian; Gerdes, Christian; Umana, Pablo; Bacac, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the mechanism of action of therapeutic Abs, we analyzed FcγR receptor-dependent effector functions of monocytes and macrophages triggered by glycoengineered (GE) Abs (having enhanced FcγRIIIa [CD16a] binding affinity) versus their wild-type (WT) counterparts under different experimental conditions. We first defined the precise FcγR repertoire on classical and nonclassical intermediate monocytes--M1 and M2c macrophage populations. We further show that WT and GE Abs display comparable binding and induce similar effector functions (ADCC and ADCP) in the absence of nonspecific, endogenous IgGs. However, in the presence of these IgGs (i.e., in a situation that more closely mimics physiologic conditions), GE Abs display significantly superior binding and promote stronger monocyte and macrophage activity. These data show that in addition to enhancing CD16a-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, glycoengineering also enhances monocyte and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activities through enhanced binding to CD16a under conditions that more closely resemble the physiologic setting.

  13. Endotoxin-induced monocytic microparticles have contrasting effects on endothelial inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Wen

    Full Text Available Septic shock is a severe disease state characterised by the body's life threatening response to infection. Complex interactions between endothelial cells and circulating monocytes are responsible for microvasculature dysfunction contributing to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Here, we intended to determine whether microparticles derived from activated monocytes contribute towards inflammatory processes and notably vascular permeability. We found that endotoxin stimulation of human monocytes enhances the release of microparticles of varying phenotypes and mRNA contents. Elevated numbers of LPS-induced monocytic microparticles (mMP expressed CD54 and contained higher levels of transcripts for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. Using a prothrombin time assay, a greater reduction in plasma coagulation time was observed with LPS-induced mMP than with non-stimulated mMP. Co-incubation of mMP with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 triggered their time-dependent uptake and significantly enhanced endothelial microparticle release. Unexpectedly, mMP also modified signalling pathways by diminishing pSrc (tyr416 expression and promoted endothelial monolayer tightness, as demonstrated by endothelial impedance and permeability assays. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that LPS-induced mMP have contrasting effects on the intercellular communication network and display a dual potential: enhanced pro-inflammatory and procoagulant properties, together with protective function of the endothelium.

  14. Monocyte and lymphocyte surface molecules in severe sepsis and non-septic critically ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jämsä, Joel; Syrjälä, Hannu; Huotari, Virva; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ala-Kokko, Tero

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether expression of monocyte and lymphocyte surface molecules differs between patients with severe sepsis and non-septic patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The expression of monocyte CD14, CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR, and lymphocyte CD69 were analyzed using quantitative flow cytometry on three consecutive days in 27 patients with severe sepsis and in 15 non-septic patients. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and each corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was determined. The results showed that the expression levels of CD40 on monocytes and CD69 on CD4+ T cells and on natural killer (NK) cells were highest in patients with severe sepsis (p sepsis and positive blood culture compared with those with negative blood culture (p sepsis detection were 0.836 for CD40, 0.872 for CD69 on NK cells, and 0.795 for CD69 on CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest that monocyte CD40 and CD