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Sample records for factor viii levels

  1. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the ...

  3. Aging and ABO blood type influence von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels through interrelated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albánez, S; Ogiwara, K; Michels, A; Hopman, W; Grabell, J; James, P; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Essentials von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) levels are modulated by age and ABO status. The effect of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII was assessed in 207 normal individuals. Aging and ABO blood type showed combined and bidirectional influences on VWF and FVIII levels. Aging and ABO blood type influence VWF levels through both secretion and clearance mechanisms. Background The effect of aging and ABO blood type on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) have been widely reported; however, a comprehensive analysis of their combined effect has not been performed and the mechanisms responsible for the age-related changes have not been determined. Objectives To assess the influence of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII levels, and to evaluate the contribution of VWF secretion and clearance to the age-related changes. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a cohort of 207 normal individuals, whose levels of VWF, FVIII, VWF propeptide (VWFpp), VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio and blood type A antigen content on VWF (A-VWF) were quantified. Results Aging and ABO blood type exerted interrelated effects on VWF and FVIII plasma levels, because the age-related increase in both proteins was significantly higher in type non-O individuals (β = 0.011 vs. 0.005). This increase with age in non-O subjects drove the differences between blood types in VWF levels, as the mean difference increased from 0.13 U/mL in the young to 0.57 U/mL in the old. Moreover, A-VWF was associated with both VWF antigen (β = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09, 0.50) and VWF clearance (β = -0.15; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.06). We also documented an effect of ABO blood type on VWF secretion with aging, as old individuals with blood type non-O showed higher levels of VWFpp (mean difference 0.29 U/mL). Conclusions Aging and ABO blood type have an interrelated effect on VWF and FVIII levels, where the effect of one is significantly

  4. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  5. Factor VIII levels and the risk of pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy related hypertension and severe intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsenburg, C P J; Rosendaal, F R; Middeldorp, J M; Van der Meer, F J M; Scherjon, S A

    2005-01-01

    Recently, acquired as well as genetic prothrombotic factors are associated with thrombotic events. These factors have also been related to conditions of uteroplacental insufficiency such as pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to determine whether elevated factor VIII levels are associated with uteroplacental insufficiency, in particular pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome or pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth retardation. Plasma samples of 75 women with a history of pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy induced hypertension or intrauterine growth restriction were tested for factor VIII:C (FVIII:C) levels at a minimum of 10 weeks post-partum. Laboratory results were compared to factor VIII:C levels found in a healthy control group of 272 women. Mean factor VIII:C levels were similar at 123 IU/dl in both the patient group and the controls. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for age and blood group, no effect of factor VIII:C levels on the risk of pregnancy complications was observed, with the exception of IUGR with (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.7) or without hypertension (OR 2.0, CI 0.7-6.4). If the elevated level of factor VIII would be the sole factor responsible for the increased risk observed, one would expect to find an effect of blood group on risk as well (blood group being an important determinant of FVIII:C). While no such effect could be shown a causal relationship between elevated levels of factor VIII and conditions of uteroplacental insufficiency such as pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy-induced hypertension and IUGR is not very likely.

  6. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P. W.; Blanchette, V. S.; Fischer, K.; Bjorkman, S.; Oh, M.; Fritsch, S.; Schroth, P.; Spotts, G.; Astermark, J.; Ewenstein, B.

    Background: The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level <1 IU dL(-1).

  7. Factoring in Factor VIII With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; Samai, Alyana; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-10-01

    There is growing research interest into the etiologies of cryptogenic stroke, in particular as it relates to hypercoagulable states. An elevation in serum levels of the procoagulant factor VIII is recognized as one such culprit of occult cerebral infarctions. It is the objective of the present review to summarize the molecular role of factor VIII in thrombogenesis and its clinical use in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. We also discuss the utility of screening for serum factor VIII levels among patients at risk for, or those who have experienced, ischemic stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Elevated Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor Levels Predict Unfavorable Outcome in Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis

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    Noémi Klára Tóth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPlasma factor VIII (FVIII and von Willebrand factor (VWF levels have been associated with the rate and severity of arterial thrombus formation and have been linked to outcomes following thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients. Here, we aimed to investigate FVIII and VWF levels during the course of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients and to find out whether they predict long-term outcomes.Materials and methodsStudy population included 131 consecutive AIS patients (median age: 69 years, 60.3% men who underwent i.v. thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA. Blood samples were taken on admission, 1 and 24 h after rt-PA administration to measure FVIII activity and VWF antigen levels. Neurological deficit of patients was determined according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. ASPECT scores were assessed using computer tomography images taken before and 24 h after thrombolysis. Intracranial hemorrhage was classified according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS II criteria. Long-term functional outcome was determined at 90 days after the event by the modified Rankin scale (mRS.ResultsVWF levels on admission were significantly elevated in case of more severe AIS [median and IQR values: NIHSS <6:189.6% (151.9–233.2%; NIHSS 6–16: 199.6% (176.4–250.8%; NIHSS >16: 247.8% (199.9–353.8%, p = 0.013]; similar, but non-significant trend was observed for FVIII levels. FVIII and VWF levels correlated well on admission (r = 0.748, p < 0.001 but no significant correlation was found immediately after thrombolysis (r = 0.093, p = 0.299, most probably due to plasmin-mediated FVIII degradation. VWF levels at all investigated occasions and FVIII activity before and 24 h after thrombolysis were associated with worse 24 h post-lysis ASPECT scores. In a binary backward logistic regression analysis including age, gender

  9. Association of peak factor VIII levels and area under the curve with bleeding in patients with haemophilia A on every third day pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentino, L. A.; Pipe, S. W.; Collins, P. W.; Blanchette, V. S.; Berntorp, E.; Fischer, K.; Ewenstein, B. M.; Oh, M.; Spotts, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We previously showed that pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis (PKP) allows the dosing interval to be extended while maintaining a specific trough level. However, the associations of peak factor VIII (FVIII) levels and area under the curve (AUC) with breakthrough bleeding have not been

  10. The influence of prophylactic factor VIII in severe hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissel, Matthew; Whelihan, Matthew F; Ferris, Lauren A; Mann, Kenneth G; Rivard, Georges E; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A individuals displaying a similar genetic defect have heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Aim To evaluate the underlying effect of exogenous factor (f)VIII on tissue factor (Tf)-initiated blood coagulation in severe hemophilia utilizing both empirical and computational models. Methods We investigated twenty-five clinically severe hemophilia A patients. All individuals were on fVIII prophylaxis and had not received fVIII from 0.25 to 4 days prior to phlebotomy. Coagulation was initiated by the addition of Tf to contact-pathway inhibited whole blood ± an anti-fVIII antibody. Aliquots were quenched over 20 min and analyzed for thrombin generation and fibrin formation. Coagulation factor levels were obtained and used to computationally predict thrombin generation with fVIII set to either zero or its value at the time of the draw. Results Due to prophylactic fVIII, at the time of the blood draw, the individuals had fVIII levels that ranged from hemophilia A. The combination of each individual's coagulation factors (outside of fVIII) determine each individual's baseline thrombin potential and may affect bleeding risk. PMID:21899664

  11. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Björkman, S; Oh, M; Fritsch, S; Schroth, P; Spotts, G; Astermark, J; Ewenstein, B

    2009-03-01

    The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level break-through bleeding in patients with severe hemophilia A on prophylaxis. This study analysed data from 44 patients aged 1-6 and 99 patients aged 10-65 years with severe hemophilia A (FVIII safety and efficacy of a recombinant FVIII (Advate). Each patient had pharmacokinetic measurements and FVIII infusions recorded, and these were used to calculate time spent with a FVIII below 1, 2 and 5 IU dL(-1). The data demonstrate that increasing time with a FVIII below 1 IU dL(-1) is associated with increased total bleeds and hemarthroses. Lack of adherence to the intended frequency of FVIII infusion was the most important determinant of low FVIII and increased bleeding. In children aged 1-6 years, the rate of bleeding was also influenced by FVIII half-life and clearance. These data have important implications for the management of patients with severe hemophilia.

  13. AAV5-Factor VIII Gene Transfer in Severe Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Savita; Walsh, Liron; Lester, Will; Perry, David; Madan, Bella; Laffan, Michael; Yu, Hua; Vettermann, Christian; Pierce, Glenn F; Wong, Wing Y; Pasi, K John

    2017-12-28

    Patients with hemophilia A rely on exogenous factor VIII to prevent bleeding in joints, soft tissue, and the central nervous system. Although successful gene transfer has been reported in patients with hemophilia B, the large size of the factor VIII coding region has precluded improved outcomes with gene therapy in patients with hemophilia A. We infused a single intravenous dose of a codon-optimized adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector encoding a B-domain-deleted human factor VIII (AAV5-hFVIII-SQ) in nine men with severe hemophilia A. Participants were enrolled sequentially into one of three dose cohorts (low dose [one participant], intermediate dose [one participant], and high dose [seven participants]) and were followed through 52 weeks. Factor VIII activity levels remained at 3 IU or less per deciliter in the recipients of the low or intermediate dose. In the high-dose cohort, the factor VIII activity level was more than 5 IU per deciliter between weeks 2 and 9 after gene transfer in all seven participants, and the level in six participants increased to a normal value (>50 IU per deciliter) that was maintained at 1 year after receipt of the dose. In the high-dose cohort, the median annualized bleeding rate among participants who had previously received prophylactic therapy decreased from 16 events before the study to 1 event after gene transfer, and factor VIII use for participant-reported bleeding ceased in all the participants in this cohort by week 22. The primary adverse event was an elevation in the serum alanine aminotransferase level to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range or less. Progression of preexisting chronic arthropathy in one participant was the only serious adverse event. No neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII were detected. The infusion of AAV5-hFVIII-SQ was associated with the sustained normalization of factor VIII activity level over a period of 1 year in six of seven participants who received a high dose, with

  14. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao; Zhang, Rong; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects ( p  blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.

  15. Early intraoperative blood collection does not affect complete blood counts, von Willebrand factor or factor VIII levels in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hanni; Mundell, Gillianne; Engen, Dale; Lillicrap, David; Silva, Mariana; James, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining blood from children for research studies can be difficult, particularly for controls. One solution is to obtain samples during elective surgery; however, consideration must be given to the potential effects of the timing of phlebotomy. Ten children were recruited and phlebotomy was carried out during a preoperative clinic visit and intraoperatively immediately after the induction of anesthesia but before the start of surgery. CBCs, VWF, and FVIII levels were measured at both time points and no significant differences were seen. This negative result may be beneficial to pediatric research by suggesting that early intraoperative blood collection for controls does not affect the results.

  16. Chromogenic Factor VIII Assays for Improved Diagnosis of Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Susan; Duncan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Hemophilia A is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a reduced level of factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) in blood. Bleeding episodes may occur spontaneously in the severe form of hemophilia or after trauma in the milder forms. It is important that patients are diagnosed correctly, which includes placing them into the correct severity category of the disorder so that appropriate treatment can be given. Diagnosis is made by determination of the amount of FVIII:C in the blood, usually using a one-stage factor VIII:C assay. However, approximately one third of patients with mild or moderate hemophilia will have much lower results by the chromogenic assay, with some of them having normal results by the one-stage assay. The chromogenic factor VIII assay is used in some specialized hemophilia reference centers and is recommended for the diagnosis of mild hemophilia A, as this assay is considered to better reflect the severity status of hemophilia patients than the one-stage assay.

  17. Association of peak factor VIII levels and area under the curve with bleeding in patients with haemophilia A on every third day pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Pipe, S W; Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Berntorp, E; Fischer, K; Ewenstein, B M; Oh, M; Spotts, G

    2016-07-01

    We previously showed that pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis (PKP) allows the dosing interval to be extended while maintaining a specific trough level. However, the associations of peak factor VIII (FVIII) levels and area under the curve (AUC) with breakthrough bleeding have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse data from the PKP arm to determine whether peak FVIII levels, AUC and time with FVIII levels in a haemostatically effective range are independent predictors of bleeding during prophylaxis. Post hoc analysis of the association of FVIII levels and AUC with annualized bleeding rate in 34 patients on PKP. During 1 year of PKP, 131 bleeding episodes occurred in 24/34 patients. Average peak FVIII levels ranged from 24 to 168 IU dL(-1) , with higher values associated with a decreased risk for all bleeding (joint and non-joint; P 20 IU dL(-1) was 22%; median AUC was 1363. Both values were significantly associated with a lower ABR when targeting a 1% trough at 72 h. When PKP was administered every third day, higher peak FVIII levels, higher AUC and more time spent per week with FVIII levels >20 IU dL(-1) provided increased protection from joint and non-joint bleeding. These data highlight the potential impact of variability in individual pharmacokinetic and bleeding risk and support the need for high peak levels and AUC in some patients treated every third day. The findings do not necessarily apply to alternate-day or other prophylactic dosing regimens. © 2016 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Zakas

    Full Text Available Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate

  19. Successful Pregnancy in a Patient with Combined Deficiency of Factor V and Factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adib, Ahmed Ghassan; Majdi, Farah; Dilai, Mohamed Othmane; Asmouki, Hamid; Bassir, Ahlam; Harou, Karam; Soumani, Abderraouf; Younous, Said; Mahmal, Lahoucine

    2014-01-01

    Inherited combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency (F5F8D) is autosomal recessive transmission disorder. Epistaxis, postsurgical bleeding, and menorrhagia are the most common symptoms. The risk of miscarriage and placental abruption is consequent. We report a case of successful pregnancy in a patient with F5F8D. 20-year-old woman, born of consanguineous parents, third gestate, first parity, two miscarriages, admitted for child birth of a spontaneous pregnancy estimated at 38 weeks and was diagnosed with F5F8D. At admission, patient was hemodynamically stable, with good obstetric conditions. The biologic results showed low levels of PT (52%), factor V (7%), and factor VIII (5%), and the activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged (68,6%). Parturient was admitted in intensive care unit, maternal and fetal monitoring was performed. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and factor VIII concentrates were perfused at the induction of labor. Analgesia used fentanyl titration. The delivery gave birth to a newborn male, with Apgar 10/10 and 3000 g. The puerperium was simple without any important bleeding. Laboratory tests for the newborn were acceptable. Little literature is available on this subject and there are no guidelines available concerning pregnancy; we chose to prescribe a combination of factor VIII concentrate and FFP in pre-, per- and postpartum. The same protocol was successfully used in a patient before dental extraction and prostatectomy. Vaginal delivery is possible, as our case. Management by multidisciplinary team is recommended.

  20. Idiopathic Acquired Hemophilia A with Undetectable Factor VIII Inhibitor

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    Nicholas B. Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present the case of a 73-year-old female, with no family or personal history of a bleeding disorder, who had a classic presentation for acquired hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was low but detectable and a factor VIII inhibitor was undetectable. Methods. The patient’s plasma was comprehensively studied to determine the cause of the acquired coagulopathy. Using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay, no factor VIII autoantibody was measureable despite varying the incubation time from 1 to 3 hours. Results. The aPTT was prolonged at 46.8 seconds, which did not correct in the 4 : 1 mix but did with 1 : 1 mix. Using a one stage factor VIII activity assay, the FVIII activity was 16% and chromogenic FVIII activity was also 16%. The patient was treated with recombinant FVII and transfusion, significantly reducing bleeding. Long-term therapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone with normalization of FVIII activity. Conclusions. Physicians can be presented with the challenging clinical picture of an acquired factor VIII inhibitor without a detectable inhibitor by the Bethesda assay. Standard therapy for an acquired hemophilia A should be considered.

  1. Acquired high titre factor VIII inhibitor with underlying polyarteritis nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, J A; Hutchings, M; Spearing, R; Patton, W N

    1997-05-01

    We here present the case of a 70-year-old woman referred to our unit for investigation of bleeding. Investigations confirmed a high titre acquired Factor VIII inhibitor. In association there was relapse of systemic illness associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (atypical pattern) for which she had been treated five years previously. Immunosuppression was attempted, but it failed to have an impact both on the inhibitor titre and on the underlying disorder. The patient died from multi-organ failure and massive chest hemorrhage. Post-mortem showed necrotizing vasculitis of medium sized vessels at several sites, including the kidney, consistent with a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa. Although it is well recognised that Factor VIII inhibitors are found in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, this case is significant in that it is the first associated with histologically proven polyarteritis nodosa type vasculitis. The case illustrates the difficulties in the investigation and management of patients with acquired high titre Factor VIII inhibitors.

  2. Factor VIII-associated antigen in human lymphatic endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, R B; Witte, M H; Martinez, A P; Witte, C L; Hendrix, M J; Way, D; Reed, K

    1987-03-01

    Lymphatic vascular endothelium both on tissue section and in culture exhibits positivity for Factor VIII-associated antigen although staining is generally less intense and more spotty than in comparable blood vascular endothelium. Lymphatic endothelium also exhibits Weibel-Palade bodies. Neither marker, therefore, reliably distinguishes blood vascular endothelium from lymphatic endothelium.

  3. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill-Eubanks, D.C.; Parker, C.G.; Lollar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated 125 I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function

  4. Progress toward inducing immunologic tolerance to factor VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David W.; Pratt, Kathleen P.; Miao, Carol H.

    2013-01-01

    A major problem in treating hemophilia A patients with therapeutic factor VIII (FVIII) is that 20% to 30% of these patients produce neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies. These antibodies block (inhibit) the procoagulant function of FVIII and thus are termed “inhibitors.” The currently accepted clinical method to attempt to eliminate inhibitors is immune tolerance induction (ITI) via a protocol requiring intensive FVIII treatment until inhibitor titers drop. Although often successful, ITI is ext...

  5. Characterization of five partial deletions of the factor VIII gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssoufian, H.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Aronis, S.; Tsiftis, G.; Phillips, D.G.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked disorder of coagulation caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. By using cloned DNA probes, the authors have characterized the following five different partial deletions of the factor VIII gene from a panel of 83 patients with hemophilia A: (i) a 7-kilobase (kb) deletion that eliminates exon 6; (ii) a 2.5-kb deletion that eliminates 5' sequences of exon 14; (iii) a deletion of at least 7 kb that eliminates exons 24 and 25; (iv) a deletion of at least 16 kb that eliminates exons 23-25; and (v) a 5.5-kb deletion that eliminates exon 22. The first four deletions are associated with severe hemophilia A. By contrast, the last deletion is associated with moderate disease, possibly because of in-frame splicing from adjacent exons. None of those patients with partial gene deletions had circulating inhibitors to factor VIII. One deletion occurred de novo in a germ cell of the maternal grandmother, while a second deletion occurred in a germ cell of the maternal grandfather. These observations demonstrate that de novo deletions of X-linked genes can occur in either male or female gametes

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant coagulation factor VIII-SingleChain in patients with severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Roberts, J; Tortorici, M; Veldman, A; St Ledger, K; Feussner, A; Sidhu, J

    2017-06-01

    Essentials rVIII-SingleChain is a unique recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) molecule. A population pharmacokinetic model was based on FVIII activity of severe hemophilia A patients. The model was used to simulate factor VIII activity-time profiles for various dosing scenarios. The model supports prolonged dosing of rVIII-SingleChain with intervals of up to twice per week. Background Single-chain recombinant coagulation factor VIII (rVIII-SingleChain) is a unique recombinant coagulation factor VIII molecule. Objectives To: (i) characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of rVIII-SingleChain in patients with severe hemophilia A; (ii) identify correlates of variability in rVIII-SingleChain PK; and (iii) simulate various dosing scenarios of rVIII-SingleChain. Patients/Methods A population PK model was developed, based on FVIII activity levels of 130 patients with severe hemophilia A (n = 91 for ≥ 12-65 years; n = 39 for  85% and > 93% of patients were predicted to maintain FVIII activity level above 1 IU dL -1 , at all times with three-times-weekly dosing (given on days 0, 2, and 4.5) at the lowest (20 IU kg -1 ) and highest (50 IU kg -1 ) doses, respectively. For twice weekly dosing (days 0 and 3.5) of 50 IU kg -1 rVIII-SingleChain, 62-80% of patients across all ages were predicted to maintain a FVIII activity level above 1 IU dL -1 at day 7. Conclusions The population PK model adequately characterized rVIII-SingleChain PK, and the model can be utilized to simulate FVIII activity-time profiles for various dosing scenarios. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  8. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvel Seral Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  9. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation and risk of inhibitor development in nonsevere hemophilia a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Eckhardt (Corien); A.S. van Velzen (Alice); M.A.D. Peters (Marjolein); J. Astermark (Jan); P.P. Brons; G. Castaman (Giancarlo); M.H. Cnossen (Marjon); N. Dors (N.); C. Escuriola-Ettingshausen (Carmen); K. Hamulyák (K.); D.P. Hart (Daniel); C.R.M. Hay (Charles R.); S. Haya (Saturnino); W.L. van Heerde; C. Hermans (Cédric); M. Holmström (Margareta); V. Jimenez-Yuste (Victor); R.D. Keenan (Russell); R. Klamroth (Robert); B.A.P. Laros-Van Gorkom (Britta); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); R. Liesner (Ri); A. Mäkipernaa (Anne); C. Male (Christoph); E.P. Mauser-Bunschoten (Eveline); M.G. Mazzucconi (Maria); S. McRae (Simon); K. Meijer (K.); M. Mitchell (Michael); M. Morfini (Massimo); M.R. Nijziel (Marten); J. Oldenburg (Jan); K. Peerlinck; P. Petrini (Pia); H. Platokouki (Helena); S.E. Reitter-Pfoertner (Sylvia); E. Santagostino (Elena); P. Schinco (Piercarla); F.J.W. Smiers (Frans); K.D. Siegmund (Kimberly); A. Tagliaferri (Annarita); T.T. Yee (Thynn); P.W. Kamphuisen (Pieter Willem); J.G. van der Bom (Anske); K. Fijnvandraat

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) toward factor VIII form a severe complication in nonsevere hemophilia A, profoundly aggravating the bleeding pattern. Identification of high-risk patients is hampered by lack of data that take exposure days to therapeutic factor VIII concentrates into

  10. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  11. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor co-delivery by endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, E.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314061894

    2011-01-01

    A defect in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) results in the inherited bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Current treatment of hemophilia A is hampered by the need of frequent administration of costly FVIII products. Therefore gene therapy is an attractive alternative for protein replacement to treat

  12. The new albumin-free recombinant factor VIII concentrates for treatment of hemophilia: do they represent an actual incremental improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Abshire, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    The goal of eliminating the low levels of infectious disease risk from hemophilia treatment has resulted in the development of multiple generations of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products. The ideal product should be devoid of human and animal proteins, which may transmit infectious agents. These products should also maintain molecular integrity, hemostatic efficacy, similar immunogenicity, and acceptable side effect profiles as compared to plasma-derived factor VIII. Currently available first-, second-, and third-generation rFVIII products include Recombinate; Kogenate FS/Helixate FS and ReFacto; and Advate, respectively. During the evolution of rFVIII products, either full-length or B-domain-deleted factor VIII were transfected into immortalized cell lines. The B-domain-deleted product, ReFacto, has resulted in an additional method to monitor factor VIII levels. The third-generation products offer the theoretical advantage of being produced without human and/or animal proteins. Upon initial introduction into the marketplace, the newer products have a higher cost. However, when analyzing historical trends, the prices of these products are almost equivalent to first-generation products within 3 years of licensure. Thus, the initial cost of the product may be a minimal issue in the medical decision process when selecting rFVIII replacement therapy.

  13. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, J.C.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.A.; Furie, B.C.; Furie, B. (Wyeth); (MBL)

    2008-06-03

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca{sup 2+} and two Cu{sup 2+} ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  14. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Ki Ngo,J.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.; Furie, B.; Furie, B.

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca(2+) and two Cu(2+) ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  15. Analysis of inversions in the factor VIII gene in Spanish hemophilia A patients and families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, M.; Tizzano, E.; Baiget, M. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Altisent, C. [Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Intron 22 is the largest intron of the factor VIII gene and contains a CpG island from which two additional transcripts originate. One of these transcripts corresponds to the F8A gene which have telomeric extragenic copies in the X chromosome. An inversion involving homologous recombination between the intragenic and the distal or proximal copies of the F8A gene has been recently described as a common cause of severe hemophilia A (HA). We analyzed intron 22 rearrangements in 195 HA patients (123 familial and 72 sporadic cases). According to factor VIII levels, our sample was classified as severe in 114 cases, moderate in 29 cases and mild in 52 cases. An intron 22 (F8A) probe was hybridized to Southern blots of BcII digested DNA obtained from peripheral blood. A clear pattern of altered bands identifies distal or proximal inversions. We detected an abnormal pattern identifying an inversion in 49 (25%) of the analyzed cases. 43% of severe HA patients (49 cases) showed an inversion. As expected, no inversion was found in the moderate and mild group of patients. We found a high proportion (78%) of the distal rearrangement. From 49 identified inversions, 33 were found in familial cases (27%), while the remaining 15 were detected in sporadic patients (22%) in support that this mutational event occurs with a similar frequency in familial or sporadic cases. In addition, we detected a significant tendency of distal inversion to occur more frequently in familial cases than in sporadic cases. Inhibitor development to factor VIII was documented in approximately 1/3 of the patients with inversion. The identification of such a frequent molecular event in severe hemophilia A patients has been applied in our families to carrier and prenatal diagnosis, to determine the origin of the mutation in the sporadic cases and to detect the presence of germinal mosaicism.

  16. Elevated plasma factor VIII enhances venous thrombus formation in rabbits: contribution of factor XI, von Willebrand factor and tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Iwakiri, Takashi; Okuyama, Nozomi; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Inoue, Osamu; Harada, Aya; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shima, Midori; Asada, Yujiro

    2013-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factor VIII (FVIII) are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate how elevated FVIII levels affect venous thrombus formation and propagation in vivo. We examined rabbit plasma FVIII activity, plasma thrombin generation, whole blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity before and one hour after an intravenous infusion of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII). Venous thrombus induced by the endothelial denudation of rabbit jugular veins was histologically assessed. Thrombus propagation was evaluated as indocyanine green fluorescence intensity. Argatroban, a thrombin inhibitor, and neutralised antibodies for tissue factor (TF), factor XI (FXI), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were infused before or after thrombus induction to investigate their effects on venous thrombus formation or propagation. Recombinant FVIII (100 IU/kg) increased rabbit plasma FVIII activity two-fold and significantly enhanced whole blood coagulation and total plasma thrombin generation, but did not affect initial thrombin generation time, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity. The rFVIII infusion also increased the size of venous thrombus 1 hour after thrombus induction. Argatroban and the antibodies for TF, FXI or VWF inhibited such enhanced thrombus formation and all except TF suppressed thrombus propagation. In conclusion, elevated plasma FVIII levels enhance venous thrombus formation and propagation. Excess thrombin generation by FXI and VWF-mediated FVIII recruitment appear to contribute to the growth of FVIII-driven venous thrombus.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy study of a factor VIII ELISA for detection of factor VIII antibodies in congenital and acquired haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Paul; Moore, Gary W; Platton, Sean; Maloney, James C; Palmer, Ben; Bowles, Louise; Pasi, K John; Rangarajan, Savita; Hart, Daniel P

    2015-10-01

    Antibody formation to factor VIII (FVIII) remains the greatest clinical and diagnostic challenge to the haemophilia-treating physician. Current guidance for testing for inhibitory FVIII antibodies (inhibitors) recommends the functional Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA). A FVIII ELISA offers a complementary, immunological approach for FVIII antibody testing. It was the aim of this study to retrospectively evaluate the performance of a FVIII ELISA (index) for detection of FVIII antibodies, compared with the NBA (reference). All samples sent for routine FVIII antibody testing at two haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, were tested in parallel using the NBA and a solid-phase, indirect FVIII ELISA kit (Immucor). A total of 497 samples from 239 patients (severe haemophilia A=140, non-severe haemophilia A=85, acquired haemophilia A=14) were available for analysis. Sixty-three samples tested positive by the NBA (prevalence 12.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9-15.9 %), with a median inhibitor titre of 1.2 BU/ml (range 0.7-978.0). The FVIII ELISA demonstrated a specificity of 94.0% (95%CI, 91.3-96.0), sensitivity of 77.8% (95%CI, 65.5-87.3), negative predictive value of 96.7% (95%CI, 94.5-98.2), positive predictive value 65.3% (95%CI, 53.5-76.0), negative likelihood ratio 0.2 (95%CI, 0.1-0.4), positive likelihood ratio 13.0 (95%CI, 8.7-19.3) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 54.9 (95%CI, 27.0-112.0). Strong positive correlation (r=0.77, pNBA (log adjusted) and FVIII ELISA optical density. In conclusion, FVIII ELISA offers a simple, specific, surveillance method enabling batch testing of non-urgent samples for the presence of FVIII antibodies.

  18. The F309S mutation increases factor VIII secretion in human cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daianne Maciely Carvalho Fantacini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The capacity of a human cell line to secrete recombinant factor VIII with a F309S point mutation was investigated, as was the effect of the addition of chemical chaperones (betaine and sodium-4-phenylbutyrate on the secretion of factor VIII. METHODS: This work used a vector with a F309S mutation in the A1 domain to investigate FVIII production in the HEK 293 human cell line. Factor VIII activity was measured by chromogenic assay. Furthermore, the effects of chemical drugs on the culture were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of the F309S mutation to a previously described FVIII variant increased FVIII secretion by 4.5 fold. Moreover, the addition of betaine or sodium-4-phenylbutyrate increased the secretion rate of FVIIIΔB proteins in HEK 293 cells, but the same effect was not seen for FVIIIΔB-F309S indicating that all the recombinant protein produced had been efficiently secreted. CONCLUSION: Bioengineering factor VIII expressed in human cells may lead to an efficient production of recombinant factor VIII and contribute toward low-cost coagulation factor replacement therapy for hemophilia A. FVIII-F309S produced in human cells can be effective in vivo.

  19. An immunoradiometric assay for procoagulant factor VIII antigen: results in haemophilia, von Willebrand's disease and fetal plasma and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, I.R.; Bloom, A.L.; Giddings, J.C.; Ludlam, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) has been developed based on the inhibitor which arose in a polytransfused severe haemophiliac. The two-site IRMA measured antigens closely associated with the procoagulant parts of the factor VIII complex, which are termed FVIIIC antigens or FVIIICAG. FVIIICAG was present in normal plasma and also, at a slightly lower concentration, in normal serum. In 37 patients with haemophilia A, 36 had FVIIICAG levels of less than 10% of the normal plasma pool. In patients with von Willebrand's disease the levels of FVIIIC and FVIIICAG were in good agreement, both before and after treatment with cryoprecipitate or DDAVP. FVIIICAG was relatively stable in plasma at 37 0 C and could also be detected in cord and fetal serum. The assay is of potential value for detecting reduced levels of factor VIII, for carrier detection and for the prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia. (author)

  20. Hemodialysis in a patient with severe hemophilia A and factor VIII inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Usha, Thiruvengadam; Thopalan, Balasubramaniyan; Dhanapriya, Jeyachandran; Dineshkumar, Thanigachalam; Thirumalvalavan, Kaliaperumal; Sakthirajan, Ramanathan

    2016-10-01

    Hemophilia A is a hereditary X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding factor VIII (FVIII), occurring in 1 out of 10,000 persons. Life expectancy and quality of life have dramatically improved recently in patients with hemophilia. Chronic kidney disease and need for renal replacement therapy in these patients are rare. The development of inhibitors to FVIII is the most serious complication of hemophilia and makes treatment of bleeds very challenging. We describe here a 28-year-old male patient with severe hemophilia A with presence of factor VIII inhibitor, who had end stage renal disease. Central venous access device was inserted along with infusion of factor eight inhibitor bypass activity before and after the procedure. He is currently on thrice weekly hemodialysis and doing well for 6 months without bleeding episodes. To our knowledge, hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitor managed with hemodialysis has not been reported so far. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. Storage and regulated secretion of factor VIII in blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, M.; Bouwens, E.A.M.; Kootstra, N.A.; Hebbel, R.P.; Voorberg, J.; Mertens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene therapy provides an attractive alternative for protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of directing factor (F)VIII gene delivery to cells that also express its natural carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). In this

  2. Storage and regulated secretion of factor VIII in blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hebbel, Robert P.; Voorberg, Jan; Mertens, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy provides an attractive alternative for protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of directing factor (F)VIII gene delivery to cells that also express its natural carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). In this study, we

  3. Analysis of factor VIII gene inversions in 164 unrelated hemophilia A families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vnencak-Jones, L.; Phillips, J.A. III; Janco, R.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disease with variable phenotype and both heterogeneous and wide spread mutations in the factor VIII (F8) gene. As a result, diagnostic carrier or prenatal testing often relies upon laborious DNA linkage analysis. Recently, inversion mutations resulting from an intrachromosomal recombination between DNA sequences in one of two A genes {approximately}500 kb upstream from the F8 gene and a homologous A gene in intron 22 of the F8 gene were identified and found in 45% of severe hemophiliacs. We have analyzed banked DNA collected since 1986 from affected males or obligate carrier females representing 164 unrelated hemophilia A families. The disease was sporadic in 37%, familial in 54% and in 10% of families incomplete information was given. A unique deletion was identified in 1/164, a normal pattern was observed in 110/164 (67%), and 53/164 (32%) families had inversion mutations with 43/53 (81%) involving the distal A gene (R3 pattern) and 10/53 (19%) involving the proximal A gene (R2 pattern). While 19% of all rearrangements were R2, in 35 families with severe disease (< 1% VIII:C activity) all 16 rearrangements seen were R3. In 18 families with the R3 pattern and known activities, 16 (89%) had levels < 1%, with the remaining 2 families having {le} 2.4% activity. Further, 18 referrals specifically noted the production of inhibitors and 8/18 (45%) had the R3 pattern. Our findings demonstrate that the R3 inversion mutation patterns is (1) only seen with VIII:C activity levels of {le} 2.4%, (2) seen in 46% of families with severe hemophilia, (3) seen in 45% of hemophiliacs known to have inhibitors, (4) not correlated with sporadic or familial disease and (5) not in disequilibrium with the Bcl I or Taq I intron 18 or ST14 polymorphisms. Finally, in families positive for an inversion mutation, direct testing offers a highly accurate and less expensive alternative to DNA linkage analysis.

  4. Analysis of mutations in the entire coding sequence of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidichadani, S.I.; Lanyon, W.G.; Connor, J.M. [Glascow Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X-linked recessive disorder of bleeding caused by deleterious mutations in the gene for clotting factor VIII. The large size of the factor VIII gene, the high frequency of de novo mutations and its tissue-specific expression complicate the detection of mutations. We have used a combination of RT-PCR of ectopic factor VIII transcripts and genomic DNA-PCRs to amplify the entire essential sequence of the factor VIII gene. This is followed by chemical mismatch cleavage analysis and direct sequencing in order to facilitate a comprehensive search for mutations. We describe the characterization of nine potentially pathogenic mutations, six of which are novel. In each case, a correlation of the genotype with the observed phenotype is presented. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of the five missense mutations detected, we have analyzed them for evolutionary sequence conservation and for their involvement of sequence motifs catalogued in the PROSITE database of protein sites and patterns.

  5. Idiopathic factor VIII inhibitor autoantibody in a man presented after accident.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansouritorghabeh, H.; Lak, M.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but severe autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII activity and is a potentially life-threatening hemorrhagic disorder. The incidence of acquired hemophilia A has been estimated as 1.48 cases per million per year. The overall rate of

  6. In vivo recovery and safety of human factor VIII product AAFACT in patients with haemophilia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossebeld, P. J. M.; Tissing, M. H.; van den Berg, H. M.; Leebeek, F. W. G.; de Goede-Bolder, A.; Novakova, I. R. O.; Gerrits, W. B. J.; Peters, M.; Koopman, M. M. W.; Faber, A.; Hiemstra, H.; Grob, P.; Strengers, P. F. W.

    2003-01-01

    AAFACT, a monoclonal purified, solvent/detergent treated human plasma-derived coagulation factor VIII concentrate obtained from plasma of voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors, is manufactured and marketed in the Netherlands by Sanquin Plasma Products since 1995. In a postmarketing surveillance

  7. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  8. Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in children with severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Mahlangu, J; Kulkarni, R; Nolan, B; Liesner, R; Pasi, J; Barnes, C; Neelakantan, S; Gambino, G; Cristiano, L M; Pierce, G F; Allen, G

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic factor replacement, which prevents hemarthroses and thereby reduces the musculoskeletal disease burden in children with hemophilia A, requires frequent intravenous infusions (three to four times weekly). Kids A-LONG was a phase 3 open-label study evaluating the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a longer-acting factor, recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc), in previously treated children with severe hemophilia A (endogenous FVIII level of hemophilia A. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Home therapy with continuous infusion of factor VIII after minor surgery or serious haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon, D; Schulman, S; Bashari, D; Martinowitz, U

    1996-10-01

    Administration of factor VIII (F VIII) concentrates by continuous infusion is now routinely used at several haemophilia centers but almost exclusively for hospitalized patients. We evaluated various aspects of home therapy with continuous infusion of an immunoaffinity purified F VIII concentrate (Monoclate P®, Armour) in patients who would normally have been treated with high doses in bolus injections or with continuous infusion as in-patients. Twenty haemophilia A patients, eight after minor surgery and 12 for serious haemorrhage, received continuous infusion with undiluted F VIII by a minipump for a mean of 0.9 days in the hospital, followed by 3.3 days at home. Infusion bags were exchanged every 2.5 days. No haemorrhagic complications occurred, and five haemorrhages that had been resistant to treatment with bolus injections responded promptly to the continuous infusion. There were no technical problems and patient compliance and acceptance was good. We find this mode of therapy safe, efficacious and convenient for the patients as well as for the staff.

  10. A close insight to factor VIII inhibitor in the congenital hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabriznia-Tabrizi, Shamsoreza; Gholampour, Marzie; Mansouritorghabeh, Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) has an X-linked pattern of inheritance and is the most common of the hemorrhagic disorders. HA is caused by a decreased or deficiency of the functional clotting factor VIII (FVIII) and effects 1 in 5000-10,000 male births. The common treatment for hemophilia is replacement therapy by plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII. Approximately 20-30% of people with a severe type of HA develop an inhibitor and this phenomenon is the main challenge in the management of these patients. Genetic factors and environmental determinants contribute to inhibitor development. Here, the roles of various genetic and environmental factors such as the type of FVIII concentrate used, the number of exposure days, and peak treatment time will be discussed in detail. It seems this information is helpful for hematologists. A literature review was done in January 2016 on PubMed and Scopus using the following keywords:' h(a)emophilia A & factor VIII inhibitor', 'h(a)emophilia A & factor VIII alloantibody', 'h(a)emophilia A & inhibitor'. There was no time limitation; however, there was an English language limitation placed on the articles selected. Expert commentary: Influential genetic and environmental factors in developing inhibitors have been discussed. Most of the risk factors are related to previously untreated patients with hemophili.

  11. Specific membrane binding of factor VIII is mediated by O-phospho-L-serine, a moiety of phosphatidylserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G E; Drinkwater, D

    1993-09-21

    Phosphatidylserine, a negatively charged lipid, is exposed on the platelet membrane following cell stimulation, correlating with the expression of factor VIII receptors. We have explored the importance of the negative electrostatic potential of phosphatidylserine vs chemical moieties of phosphatidylserine for specific membrane binding of factor VIII. Fluorescein-labeled factor VIII bound to membranes containing 15% phosphatidic acid, a negatively charged phospholipid, with low affinity compared to phosphatidylserine-containing membranes. Binding was not specific as it was inhibited by other proteins in plasma. Factor VIII bound to membranes containing 10% phosphatidylserine in spite of a varying net charge provided by 0-15% stearylamine, a positively charged lipid. The soluble phosphatidylserine moiety, O-phospho-L-serine, inhibited factor VIII binding to phosphatidylserine-containing membranes with a Ki of 20 mM, but the stereoisomer, O-phospho-D-serine, was 5-fold less effective. Furthermore, binding of factor VIII to membranes containing synthetic phosphatidyl-D-serine was 5-fold less than binding to membranes containing phosphatidyl-L-serine. Membranes containing synthetic phosphatidyl-L-homoserine, differing from phosphatidylserine by a single methylene, supported high-affinity binding, but it was not specific as factor VIII was displaced by other plasma proteins. O-Phospho-L-serine also inhibited the binding of factor VIII to platelet-derived microparticles with a Ki of 20 mM, and the stereoisomer was 4-fold less effective. These results indicate that membrane binding of factor VIII is mediated by a stereoselective recognition O-phospho-L-serine of phosphatidylserine and that negative electrostatic potential is of lesser importance.

  12. Haemophilia A: Database of nucleotide substitutions, deletions, insertions and rearrangements of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuddenham, E.G.D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)); Cooper, D.N. (Thrombosis Research Inst., London (United Kingdom)); Gitschier, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States)); Higuchi, M.; Kazazian, H.H.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore (United States)); Hoyer, L.W. (American Red Cross, Rockville (United States)); Yoshioka, A. (Nara Medical Coll., Kashihara City (Japan)); Peake, I.R. (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)); Schwaab, R. (Inst. fuer Klinische Biochemie der Univ. Bonn (West Germany)); Lavergne, J.M. (Hopital de Bicetre (France)); Giannelli, F. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-09-25

    Mutations at the factor VIII gene locus causing Haemophilia A have now been identified in many patients from a many ethnic groups. Earlier studies used biased methods which detected repetitive mutations at a few CG dinucleotides. More recently rapid gene scanning methods have uncovered an extreme diversity of mutations. Over 80 different point mutations, 6 insertions, 7 small deletions, and 60 large deletions have been characterized. Repetitive mutation has been proved for at least 16 CpG sites. All nonsense mutations cause severe disease. Most missense mutations appear to cause instability of the protein, but some are associated with production of dysfunctional factor VIII molecules, thereby localizing functionally critical regions of the cofactor. Variable phenotype has been observed in association with three of the latter class of genotype. This catalogue of gene lesions in Haemophilia A will be updated annually.

  13. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  14. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    OpenAIRE

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Nichols, Timothy C.; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by fu...

  15. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  16. Genotype and phenotype report on patients with combined deficiency of factor V and factor VIII in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Cairo, Andrea; Safarpour, Mohammad M; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Shahriari, Mahdi; Menegatti, Marzia

    2014-06-01

    Combined factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by mild-to-moderate bleeding. Epistaxis, postsurgical bleeding and menorrhagia are the most common symptoms. The aim of this study is to report the phenotype-genotype characterization carried out in patients affected with combined FV and FVIII deficiency from Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz Hemophilia Center, southern Iran. Twelve cases, seven men and five women coming from eight families were included in our study after taking consent form. Coagulation activity for all patients was measured. All exons and intron-exon junctions of lectin mannose binding protein 1 (LMAN1) gene and multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2 genes were amplified by PCR, and subsequently sequenced by the Sanger method. Patients[Combining Acute Accent] age ranged from 6 to 59 years mean ± SD: 23.8 ± 15.4 years and median: 22 years. No patient presented with severe bleeding symptom. Only one patient had severe FV and FVIII deficiency (both factor levels stop codon. Larger studies are needed to calculate the correlation between factor levels, genetic and bleeding symptoms.

  17. Relationship between ABO blood groups and von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13 and factor VIII in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Danyelle R A; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Figueiredo, Roberta C; Guimarães, Daniela A M; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Simões E Silva, Ana C; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant' Ana

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that non-O blood groups subjects present an increased VTE risk as compared to those carrying O blood group. The aim of this study was to investigate the ABO blood groups influence on factor VIII (FVIII) activity, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Patients undergoing HD (N=195) and 80 healthy subjects (control group) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. The ABO blood group phenotyping was performed by the reverse technique. FVIII activity was measured through coagulometric method, and VWF and ADAMTS13 antigens were assessed by ELISA. FVIII activity and VWF levels were significantly higher and ADAMTS13 levels was decreased in HD patients, as compared to healthy subjects (P blood groups showed a significant increase in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P blood group. However, no significant difference was observed in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.767). In the control group, increased in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P = 0.002) and decreased in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.005) were observed in subjects carrying non-O blood groups as compared to carriers of O blood group.Our data confirmed that ABO blood group is an important risk factor for increased procoagulant factors in plasma, as FVIII and VWF. Admitting the possible role of kidneys in ADAMTS13 synthesis or on its metabolism, HD patients were not able to increase ADAMTS13 levels in order to compensate the increase of VWF levels mediated by ABO blood groups. Considering that non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for thrombosis, it is reasonable to admit that A, B and AB HD patients need a careful and continuous follow-up in order to minimize thrombotic events.

  18. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of ABO blood groups with von Willebrand factor, factor VIII and ADAMTS-13 in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaogang; Yang, Jiezuan; Guo, Renyong

    2017-09-01

    Coagulative and fibrinolytic disorders appear to be associated with the development of lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS-13), and factor VIII (FVIII) activity, in association with O and non-O blood groups in patients with lung cancer. Plasma levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13, and FVIII activity were measured in 115 patients with lung cancer and 98 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of the ABO blood groups was also performed for the two groups. Significantly increased VWF levels and FVIII activity, as well as significantly decreased ADAMTS-13 levels, were observed in patients with distant metastasis as compared with those without distant metastasis and the healthy controls. Plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity were significantly increased in subjects with non-O type blood compared with those with type O blood in the two groups. However, a significant decrease in ADAMTS-13 levels was observed only in the control group among those with non-O type blood, compared with those with type O blood. The results of the present study indicate that increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS-13 levels facilitate the invasiveness and metastasis of lung cancer. Non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for increased VWF and FVIII in plasma. Continued monitoring of VWF and ADAMTS-13 levels, and of FVIII activity in patients with lung cancer with distinct blood groups may help to minimize the incidence of thrombotic events and improve assessment of disease progression.

  20. Innovative Approaches for Immune Tolerance to Factor VIII in the Treatment of Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexandra; Biswas, Moanaro; Herzog, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Hemophilia A (coagulation factor VIII deficiency) is a debilitating genetic disorder that is primarily treated with intravenous replacement therapy. Despite a variety of factor VIII protein formulations available, the risk of developing anti-dug antibodies (“inhibitors”) remains. Overall, 20–30% of patients with severe disease develop inhibitors. Current clinical immune tolerance induction protocols to eliminate inhibitors are not effective in all patients, and there are no prophylactic protocols to prevent the immune response. New experimental therapies, such as gene and cell therapies, show promising results in pre-clinical studies in animal models of hemophilia. Examples include hepatic gene transfer with viral vectors, genetically engineered regulatory T cells (Treg), in vivo Treg induction using immune modulatory drugs, and maternal antigen transfer. Furthermore, an oral tolerance protocol is being developed based on transgenic lettuce plants, which suppressed inhibitor formation in hemophilic mice and dogs. Hopefully, some of these innovative approaches will reduce the risk of and/or more effectively eliminate inhibitor formation in future treatment of hemophilia A. PMID:29225598

  1. Targeting factor VIII expression to platelets for hemophilia A gene therapy does not induce an apparent thrombotic risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C K; Mattson, J G; Weiler, H; Shi, Q; Montgomery, R R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Platelet-Factor (F) VIII gene therapy is a promising treatment in hemophilia A. This study aims to evaluate if platelet-FVIII expression would increase the risk for thrombosis. Targeting FVIII expression to platelets does not induce or elevate thrombosis risk. Platelets expressing FVIII are neither hyper-activated nor hyper-responsive. Background Targeting factor (F) VIII expression to platelets is a promising gene therapy approach for hemophilia A, and is successful even in the presence of inhibitors. It is well known that platelets play important roles not only in hemostasis, but also in thrombosis and inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether platelet-FVIII expression might increase thrombotic risk and thereby compromise the safety of this approach. Methods In this study, platelet-FVIII-expressing transgenic mice were examined either in steady-state conditions or under prothrombotic conditions induced by inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation. Native whole blood thrombin generation assay, rotational thromboelastometry analysis and ferric chloride-induced vessel injury were used to evaluate the hemostatic properties. Various parameters associated with thrombosis risk, including D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, tissue fibrin deposition, platelet activation status and activatability, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, were assessed. Results We generated a new line of transgenic mice that expressed 30-fold higher levels of platelet-expressed FVIII than are therapeutically required to restore hemostasis in hemophilic mice. Under both steady-state conditions and prothrombotic conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation, supratherapeutic levels of platelet-expressed FVIII did not appear to be thrombogenic. Furthermore, FVIII-expressing platelets were neither hyperactivated nor hyperactivatable upon agonist activation. Conclusion We conclude that, in mice, more than 30-fold higher levels of

  2. Production of factor VIII by human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells transplanted in immunodeficient uPA mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E Fomin

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs form a semi-permeable barrier between parenchymal hepatocytes and the blood. LSECs participate in liver metabolism, clearance of pathological agents, immunological responses, architectural maintenance of the liver and synthesis of growth factors and cytokines. LSECs also play an important role in coagulation through the synthesis of Factor VIII (FVIII. Herein, we phenotypically define human LSECs isolated from fetal liver using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Isolated LSECs were cultured and shown to express endothelial markers and markers specific for the LSEC lineage. LSECs were also shown to engraft the liver when human fetal liver cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice with liver specific expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA transgene (uPA-NOG mice. Engrafted cells expressed human Factor VIII at levels approaching those found in human plasma. We also demonstrate engraftment of adult LSECs, as well as hepatocytes, transplanted into uPA-NOG mice. We propose that overexpression of uPA provides beneficial conditions for LSEC engraftment due to elevated expression of the angiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor. This work provides a detailed characterization of human midgestation LSECs, thereby providing the means for their purification and culture based on their expression of CD14 and CD32 as well as a lack of CD45 expression. The uPA-NOG mouse is shown to be a permissive host for human LSECs and adult hepatocytes, but not fetal hepatoblasts. Thus, these mice provide a useful model system to study these cell types in vivo. Demonstration of human FVIII production by transplanted LSECs encourages further pursuit of LSEC transplantation as a cellular therapy for the treatment of hemophilia A.

  3. Factor VIII brand and the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in previously untreated UK children with severe hemophilia A, 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Benedict P.; Chalmers, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Daniel P.; Liesner, Ri; Rangarajan, Savita; Talks, Katherine; Williams, Michael; Hay, Charles R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) brand on inhibitor development was investigated in all 407 severe hemophilia A previously untreated patients born in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Eighty-eight (22%) had been in the RODIN study. Information was extracted from the National Haemophilia Database. Because exposure days (EDs) were not known for some patients, time from first treatment was used as a surrogate for rFVIII exposure. An inhibitor developed in 118 (29%) patients, 60 high and 58 low titer, after a median (interquartile range) of 7.8 (3.3-13.5) months from first exposure and 16 (9-30) EDs. Of 128 patients treated with Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen, 45 (35.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.4-43.8) developed an inhibitor compared with 42/172 (24.4%, 95% CI 18.6% to 31.4%) with Advate (P = .04). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen compared with Advate was 2.14 (1.12-4.10) (P = .02) for high titer and 1.75 (1.11-2.76) (P = .02) for all inhibitors. When excluding UK-RODIN patients, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for high-titer inhibitors was 2.00 (0.93-4.34) (P = .08). ReFacto AF was associated with a higher incidence of all, but not high-titer, inhibitors than Advate. These results will help inform debate around the relative immunogenicity and use of rFVIII brands. PMID:25339360

  4. Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage...... challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more...... convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population....

  5. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje van den Biggelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both proteins. The source of these VWF/FVIII co-storage pools and the mechanism of granule biogenesis are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied intracellular trafficking of FVIII variants implicated in mild/moderate hemophilia A together with VWF in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells. The role of VWF binding was addressed using FVIII variants displaying reduced VWF interaction. Binding studies using purified FVIII proteins revealed moderate (Arg2150His, Del2201, Pro2300Ser to severe (Tyr1680Phe, Ser2119Tyr VWF binding defects. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells revealed that all FVIII variants were present within VWF-containing organelles. Quantitative studies showed that the relative amount of FVIII storage was independent of various mutations. Substantial amounts of FVIII variants are co-stored in VWF-containing storage organelles, presumably by virtue of their ability to interact with VWF at low pH. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the potential of FVIII co-storage with VWF is not affected in mild/moderate hemophilia A caused by reduced FVIII/VWF interaction in the circulation. These data support the hypothesis that Weibel-Palade bodies comprise the desmopressin-releasable FVIII storage pool in vivo.

  6. Factor VIII S373L: mutation at P1' site confers thrombin cleavage resistance, causing mild haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Pemberton, S; Acquila, M; Mori, P G; Tuddenham, E G; O'Brien, D P

    1994-04-01

    A novel CRM+ mutation, factor VIII position 373 serine to leucine substitution (FVIII 373-Leu) was identified during a survey of Factor VIII (FVIII) mutations. We have purified the variant protein from the patient's plasma in order to allow further characterisation of the molecule. The CRM+ plasma contained 120% Factor VIII antigen (FVIII:Ag) and 6% Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C). After purification the mutant FVIII was subjected to thrombin proteolysis, and was thereby activated 5.6-fold compared with 7-fold for wild type molecule. Subsequently, spontaneous inactivation of the mutant was much slower than noted for wild type FVIII. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that thrombin cleavage of FVIII 373-Leu at positions 740 and 1689 were normal but that cleavage at position 372 was completely absent. Crystallographic coordinates of the active site of thrombin complexed to fibrinopeptide A were used to explore possible mechanistic reasons for the failure of thrombin to cleave the mutant FVIII at position 372. Steric hindrance between the mutant side chain and the side chain of the P1 residue was apparent. We conclude that the functional defect of FVIII 373-Leu results from the inability of thrombin to cleave the mutant at position 372-373, and propose that this is due to steric hindrance by the side chain of leucine 373, preventing correct formation of the enzyme substrate complex.

  7. Tranexamic acid combined with recombinant factor VIII increases clot resistance to accelerated fibrinolysis in severe hemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Hanne Thykjær; Norengaard, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    examined whether the clot stability in hemophiliacs could be improved by treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) in combination with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII). PATIENTS/METHODS: Baseline blood samples were obtained from eight males with severe hemophilia A. Thereafter, a bolus injection of r...

  8. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  9. Potential role of a new PEGylated recombinant factor VIII for hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn TT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tung Thanh Wynn,1 Burak Gumuscu,2,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Bon Secours Health System, St. Mary’s Hospital, Richmond, VA, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia A, a deficiency in the activity of coagulation factor (F VIII, is an X-linked bleeding disorder with an approximate incidence of one in 5,000 male infants. Bleeding-related complications often result in greater severity of disease, poor quality of life, surgical interventions for severe joint destruction, and shortened life span. With the availability of plasma-derived and recombinant FVIII products, the benefits of primary prophylaxis were demonstrated and is now the standard of care for patients with severe factor deficiencies. Current hemophilia research is focusing on the creation of new factor replacement therapies with longer half-lives; accessing alternative mechanisms to achieve desired hemostasis and enhance bypassing ­activity; and limiting the immunogenicity of the protein. PEGylation involves the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG to a protein, peptide, or a small molecule drug. PEG effectively increases the molecular weight and size of the protein by creating a hydrophilic cloud around the molecule. This molecular change may reduce susceptibility of the molecule to proteolytic activity and degradation. It is also believed that PEGylation changes the surface charge of the protein that ultimately interferes with some receptor-mediated clearance processes. The half-life of PEGylated factor is more prolonged when compared to non-PEGylated full-length recombinant FVIII. The dawn of a new era in the care of hemophilia patients is upon us with the release of recombinant FVIII products with extended half-lives, and products with even more extended half

  10. Purification and characterization of factor VIII 1,689-Cys: a nonfunctional cofactor occurring in a patient with severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D P; Tuddenham, E G

    1989-06-01

    We have purified the factor VIII from a CRM+ Hemophilia A plasma (90 U/dL VIII:Ag but 0 U/dL VIII:C) and analyzed the protein before and after thrombin activation by Western blotting with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Normal or patient citrated plasma was ultracentrifuged, cryo-ethanol-precipitated and chromatographed on Sepharose 6B. The void volume fractions were reduced and subjected to ion exchange chromatography yielding material of specific activity approximately 1,000 U/mg protein (VIII:C or VIII:Ag). Factor VIII purified in this way from normal plasma is fully activatable by thrombin with proteolytic fragmentation as previously described by F. Rotblat et al (Biochemistry 24: 4294, 1985). Factor VIII 1,689-Cys has the normal distribution of factor VIII light and heavy chains prior to thrombin activation. After exposure to thrombin the heavy chain polypeptides were fully proteolysed but the light chain was totally resistant to cleavage. This is consistent with the demonstration in the patient's leucocyte DNA of a C to T transition in codon 1,689 converting Arg to Cys at the light chain thrombin cleavage site as previously described by J. Gitschier et al (Blood 72:1022, 1988). Uncleaved light chain of Factor VIII 1,689-Cys is not released from von Willebrand factor (vWF) by thrombin, but this is not the sole cause of the functional defect since the protein purified free of vWF has no coagulant activity. We conclude that the functional defect in factor VIII 1,689-Cys is a consequence of failure to release the acidic peptide from the light chain upon thrombin activation.

  11. Desmopressin acetate as a haemostatic elevator in individuals with combined deficiency of factors V and VIII: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouritorghabeh, H; Shirdel, A

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Combined factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency (CF5F8D) is an autosomal recessive coagulation disorder. Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) was intravenously infused in 20 adult patients with CF5F8D. DDAVP can enhance FVIII levels but has no effect on FV levels in patients with CF5F8D. DDAVP can be substituted for FVIII concentrates in patients with CF5F8D. Combined factor V (FV) and FVIII deficiency (CF5F8D) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive double-gene disorder most frequently seen in the Middle East. Although affected individuals have deficiency of two coagulation factors (range 5-30%), their bleeding tendencies are similar to patients who have deficiency of a single coagulation factor at the same level. The mainstay of their treatment is infusion of FVIII concentrate and fresh frozen plasma. Here, the effect of intravenous infusion of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) on elevation of coagulation FV and FVIII was investigated through a clinical trial in May 2015. In a registered controlled trial, DDAVP (dosage 0.3 μg kg(-1) ) was intravenously infused into 20 adult patients with CF5F8D over 20 min. After an hour, blood samples were collected and plasma levels of FV and FVIII were measured. This study revealed that DDAVP can enhance FVIII levels but has no effect on FV plasma concentration in patients with CF5F8D. Based on these findings, FVIII concentrates may be substituted for DDAVP in patients with CF5F8D. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII attenuates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Cindy; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Zhou, Mian; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is most commonly caused by sepsis in critically ill patients, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is generally accepted to include direct inflammatory injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, and apoptosis. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and regulation of inflammation. We hypothesize that administration of recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) can protect mice from kidney injuries caused by sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 8-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). rmMFG-E8 or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) was injected intravenously at a dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight at time of CLP (n = 5-8 mice per group). After 20 h, serum and renal tissue were harvested for various analyses. The renal injury markers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were determined by enzymatic and chemical reactions, respectively. The gene expression analysis was carried out by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At 20 h after CLP, serum levels of BUN and creatinine were both significantly increased in the vehicle group compared with the sham group, whereas the mice treated with rmMFG-E8 had a significant reduction in BUN and creatinine levels by 28% and 24.1%, respectively (BUN: 197.7 ± 23.6 versus 142.3 ± 20.7 mg/dL; creatinine: 0.83 ± 0.12 versus 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL; P sepsis through inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as through the activation of endothelial cells. Thus, MFG-E8 may have a therapeutic potential for treating AKI induced by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Selvitelli, Keith; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxuan; Mei, Baisong; Peters, Robert; Pierce, Glenn F; Dumont, Jennifer; Raso, Stephen; Reichert, Heidi

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is a long-acting coagulation factor approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. Here, the rFVIIIFc manufacturing process and results of studies evaluating product quality and the capacity of the process to remove potential impurities and viruses are described. This manufacturing process utilized readily transferable and scalable unit operations and employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. A cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells was used to produce rFVIIIFc. Validation studies evaluated identity, purity, activity, and safety. Process-related impurity clearance and viral clearance spiking studies demonstrate robust and reproducible removal of impurities and viruses, with total viral clearance >8-15 log10 for four model viruses (xenotropic murine leukemia virus, mice minute virus, reovirus type 3, and suid herpes virus 1). Terminal galactose-α-1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, two non-human glycans, were undetectable in rFVIIIFc. Biochemical and in vitro biological analyses confirmed the purity, activity, and consistency of rFVIIIFc. In conclusion, this manufacturing process produces a highly pure product free of viruses, impurities, and non-human glycan structures, with scale capabilities to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of rFVIIIFc. Copyright © 2015 Biogen. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. [Determinants of the elevated factor VIII activity in patients following venous thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Monika; Kościelniak, Barbara; Bryk, Agata; Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Activity of factor VIII (FVIII) increased above 150% of reference range predisposes to venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased FVIII activity in patients following VTE. 241 (38% men) patients presented due to objectively documented VTE episode at least 3 months ago were included in this study. FVIII activity was measured using a clotting assay on the analyzer BCS XP. Among 241 patients with VTE, activity of FVIII above 150% (FVIII ≥ 150%) was observed in 96 (40%). These patients were older (p = 0.035) and their concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) were higher by 12% and 88% (p 200%) and this group was also older (p = 0.015), more patients in that group had obesity (p = 0.015), idiopathic VTE (p = 0.043), less of them had positive family history (p = 0.010) and they were characterized by fibrinogen and CRP increased by 28% (p 200% (p = 0.016). The activity of FVIII in patients after VTE episode is influenced by age, concentration of fibrinogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin, glucose, CRP and homocysteine. Our results suggest the role of environmental factors, mainly inflammatory response in maintaining elevated FVIII activity following VTE.

  15. Factors Associated with the Time of Admission among Notified Dengue Fever Cases in Region VIII Philippines from 2008 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Echavez Abello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors affecting the time of admission of Dengue cases. This study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases. The study covered the period between 2008 and 2014 in Region VIII, Philippines. The factors assessed were age, sex, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity based on the 1997 WHO Dengue classification, and period of admission (distinguishing between the 2010 Dengue epidemic and non-epidemic time. We analysed secondary data from the surveillance of notified Dengue cases. We calculated the association through chi-square test, ordinal logistic regression and linear regression at p value < 0.05. The study included 16,357 admitted Dengue cases. The reported cases included a majority of children (70.09%, mild cases of the disease (64.00%, patients from the public sector (69.82%, and non-tertiary hospitals (62.76%. Only 1.40% of cases had a laboratory confirmation. The epidemic period in 2010 comprised 48.68% of all the admitted cases during this period. Late admission was more likely among adults than children (p<0.05. The severe type of the disease was more likely to be admitted late than the mild type (p<0.05. Late admission was also more likely in public hospitals than in private hospitals (p<0.05; and within tertiary level hospitals than non-tertiary hospitals (p<0.05. Late admission was more likely during the non-epidemic period than the 2010 epidemic period (p<0.05. A case fatality rate of 1 or greater was significantly associated with children, severe diseases, tertiary hospitals and public hospitals when admitted late (p<0.05. Data suggests that early admission among child cases was common in Region VIII. This behavior is encouraging, and should be continued. However, further study is needed

  16. Factors Associated with the Time of Admission among Notified Dengue Fever Cases in Region VIII Philippines from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Jason Echavez; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Cerro, Boyd Roderick; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-10-01

    In cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors affecting the time of admission of Dengue cases. This study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases. The study covered the period between 2008 and 2014 in Region VIII, Philippines. The factors assessed were age, sex, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity based on the 1997 WHO Dengue classification, and period of admission (distinguishing between the 2010 Dengue epidemic and non-epidemic time). We analysed secondary data from the surveillance of notified Dengue cases. We calculated the association through chi-square test, ordinal logistic regression and linear regression at p value Dengue cases. The reported cases included a majority of children (70.09%), mild cases of the disease (64.00%), patients from the public sector (69.82%), and non-tertiary hospitals (62.76%). Only 1.40% of cases had a laboratory confirmation. The epidemic period in 2010 comprised 48.68% of all the admitted cases during this period. Late admission was more likely among adults than children (pDengue guidelines in order to standardize the admission criteria and time across hospitals.

  17. Extracorporeal adsorption of anti-factor VIII allo-antibodies on randomly functionalized polystyrene resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Hélène-Céline; Lasne, Dominique; Rothschild, Chantal; Siali, Rosa; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2004-02-01

    The occurrence of anti-factor VIII (FVIII) allo-antibodies is a severe complication of the treatment of haemophilia A patients, leading to the inhibition of transfused FVIII activity. The effective elimination of these inhibitory antibodies plays a decisive role in the management of affected patients. To achieve this, immunoadsorption devices employing synthetic adsorbers, which selectively eliminate inhibitors, are of interest in the treatment strategy of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors. Adsorbers consisting of polystyrene-based beads substituted with sulphonate and L-tyrosyl methylester groups, which mimic part of epitope of FVIII molecule recognized by inhibitors, exhibit selective binding capacities towards anti-FVIII antibodies. The adsorption of FVIII inhibitors was investigated by simulating an extracorporeal circulation of haemophilic plasma over these functionalized resins. These innovative adsorbers are able to remove around 25% of anti-FVIII antibodies in 15 minutes depending on the plasma tested. Furthermore, they do not modify the amount of essential plasmatic proteins or residual immunoglobulins G. Experiments which were carried out using different plasmas with various inhibitor titres demonstrate a good reproducibility regarding the adsorption capacity of the synthetic resin. The characteristics of adsorption are similar on either native or regenerated resins. Both the purely synthetic nature of the resin and its easy processability demonstrate the real advantages over currently available protocols. This synthetic adsorber is a major technological advance in selective removal of FVIII inhibitory antibodies.

  18. Transgenic rabbits as a model organism for production of human clotting factor VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasicek, D.; Chrenek, P.; Makarevich, A.; Bauer, M.; Jurcik, R.; Suvegova, K.; Rafay, J.; Bulla, J.; Hetenyi, L.; Erickson, J.; Paleyanda, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Human clotting factor VIII (hFVIII) is a very complex and large protein whose expression is difficult, as hFVIII requires extensive post-translational modification to be biologically active. This paper reports the generation of transgenic rabbits as a model species for testing the expression of hFVIII in the mammary gland. For micro-injection, a fusion gene construct was used, consisting of 2.5 kb murine whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter, 7.2 kb cDNA of hFVIII, and 4.6 kb of 3' flanking sequences of the mWAP gene. from 130 micro-injected zygotes transferred into recipients, 30 offspring were delivered. The pups were screened for the transgene by PCR, using DNA isolated from the ear, and results were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transgene was identified in one female founder animal, and it was transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian fashion, thus demonstrating stable integration of the gene construct into the germline of the transgenic rabbits. (author)

  19. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics of activated recombinant factor VII and B-domain truncated factor VIII from animal population pharmacokinetic models of haemophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Groth, Andreas Velsing

    2018-01-01

    activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) in several experimental animal models using population PK modelling, and apply a simulation-based approach to evaluate how well the developed animal population PK models predict human PK. PK models were developed for rFVIIa and r...

  20. Partial correction of a severe molecular defect in hemophilia A, because of errors during expression of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Inaba, Hiroshi [Tokyo Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Although the molecular defect in patients in a Japanese family with mild to moderately severe hemophilia A was a deletion of a single nucleotide T within an A{sub 8}TA{sub 2} sequence of exon 14 of the factor VIII gene, the severity of the clinical phenotype did not correspond to that expected of a frameshift mutation. A small amount of functional factor VIII protein was detected in the patient`s plasma. Analysis of DNA and RNA molecules from normal and affected individuals and in vitro transcription/translation suggested a partial correction of the molecular defect, because of the following: (i) DNA replication/RNA transcription errors resulting in restoration of the reading frame and/or (ii) {open_quotes}ribosomal frameshifting{close_quotes} resulting in the production of normal factor VIII polypeptide and, thus, in a milder than expected hemophilia A. All of these mechanisms probably were promoted by the longer run of adenines, A{sub 10} instead of A{sub 8}TA{sub 2}, after the delT. Errors in the complex steps of gene expression therefore may partially correct a severe frameshift defect and ameliorate an expected severe phenotype. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Nonneutralizing antibodies against factor VIII and risk of inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Antonino; Valsecchi, Carla; Garagiola, Isabella; Palla, Roberta; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Rosendaal, Frits R; Peyvandi, Flora

    2017-03-09

    The development of anti-factor VIII (FVIII) neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) is the major complication in hemophilia A. Nonneutralizing antibodies (NNAs) have been detected in hemophilia patients and also in unaffected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of NNAs and to evaluate whether their presence is associated with the development of inhibitors in a cohort of previously untreated or minimally treated patients with hemophilia A; plasma samples of 237 patients with severe hemophilia A enrolled in the SIPPET trial were collected before any exposure to FVIII concentrates and analyzed for the presence of anti-FVIII NNAs. Patients were observed for the development of neutralizing antibodies. NNAs were found in 18 (7.6%) of 237 patients at screening, and there was a clear age gradient. Of those with NNAs, 7 patients subsequently developed an inhibitor for a cumulative incidence of 45.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.5% to 71.3%); among the 219 patients without NNAs, 64 (29%) developed an inhibitor (cumulative incidence, 34.0%; 95% CI, 27.1%-40.9%). In Cox regression analyses, patients with NNAs at screening had an 83% higher incidence of inhibitor development than patients without NNAs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 0.84-3.99). For high-titer inhibitors, the incidence rate had an almost threefold increase (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.23-6.12). These associations did not materially change after adjustment. The presence of anti-FVIII NNAs in patients with severe hemophilia A who were not previously exposed to FVIII concentrates is associated with an increased incidence of inhibitors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Frequencies of VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms associated with factor VIII gene in Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, I.; Lai, P.S.; Ouah, T.C. [National Univ. of Singapore (Malaysia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The allelic frequency of any polymorphism within a population determines its usefulness for genetic counselling. This is important in populations of non-Caucasian origin as RFLPs may significantly differ among ethnic groups. We report a study of five intragenic polymorphisms in factor VIII gene carried out in Singapore. The three PCR-based RFLP markers studied were Intron 18/Bcl I, Intron 19/Hind III and Intron 22/Xba I. In an analysis of 148 unrelated normal X chromosomes, the allele frequencies were found to be A1 = 0.18, A2 = 0.82 (Bcl I RFLP), A1 = 0.80, A2 = 0.20 (Hind III RFLP) and A1 = 0.58, and A2 = 0.42 (Xba I RFLP). The heterozygosity rates of 74 females analyzed separately were 31%, 32% and 84.2%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was also observed to some degree between Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism in our population. We have also analyzed a sequence polymorphism in Intron 7 using hybridization with radioactive-labelled {sup 32}P allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This polymorphism was not very polymorphic in our population with only 2% of 117 individuals analyzed being informative. However, the use of a hypervariable dinucleotide repeat sequence (VNTR) in Intron 13 showed that 25 of our of 27 (93%) females were heterozygous. Allele frequencies ranged from 1 to 55 %. We conclude that a viable strategy for molecular analysis of Hemophilia A families in our population should include the use of Intron 18/Bcl I and Intron 22/Xba I RFLP markers and the Intron 13 VNTR marker.

  3. Human parvovirus B19 infection in hemophiliacs first infused with two high-purity, virally attenuated factor VIII concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, A; Ciappi, S; Zakvrzewska, K; Morfini, M; Mariani, G; Mannucci, P M

    1992-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 can be transmitted by coagulation factor concentrates and is highly resistant to virucidal methods. To evaluate whether the additional removal of virus by chromatographic methods during the manufacture of high-purity concentrates reduces the risk of B19 transmission, we have prospectively evaluated the rate of anti-B19 seroconversion in two groups of susceptible (anti-B19 negative) hemophiliacs infused with high-purity, heated (pasteurized) or solvent-detergent-treated factor VIII concentrates. Both products infected a relatively high proportion of patients (nine of 20).

  4. Severe Hemophilia A in a Male Old English Sheep Dog with a C→T Transition that Created a Premature Stop Codon in Factor VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jay N; Kloos, Mark T; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Lemoine, Nathaly; Whitford, Margaret H; Raymer, Robin A; Bellinger, Dwight A; Nichols, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    Animals with hemophilia are models for gene therapy, factor replacement, and inhibitor development in humans. We have actively sought dogs with severe hemophilia A that have novel factor VIII mutations unlike the previously described factor VIII intron 22 inversion. A male Old English Sheepdog with recurrent soft-tissue hemorrhage and hemarthrosis was diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity less than 1% of normal). We purified genomic DNA from this dog and ruled out the common intron 22 inversion; we then sequenced all 26 exons. Comparing the results with the normal canine factor VIII sequence revealed a C→T transition in exon 12 of the factor VIII gene that created a premature stop codon at amino acid 577 in the A2 domain of the protein. In addition, 2 previously described polymorphisms that do not cause hemophilia were present at amino acids 909 and 1184. The hemophilia mutation creates a new TaqI site that facilitates rapid genotyping of affected offspring by PCR and restriction endonuclease analyses. This mutation is analogous to the previously described human factor VIII mutation at Arg583, which likewise is a CpG dinucleotide transition causing a premature stop codon in exon 12. Thus far, despite extensive treatment with factor VIII, this dog has not developed neutralizing antibodies (‘inhibitors’) to the protein. This novel mutation in a dog gives rise to severe hemophilia A analogous to a mutation seen in humans. This model will be useful for studies of the treatment of hemophilia. PMID:27780008

  5. Transient B cell depletion or improved transgene expression by codon optimization promote tolerance to factor VIII in gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Sack

    Full Text Available The major complication in the treatment of hemophilia A is the development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII. The current method for eradicating inhibitors, termed immune tolerance induction (ITI, is costly and protracted. Clinical protocols that prevent rather than treat inhibitors are not yet established. Liver-directed gene therapy hopes to achieve long-term correction of the disease while also inducing immune tolerance. We sought to investigate the use of adeno-associated viral (serotype 8 gene transfer to induce tolerance to human B domain deleted FVIII in hemophilia A mice. We administered an AAV8 vector with either human B domain deleted FVIII or a codon-optimized transgene, both under a liver-specific promoter to two strains of hemophilia A mice. Protein therapy or gene therapy was given either alone or in conjunction with anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion. Gene therapy with a low-expressing vector resulted in sustained near-therapeutic expression. However, supplementary protein therapy revealed that gene transfer had sensitized mice to hFVIII in a high-responder strain but not in mice of a low-responding strain. This heightened response was ameliorated when gene therapy was delivered with anti-murine CD20 treatment. Transient B cell depletion prevented inhibitor formation in protein therapy, but failed to achieve a sustained hypo-responsiveness. Importantly, use of a codon-optimized hFVIII transgene resulted in sustained therapeutic expression and tolerance without a need for B cell depletion. Therefore, anti-CD20 may be beneficial in preventing vector-induced immune priming to FVIII, but higher levels of liver-restricted expression are preferred for tolerance.

  6. Prolonged activity of a recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein in hemophilia A mice and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Jennifer A.; Liu, Tongyao; Low, Susan C.; Zhang, Xin; Kamphaus, George; Sakorafas, Paul; Fraley, Cara; Drager, Douglas; Reidy, Thomas; McCue, Justin; Franck, Helen W. G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Bitonti, Alan J.; Pierce, Glenn F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite proven benefits, prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A is hampered by the short half-life of factor VIII. A recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) was constructed to determine the potential for reduced frequency of dosing. rFVIIIFc has an ∼ 2-fold longer half-life than rFVIII in hemophilia A (HemA) mice and dogs. The extension of rFVIIIFc half-life requires interaction of Fc with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). In FcRn knockout mice, the extension of rFVIIIFc half-life is abrogated, and is restored in human FcRn transgenic mice. The Fc fusion has no impact on FVIII-specific activity. rFVIIIFc has comparable acute efficacy as rFVIII in treating tail clip injury in HemA mice, and fully corrects whole blood clotting time (WBCT) in HemA dogs immediately after dosing. Furthermore, consistent with prolonged half-life, rFVIIIFc shows 2-fold longer prophylactic efficacy in protecting HemA mice from tail vein transection bleeding induced 24-48 hours after dosing. In HemA dogs, rFVIIIFc also sustains partial correction of WBCT 1.5- to 2-fold longer than rFVIII. rFVIIIFc was well tolerated in both species. Thus, the rescue of FVIII by Fc fusion to provide prolonged protection presents a novel pathway for FVIII catabolism, and warrants further investigation. PMID:22246033

  7. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shipeng Yu, Shahnaz Rehman, Blair P Grubb, Daniel Kosinski, Cherian Verghese, Ehab A Eltahawy, Shafiq Qaiser Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140% was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor

  8. Understanding the first Neolithic occupation of Cova d'En Pardo (Planes, Alicante: Preliminary results of the multidisciplinary analysis of levels VIII and VIIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Agatángelo Soler Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of excavations carried out in the Cova d'En Pardo (Planes, Alicante, specifically the levels VIII and VIIIb. The development of a multidisciplinary project has allowed to us characterize the occupation of a small cavity by the first farming communities associated with the Neolithization process of the east of Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Staining for factor VIII related antigen and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) in 230 tumours. An assessment of their specificity for angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, M; Collins, M; Patel, J; Henry, K

    1986-11-01

    In this study we examined the staining reactivity of commercially available antisera to factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) on sections from 230 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumours. These included 196 sarcomas, 20 carcinomas and 14 angiomas. All angiomas showed positive staining for F VIII RAg; all carcinomas showed negative staining; the vasoformative areas of all angiosarcomas stained positively but only four of six angiosarcomas showed positive staining of their solid areas; of seven Kaposi's sarcomas, all showed positive staining of vessels and six showed positive staining of the spindle cell component. In the remaining 181 non-vascular sarcomas there was a false positive result in four tumours (2.2%), three of which had a history of irradiation. Pre-radiotherapy biopsies of these three tumours stained negatively with anti-F VIII RAg. UEA-I was demonstrated in all the angiomas studied, in all angiosarcomas (including the solid components) and in well-formed vessels of all Kaposi's sarcomas, but only in the spindle cell component of 3/6. However, there was an unacceptably high rate of false positive staining amongst the carcinomas and non-vascular sarcomas. In conclusion, F VIII RAg is a specific but not a sensitive marker of angiosarcomas; UEA-I is a sensitive but not a specific marker of angiosarcomas.

  10. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  11. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  12. Thrombomodulin as a marker for vascular tumors. Comparative study with factor VIII and Ulex europaeus I lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, S; Maruyama, I; Sakae, K; Igata, A; Majerus, P W; Sato, E

    1987-10-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a newly described endothelial cell-associated protein that functions as a potent natural anticoagulant by converting thrombin from a procoagulant protease to an anticoagulant. Various vascular tumors were characterized with immunoperoxidase staining with the use of a polyclonal anti-TM serum. The staining patterns of TM were compared with those of Factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAG) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which have been used as markers for endothelial cells. The results showed that TM is a specific and a highly sensitive marker for angiosarcomas in comparison with FVIII-RAG or UEA-I. In contrast, UEA-I is more sensitive for benign vascular tumors than TM or FVIII-RAG. The other mesenchymal tumors of nonvascular origin showed negative staining for three endothelial markers. These results indicate that TM is a new specific and sensitive tool for the diagnosis of angiosarcomas.

  13. Joint bleeds increase the inhibitor response to human factor VIII in a rat model of severe haemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Karin Maria; Søndergaard, H.; Skov, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most serious complication in haemophilia A (HA) replacement therapy with coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is neutralizing antibodies, i.e. inhibitors. It has been hypothesized that danger signals generated during a bleed might have an adjuvant effect on the immune response to FVIII...... in on-demand treatment, increasing the inhibitor risk. Aim To compare the antibody response to treatment with recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII) in relation to induced knee joint bleeds and treatment without concurrent bleeds in a HA rat model. Method HA rats were divided into two groups: one group (n...... = 10) receiving three needle induced knee joint bleeds 14 days apart and a control group (n = 9) receiving three sham procedures. Three hours after each injury/sham 50 IU kg−1 rhFVIII was administrated intravenously. Subsequently, both groups continued rhFVIII treatment for another 9 weeks. Binding...

  14. Novel factor VIII variants with a modified furin cleavage site improve the efficacy of gene therapy for hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, G N; George, L A; Siner, J I; Davidson, R J; Zander, C B; Zheng, X L; Arruda, V R; Camire, R M; Sabatino, D E

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Factor (F) VIII is an inefficiently expressed protein. Furin deletion FVIII variants were purified and characterized using in vitro and in vivo assays. These minimally modified novel FVIII variants have enhanced function. These variants provide a strategy for increasing FVIII expression in hemophilia A gene therapy. Background The major challenge for developing gene-based therapies for hemophilia A is that human factor VIII (hFVIII) has intrinsic properties that result in inefficient biosynthesis. During intracellular processing, hFVIII is predominantly cleaved at a paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (PACE) or furin cleavage site to yield a heterodimer that is the major form of secreted protein. Previous studies with B-domain-deleted (BDD) canine FVIII and hFVIII-R1645H, both differing from hFVIII by a single amino acid at this site, suggested that these proteins are secreted mainly in a single polypeptide chain (SC) form and exhibit enhanced function. Objective We hypothesized that deletion(s) of the furin site modulates FVIII biology and may enhance its function. Methods A series of recombinant hFVIII-furin deletion variants were introduced into hFVIII-BDD [Δ1645, 1645-46(Δ2), 1645-47(Δ3), 1645-48(Δ4), or Δ1648] and characterized. Results In vitro, recombinant purified Δ3 and Δ4 were primarily SC and, interestingly, had 2-fold higher procoagulant activity compared with FVIII-BDD. In vivo, the variants also have improved hemostatic function. After adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector delivery, the expression of these variants is 2-4-fold higher than hFVIII-BDD. Protein challenges of each variant in mice tolerant to hFVIII-BDD showed no anti-FVIII immune response. Conclusions These data suggest that the furin deletion hFVIII variants are superior to hFVIII-BDD without increased immunogenicity. In the setting of gene-based therapeutics, these novel variants provide a unique strategy to increase FVIII expression, thus lowering the vector dose, a

  15. Characterization of a thrombin cleavage site mutation (Arg 1689 to Cys) in the factor VIII gene of two unrelated patients with cross-reacting material-positive hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, M; Higuchi, M; Antonarakis, S E; Kazazian, H H; Phillips, J A; Janco, R L; Hoyer, L W

    1990-01-15

    The molecular defect responsible for moderate and severe hemophilia A has been identified for two unrelated patients with the CRM-positive form of this disorder (factor VIII activity of 0.02 and 0.05 U/mL with factor VIII antigen of 0.87 and 2.20 U/mL). In both cases, the immunopurified dysfunctional factor VIII protein is abnormal, in that the 80 Kd light chain is not cleaved by thrombin at arginine-1689. The basis for this failure was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of exon 14 of the variant factor VIII genes and direct sequencing of the amplified products. In both cases, a single base substitution (C to T) was identified that produces an arginine to cysteine substitution at amino acid residue 1689. These data identify the molecular defects of the two identical factor VIII variant proteins. The dysfunctional factor VIII has been designated "Factor VIII-East Hartford," the residence of the patient in whom the defect was first identified.

  16. Limit of detection and threshold for positivity of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assay for factor VIII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C H; Boylan, B; Shapiro, A D; Lentz, S R; Wicklund, B M

    2017-10-01

    Essentials Immunologic methods detect factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in some inhibitor-negative specimens. Specimens were tested by modified Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA) and fluorescence immunoassay. The NBA with preanalytical heat inactivation detects FVIII inhibitors down to 0.2 NBU. IgG 4 frequency validates the established threshold for positivity of ≥ 0.5 NBU for this NBA. Background The Bethesda assay for measurement of factor VIII inhibitors called for quantification of positive inhibitors by using dilutions producing 25-75% residual activity (RA), corresponding to 0.4-2.0 Bethesda units, with the use of 'more sensitive methods' for samples with RA closer to 100% being recommended. The Nijmegen modification (Nijmegen-Bethesda assay [NBA]) changed the reagents used but not these calculations. Some specimens negative by the NBA have been shown to have FVIII antibodies detectable with sensitive immunologic methods. Objective To examine the performance at very low inhibitor titers of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-modified NBA (CDC-NBA), which includes preanalytic heat inactivation to liberate bound anti-FVIII antibodies. Methods Specimens with known inhibitors were tested with the CDC-NBA. IgG 4 anti-FVIII antibodies were measured by fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results Diluted inhibitors showed linearity below 0.4 Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU). With four statistical methods, the limit of detection of the CDC-NBA was determined to be 0.2 NBU. IgG 4 anti-FVIII antibodies, which correlate most strongly with functional inhibitors, were present at rates above the background rate of healthy controls in specimens with titers ≥ 0.2 NBU and showed an increase in frequency from 14.3% at 0.4 NBU to 67% at the established threshold for positivity of 0.5 NBU. Conclusions The CDC-NBA can detect inhibitors down to 0.2 NBU. The FLI, which is more sensitive, demonstrates anti-FVIII IgG 4 in some patients with negative (NBA, supporting the need for

  17. A post-marketing safety and efficacy assessment of a monoclonal antibody purified high-purity factor VIII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C R; Lee, C A; Savidge, G

    1996-01-01

    The identification of infrequent side-effects of clotting factor concentrates, undetected by clinical trials, is facilitated by post-marketing surveillance. We present a post-marketing surveillance study in which 97 patients with haemophilia A, attending three haemophilia centres, were treated over a median follow-up period of 284 days (range 1-1074), and a total follow-up period of 30,080 days, with a pasteurized immunoaffinity purified factor VIII concentrate (Monoclate-P, Armour, Collegeville, USA). 5216 infusions, using 10,527,000 units of Monoclate-P, were carried out, mostly for routine haemarthroses or prophylaxis. No new inhibitors were observed during the study. At the start of the study 60/97 were HIV seropositive, 67/97 HBs antibody positive, 12 HbsAb negative and the remainder HBsAb positive before the study period. 13/14 tested were HAV seropositive at the beginning of the study. One patient became HAV seropositive during the study period, an infection thought to be community acquired. No other seroconversions were observed. Only one mild transfusion reaction was observed. This study confirms the safety and efficacy of Monoclate-P. Post-marketing surveillance or nationally organized pharmaco-vigilance should be practiced more widely to enable identification of low-frequency side-effects of treatment.

  18. An Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitor in a Patient with HIV and HCV: A Case Presentation and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Zeichner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite its low incidence, acquired factor VIII inhibitor is the most common autoantibody affecting the clotting cascade. The exact mechanism of acquisition remains unclear, but postpartum patients, those with autoimmune conditions or malignancies, and those with exposure to particular drugs appear most susceptible. There have been several case reports describing acquired FVIII inhibitors in patients receiving interferon alpha for HCV treatment and in patients being treated for HIV. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient with HCV and HIV who was not actively receiving treatment for either condition. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old Caucasian male with a history of HIV and HCV was admitted to our hospital for a several day history of progressively worsening right thigh bruising and generalized weakness. CTA of the abdominal arteries revealed large bilateral retroperitoneal hematomas. Laboratory studies revealed the presence of a high titer FVIII inhibitor. Conclusion. Our case of a very rare condition highlights the importance of recognizing and understanding the diagnosis of acquired FVIII inhibitor. Laboratory research and clinical data on the role of newer agents are needed in order to better characterize disease pathogenesis, disease associations, genetic markers, and optimal disease management.

  19. The effect of factor VIII deficiencies and replacement and bypass therapies on thrombus formation under venous flow conditions in microfluidic and computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola A Onasoga-Jarvis

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence suggests that individuals with factor VIII (FVIII deficiency (hemophilia A are protected against venous thrombosis, but treatment with recombinant proteins can increase their risk for thrombosis. In this study we examined the dynamics of thrombus formation in individuals with hemophilia A and their response to replacement and bypass therapies under venous flow conditions. Fibrin and platelet accumulation were measured in microfluidic flow assays on a TF-rich surface at a shear rate of 100 s⁻¹. Thrombin generation was calculated with a computational spatial-temporal model of thrombus formation. Mild FVIII deficiencies (5-30% normal levels could support fibrin fiber formation, while severe (1 nM, but too low to support fibrin formation (<10 nM. In the absence of platelets, fibrin formation was not supported even at normal FVIII levels, suggesting platelet adhesion is necessary for fibrin formation. Individuals treated by replacement therapy, recombinant FVIII, showed normalized fibrin formation. Individuals treated with bypass therapy, recombinant FVIIa, had a reduced lag time in fibrin formation, as well as elevated fibrin accumulation compared to healthy controls. Treatment of rFVIIa, but not rFVIII, resulted in significant changes in fibrin dynamics that could lead to a prothrombotic state.

  20. D-dimer, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor predict a non-dipping pattern of blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorasti, Athanasia; Trivellas, Theodoros; Mourvati, Efthimia; Papadopoulos, Vasilios; Tsatalas, Konstantinos; Vargemezis, Vasilios; Passadakis, Ploumis

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the haemostatic markers D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are predictive of non-dipping status in treated hypertensive patients; so, as easy available laboratory data can predict non-dipping pattern and help with the selection of the patients whom circadian blood pressure should be re-examined. Forty treated hypertensive patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all patients. Daytime and nocturnal average systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were calculated. Patients were characterised as "non-dippers" on the basis of a less than 10 % decline in nocturnal blood pressure (BP); either systolic or diastolic or mean (MAP). D-dimer as marker of fibrinolytic function, FVIII activity and VWF antigen as marker of endothelial dysfunction were measured on plasma. The predictive efficiency was analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Youden index was used for the estimation of the cut-off points and the associated values for sensitivity and 1-specificity. Plasma levels of D-dimer, FVIII and VWF were significantly higher in non-dippers as compared with dippers, irrespective of the classification used (BP index); all P AUC(ROC) = 0.697, 0.715 and 0.774), FVIII (AUC(ROC) = 0.714, 0.692 and 0.755) and VWF (AUC(ROC) = 0.706, 0.740 and 0.708) in distinguishing non-dipping pattern (systolic, diastolic or mean) in the study population; all P 168 ng/ml (sensitivity/1-specificity for systolic BP non-dippers of 0.789/0.381, for diastolic BP non-dippers 0.923/0.444 and for MAP non-dippers 0.875/0.375). In conclusion, D-dimer has a good predictive value for non-dipping pattern and the decision for the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure re-monitoring among dippers could rely on its values.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of factor VIII over the age range 3-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv

    2009-01-01

    in the sparse clinical data. Model-predicted doses (based on age and body weight) to maintain a recommended 0.01 U/mL trough level of FVIII with administration on alternate days started at around 60 U/kg in the small children, decreasing to 10 U/kg or less in middle age. However, "true" dose requirements......, as estimated from individual PK parameter data, showed a much greater variation. CONCLUSION: Appropriate dosing of FVIII for prophylactic treatment cannot be calculated only from body weight and/or age. However, plausible starting doses for most patients would be 1,000 U every other day. FVIII levels should...... can be calculated according to patient characteristics, and (3) to present dosing recommendations for initiating prophylactic treatment. METHODS: A population PK model was developed using data from four PK studies on patients aged 7-74 years. The model was tested on sparse FVIII data from 42...

  2. Factor VIII (F8) inversions in severe hemophilia A: Male germ cell origin and diagnosis with RT-PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)]|[Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rossiter, J.P. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Young, M. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Factor VIII (F8) gene, which is defective in hemophilia A, is located in the most telomeric megabase of Xq. Inversions due to intrachromosomal homologous recombination between mispaired copies of gene A located within intron 22 of the gene and about 500 kb telomeric to it account for nearly half of the cases of severe hemophilia A. We hypothesized that pairing of Xq with its homolog inhibits the inversion process, and that therefore the event originates predominantly in male germ cells. In all 21 informative cases in which the inversion originated in a maternal grandparent, DNA polymorphism analysis using markers within or very closely linked to F8, determined that it occurred in the male germline. In addition, all but one of 56 mothers of sporadic cases due to inversions were carriers. The data indicate that the F8 gene inversions leading to severe hemophilia A occur almost exclusively in male germ cells. The mean age of maternal grandfathers at the birth of their carrier daughters was 29.9 years (13 cases), i.e. not different from the mean paternal age in the general population, supporting the hypothesis that the inversions occur in meiosis. The inversions can be diagnosed by Southern blot analysis. For more rapid diagnosis we have used RT-PCR of RNA ectopically expressed in blood. Oligonucleotides were used to PCR amplify, after the initial RT reaction of RNA samples using random hexamers, either the normal transcript (F8 exons 21 to 24;312 bp product) or the novel abnormal transcript that is generated after the inversion. Both type 1 and 2 inversions can be recognized in affecteds and carriers by the presence of the diagnostic PcR product of 248 bp. Correct diagnoses were made in samples from 6 patients and 2 carriers with type 1 inversions, 2 patients and 2 carriers with type 2 inversions and 5 normal controls.

  3. Severe hemophilia A in a female by cryptic translocation: Order and orientation of factor VIII within Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; McGinniss, M.J.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Axelman, J.; Stasiowski, B.A.; Youssoufian, H.; Kearns, W.G.; Chung, A.; Pearson, P.L.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Muneer, R.S. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report studies of a female with severe hemophilia A resulting from a complex de novo translocation of chromosomes X and 17 (46,X,t(X; 17)). Somatic cell hybrids containing the normal X, the der(X), or the der(17) were analyzed for coagulation factor VIII (F8C) sequences using Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction. The normal X, always late replicating, contains a normal F8C gene, whereas the der(X) has no F8C sequences. The der(17) chromosome containing Xq24-Xq28 carries a functional G6PD locus and a deleted F8C allele that lacks exons 1--15. Also, it lacks the DXYS64-X locus, situated between the F8C locus and the Xq telomere. These results indicate that a cryptic breakpoint within Xq28 deleted the 5[prime] end of F8C, but left the more proximal G6PD locus intact on the der(17)chromosome. As the deleted segment includes the 5[prime] half of F8C as well as the subtelomeric DXYS64 locus, F8C must be oriented on the chromosome with its 5[prime] region closest to the telomere. Therefore, the order of these loci is Xcen-G6PD-3[prime]F8C-5[prime]F8C-DXYS64-Xqtel. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids has elucidated the true nature of the F8C mutation in the pro-band, revealing a more complex rearrangement (three chromosomes involved) than that expected from cytogenetic analysis, chromosome painting, and Southern blots. A 900-kb segment within Xq28 has been translocated to another autosome. Hemophilia A in this heterozygous female is due to the decapitation of the F8C gene on the der(17) and inactivation of the intact allele on the normal X. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Optimisation of the Factor VIII yield in mammalian cell cultures by reducing the membrane bound fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2011-01-01

    and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane...... of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²5I-rFVIII) and annexin V...... or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could...

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor VIII peptide vaccination is efficacious against established intracerebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberger, Amy B; Crotty, Laura E; Archer, Gary E; Hess, Kenneth R; Wikstrand, Carol J; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2003-09-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and structurally rearranged in malignant gliomas and other tumors such as breast and lung, with the most common mutation being EGFRvIII. In the study described here, we tested in mouse models a vaccine consisting of a peptide encompassing the tumor-specific mutated segment of EGFRvIII (PEP-3) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH (PEP-3-KLH)]. C57BL/6J or C3H mice were vaccinated with PEP-3-KLH and subsequently challenged either s.c. or intracerebrally with a syngeneic melanoma cell line stably transfected with a murine homologue of EGFRvIII. Control mice were vaccinated with KLH. To test its effect on established tumors, C3H mice were also challenged intracerebrally and subsequently vaccinated with PEP-3-KLH. S.c. tumors developed in all of the C57BL/6J mice vaccinated with KLH in Freund's adjuvant, and there were no long-term survivors. Palpable tumors never developed in 70% of the PEP-3-KLH-vaccinated mice. In the C57BL/6J mice receiving the PEP-3-KLH vaccine, the tumors that did develop were significantly smaller than those in the control group (P PEP-3-KLH vaccination did not result in significant cytotoxic responses in standard cytotoxicity assays; however, antibody titers against PEP-3 were enhanced. The passive transfer of sera from the immunized mice to nonimmunized mice protected 31% of the mice from tumor development (P PEP-3-KLH-vaccinated mice. Peptide vaccination was also sufficiently potent to have marked efficacy against intracerebral tumors, resulting in a >173% increase in median survival time, with 80% of the C3H mice achieving long-term survival (P = 0.014). In addition, C3H mice with established intracerebral tumor that received a single treatment of PEP-3-KLH showed a 26% increase in median survival time, with 40% long-term survival (P = 0.007). Vaccination with an EGFRvIII-specific peptide is efficacious against both s.c. and established intracerebral tumors. The

  6. Assessment of the frequency of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+CD127-) in children with hemophilia A: relation to factor VIII inhibitors and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrar, Mohamed Abo; Hamed, Ahmed El-Saeed; Darwish, Yasser Wagih; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; Ismail, Noha Ali

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly growing evidence showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in tolerance to coagulation factors and may be involved in the pathogenesis of inhibitor formation in patients with hemophilia. We determined the percentage of Tregs (CD4CD25CD127) in 45 children with hemophilia A compared with 45 healthy controls, and assessed their relation to the clinical characteristics of patients and factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. Patients were studied stressing on frequency of bleeding attacks, joint pain, history of viral hepatitis, and the received therapy (FVIII precipitate/cryotherapy). FVIII activity and FVIII inhibitors were assessed with flow cytometric analysis of CD4CD25CD127 Tregs. According to residual FVIII activity levels, 30 patients (66.7%) had mild/moderate hemophilia A, whereas 15 (33.3%) patients had severe hemophilia A. The frequency of Tregs was significantly lower among all patients with hemophilia A compared with controls (2.59 ± 1.1 versus 3.73 ± 1.12%; P = 0.002). Tregs were significantly decreased among patients with FVIII inhibitors compared with the inhibitor-negative group (P hemophilia A had lower Tregs levels than those without (P = 0.34 and P = 0.011, respectively). A significant positive correlation was found between the percentage of Tregs and FVIII among hemophilia A patients. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut-off value of Tregs at 1.91% could differentiate patients with and without FVIII inhibitors, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 91.3%. We suggest that alteration in the frequency of Tregs in young patients with hemophilia A may contribute to inhibitor formation and disease severity.

  7. The 1.7 Å X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain and binding analysis to anti-human C2 domain antibodies and phospholipid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caileen M Brison

    Full Text Available The factor VIII C2 domain is essential for binding to activated platelet surfaces as well as the cofactor activity of factor VIII in blood coagulation. Inhibitory antibodies against the C2 domain commonly develop following factor VIII replacement therapy for hemophilia A patients, or they may spontaneously arise in cases of acquired hemophilia. Porcine factor VIII is an effective therapeutic for hemophilia patients with inhibitor due to its low cross-reactivity; however, the molecular basis for this behavior is poorly understood. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain was determined, and superposition of the human and porcine C2 domains demonstrates that most surface-exposed differences cluster on the face harboring the "non-classical" antibody epitopes. Furthermore, antibody-binding results illustrate that the "classical" 3E6 antibody can bind both the human and porcine C2 domains, although the inhibitory titer to human factor VIII is 41 Bethesda Units (BU/mg IgG versus 0.8 BU/mg IgG to porcine factor VIII, while the non-classical G99 antibody does not bind to the porcine C2 domain nor inhibit porcine factor VIII activity. Further structural analysis of differences between the electrostatic surface potentials suggest that the C2 domain binds to the negatively charged phospholipid surfaces of activated platelets primarily through the 3E6 epitope region. In contrast, the G99 face, which contains residue 2227, should be distal to the membrane surface. Phospholipid binding assays indicate that both porcine and human factor VIII C2 domains bind with comparable affinities, and the human K2227A and K2227E mutants bind to phospholipid surfaces with similar affinities as well. Lastly, the G99 IgG bound to PS-immobilized factor VIII C2 domain with an apparent dissociation constant of 15.5 nM, whereas 3E6 antibody binding to PS-bound C2 domain was not observed.

  8. Fluid-phase immunoradiometric assay for the detection of qualitative abnormalities of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor in variants of von Willebrand's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girma, J.P.; Ardaillou, N.; Meyer, D.; Lavergne, J.M.; Larrieu, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Antigenic reactivity of F.VIII/WF in variants of von Willebrand's disease (vWd) was studied with both fluid-phase and solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. Two different (rabbit and goat) 125 I-labeled specific antibodies against purified F.VIII/WF were used in both their divalent (lgG) and their monovalent (Fab fragment) forms. Dose-response curves obtained by reacting a constant amount of antibody with serial dilutions of plasmas from normal or homozygous vWd demonstrated the specificity of the test. The accuracy was significantly higher with 125 I-Fab fragments of goat anti-F.VIII/WF antiserum than intact goat lgG or rabbit lgG or Fab fragments. The significant decrease of the slope of the dose-response curves obtained with plasma from variants of vWd has been interpreted as due to the presence of abnormal F.VIII/WF molecules with decreased antigenic reactivity. A similar anomaly was found in cryosupernatant prepared from normal plasma, paralleling similarities demonstrated between variants of vWd and cryosupernatant. Results of experiments performed by reacting constant plasma dilutions from control or variants of vWd and varying concentrations of anti-F.VIII/WF Fab fragments (rabbit or goat) confirmed the decreased antigenic reactivity of variant F.VIII/WF

  9. Use of routine histopathology and factor VIII-related antigen/von Willebrand factor immunohistochemistry to differentiate primary hemangiosarcoma of bone from telangiectatic osteosarcoma in 54 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, M A; Bacon, N J; Kamstock, D A

    2017-12-01

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) of bone and telangiectatic osteosarcoma (tOSA) can appear similar histologically, but differ in histogenesis (malignant endothelial cells versus osteoblasts), and may warrant different treatments. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for endothelial cell marker factor VIII-related antigen/von Willebrand factor (FVIII-RAg/vWF) is a well-documented ancillary test to confirm HSA diagnoses in soft tissues, but its use in osseous HSA is rarely described. Archived samples of 54 primary appendicular bone tumours previously diagnosed as HSA or tOSA were evaluated using combination routine histopathology (RHP) and IHC. Approximately 20% of tumours were reclassified on the basis of FVIII-RAg/vWF immunoreactivity, typically from an original diagnosis of tOSA to a reclassified diagnosis of HSA. No sample with tumour osteoid clearly identified on RHP was immunopositive for FVIII-RAg/vWF. RHP alone was specific but not sensitive for diagnosis of HSA, compared with combination RHP and IHC. Routine histopathological evaluation in combination with FVIII-RAg/vWF IHC can help differentiate canine primary appendicular HSA from tOSA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Safety of PEGylated recombinant human full-length coagulation factor VIII (BAX 855) in the overall context of PEG and PEG conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidl, R; Fuchs, S; Bossard, M; Siekmann, J; Turecek, P L; Putz, M

    2016-01-01

    BAX 855 is a PEGylated human full-length recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) based on licensed rFVIII (ADVATE). The applied PEGylation technology has been optimized to retain functionality of the FVIII molecule, improve its pharmacokinetic properties and allow less frequent injections while maintaining efficacy. The aim of this study was to confirm that the excellent safety profile of ADVATE remains unchanged after PEGylation. Non-clinical safety studies with BAX 855 and its respective unbound polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conducted in several species. The distribution of a single dose of radiolabelled BAX 855 was further investigated in rats. Publically available safety data on PEG alone and PEGylated biomolecules were summarized and reviewed for specific safety findings attributable to PEG or PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. Safety pharmacology studies in rabbits and macaques and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and macaques identified no safety issues. Results of a distribution study in rats administered radiolabelled BAX 855 showed that radioactivity was completely excreted; urine was the major elimination route. A 28-day study in rats dosed with the unbound PEG constituent (PEG2ru20KCOOH) of BAX 855 showed no adverse or non-adverse effects. Safety data for PEG and PEG-protein conjugates indicate no safety concerns associated with PEG at clinically relevant dose levels. Although vacuolation of certain cell types has been reported in mammals, no such vacuolation was observed with BAX 855 or with the unbound PEG constituent. Non-clinical safety evaluation of PEG and BAX 855 identified no safety signals; the compound is now in clinical development for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. © 2015 Baxalta Innovations GmbH. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The pharmacokinetics of a B-domain truncated recombinant factor VIII, turoctocog alfa (NovoEight®), in patients with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Yuste, V; Lejniece, S; Klamroth, R; Suzuki, T; Santagostino, E; Karim, F A; Saugstrup, T; Møss, J

    2015-03-01

    Turoctocog alfa (NovoEight(®)) is a human recombinant coagulation factor VIII (rFVIII) for the treatment of patients with hemophilia A. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of turoctocog alfa in all age groups across clinical trials. Data from previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A (FVIII activity level of ≤ 1%) with no history of FVIII inhibitors, in a non-bleeding state, were included. The pharmacokinetics were assessed following a wash-out period and a subsequent single intravenous 50 IU kg(-1) dose of turoctocog alfa. Blood was sampled during a 48-h period postdose. Standard pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were estimated on the basis of plasma FVIII activity vs. time (PK profiles) with non-compartmental methods. Furthermore, a population PK analysis was conducted. Data from 76 patients (aged 1-60 years) enrolled globally across six clinical trials were included, totaling 105 turoctocog alfa PK profiles. Single-dose PK results 3-6 months after the first dose of turoctocog alfa were comparable with the results obtained after the first dose. Similar PK characteristics were shown for different lots and strengths of the drug product. Overall, area under the plasma concentration (activity) curve from administration to infinity (AUC) and t1(/2) tended to increase with increasing age, with lower AUC and shorter t(1/2) being seen in children than in adolescents and adults. The PK profiles of turoctocog alfa and other commercially available plasma-derived FVIII and rFVIII products were similar in all age groups. The PK characteristics of turoctocog alfa have been thoroughly studied, and shown to be consistent over time, reproducible between different lots and strengths of drug product, and similar to those observed for other FVIII products. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Estudo citofotométrico da expressão do marcador tumoral Fator VIII e fatores prognósticos no adenocarcinoma gástrico Cytophotometric study of the expression of the tumoral marker Factor VIII and prognostic factors in gastrci adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Tossa Nakamura

    2007-12-01

    ção III ou IV apresentaram índice de marcagem maiores do que aqueles com Bormann I ou II, porém sem correlação com a profundidade de invasão tumoral, grau de diferenciação, envolvimento nodal e padrão histológico. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo identificou e marcou 95,24% das amostras para o Fator VIII. Em relação aos fatores prognósticos não houve correlação significativa exceto entre o Fator VIII e a classificação de Bormann no qual o tipo III ou IV foi maior que o tipo I ou II.INTRODUCTION: Regarding gastric cancer, the incidence, diagnosis and therapeutic options showed improvement in the last decades, but prognosis remains gloomy, specially due the fact that most patients, already diagnosed present advanced tumors, metastatic and not liable to be surgically resected. Molecular biology is an area in science, which can give the answer to many questions and current scientific facts show that the this should be through detection of tumoral markers. The great advances in informatics refined cell image analysis by image cytophotometry makes it possible to study cell proliferation and angiogenesis in various tumor processes using immunohistochemistry and several markers. At present, studies are conducted to demonstrate the prognostic value of their expressions, however, in gastric adenocarcinoma the results have been divergent and studies are scarce. AIM: To identify and quantify the expression of cell proliferation markers using Ki-67 and of angiogenesis with Factor VIII in gastric adenocarcinoma using cytophotometry, and compare their expressions with factors such as Bormanns´ classification, tumor invasion depth, degree of differentiation, nodal involvement, histologic pattern and age. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma identified between 1998 and 2006 were studied. Ki-67 and Factor VIII expressions were performed using immunohistochemistry with clone MIB-1 primary antibodies, monoclonal for Ki-67 and policlonal for Factor VIII

  13. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  14. Direct Observation of the M1 Transition between the Ground Term Fine Structure Levels of W VIII

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    Momoe Mita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a direct observation of the M1 transition between the fine structure splitting in the 4 f 13 5 s 2 5 p 6 2 F ground term of W VIII. The spectroscopic data of few-times ionized tungsten ions are important for the future ITER diagnostics, but there is a serious lack of data. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to solve this problem. Emission from the tungsten ions produced and trapped in a compact electron beam ion trap is observed with a Czerny–Turner visible spectrometer. Spectra in the EUV range are also observed at the same time to help identify the previously-unreported visible lines. The observed wavelength 574.47 ± 0.03 nm (air, which corresponds to the fine structure splitting of 17,402.5 ± 0.9 cm − 1 , shows reasonable agreement with the previously reported value 17,410 ± 5 cm − 1 obtained indirectly through the analysis of EUV spectra [Ryabtsev et al., Atoms 3 (2015 273].

  15. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  16. Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VIII-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Said, J W; Siegel, R J; Fealy, M; Fishbein, M C

    1986-06-01

    Markers for endothelial cells including Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, blood group A, B, and H, and the prostaglandin metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were evaluated in paraffin secretions from formalin-fixed benign and malignant vascular neoplasms using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques, and results compared with staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Staining for Ulex appeared more sensitive than factor VIII-related antigen in identifying poorly differentiated neoplasms including haemangiosarcomas and spindle cell proliferations in Kaposi's sarcoma. Staining for blood group related antigens correlated with blood group in all cases. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin was the only marker for endothelial cells in lymphangiomas.

  17. Patient preference and ease of use for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution device scenarios: a cross-sectional survey in five European countries

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    Cimino E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Cimino,1 Silvia Linari,2 Mara Malerba,3 Susan Halimeh,4 Francesca Biondo,5 Martina Westfeld5 1Dipartimento Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Agenzia per l’ Emofilia, AOU Careggi di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 3Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Centro Emofilia e Trombosi “A Bianchi Bonomi”, Milan, Italy; 4CRC Coagulation Research Centre GmbH, Duisburg, Germany; 5Pfizer Italia, Rome, Italy Introduction: Hemophilia A treatment involves replacing the deficient coagulation factor VIII. This process may involve multiple steps that might create a barrier to adherence. A new dual-chamber syringe (DCS; FuseNGo® was recently introduced with the aim of simplifying reconstitution. Aim: This study aimed to identify factors associated with adult patients’ preferences for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution systems and to test ease of use and patient preference for the DCS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adults with hemophilia A in five European countries was conducted; a subset of subjects also participated in a practical testing session of the DCS. Results: Among the 299 survey participants, the device scenario requiring the least equipment and reconstitution steps (the DCS received a median preference rating of 71 out of 100 (0 being “the least desirable” and 100 “the most desirable” rating. This was significantly higher than the other scenarios (the next highest achieved a median of 50 points; P<0.001. Participants would be more likely to use this device prophylactically (P<0.001. Among the 98 participants who tested the DCS, 57% preferred this device over their current device, 26% preferred their current device, and 17% had no preference. The DCS was rated as easier to use than current treatment devices (median score 9/10 versus 7/10 for current treatment, P=0.001. Conclusion: The survey indicates that the prefilled DCS, Fuse

  18. Intensity of factor VIII treatment and the development of inhibitors in non-severe hemophilia A patients: results of the INSIGHT case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, A S; Eckhardt, C L; Peters, M; Leebeek, F W G; Escuriola-Ettingshausen, C; Hermans, C; Keenan, R; Astermark, J; Male, C; Peerlinck, K; le Cessie, S; van der Bom, J G; Fijnvandraat, K

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Research suggests that intensive treatment episodes may increase the risk to develop inhibitors. We performed an international nested case-control study with 298 non-severe hemophilia A patients. Surgery and a high dose of factor VIII concentrate were associated with increased inhibitor risk. Physicians need to review arguments for factor VIII dose and elective surgery extra critically. Background Inhibitor development is a major complication of treatment with factor VIII concentrates in hemophilia. Findings from studies among severe hemophilia A patients suggest that intensive treatment episodes increase the risk of developing inhibitors. Objectives We set out to assess whether intensive treatment is also associated with an increased risk of inhibitor development among non-severe hemophilia A patients. Patients/Methods We performed a nested case-control study. A total of 75 inhibitor patients (cases) and 223 control patients were selected from 2709 non-severe hemophilia A patients (FVIII:C, 2-40%) of the INSIGHT cohort study. Cases and controls were matched for date of birth and cumulative number of exposure days (EDs) to FVIII concentrates. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate both unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR); the latter were adjusted for a priori specified confounders. Results Peak treatment of 5 or 10 consecutive EDs did not increase inhibitor risk (aOR, 1.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-2.5; and aOR, 1.8; CI, 0.6-5.5, respectively). Both surgical intervention (aOR, 4.2; CI, 1.7-10.3) and a high mean dose (> 45 IU kg -1 /ED) of FVIII concentrate (aOR, 7.5; CI, 1.6-35.6) were associated with an increased inhibitor risk. Conclusions Our findings suggest that high-dose FVIII treatment and surgery increase the risk of inhibitor development in non-severe hemophilia A. Together with the notion that non-severe hemophilia A patients are at a lifelong risk of inhibitor development, we suggest that in the future physicians

  19. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived peptide MSP68 is a cytoskeletal immunomodulator of neutrophils that inhibits Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Louie; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Symons, Marc; Wang, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged neutrophil infiltration leads to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage during sepsis. Neutrophil migration requires rearrangement of their cytoskeleton. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived short peptide 68 (MSP68) has recently been shown to be beneficial in sepsis-induced tissue injury and mortality. We hypothesize that MSP68 inhibits neutrophil migration by modulating small GTPase Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs) or whole lung digest isolated neutrophils were isolated from 8 to 10 wk old C57BL/6 mice by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity of BMDN was verified by flow cytometry with CD11b/Gr-1 staining. Neutrophils were stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (f-MLP) (10 nM) in the presence or absence of MSP68 at 10 nM or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis, and MSP68 was administered at 1 mg/kg intravenously. Cytoskeletal organization was assessed by phalloidin staining, followed by analysis using fluorescence microscopy. Activity of the Rac1 GTPase in f-MLP or CLP-activated BMDN in the presence or absence of MSP68 was assessed by GTPase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was determined by western blot densitometry. BMDN treatment with f-MLP increased cytoskeletal remodeling as revealed by the localization of filamentous actin to the periphery of the neutrophil. By contrast, cells pretreated with MSP68 had considerably reduced filamentous actin polymerization. Cytoskeletal spreading is associated with the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. We found BMDN-treated with f-MLP or that were exposed to sepsis by CLP had increased Rac1 signaling, whereas the cells pretreated with MSP68 had significantly reduced Rac1 activation (P Rac1-MAP kinase-mediated neutrophil motility. Thus, MSP68 is a novel therapeutic candidate for regulating inflammation and tissue damage caused

  20. Descripción de un inmunoensayo enzimático que reconoce anticuerpos anti-factor VIII/von Willebrand obtenidos a partir de hibridomas múridos Description of an enzime immunoassay that recognizes anti-factor VIII/von Willebrand antibodies obtained from murine hybridomas

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    Renée González Sampedro

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA que detecta anticuerpos anti-Factor-VIII/von Willebrand (FVIII/vW, con una relación de enlace > 5, que permite reconocer dichos anticuerpos tempranamente en los cultivos de hibridomas múridos. Para la adsorción de las placas del inmunoensayo se utilizaron preparados semipurificados de FVIII/vW obtenidos en Cuba. Se inmunizaron ratones Balb/c con la finalidad de generar los anticuerpos monoclonales detectados por este ELISA. Se obtuvo un clon con crecimiento estable y varios subclones positivos por el ELISA con actividad biológica específica de anticuerpos inhibidores de FVIIIAn enzime immunoassay (ELISA that detects anti-Factor VIII/von Willebrand (FVIII/vw antibodies with a binding relationship > 5 that allows the early recognition of such antibodies in the cultures of murine hybridomas is described. Semipurified preparations of FVIII/vw obtained in Cuba were used for the adsorption of the immunoassay plates. Balb/c mice were immunized in order to generate the monoclonal antibodies detected by this ELISA. A clone with stable growth and several positive subclones were obtained by ELISA with specific biological activity of FVIII-inhibiting antibodies

  1. Modeling of Body Weight Metrics for Effective and Cost-Efficient Conventional Factor VIII Dosing in Hemophilia A Prophylaxis

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    Alanna McEneny-King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients. Using a validated population pharmacokinetic model, we simulated a variety of dosing regimens using different doses, weight metrics, and frequencies; we also investigated the implications of assuming various levels of endogenous factor production. Ideal body weight performed the best across all of the regimens explored, maintaining safety while moderating resource consumption for overweight and obese patients.

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic value of factor VIII binding antibodies in acquired hemophilia A: data from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werwitzke, S; Geisen, U; Nowak-Göttl, U; Eichler, H; Stephan, B; Scholz, U; Holstein, K; Klamroth, R; Knöbl, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Bomke, B; Tiede, A

    2016-05-01

    Essentials Factor VIII (FVIII) binding IgG detected by ELISA could be an alternative to the Bethesda assay. We studied the performance of anti-FVIII IgG ELISA in patients with acquired hemophilia and controls. Anti-FVIII IgG > 99th percentile of controls was highly sensitive and specific. Patients with high anti-FVIII IgG have a lower chance of achieving remission. Background Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder that requires fast and accurate diagnosis as it occurs often unexpectedly in previously healthy men and women of every age. The Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the diagnostic reference standard for detecting neutralizing autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), but is not widely available, not ideal for quantifying the complex type 2 inhibitors seen in acquired hemophilia, and suffers from high inter-laboratory variability. Objectives To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of FVIII-binding antibodies as detected by ELISA compared with the Nijmegen Bethesda assay. Methods Samples from the time of first diagnosis and clinical data were available from 102 patients with acquired hemophilia enrolled in the prospective GTH-AH 01/2010 study. Controls (n = 102) were matched for gender and age. Diagnostic cut-offs were determined by receiver-operator curve analysis. The prognostic value was assessed in 92 of the 102 patients by Cox regression analysis of time to partial remission. Results Anti-FVIII IgG above the 99th percentile (> 15 arbitrary units per mL) revealed high sensitivity and specificity (both 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.0) for diagnosing acquired hemophilia. The likelihood of achieving partial remission was related to anti-FVIII IgG concentration ( 1050, 0.39). The Bethesda titer was only associated with the likelihood of partial remission when analyzed in the central laboratory, but not when data from local GTH study sites were used. Conclusion Although the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the reference

  3. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported with recombinant FVIII products in studies with a predominantly white population; younger patients had reduced exposure to FVIII:C. The single doses of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) were well tolerated; 2 cases of transient, low-titer FVIII inhibitor development were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02461992. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

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    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  5. Enhanced glycosylation of factor VIII:C in capillary endothelial cells following β-adrenoreceptor stimulation is not due to increased sugar transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavarez-Pagan, J.J.; Oliveira, C.M.; Banerjee, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Factor VIII:C (Antihemophilia Factor A) in capillary endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla found to contain M r 200,000 and M r 46,000 dalton protein species when analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reduced condition. But the secretory FVIII:C under non-reduced condition gave rise to a protein of M r 270,000 dalton indicating that the heavy and light chains are held together by S-S bridge. Upon stimulation of these cells with β-agonist, isoproterenol (10 -7 M), a 2-fold increase in the ratio of [ 3 H]-mannose to [ 35 S]-methionine incorporation in immunoprecipitated FVIII:C was observed. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of this increase, a detail study of sugar transport was carried out. The transport of 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose in these cells was time and temperature dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose uptake by cytochalasin B strongly supported for a carrier mediated process. However, when the transport studies were conducted in the presence of isoproterenol at 10 -5 M or 10 -7 M or 8 Br-cAMP (2 mM) no increase was observed. The kinetic studies indicated that the K m and V max for 2 deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose were 0.24 mM and 0.88 nmol/mg protein/minute, respectively under normal conditions but these values were changed to 0.37 mM and 0.69 nmol/mg protein/minute when stimulated with isoproterenol (10 -7 M)

  6. Characterization of the anti-factor VIII immunoglobulin profile in patients with hemophilia A by use of a fluorescence-based immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Brian; Rice, Anne S.; Dunn, Amy L.; Tarantino, Michael D.; Brettler, Doreen B.; Barrett, John C.; Miller, Connie H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The development of neutralizing antibodies, referred to as inhibitors, against factor VIII (FVIII) is a major complication associated with FVIII infusion therapy for the treatment of hemophilia A (HA). Previous studies have shown that a subset of HA patients and a low percentage of healthy individuals harbor non-neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies that do not elicit the clinical manifestations associated with inhibitor development. Objective Assess HA patients' anti-FVIII antibody profiles as potential predictors of clinical outcomes. Methods A fluorescence immunoassay (FLI) was used to detect anti-FVIII antibodies in 491 samples from 371 HA patients. Results Assessments of antibody profiles showed that the presence of anti-FVIII IgG1, IgG2, or IgG4 correlated qualitatively and quantitatively with the presence of a FVIII inhibitor as reported by the Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA). Forty-eight patients with a negative inhibitor history contributed serial samples to the study, including seven patients who had negative NBA titers initially and later converted to NBA-positive. The FLI detected anti-FVIII IgG1 in five of those seven patients prior to their conversion to NBA-positive. Five of 15 serial-sample patients who had a negative inhibitor history and a positive anti-FVIII IgG1 later developed an inhibitor, compared to 2 of 33 patients with a negative inhibitor history without anti-FVIII IgG1. Conclusions These data provide a rationale for future studies designed both to monitor the dynamics of anti-FVIII antibody profiles in HA patients as a potential predictor of future inhibitor development and to assess the value of the anti-FVIII FLI as a supplement to traditional inhibitor testing. PMID:25354263

  7. Comparison of Clot-based, Chromogenic, and Fluorescence Assays for Measurement of Factor VIII Inhibitors in the U.S. Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Boylan, Brian; Shapiro, Amy D.; Lentz, Steven R.; Wicklund, Brian M.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety, and assessment of population trends. Methods Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA), and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU)NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI-negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0–1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5–0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P=0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, 5 (23.8%) with 0.7–1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5–1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5–1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. PMID:23601690

  8. The B-domain of factor VIII reduces cell membrane attachement to host cells in serum free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Flintegaard, Thomas Veje

    2010-01-01

    engineered extensively throughout the years to increase the low production yields that initially were obtained from mammalian cell cultures. The scope of this work was to investigate the interaction of rFVIII with the cell membrane surface of the producing cells in serum free medium. We wondered whether...... binding of rFVIII to the cell membrane could be a factor diminishing the production yield. We studied the contribution of the rFVIII B-domain to membrane attachment by transfecting several constructs containing increasing lengths of the B-domain into cells under serum free conditions. We found that 90......% of rFVIII is attached to the cell membrane of the producing cell when the rFVIII variant contains a short B-domain (21 aa). By increasing the length of the B-domain the membrane attached fraction can be reduced to 50% of the total expressed rFVIII. Further, our studies show that the N...

  9. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the ST3GAL4 Gene with VWF Antigen and Factor VIII Activity.

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    Jaewoo Song

    Full Text Available VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the α2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF synthesis and activity. We analyzed genetic and phenotypic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ST3GAL4 gene with plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity in 12,117 subjects. We also analyzed ST3GAL4 SNPs found in 2,535 subjects of 26 ethnicities from the 1000 Genomes (1000G project for ethnic diversity, SNP imputation, and ST3GAL4 haplotypes. We identified 14 and 1,714 ST3GAL4 variants in the ARIC GWAS and 1000G databases respectively, with 46% being ethnically diverse in their allele frequencies. Among the 14 ST3GAL4 SNPs found in ARIC GWAS, the intronic rs2186717, rs7928391, and rs11220465 were associated with VWF levels and with FVIII activity after adjustment for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ever-smoking status, and ABO. This study illustrates the power of next-generation sequencing in the discovery of new genetic variants and a significant ethnic diversity in the ST3GAL4 gene. We discuss potential mechanisms through which these intronic SNPs regulate ST3GAL4 biosynthesis and the activity that affects VWF and FVIII.

  11. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the ST3GAL4 Gene with VWF Antigen and Factor VIII Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaewoo; Xue, Cheng; Preisser, John S; Cramer, Drake W; Houck, Katie L; Liu, Guo; Folsom, Aaron R; Couper, David; Yu, Fuli; Dong, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the α2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF synthesis and activity. We analyzed genetic and phenotypic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ST3GAL4 gene with plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity in 12,117 subjects. We also analyzed ST3GAL4 SNPs found in 2,535 subjects of 26 ethnicities from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) project for ethnic diversity, SNP imputation, and ST3GAL4 haplotypes. We identified 14 and 1,714 ST3GAL4 variants in the ARIC GWAS and 1000G databases respectively, with 46% being ethnically diverse in their allele frequencies. Among the 14 ST3GAL4 SNPs found in ARIC GWAS, the intronic rs2186717, rs7928391, and rs11220465 were associated with VWF levels and with FVIII activity after adjustment for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ever-smoking status, and ABO. This study illustrates the power of next-generation sequencing in the discovery of new genetic variants and a significant ethnic diversity in the ST3GAL4 gene. We discuss potential mechanisms through which these intronic SNPs regulate ST3GAL4 biosynthesis and the activity that affects VWF and FVIII.

  12. Obtenção e caracterização de anticorpo monoclonal murino anti-fator VIII da coagulação sangüínea Attainment and characterization of murine monoclonal anti-factor VIII antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rossi-Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os avanços da engenharia celular e biotecnologia nas últimas décadas, destaca-se a produção de anticorpos monoclonais murinos (AcMm utilizados no aprimoramento diagnóstico nas rotinas laboratoriais. A produção de fator VIII de alta pureza sempre foi o desejo e a preocupação das indústrias de hemoderivados para tratamento de pacientes portadores de hemofilia A, porém este produto inexiste no Brasil, sendo necessária sua obtenção no mercado internacional a custos elevados. O trabalho tem por objetivo a produção de AcMm anti-fator VIII humano (FVIII H através da expansão dos clones e caracterização imunoquímica do anticorpo. Camundongos Balb/c foram imunizados com FVIII H purificado como também proveniente de crioprecipitado e as células esplênicas dos animais foram fusionadas com células mielomatosas murinas segundo o método descrito por Kohler e Milstein para produção de híbridos em cultura. Foram testados 1.983 híbridos dos quais 105 foram submetidos à clonagem. Destes, 39 obtiveram monoclonalidade e 7 destes clones foram caracterizados através de técnicas de immunoblotting. Foram submetidas à purificação por cromatografia três imunoglobulinas de diferentes classes pertencentes aos clones LAMB1-10A1A4, LAMB1-17A1A1 e LAMB1-24A2A1. A imunoglobulina purificada pertencente ao clone LAMB1-10A1A4 foi adsorvida em coluna de imunoafinidade para purificação de concentrado de FVIII proveniente de crioprecipitado plasmático.Among the advances in cellular engineering and biotechnology over the last decades, the production of murine monoclonal antibodies (AcMm, used to improve laboratory diagnoses, stands out. The production of very pure factor VIII has always been a concern of suppliers of blood products to treat patients with hemophilia A and this product is still not produced in Brazil. Hence, it can only be attained on the international market at a high cost. The aim of this work was to produce AcMm anti-factor

  13. Review Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the development of inhibitors in patients with hemophilia A. 2. Lifespan. 2.1 FVIII gene .... intron 22 inversion is principally an error of DNA repli- cation during ..... Pittman D D, Wang J H and Kaufman R J 1992 Identification and functional ...

  14. Characterization of the factor VIII defect in 147 patients with sporadic hemophilia A: Family studies indicate a mutation type-dependent sex ratio of mutation frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.; Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The clinical manifestation of hemophilia A is caused by a wide range of different mutations. In this study the factor VIII genes of 147 severe hemophilia A patients-all exclusively from sporadic families-were screened for mutations by use of the complete panel of modern DNA techniques. The pathogenous defect could be characterized in 126 patients (85.7%). Fifty-five patients (37.4%) showed a F8A-gene inversion, 47 (32.0%) a point mutation, 14 (9.5%) a small deletion, 8 (5.4%) a large deletion, and 2 (1.4%) a small insertion. Further, four (2.7%) mutations were localized but could not be sequenced yet. No mutation could be identified in 17 patients (11.6%). Sixteen (10.9%) of the P identified mutations occurred in the B domain. Four of these were located in an adenosine nucleotide stretch at codon 1192, indicating a mutation hotspot. Somatic mosaicisms were detected in 3 (3.9%) of 76 patients` mothers, comprising 3 of 16 de novo mutations in the patients` mothers. Investigation of family relatives allowed detection of a de novo mutation in 16 of 76 two-generation and 28 of 34 three-generation families. On the basis of these data, the male:female ratio of mutation frequencies (k) was estimated as k = 3.6. By use of the quotients of mutation origin in maternal grandfather to patient`s mother or to maternal grandmother, k was directly estimated as k = 15 and k = 7.5, respectively. Considering each mutation type separately, we revealed a mutation type-specific sex ratio of mutation frequencies. Point mutations showed a 5-to-10-fold-higher and inversions a >10-fold- higher mutation rate in male germ cells, whereas deletions showed a >5-fold-higher mutation rate in female germ cells. Consequently, and in accordance with the data of other diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, our results indicate that at least for X-chromosomal disorders the male:female mutation rate of a disease is determined by its proportion of the different mutation types. 68 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Prevalence of IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in haemophilia children treated with recombinant factor (F)VIII only or with at least one plasma-derived FVIII or FIX concentrate: results from the French haemophilia cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboulaud, Valérie; Parquet, Armelle; Tahiri, Cedric; Claeyssens, Ségolène; Potard, Valérie; Faradji, Albert; Peynet, Jocelyne; Costagliola, Dominique

    2002-02-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been transmitted by some brands of virally attenuated plasma-derived factor VIII (FVIII) or IX (FIX) concentrates. To quantify the differences of human parvovirus B19 risk transmission between albumin-stabilized recombinant factor and plasma-derived factor, we studied the prevalence of IgG antibodies to B19 (anti-B19) in 193 haemophiliac children between 1 and 6-years of age who had previously been treated with albumin-stabilized recombinant FVIII only (n = 104), and in children previously treated with solvent/detergent high-purity non-immunopurified and non-nanofiltered FVIII or IX concentrates (n = 89). Association between the prevalence of anti-B19 and the treatment group was analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Age, severity and type of haemophilia, number of cumulative days of exposure to factor VIII or IX, previous history of red blood cells or plasma transfusion were considered as potential confounding variables. A higher prevalence of anti-B19 was found in children previously treated with solvent/detergent high-purity non-immunopurified and non-nanofiltered FVIII or IX concentrates than in children treated with albumin- stabilized recombinant FVIII only (OR: 22.3; CI: 7.9-62.8), independently of the other factors studied.

  16. Polymorphisms in the F8 gene and MHC-II variants as risk factors for the development of inhibitory anti-factor VIII antibodies during the treatment of hemophilia a: a computational assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    Full Text Available The development of neutralizing anti-drug-antibodies to the Factor VIII protein-therapeutic is currently the most significant impediment to the effective management of hemophilia A. Common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs in the F8 gene occur as six haplotypes in the human population (denoted H1 to H6 of which H3 and H4 have been associated with an increased risk of developing anti-drug antibodies. There is evidence that CD4+ T-cell response is essential for the development of anti-drug antibodies and such a response requires the presentation of the peptides by the MHC-class-II (MHC-II molecules of the patient. We measured the binding and half-life of peptide-MHC-II complexes using synthetic peptides from regions of the Factor VIII protein where ns-SNPs occur and showed that these wild type peptides form stable complexes with six common MHC-II alleles, representing 46.5% of the North American population. Next, we compared the affinities computed by NetMHCIIpan, a neural network-based algorithm for MHC-II peptide binding prediction, to the experimentally measured values and concluded that these are in good agreement (area under the ROC-curve of 0.778 to 0.972 for the six MHC-II variants. Using a computational binding predictor, we were able to expand our analysis to (a include all wild type peptides spanning each polymorphic position; and (b consider more MHC-II variants, thus allowing for a better estimation of the risk for clinical manifestation of anti-drug antibodies in the entire population (or a specific sub-population. Analysis of these computational data confirmed that peptides which have the wild type sequence at positions where the polymorphisms associated with haplotypes H3, H4 and H5 occur bind MHC-II proteins significantly more than a negative control. Taken together, the experimental and computational results suggest that wild type peptides from polymorphic regions of FVIII constitute potential T-cell epitopes

  17. The influence of core-valence electron correlations on the convergence of energy levels and oscillator strengths of ions with an open 3d shell using Fe VIII as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiaolong; Jin Fengtao; Zhao Gang; Yuan Jianmin

    2003-01-01

    Accurate atomic data, such as fine structure energy levels and oscillator strengths of different ionization stages of iron ions, are important for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, some important existing oscillator strengths for ions with an open 3d shell found in the literature might not be accurate enough for practical applications. As an example, the present paper checks the convergence behaviour of the energy levels and oscillator strengths of Fe VIII by systematically increasing the 3p n -3d n (n = 1, 2, 3 and 6) core-valence electron correlations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The results show that one should at least include up to 3p 3 -3d 3 core-valence electron correlations to obtain converged results. Large differences are found between the present oscillator strengths and other theoretical results in the literature for some strong transitions

  18. Structural Instability in Ice VIII under Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Marshall, W.; Nelmes, R.; Loveday, J.

    1997-01-01

    Below 125K, tetragonal ice VIII remains in a metastable form at ambient pressure. This form has long been considered to be identical to ice VIII, although unexplained discrepancies exist between their vibrational spectra. Neutron diffraction studies reveal an isostructural phase transformation below 2GPa related to a weakening of the bonds between the two D 2 O sublattices of ice VIII. In this new phase, ice VIII ' , the tetragonal distortion is 20% larger than in ice VIII, which accounts for the differences between the vibrational frequencies of the two phases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Effectiveness of Mind Mapping in English Teaching among VIII Standard Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen, D.; Sangeetha, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find out the effectiveness of mind mapping technique over conventional method in teaching English at high school level (VIII), in terms of Control and Experimental group. The sample of the study comprised, 60 VIII Standard students in Tiruchendur Taluk. Mind Maps and Achievement Test (Pretest & Posttest) were…

  20. Trp[superscript 2313]-His[superscript 2315] of Factor VIII C2 Domain Is Involved in Membrane Binding Structure of a Complex Between the C[subscript 2] Domain and an Inhibitor of Membrane Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhuo; Lin, Lin; Yuan, Cai; Nicolaes, Gerry A.F.; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara; Huang, Mingdong (Harvard-Med); (UAH); (Maastricht); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-11-03

    Factor VIII (FVIII) plays a critical role in blood coagulation by forming the tenase complex with factor IXa and calcium ions on a membrane surface containing negatively charged phospholipids. The tenase complex activates factor X during blood coagulation. The carboxyl-terminal C2 domain of FVIII is the main membrane-binding and von Willebrand factor-binding region of the protein. Mutations of FVIII cause hemophilia A, whereas elevation of FVIII activity is a risk factor for thromboembolic diseases. The C2 domain-membrane interaction has been proposed as a target of intervention for regulation of blood coagulation. A number of molecules that interrupt FVIII or factor V (FV) binding to cell membranes have been identified through high throughput screening or structure-based design. We report crystal structures of the FVIII C2 domain under three new crystallization conditions, and a high resolution (1.15 {angstrom}) crystal structure of the FVIII C2 domain bound to a small molecular inhibitor. The latter structure shows that the inhibitor binds to the surface of an exposed {beta}-strand of the C2 domain, Trp{sup 2313}-His{sup 2315}. This result indicates that the Trp{sup 2313}-His{sup 2315} segment is an important constituent of the membrane-binding motif and provides a model to understand the molecular mechanism of the C2 domain membrane interaction.

  1. Extended analyses of Se VII and Se VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankleef, Th.A.M.; Joshi, Y.N.

    1984-01-01

    Joshi et al. (1984) have conducted an analysis of the 3d8 4s-3d8 4p transitions in As VII. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of similar transitions in Se VIII. The selenium spectrum was photographed in the 400-1200-A wavelength region on a variety of normal-incidence spectrographs. Attention is given to least-squares-fit (LSF) and Hartree-Fock (HF) parameter values for the 3d9 4d configuration of Se VII, LSF and HF parameter values for the 3d8 4s and 3d8 4p configurations of Se VIII, the energy and composition of the levels of the 3d9 4d configuration of Se VII, classified lines in Se VII, energy levels and composition of the 3d8 4s configuration and the revised and newly determined levels of the 3d8 4p configuration of Se VIII, and newly classified lines of Se VIII. 15 references

  2. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  3. Status and trend analysis of prophylactic usage of recombinant factor VIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A: ReCare - a retrospective, phase IV, non-interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Qun; Xu, Vicky; Sun, Jing; Yang, Renchi; Li, Xiaojing; Zhou, Rongfu; Lian, Shinmei; Gu, Jian; Wu, Junde; Hou, Qingsong

    2017-09-01

    No study has reported the status and chronological trend of prophylactic recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) use in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A (HA). We aimed to analyze the status and trend of rFVIII-containing prophylaxis in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. ReCARE (Retrospective study in Chinese pediatric hemophilia A patients with rFVIII contained REgular prophylaxis) was a retrospective study conducted in 12 hemophilia treatment centers across China. The trend of prophylaxis was evaluated by determining the mean duration of prophylaxis, mean injection frequency (per week), mean dose of each injection (IU/kg), mean total dose injected/week (IU) and proportion of rFVIII consumption relative to factor VIII (FVIII) consumption over the study period. We analyzed 183 male pediatric patients with HA (mean age, 7.1 ± 4.23 years), who received intermittent prophylaxis between 1 November 2007 and 31 May 2013. The mean duration of prophylaxis with rFVIII increased from 16.72 weeks in 2008 to 32.77 in 2012. Per injection dose of rFVIII increased significantly from 2008 to 2013 (25.89 to 28.31 IU/kg, p < .001). An increase was also reported in the mean total FVIII consumed (699.97 ± 173.25 IU in 2008 and 891.30 ± 730.341 in 2013) and mean proportion of rFVIII used (33.33 ± 57.73% in 2008 to 85.50 ± 29.077% in 2013). Our data revealed an overall improvement in treatment dosage and duration with an increase in the number of patients receiving prophylaxis. The total proportion of rFVIII also increased gradually indicating the development of economy and safety awareness. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov identifier: NCT02263066).

  4. 4p-5s transitions in YVII, VIII, ZrVIII, IX, NbIX, X and MoX, XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimullah, K.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of Y VII, VIII, Zr VIII, IX, Nb X and Mo X, XI are studied for the first time and the 1971 analysis of Nb IX is improved. By analyses of the transitions 4s 2 4psup(k)-4s 2 4psup(k-1)5s all the levels of the configurations 4p 3 , 4p 2 5s, 4p 2 and 4p5s are established in the spectra concerned. (Auth.)

  5. One-electron spectrum of Xe VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.R.; Knystautas, E.J.; Sugar, J.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of Xe VIII has been observed in a theta-pinch discharge. New line identifications were made that determine the energies of the 6s, 7s, 6p, and 5f terms relative to the 5s 2 S ground state and confirm the previously known 5p and 5d terms. An independent system of levels derived from the observed 4f-ng (n = 5,6) transitions was found. Its position relative to the ground state is obtained from a predicted value for the 5g effective quantum number n*. From the ns series (n=5--7) a value for the ionization enegy of 105.91 +- 0.05 eV was derived

  6. Long-term efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with recombinant factor VIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A: a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, phase IV (ReCARE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Qun; Xu, Weiqun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Renchi; Li, Xiaojing; Zhou, Rongfu; Lian, Shinmei; Gu, Jian; Wu, Junde; Hou, Qingsong

    2017-07-01

    The first recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) product was launched in China in 2007. However, until now, no study has been conducted to describe the efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A (HA). To summarize the efficacy and safety data on prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. ReCARE (Retrospective study in Chinese pediatric hemophilia A patients with rFVIII contained regular prophylaxis) was a retrospective study conducted in 12 hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs) across China. The primary endpoints included reduction in annualized bleeding rate (ABR); the secondary endpoints included evaluation of joint function (number and sites of target joints) using Gilbert score and Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), quality of life (QoL) and factors affecting treatment choices. Safety assessment of rFVIII was also conducted. We analyzed a total of 183 male pediatric patients (mean age, 7.1 ± 4.23 years) who received prophylaxis between 1 November 2007 and 31 May 2013. Compared with baseline, prophylaxis with rFVIII significantly reduced overall annualized joint bleed rate (AJBR) (p < .001) and ABR (p < .001). Inhibitor formation was reported in 5 (2.7%) patients and hemarthrosis was reported in 1 patient. The mean number of target joints was positively related to age (p < .001) and weight (p = .003) at baseline. Responses from survey questionnaires reported that effective bleeding control, joint protection, improvement in quality of life, favorable medical insurance policies, and economic capability were reasons for choosing prophylaxis. Prophylaxis with rFVIII reduced bleeding and number of target joints, even with a low-dose regimen, in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. Other than the efficacy and safety, factors such as poor disease control, improved economic stability and stable financial support made prophylaxis as an attractive treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov ID

  7. Human factors in healthcare level two

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This book builds on Human Factors in Healthcare Level One by delving deeper into the challenges of leadership, conflict resolution, and decision making that healthcare professionals currently face. It is written in an easy to understand style and includes a wealth of real-life examples of errors and patient safety issues.

  8. The spectrum and term system of S VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, P.; Jupen, C.; Engstroem, L.; Redfors, A.; Westerlind, M.

    1993-01-01

    The spectrum of seven times ionized sulfur, S VIII, has been observed in the wavelength range 50-1200 A. Both beam-foil and laser-produced plasma light sources have been used. 71 new lines representing the transitions 2p 5 -2p 4 3d, 2p 4 3s-3p, 3p-3d, 3d-4f, 4f-5g and 5g-6h have been identified and 100 energy levels, of which 46 are new, are now accurately established. The spectral analysis is supported by isoelectronic comparisons along the F I-sequence and by parametric least-squares fits of Slater integrals to the observed levels. The ionization potential in S VIII is determined to 2 651 899 ± 60 cm -1 and estimated ionization energies are derived for the isoelectronic elements between F I and Ar X. (orig.)

  9. Prophylaxis vs. on-demand treatment with BAY 81-8973, a full-length plasma protein-free recombinant factor VIII product: results from a randomized trial (LEOPOLD II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakli, K; Yang, R; Rusen, L; Beckmann, H; Tseneklidou-Stoeter, D; Maas Enriquez, M

    2015-03-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a new full-length human recombinant factor VIII product manufactured with technologies to improve consistency in glycosylation and expression to optimize clinical performance. To demonstrate superiority of prophylaxis vs. on demand therapy with BAY 81-8973 in patients with severe hemophilia A. In this multinational,randomized, open-label crossover study (LEOPOLD II;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01233258), males aged 12–65 years with severe hemophilia A were randomized to twice-weekly prophylaxis (20-30 IU kg(-1)), 3-times-weekly prophylaxis (30-40 IU kg(-1)), or on-demand treatment with BAY 81-8973. Potency labeling for BAY 81-8973 was based on the chromogenic substrate assay or adjusted to the one-stage assay. Primary efficacy endpoint was annualized number of all bleeds (ABR). Adverse events (AEs)and immunogenicity were also assessed. Eighty patients (on demand, n = 21; twice-weekly prophylaxis, n = 28; 3-times-weekly prophylaxis, n = 31) were treated and analyzed. Mean ± SD ABR was significantly lower with prophylaxis (twice-weekly, 5.7 ± 7.2; 3-times-weekly, 4.3 ± 6.5; combined, 4.9 ± 6.8) vs. on-demand treatment (57.7 ± 24.6; P demand treatment (60.0). Median ABR was higher with twice-weekly vs. 3-times-weekly prophylaxis during the first 6-month treatment period (4.1 vs. 2.0) but was comparable in the second 6-month period (1.1 vs. 2.0). Few patients reported treatment-related AEs (4%); no treatment-related serious AEs or inhibitors were reported. Twice weekly or 3-times-weekly prophylaxis with BAY 81-8973 reduced median ABR by 97% compared with on-demand therapy, confirming the superiority of prophylaxis. Treatment with BAY 81-8973 was well tolerated.

  10. Development, upscaling and validation of the purification process for human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII produced in a human cell-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, Stefan; Yderland, Louise; Kannicht, Christoph; Hermans, Pim; Adema, Simon; Schmidt, Torben; Gilljam, Gustav; Linhult, Martin; Tiemeyer, Maya; Belyanskaya, Larisa; Walter, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    Human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), is the first rFVIII produced in a human cell-line approved by the European Medicines Agency. To describe the development, upscaling and process validation for industrial-scale human-cl rhFVIII purification. The purification process involves one centrifugation, two filtration, five chromatography columns and two dedicated pathogen clearance steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 20 nm nanofiltration). The key purification step uses an affinity resin (VIIISelect) with high specificity for FVIII, removing essentially all host-cell proteins with >80% product recovery. The production-scale multi-step purification process efficiently removes process- and product-related impurities and results in a high-purity rhFVIII product, with an overall yield of ∼50%. Specific activity of the final product was >9000 IU/mg, and the ratio between active FVIII and total FVIII protein present was >0.9. The entire production process is free of animal-derived products. Leaching of potential harmful compounds from chromatography resins and all pathogens tested were below the limit of quantification in the final product. Human-cl rhFVIII can be produced at 500 L bioreactor scale, maintaining high purity and recoveries. The innovative purification process ensures a high-purity and high-quality human-cl rhFVIII product with a high pathogen safety margin. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low risk of inhibitor formation in haemophilia A patients following en masse switch in treatment to a third generation full length plasma and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII product (ADVATE®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, C L

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that development of inhibitors in previously treated patients (PTPs) may be attributable to a switch in factor VIII (FVIII) therapeutic product. Consequently, it is widely recognized that inhibitor development must be assessed in PTPs following the introduction of any new FVIII product. Following a national tender process in 2006, all patients with haemophilia A in Ireland changed their FVIII treatment product en masse to a plasma and albumin-free recombinant full-length FVIII product (ADVATE(®)). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the case records of Irish PTPs to evaluate risk of inhibitor formation following this treatment switch. One hundred and thirteen patients participated in the study. Most patients (89%) had severe haemophilia. Only one of 96 patients with no inhibitor history developed an inhibitor. Prior to the switch in his recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) treatment of choice, this child had only experienced three exposure days (EDs). Consequently, in total he had only received 6 EDs when his inhibitor was first diagnosed. In keeping with this lack of de novo inhibitor development, we observed no evidence of any recurrent inhibitor formation in any of 16 patients with previously documented inhibitors. Similarly, following a previous en masse switch, we have previously reported that changing from a Chinese hamster ovary cell-produced to a baby hamster kidney cell-produced rFVIII was also associated with a low risk of inhibitor formation in PTPs. Our cumulative findings from these two studies clearly emphasizes that the risk of inhibitor development for PTPs following changes in commercial rFVIII product is low, at least in the Irish population.

  12. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  13. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Giuliani, M.; Lagorio, C.; Padilla, S.; Sarmiento, R.; Reyna Almandos, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters

  14. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gallardom@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Raineri, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: monicar@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Giuliani, M. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Lagorio, C. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Padilla, S. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Sarmiento, R. [Dto. De Fisica, Universidad del Atlantico, A.A 1890 Barranquilla (Colombia); Reyna Almandos, J.G. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: jreyna@ciop.unlp.edu.ar

    2005-10-15

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters.

  15. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Solvent, detergent and heat treatment. Hemofil-M. Baxter. Pooled human venous plasma. Immunoaffinity chromatography using murine monoclonal anti- body. Solvent and detergent. Monarc-M. American. Red Cross. Pooled human venous plasma. Immunoaffinity chromatography using murine monoclonal antibody.

  16. Scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...

  17. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region VIII AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... Field Offices (Region VIII). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region VIII. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D...

  18. [Ehler-Danlos syndrome type VIII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarloni, L; Perrigouard, C; Lipsker, D; Cribier, B

    2010-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases involving genetic collagen fibre impairment. We describe a case of a patient presenting the rare type VIII, in which dermatitis ocre was associated with parodontal disease, and which was diagnosed late. A 29-year-old man consulted for a pretibial ulcer present for seven years, resulting from a post-traumatic haematoma that had failed to heal. In view of the longiliner morphology, it had previously been diagnosed as Marfan syndrome. Subsequently, edentation was observed as well as "alveolar bone fragility". Examination revealed a marfanoid morphotype, a pretibial ulcer set within long-standing bilateral dermatitis ocre and papyraceous scars, but no joint hyperlaxity or cutaneous hyperelasticity. The diagnosis was consequently corrected to EDS type VIII. Type VIII is a rare form of EDS, and the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. The involvement of parodontal connective tissue suggests impairment of collagen I and III proteins. It is important to identify this type of the disease since it involves parodontal disease for which early treatment is required in order to try to prevent edentation. The present case demonstrates the importance of diagnosis, which may be based upon appearance of bilateral dermatitis ocre from the age of 15 years associated with skin fragility. This sign is not part of the classical picture of Marfan syndrome, with which EDS type VIII is often confounded. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical experience and lessons learned through implementation of Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, P.J.; Becker, F.L.; Latiolais, C.L.; Spanner, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    To provide the US nuclear industry with a uniform implementation of the Performance Demonstration requirements within the 1989 edition of ASME Section XI, Appendix VIII, representatives from all US nuclear utilities formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI). The PDI recognized the potential benefits that Appendix VIII offered the nuclear industry and initiated a proactive approach to implement the requirements. In doing so it was expected that performance demonstration of ultrasonic examination procedures would allow for improvement in the efficiency and credibility of inservice inspection to be realized. Explicit within the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII is the need for a Performance Demonstration Administrator, a difficult requirement to fulfill. Not only must the administrator exhibit the attributes of understanding the demonstration requirements, but also have solid technical knowledge, integrity and be able to interface with the industry at all levels, from operations to regulatory. For the nuclear industry, the EPRI NDE Center is an obvious choice to fulfill this position. This paper provides a brief background of the PDI, a nuclear industry-wide initiative to implement the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII. Even though the consensus approach adopted by the PDI is discussed, the paper's primary objective is to provide examples of the lessons learned by the Center through the specific requirements of Appendix VIII

  20. Operational factors affecting microgravity levels in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R. E.; Mockovciak, J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Microgravity levels desired for proposed materials processing payloads are fundamental considerations in the design of future space platforms. Disturbance sources, such as aerodynamic drag, attitude control torques, crew motion and orbital dynamics, influence the microgravity levels attainable in orbit. The nature of these effects are assessed relative to platform design parameters such as orbital altitude and configuration geometry, and examples are presented for a representative spacecraft configuration. The possible applications of control techniques to provide extremely low acceleration levels are also discussed.

  1. Development of RP-HPLC, Stability Indicating Method for Degradation Products of Linagliptin in Presence of Metformin HCl by Applying 2 Level Factorial Design; and Identification of Impurity-VII, VIII and IX and Synthesis of Impurity-VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant B. Jadhav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The novel reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, stability indicating method was developed for determination of linagliptin (LGP and its related substances in linagliptin and metformin HCl (MET HCl tablets by implementing design of experiment to understand the critical method parameters and their relation with critical method attributes; to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of nine specified impurities was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Aq 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column, using gradient elution and a detector wavelength of 225 nm, and validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust, and specific. The drug was found to be degrading extensively in heat, humidity, basic, and oxidation conditions and was forming degradation products during stability studies. After slight modification in the buffer and the column, the same method was used for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography -time-of-flight/mass spectrometry UPLC-TOF/MS analysis, to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unspecified degradation products i.e., Impurity-VII (7, Impurity-VIII (8, and Impurity-IX (9 formed during stability studies. Based on the results, a degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of Impurity-VII (7 is also discussed to ensure an in-depth understanding of LGP and its related degradation products and optimum performance during the lifetime of the product.

  2. Lithium ionophore VIII as an extraordinarily effective receptor for the strontium cation: Experimental and theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Novák, Vít; Vaňura, P.; Bouř, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1061, Mar 5 (2014), s. 110-113 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : strontium cation * lithium ionophore VIII * complexation * extraction and stability constants * DFT calculations * structures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2014

  3. Complexation of the cesium cation with lithium ionophore VIII: extraction and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Novák, Vít; Vaňura, P.; Bouř, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 3 (2013), s. 2065-2068 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cesium cation * lithium ionophore VIII * complexation * extraction and stability constants * water-nitrobenzene system * DFT calculations * structures Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2013

  4. Synthesization of the Ar VIII 3s-3p beam-foil decay curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgaard, A.; Veje, E.

    1981-01-01

    The beam-foil decay curve for the 3s-3p transition in Ar VIII has been simulated from experimentally determined relative initial level populations and transition probabilities calculated in the numerical Coulomb approximation. Good agreement is observed between simulated and measured decay curves. A discussion of the simulation is given. (Auth.)

  5. Energies and lifetimes of excited states in copperlike Kr VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A.E.; Curtis, L.J.; Schectman, R.M.; Berry, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of Kr VIII has been observed between 180 and 2000 A by using foil excitation of 2.5--3.5-MeV krypton ions. Twenty new transitions have been classified and eleven new excited-state energies have been determined within the n=4 --7 shells. The ionization potential is derived to be 1 015 800 +- 200 cm -1 . The excited-state energies and fine structures are compared with recent relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations. The 4p-state lifetime has been measured by performing a simultaneous analysis of decay data for the 4p level and for its dominant cascade-repopulating levels. The 4p lifetime is found to be 30% shorter than previously measured values and is in excellent agreement with the result of a recent multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculation. The source of the discrepancy between this result and earlier measurements is discussed

  6. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  7. The Optimal Level and Impact of Internal Factors on Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kui-Wai

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically uses data from the world economy to show that performance of domestic factors are equally important to external factors when comes to growth. Various external and domestic factors are used to construct two separate indices and the principal component method is applied in the analysis. The empirical results show that given a different level of performance in the economy’s external factors, a higher performance in the internal factors will produce a higher growth rate....

  8. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  9. The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII. Hospital, Durban. D. A. ROCKE, C. C. ROUT, H. D. RUSSELL, S. SINGH. Abstract The provision of analgesic services to the labour ward at King Edward VIII Hospital was studied during a I-week period. Of249 patients, 113 (45%) received no analgesia whatsoever.

  10. Heavy Quark Impact Factor at Next-to-leading Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Rodrigo, German

    2000-01-01

    We further analyze the definition and the calculation of the heavy quark impact factor at next-to-leading (NL) log(s) level, and we provide its analytical expression in a previously proposed k-factorization scheme. Our results indicate that k-factorization holds at NL level with a properly chosen energy scale, and with the same gluonic Green's function previously found in the massless probe case.

  11. VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, José; Palomo, Francisco; GeLoMa 2016; Lorentzian geometry and related topics

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of research papers and useful surveys by experts in the field which provide a representative picture of the current status of this fascinating area. Based on contributions from the VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry, held at the University of Málaga, Spain, this volume covers topics such as distinguished (maximal, trapped, null, spacelike, constant mean curvature, umbilical...) submanifolds, causal completion of spacetimes, stationary regions and horizons in spacetimes, solitons in semi-Riemannian manifolds, relation between Lorentzian and Finslerian geometries and the oscillator spacetime. In the last decades Lorentzian geometry has experienced a significant impulse, which has transformed it from just a mathematical tool for general relativity to a consolidated branch of differential geometry, interesting in and of itself. Nowadays, this field provides a framework where many different mathematical techniques arise with applications to multiple parts of mathem...

  12. VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, N. S.; Figueiredo, W.; Plascak, J. A.; Santos, M.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 3rd to 8th August, 2015. This is the eighth such meeting, and the second one to have contributed papers published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (the other was the VII BMSP). The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais, in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal, and in the shores of Paraíba. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in Florianópolis, with its pleasing shores, the capital of Santa Catarina state. The VIII BMSP brought together about 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive conference. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementation of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, and out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to be an important occasion for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of the art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to put together this special issue, and are most appreciative of the efforts of the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the Florianopolis team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CAPES and CNPq, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFSC. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors for their written submissions. (paper)

  13. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  14. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Timothy; Bell, John F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, whilst accounting for prior attai...

  15. Variation of radon levels in US homes with various factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Gromicko, N.

    1988-01-01

    A program combining 70,000 purchased and 3500 random selection-no charge measurements with extensive questionnaires is described. Methods for reducing biases in purchased measurements have been reasonably successful. Distributions are roughly lognormal with σ/sub g/ ≅ 3.0 but with an excess of very high measurements. Winter and spring-fall measurements average about 60 percent and 40 percent, respectively, higher than summer measurements. Basements average 2.5 times higher radon levels than upper floors. Tightening of homes since 1974 has increased radon levels by less than 10 percent, but well-weatherized houses have ∼ 40 percent higher levels than poorly weatherized houses. Open windows reduce levels by a factor of about 2.5. Low-cost newer houses have much lower levels than more expensive newer houses, but among older houses this is reversed. Low income families have substantially lower radon levels than average. There is little variation with education level. Nonsmokers have higher radon levels than smokers, but this seems to apply mainly to living rooms and dining rooms. Suburban houses have higher levels than urban, and rural houses have still higher levels. Owner-occupied houses have much higher levels than rented houses. Variations of radon levels with weatherization do not seem to be due to cost factors. A strategy for locating areas with high mean radon levels is described

  16. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  17. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: konst@citedi.mx [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2011-08-22

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  18. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  19. Efficacy and safety of rVIII-SingleChain: results of a phase 1/3 multicenter clinical trial in severe hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Johnny; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Karim, Faraizah Abdul; Stasyshyn, Oleksandra; Kosinova, Marina V.; Lepatan, Lynda Mae; Skotnicki, Aleksander; Boggio, Lisa N.; Klamroth, Robert; Oldenburg, Johannes; Hellmann, Andrzej; Santagostino, Elena; Baker, Ross I.; Fischer, Kathelijn; Gill, Joan C.; P’Ng, Stephanie; Chowdary, Pratima; Escobar, Miguel A.; Khayat, Claudia Djambas; Rusen, Luminita; Bensen-Kennedy, Debra; Blackman, Nicole; Limsakun, Tharin; Veldman, Alex; St. Ledger, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant VIII (rVIII)-SingleChain is a novel B-domain–truncated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), comprised of covalently bonded factor VIII (FVIII) heavy and light chains. It was designed to have a higher binding affinity for von Willebrand factor (VWF). This phase 1/3 study investigated the efficacy and safety of rVIII-SingleChain in the treatment of bleeding episodes, routine prophylaxis, and surgical prophylaxis. Participants were ≥12 years of age, with severe hemophilia A (endogenous FVIII <1%). The participants were allocated by the investigator to receive rVIII-SingleChain in either an on-demand or prophylaxis regimen. Of the 175 patients meeting study eligibility criteria, 173 were treated with rVIII-SingleChain, prophylactically (N = 146) or on-demand (N = 27). The total cumulative exposure was 14 306 exposure days (EDs), with 120 participants reaching ≥50 EDs and 52 participants having ≥100 EDs. Hemostatic efficacy was rated by the investigator as excellent or good in 93.8% of the 835 bleeds treated and assessed. Across all prophylaxis regimens, the median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (Q1, Q3: 0.0, 2.4) and the median overall annualized bleeding rate (ABR) was 1.14 (Q1, Q3: 0.0, 4.2). Surgical hemostasis was rated as excellent/good in 100% of major surgeries by the investigator. No participant developed FVIII inhibitors. In conclusion, rVIII-SingleChain is a novel rFVIII molecule showing excellent hemostatic efficacy in surgery and in the control of bleeding events, low ABR in patients on prophylaxis, and a favorable safety profile in this large clinical study. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01486927. PMID:27330001

  20. [Coagulation factor VII levels in uremic patients and theirs influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Xia, Ling-Hui; Wei, Wen-Ning; Song, Shan-Jun

    2004-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate coagulation factor VII level in uremic patients with chronic renal failure and to explore theirs influence factors. The plasma levels of coagulation factor VII were detected in 30 uremic patients with chronic renal failure before and after hemodialysis for 1 month, the factor VII activity (FVII:C) was determined by one-stage coagulation method, while activated factor VII (FVIIa) was measured by one-stage coagulation method using recombinant soluble tissue factor, and factor VII antigen was detected by ELISA. The results showed that: (1) The FVIIa, FVII:C and FVIIAg levels in chronic uremic patients before hemodialysis were 4.00 +/- 0.86 microg/L, (148.5 +/- 40.4)% and (99.8 +/- 21.1)% respectively, which were significantly increased, as compared with healthy controls [2.77 +/- 1.02 microg/L, (113.1 +/- 33.0)% and (73.7 +/- 18.3)% respectively, P factor VII was positively correlated with levels of blood uria nitrogen and serum creatinine before hemodialysis but not after hemodialysis. It is concluded that the enhanced levels of coagulation factor VII in chronic uremic patients suggested abnormal activated state, herperactivity and elevated production of factor VII which correlated with renal functional injury. The abnormality of factor VII in uremia may be aggravated by hemodialysis. Coagulation factor (FVII) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events in uremic patients who especially had been accepted long-term hemodialysis.

  1. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  2. Factors that influence serum hyaluronan levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, M; Ashby, M; Diego, J; Pennell, J P; Hill, M; Schiff, E R; Perez, G O

    1999-01-01

    Serum hyaluronan levels are increased in dialysis patients. We evaluated several factors that influence serum hyaluronan levels in 184 patients on chronic hemodialysis (duration 2.3 +/- 2.3 [SD] years). The levels were higher than normal in the whole group and in a subgroup of 133 patients without chronic infection, liver disease, or rheumatoid arthritis (215 +/- 19 and 205 +/- 22 microg/L, respectively). There was a tendency for the levels to be higher in a subgroup of patients with hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection. There was no correlation between hyaluronan levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and duration or dose of dialysis. A weak but highly significant negative correlation between serum albumin levels and serum hyaluronan and ferritin levels was seen. The data suggest that chronic inflammation may explain, at least in part, the increased hyaluronan levels found in chronic dialysis patients.

  3. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-03-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, while accounting for prior attainment and gender (both well-known predictors of A-level uptake). We found that factors associated with greater probability of uptake included better attainment in physics (or combined science) and maths qualifications at age 16 in comparison to other subjects, and (for girls only) attending an independent or grammar school. While it is difficult to address these factors directly, the results imply that more needs to be done to improve relative performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education, perhaps by increasing the supply of specialist physics teachers at this level and to overcome the perception (especially among girls) that physics is a particularly difficult subject.

  4. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the ... to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community ... causes of maternal mortality at the country level in ... Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar, .... cyclones, and crime can be associated with.

  5. Determination of risk factors and level of awareness of caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Oju, goats are the major livestock kept and there is a well established goat market held every five days. This study was aimed at determining the risk factors associated with caprine brucellosis and assessing level of awareness amongst goat owners in Oju Local Government Area (LGA) of Benue State using a structured ...

  6. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  7. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. EMPLOYMENT LEVEL ANALYSIS FROM THE DETERMINANT FACTORS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana ŞERB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neglecting the human factor as part of the labor market causes losses for society as any activity that is initiated within it, has as a starting point, and also as a finishing point, the human intervention. The starting point of the article is represented by the projections made by the European    Commission in the Population Ageing Report in 2015 underlying assumptions and projections, and also by the projections of the United Nations report in 2015, and this resulted in many conclusions including the one that for the first time in Romania the average aging in 2015 exceeds the values measured by EU till present day, and this is reflected in the employment level (active aging population. The hypothesis behind the article is that the evolution of the population and migrants has repercussions on employment. Structured in three parts: knowledge status, the analysis of employment indicators and information about the intensity and direction of the link between a number of factors and employment level, this article aims to establish the determinant factors of employment through a research focused on the analysis of secondary sources, and also using the regression model. The most important lesson learned as a result of this research is that the labor market works with a variety of factors with a higher or lower influence, and in turn the labor market influences other factors.

  9. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  10. Spectra of the W VIII isoelectronic sequence: III. Re IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabtsev, A N; Kononov, E Ya; Kildiyarova, R R; Tchang-Brillet, W-Ü L; Wyart, J-F; Champion, N; Blaess, C

    2015-01-01

    Rhenium spectra excited in vacuum spark sources of different setups and electric circuits were recorded on two high resolution vacuum spectrographs: a 10 m normal incidence spectrograph with a 3600 l mm −1 grating in the Meudon Observatory and a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph with a 3600 l mm −1 grating in the Institute of Spectroscopy in Troitsk. A total of 112 lines in the region 146–244 Å were identified as transitions from the interacting excited even configurations 4f 12 5s 2 5p 6 5d + 4f 13 5s 2 5p 5 (5d + 6s) + 4f 14 5s 2 5p 4 (5d + 6s) to the low-lying odd configurations 4f 13 5s 2 5p 6 and 4f 14 5s 2 5p 5 . A change of the ground configuration from 4f 13 5s 2 5p 6 to 4f 14 5s 2 5p 5 in a comparison with the previous spectra of the isoelectronic sequence Hf VI–W VIII was observed. Fine structure splittings and relative positions of the odd terms were established, and 83 levels of the excited even configurations were found. (paper)

  11. Base level Investigation in various buildings and corresponding effective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehranizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Base level is one of the important parameters in determining the seismic force and preliminary design of structural sections. Base level, According to 2800 seismic regulations, in cases which the basement perimeter is executed with reinforced concrete walls integrated by structure, in addition with surrounding dense soil; set top of basement walls. The critical issue involved in determining base level is horizontal motion of the land. Usually horizontal movement of the Earth is transferred by shear and friction between the edges of the basement walls and foundation, also this process is completed by soil friction between underside of slabs and shallow. Different conditions such as non-same elevated foundations, soil type around building, soil-structure interaction and type of foundation are impressive on location of base level. Other factors including retaining wall openings in basement, basement floors and soil characteristics around the base structures affect base level coordination. As regards there is cleared definition for base level in different regulation all around the world, sometimes engineers cannot comprehend main purpose correctly, or concepts occasionally are interpreted inaccurately. When structure conditions little different from what normally there is, for example, buildings on slope, or structures on deep foundation such as piles, often experts are conflicted by finding location of base level in this status. In this paper investigations about base level in the past years expressed and studied, also, important issues around them are discussed.

  12. Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of rVIII-SingleChain in children with severe hemophilia A: results of a multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyshyn, O; Djambas Khayat, C; Iosava, G; Ong, J; Abdul Karim, F; Fischer, K; Veldman, A; Blackman, N; St Ledger, K; Pabinger, I

    2017-04-01

    Essentials rVIII-SingleChain is a novel recombinant factor VIII with covalently bonded heavy and light chains. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients with severe hemophilia A. Across all prophylaxis regimens, the median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00. rVIII-SingleChain showed excellent hemostatic efficacy and a favorable safety profile. Background rVIII-SingleChain is a novel B-domain truncated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) comprised of covalently bonded FVIII heavy and light chains, demonstrating a high binding affinity to von Willebrand factor. Objectives This phase III study investigated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of rVIII-SingleChain in previously treated pediatric patients hemophilia A. Patients/Methods Patients could be assigned to prophylaxis or on-demand therapy by the investigator. For patients assigned to prophylaxis, the treatment regimen and dose were based on the bleeding phenotype. For patients receiving on-demand therapy, dosing was guided by World Federation of Hemophilia recommendations. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as a rating of 'excellent' or 'good' on the investigator's clinical assessment of hemostatic efficacy for all treated bleeding events. Results The study enrolled 84 patients (0 to 50 EDs. In the 347 bleeds treated and evaluated by the investigator, hemostatic efficacy was rated as excellent or good in 96.3%. The median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 2.20), and the median annualized bleeding rate was 3.69 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 7.20) across all prophylaxis regimens. No participant developed an inhibitor. Conclusions rVIII-SingleChain is a novel rFVIII molecule showing excellent hemostatic efficacy and a favorable safety profile in a clinical study in children hemophilia A. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and

  13. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  14. VIII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Physicist Engineering is a multidisciplinary profession in which an undergraduate student integrates and applies their knowledge of Physics, Mathematics, and Computing to adapt and innovate all kind of technologies, as well as to development and apply theoretical knowledge to different fields of science and engineering. A Physicist Engineer, supported by a solid preparation in science and engineering is available to study, analyze, identify, and solve problems in different fields of science and technology for industries, hospitals, research laboratories, institutes and governmental organizations focused on metrology, optics, energy, materials, instrumentation of sophisticated equipment. The Physicist Engineering bachelor degree is a national and international reference to encouraging all those students to apply knowledge through active participation in the operation, planning, and management of projects. The technological and scientific impact of a Physicist Engineering undergraduate and graduate students, as well as the tutorial of the research professor that are interested in Physics and Physics Engineering, may be found in a biennial event like the International Conference on Physicist Engineering, through the diffusion of both experimental and theoretical research and teaching. In order to promote and encourage strength academic goals among universities and research institutions, the International Conference on Physics Engineering Committee, integrated by a faculty meeting of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Campus Azcapotzalco, has decided to grant the VIII International Congress of Physics Engineering to the Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, which is going to take place on Mérida, November 7 th to 11 th , 2016. This conference considers different topics as: Renewables Energies Engineering Materials Technology Nanotechnology Medical Physics Education in Physics Engineering Nuclear Engineering High Precision Instrumentation Atmosphere Physics

  15. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  16. Chromosome VIII disomy influences the nonsense suppression efficiency and transition metal tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorsky, S P; Sopova, Y V; Andreichuk, D Y; Startsev, V A; Medvedeva, V P; Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2015-06-01

    The SUP35 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the translation termination factor eRF3. Mutations in this gene lead to the suppression of nonsense mutations and a number of other pleiotropic phenotypes, one of which is impaired chromosome segregation during cell division. Similar effects result from replacing the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene with its orthologues. A number of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur in the sup35 background result in partial compensation for this suppressor effect. In this study we showed that in S. cerevisiae strains in which the SUP35 orthologue from the yeast Pichia methanolica replaces the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene, chromosome VIII disomy results in decreased efficiency of nonsense suppression. This antisuppressor effect is not associated with decreased stop codon read-through. We identified SBP1, a gene that localizes to chromosome VIII, as a dosage-dependent antisuppressor that strongly contributes to the overall antisuppressor effect of chromosome VIII disomy. Disomy of chromosome VIII also leads to a change in the yeast strains' tolerance of a number of transition metal salts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Grotrian diagrams for highly ionized cobalt Co VIII through Co XXVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Toshizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sugar, J.; Wiese, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    Grotrian diagrams are presented to provide graphical overviews for 1,247 spectral lines of highly ionized cobalt, Co VIII through Co XXVII. In the usual diagram display such as that by Bashkin and Stoner (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), the density of transitions is often too high to allow each transition to be drawn separately. Here in our modified diagrams, the transitions are also represented by lines connecting the upper and lower energy levels, but the lower energy levels are extended and repeated for successive configurations as needed. As a sequence, dense packing is avoided and all lines in a multiplet can be accommodated. (author)

  18. Energy levels of germanium, Ge I through Ge XXXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, J.; Musgrove, A.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic energy levels of germanium have been compiled for all stages of ionization for which experimental data are available. No data have yet been published for Ge VIII through Ge XIII and Ge XXXII. Very accurate calculated values are compiled for Ge XXXI and XXXII. Experimental g-factors and leading percentages from calculated eigenvectors of levels are given. A value for the ionization energy, either experimental when available or theoretical, is included for the neutral atom and each ion. section

  19. Determining Factors of Deposit Level of Islamic Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Baehaqie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One Way to maintain the stability of banking industry is by applying the deposit insurance scheme. The application of the deposit insurance scheme has an impact by increasing the level of bank deposits. The objectives of the research are to identify the factors affecting the level of deposits of Islamic banks in Indonesia and managerial implications regarding to the functions of Indonesia Deposit Insurance Corporation (LPS. The technique used is the panel data regression with fixed effect model using the data from the 11 Islamic banks for the period of 2011 -2015. The results show that the factors affecting the level of deposits of the Islamic banks in Indonesia significantly and positively include the size of banks and their non-performing financing (NPF; however, they influence the capital negatively. Based on these results, LPS is required to build or sharpen the surveillance systems as part of its early detection by doing the mapping based on the size and to monitor the bank capital structure and bank finance portfolio structure.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.5156

  20. Deep subcritical levels measurements dependents upon kinetic distortion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shibiao; Li Xiang; Fu Guo'en; Huang Liyuan; Mu Keliang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of deep subcritical levels, with the increase of subcriticality, showed that the results impact on the kinetic distortion effect, along with neutron flux strongly deteriorated. Using the diffusion theory, calculations have been carried out to quantify the kinetic distortion correction factors in subcritical systems, and these indicate that epithermal neutron distributions are strongly affected by kinetic distortion. Subcriticality measurements in four different rod-state combination at the zero power device was carried out. The test data analysis shows that, with increasing subcriticality, kinetic distortion effect correction factor gradually increases from 1.052 to 1.065, corresponding reactive correction amount of 0.78β eff ∼ 3.01β eff . Thus, it is necessary to consider the kinetic distortion effect in the deep subcritical reactivity measurements. (authors)

  1. AKTIVITAS FISIK, ASUPAN ENERGI DAN STATUS GIZI WANITA PEMETIK TEH DI PTPN VIII BANDUNG, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venny Agustiani Mahardikawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Quality of human resources is very important to improve productivity. The worker productivity is correlated with nutritional status and health status. The objective of the research is to analyze physical activity, energy intake, nutritional status, of women workers at Tea Plantation PTPN VIII Bandung, West Java. The cross sectional design was used in this study to elaborate physical activity, nutritional status, and productivity of tea picker’s women. The criteria of study sample were tea picker’s women at cluster area of Malabar tea plantation of PTPN VIII Bandung, having infant and they were willing to be interviewed. The total number of 92 women sample was chosen randomly. Primary data consisted of physical activity recall (2x24 hours, food consumption recall (2x24 hours, anthropometry data (weight and height, and productivity (passage of tea sprout. Secondary data were included data of PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Bandung, West Java. The result showed that more than a half of samples having active or moderate physical activity level (PAL. The physical activity level of samples during work day (average PAL=1.87 was higher than holiday (average PAL=1.69 (p2362 kcal and 2134 kcal. The average energy adequacy level during workday and day off according to Schofield and Oxford equation were not significantly different, respectively 97,2% and 103,3%. The majority of samples had normal nutritional status, and 30.4% of the sample was overweight. The energy adequacy level according to Schofield and Oxford equation are related to nutritional status of women workers. Keywords: physical activity, energy expenditure, nutritional status, plantation women

  2. Dietary factors and fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in young adults with African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosk, Dominique; Kramer, Holly; Luke, Amy; Camacho, Pauline; Bovet, Pascal; Rhule, Jacob Plange; Forrester, Terrence; Wolf, Myles; Sempos, Chris; Melamed, Michal L; Dugas, Lara R; Cooper, Richard; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon

    2017-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone secreted mainly by osteocytes, maintains serum phosphate levels within a tight range by promoting phosphaturia. Previous studies have mainly focused on the link between FGF23 levels and dietary intake of phosphate, but other dietary factors may also influence FGF23 levels. This cross-sectional study pooled three populations of young adults with African ancestry (452 in Chicago, IL, USA; 477 in Victoria, Seychelles; and 482 in Kumasi, Ghana) with estimated glomerular filtration rate >80 ml/min/1.73 m 2 to examine the association of dietary factors based on two 24-h recalls with FGF23 levels measured using a C-terminal assay. Linear regression was used to examine the association between log-transformed FGF23 levels and quartiles of calorie-adjusted dietary factors with adjustment for covariates. In the pooled sample of 1411 study participants, the mean age was 35.2 (6.2) years and 45.3% were male. Median plasma C-terminal FGF23 values in relative units (RU)/ml were 59.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 44.1, 85.3] in the USA, 43.2 (IQR 33.1, 57.9) in Seychelles, and 34.0 (IQR 25.2, 50.4) in Ghana. With adjustment for covariates, increasing quartiles of calcium and animal protein and decreasing quartiles of vegetable protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were associated with significantly higher FGF23 levels compared to the lowest quartile. After further adjustment for dietary factors, significant trends in FGF23 levels were noted only for quartiles of calcium, fiber, and magnesium intake (P young adults.

  3. Comercio Internacional mediterráneo en el siglo VIII a.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Cabrera Bonet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The VIII century B.C. saw, for the first time after the breakdown of the system in the Late Bronze Age, the revival of a true intemational trade at a growing scale, especíally protagonized by Phoenicians and Greeks. In this article we analyze sorne aspects of this phenomenon, from the Aegean to the Far West, which made possíble, through a vaste network of trading routes, a large multinational ínteractíon. We understand the international trade as a key factor in the proccess of economic, social and political changes of the Mediterranean areas submerged in this complex "world-system".

  4. Association of von Willebrand factor blood levels with exercise hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Sonja B; Adams, Murray J; Otahal, Petr; Edwards, Lindsay M; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    A hypertensive response to moderate intensity exercise (HRE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms of an HRE are unclear, although previous studies suggest this may be due to haemostatic and/or haemodynamic factors. We investigated the relationships between an HRE with haemostatic and hemodynamic indices. Sixty-four participants (57 ± 10 years, 71 % male) with indication for exercise stress testing underwent cardiovascular assessment at rest and during moderate intensity exercise, from which 20 participants developed an HRE (defined as moderate exercise systolic BP ≥ 170 mmHg/men and ≥ 160 mmHg/women). Rest, exercise and post-exercise blood samples were analysed for haemostatic markers, including von Willebrand factor (vWf), and haemodynamic measures of brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRi). HRE participants had higher rest vWf compared with normotensive response to exercise (NRE) participants (1,927 mU/mL, 95 % CI 1,240-2,615, vs. 1,129 mU/mL, 95 % CI 871-1,386; p = 0.016). vWf levels significantly decreased from rest to post-exercise in HRE participants (p = 0.005), whereas vWf levels significantly increased from rest to exercise in NRE participants (p = 0.030). HRE participants also had increased triglycerides, rest BP, aortic stiffness and exercise SVRi (p HRE at moderate intensity.

  5. Igor Zabel 14. VIII 1958 - 23. VII 2005

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Igor Zabel oli Ida-Euroopa tuntumaid kunstiteoreetikuid ja kuraatoreid. Töötas 1986. aastast Ljubljana moodsa kunsti muuseumi kuraatorina. 9. VIII avatakse seal viimane I. Zabeli kureeritud näitus "Territories, Identities, Nets-Slovene Art 1995-2005"

  6. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  7. Effects of Seasonal Changes, Age and Smoking on Haemostatic Factors and Thyroxine Level in Egyptian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Bahgat, M. M.; Haggag, A. M.; Taha, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    ONE hundred and twenty male volunteers arranged into 6 equal groups participated in the present study to investigate the influence of age, smoking and season on clot formation, clot lysis and thyroxine hormone. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clotting time, platelet count, haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, haematocrit, total leukocytic count, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and concentration, partial thromboplastin time, factor V, VIII, plasminogen and thyroxine hormone were estimated in each group. The effect of age was studied by comparing young individuals (11-16 years) with adult non smokers (30-40 years) . Simultaneously adult non smokers were compared to adult smokers to evaluate the effect of smoking.Three groups: young , adult non smokers and adult smokers during winter were compared with their corresponding groups in summer to assess the season effect.The results revealed that most changes in the three groups were due to temperature variation and the young group had a better thermoregulation control than both adult groups .In non smoker adult group winter caused hypercoagulation with a concomitant increase in fibrinolytic activity as a protective mechanism against thrombus formation. Smoking caused disturbances in many coagulation factors and interaction between smoking and season is evident causing vascular disturbances. In summer smokers are more liable to bleeding, while in winter they are more liable to thrombus formation providing the other condition interfering with bleeding and thrombus formation are constant. There is relative hypothyroidism in smoker group only in summer season

  8. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  9. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  10. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng YiWei; Zuo YueGang

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H 2 O 2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 μM with an average concentration of 6.9 μM. A strong seasonal dependence for H 2 O 2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H 2 O 2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H 2 O 2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H 2 O 2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H 2 O 2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H 2 O 2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H 2 O 2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H 2 O 2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H 2 O 2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater. (author)

  11. Thrombin generation assay as a possible tool for assessment of reduced activity of clotting factors induced by antiphospholipid antibodies and in-vitro evaluation of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livnat, Tami; Zivelin, Ariella; Tamarin, Ilia; Guetta, Victor; Salomon, Ophira

    2009-12-01

    Bleeding is a rare manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome, unless associated with reduced clotting factors or severe thrombocytopenia. Accurate assessment of the autoantibodies in plasma is very important since the autoantibodies can lead to bleeding or thrombosis. The objective of the present study was to define the inhibitors causing reduced clotting activity in a patient with antiphospholipids antibodies and to assess the potential of thrombin generation assay to assist in establishment of optimal treatment in case of major bleeding. Levels of clotting factors as well as inhibitors to factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were defined. For detection of inhibitors to prothrombin crossed immunoelectrophoresis was used. IgG was purified by commercial protein A column. Thrombin generation was measured using a fluorometric assay in platelet-poor and platelet-rich plasma. Inhibitors toward the activity of factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were defined and also an inhibitor to prothrombin antigen. No thrombin generation was induced in the patient's plasma by recalcification even in the presence of recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity. In contrast, addition of platelets from either donor or patient or synthetic phospholipids normalized the thrombin generation. The thrombin generation model showed that the addition of platelets and no recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity would correct thrombin generation in vitro. On this basis, platelet concentrates were administered to a patient with bleeding caused by lupus anticoagulant and low clotting factors activity.

  12. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  13. The level satisfaction of teachers and motivational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Červ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Employee satisfaction is an area that is relevant in every organization and for this reason management has to pay special attention to this area. A satisfied worker brings better results and invests all their knowledge and abilities into their work. Otherwise they will invest only what is required of them that will not bring success to the organization in achieving their goals. Work satisfaction reflects an individual’s emotional experiences in theenvironment that they are working in. Many times management starts paying attention when it is too late. For this reason, measuring employee satisfaction should occur in each organization. This way appropriate actions and decisions can be made to improve current conditions.Purpose: To investigate employee satisfaction, determine the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction and identify motivational factors. Furthermore, to examine how personal goals of individuals influence their work and to which degree money is a motivator for work.Methods: A descriptive approach was used to examine the the oretical content, interview. An interview was conducted with which data was obtained on employee satisfaction.Results: Employees are satisfied with their work and it gives them a personal challenge, offers satisfaction, a source of income and pleasure. They are motivated by pay, student satisfaction, and successful transference of knowledge to students. Possible dissatisfaction of employees would not influence their effectiveness and work results. They believe that fulfilling their personal goals can influence their satisfaction.Organization: The obtained data will be used by management for improvement. The obtained results will lead management in decision making to increase employee satisfaction.Society: Refresh knowledge from the area of creating employee satisfaction and motivational factors that influences people at work.Originality: The limited number of interview participants and personal acquaintance

  14. The transitions 4p-5s in Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With the help of the spectra recorded in the Physics Department of Lund University, Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX are freshly analysed. The five 4s 2 4p 4 ground levels and the ten 4s 2 4p 3 5s levels of previous analyses are confirmed in the first three spectra, except for revising in Y VI the 4p 4 1 S 0 and 4p 3 5s( 4 Ssub(3/2)) 2 levels and interchanging 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 1 with 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 2 . All level values are improved due to the new measurements. A new analysis of Mo IX establishing all the 4p 4 and 4p 3 5s levels is being reported. (Auth.)

  15. Exploring Serum Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor Across Glaucoma Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oddone

    Full Text Available To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters.45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated.Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019 and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04 but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06 compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008 and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001 but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32 compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004.BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that both factors could be further investigated

  16. Cacao in México: Restrictive factors and productivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz-José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. represents one of the most important agricultural crops of the humid Mexican tropics. In the last 10 yr, approximately 23.000 t of this grain were no longer produced per cycle. The objective of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that restrict production in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. A survey was applied to obtain information about 184 producers and their plantations by two-stage sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multilevel models were adjusted to analyze the information. Results show that there are differences (P < 0.05 in cacao yield between municipalities (380 kg ha-1 + u,o j is the estimated residual for each municipality. Crop productivity levels are higher in the state of Tabasco than in Chiapas (644 and 344 kg ha-1, respectively. Incidence of frosty pod rot of cacoa, also known as moniliasis, induced by Moniliophthora roreri [(Cif H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978] is significantly greater (P < 0.05 in the state of Chiapas (60% than in Tabasco (48%.Producers who carry out more crop management practices increase yields and decrease the pathogen's impact on their plantations. Results suggest the need to apply differentiated public policies to promote production within each region or municipality.

  17. Evidence for the formation of sodium hassate(VIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweidorf, A. von; Angert, R.; Bruechle, W.; Buerger, S.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Hummrich, H.; Jaeger, E.; Kling, H.O.; Kratz, J.V.; Kuczewski, B.; Langrock, G.; Mendel, M.; Rieth, U.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Thoerle, P.; Trautmann, N.; Tsukada, K.; Wiehl, N.; Wirth, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hassium, element 108, was produced in the fusion reaction between 26 Mg and 248 Cm. The hassium recoils were oxidized in-situ to a highly volatile oxide, presumably HsO 4 , and were transported in a mixture of He and O 2 to a deposition and detection system. The latter consisted of 16 silicon PIN-photodiodes facing a layer of NaOH, which served, in the presence of a certain partial pressure of water in the transport gas, as reactive surface for the deposition of the volatile tetroxides. Six correlated α-decay chains of Hs were detected in the first 5 detectors centred around detection position 3. In analogy to OsO 4 , which forms Na 2 [OsO 4 (OH) 2 ], an osmate(VIII), with aqueous NaOH, HsO 4 presumably was deposited as Na 2 [HsO 4 (OH) 2 ], a hassate(VIII). (orig.)

  18. Henry VIII, McLeod syndrome and Jacquetta's curse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, P; Lopes Floro, K

    2013-01-01

    The mental decline of King Henry VIII from being a jovial, charismatic and athletic young man into an increasingly paranoid, brutal tyrant in later life, ever more concerned at his lack of one or more male heirs, has attracted many medical diagnostic theories. Previous hypotheses have included diabetes, syphilis and hypothyroidism, among others. However, these inadequately explain Henry's failure to produce a male heir, despite multiple pairings. The latest postulated diagnoses for Henry are the coexistence of both Kell blood group antigenicity (possibly inherited from Jacquetta Woodville, Henry's maternal great grandmother) causing related impaired fertility, and McLeod syndrome, causing psychotic changes. As the mutated McLeod protein of the syndrome significantly reduces the expression, effectively inactivating the Kell antigen, we critically review this theory, examining in detail the pathophysiology of these conditions and assessing the genealogy of Henry VIII and its effect in subsequent generations.

  19. Trace gases over Northern Eurasia: background level and disturbing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, A.; Shumsky, R.; Pankratova, N.; Moiseenko, K.; Vasileva, A.; Berezina, E.; Elansky, N.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric air composition over the vast and low inhabited areas of Northern Eurasia is still poorly studied because of lack of the precise direct measurements. This harms to accuracy of both global and regional models which simulate climatological and ecosystem changes in that highly important region. In this work background trace gases (such as O3, NO, NO2, CO) concentrations and their variability are considered on base of results of continuous measurements at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia which have been carried out since March, 2007. Also factors implying background regime (like long-range transport, wild fires emissions) are analyzed. To compliment study data of TROICA train-based campaigns which have been regularly provided across Russia for many years (1995-2010) are used. The concentration of ozone has a pronounced seasonal variation with a clear peak in spring (40-45 ppbv in average and up to 80 ppbv in extreme cases) and minimum in winter. Average ozone level is about 20 ppbv that corresponds to the background conditions. Enhanced concentration in March-July is due to increased stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In autumn and winter distribution of ozone is close to uniform. Photochemical processes under low light and air temperature does not cause the generation of ozone. Sink on the snow surface is very small, and therefore the diurnal variations are absent. In general, seasonal variations correspond to the average seasonal course, which is typical for Russia. The analysis of diurnal ozone variations in Zotino in different seasons showed that the maximum rate of ozone formation is observed in summer from 9 to 15 h local time and is 1-2 ppbv/hour. It correlates well with the data on the isoprene emissions and others biogenic VOC reacting with OH- radical. Thus they are biogenic VOC emissions that seem to be the main factor of the lower troposphere oxidation power in summer. In other seasons it is significantly lower. NOx concentration does

  20. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  1. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level ...

  2. Fluctuating levels of reprogramming factor expression in cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although human undifferentiated keratinocytes (HUKs) can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ...

  3. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VIII: A Rare Cause of Leg Ulcers in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Ronceray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIII (EDS-VIII is a very rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by early-onset periodontitis associated with features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man whose chronic leg ulcer led to the diagnosis of EDS-VIII. He had severe periodontitis with complete loss of permanent teeth and skin fragility with thin skin, atrophic scars, and brownish atrophic pretibial plaques. Leg ulcer is not a prominent feature of EDS-VIII. We suggest adding EDS-VIII to the list of rare diseases accounting for chronic leg ulcers, if this case report prompts others to report leg ulcers associated with EDS-VIII.

  4. Regulation of plasma von Willebrand factor [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl C Desch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand factor (VWF is a multimeric plasma glycoprotein that plays a central role in the initiation of blood coagulation. Through interactions between its specific functional domains, the vascular wall, coagulation factor VIII, and platelet receptors, VWF maintains hemostasis by binding to platelets and delivering factor VIII to the sites of vascular injury. In the healthy human population, plasma VWF levels vary widely. The important role of VWF is illustrated by individuals at the extremes of the normal distribution of plasma VWF concentrations where individuals with low VWF levels are more likely to present with mucocutaneous bleeding. Conversely, people with high VWF levels are at higher risk for venous thromboembolic disease, stroke, and coronary artery disease. This report will summarize recent advances in our understanding of environmental influences and the genetic control of VWF plasma variation in healthy and symptomatic populations and will also highlight the unanswered questions that are currently driving this field of study.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Formats VIII... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Formats EC01MY92.117 EC01MY92.118 EC01MY92.119 EC01MY92.120...

  6. Fluctuating levels of reprogramming factor expression in cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the ... could serve as disease models and aid in the discovery of drugs and genes; furthermore, this approach to gene-.

  7. Analysis of Factors Affecting Decisions to Participate and Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... among Heads of Households in Minituber Yam Marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. ... in negative effects of socio economic factors on market participation as well as ... These results called for public policy for increased gender access to good ...

  8. Thermoelectrical properties of the compounds ScM{sup VIII}Sb and YM{sup VIII}Sb (M{sup VIII} = Ni, Pd, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, J; Probst, U; Richardt, F; Bucher, E [University of Konstanz, PO Box X916, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2003-02-05

    The research into new materials with good thermoelectric properties has revealed new compounds consisting of metallic elements (Bando Y, Suemitsu T, Takagi K, Tokushima H, Echizen Y, Katoh K, Umeo K, Maeda Y and Takabatake T 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 313 1-6, Ghelani N, Loo S, Chung D, Sportouch S, Nardi S, Kanatzidis M, Hogan T and Nolas G 2000 Mater. Res. Soc. 626 Z8.6.1). The half-Heusler compound ZrNiSn, in particular, shows promising thermoelectric properties and has been studied by many scientists during recent years (Uher C, Hu S, Yang J, Meisner G P and Morelli D T 1997 Proc. ICT'97: 16th Int. Conf. on Thermoelectrics pp 485-8, Romaka L P, Stadnyk Yu V, Goryn A M, Gorelenko Yu K and Skolozdra R V 1997 Proc. ICT'97: 16th Int. Conf. on Thermoelectrics pp 516-19, Hohl H, Ramirez A P, Goldmann C, Ernst G, Woelfing B and Bucher E 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 1697-709, Oestreich J, Kaefer W, Richardt F, Probst U and Bucher E 1999 Proc. 5th European Workshop on Thermoelectrics pp 192-5). In an effort to find new thermoelectric materials, the half-Heusler compounds of the groups ScM{sup VIII}Sb and YM{sup VIII}Sb (M{sup VIII} = Ni, Pd, Pt) were synthesized by arc melting and the thermoelectric properties were examined by standard characterization methods. Doping experiments showed that it is possible to change the electrical properties of the compounds while retaining the half-Heusler structure. Within the two groups, YPtSb showed the best thermoelectrical properties. At a temperature of 400 K the electrical conductivity of YPtSb is 748{omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} and the Seebeck coefficient is 116.3{mu}V K{sup -1}. The thermal conductivity at 400 K extrapolated using the Wiedemann-Franz law is 2.87 W K{sup -1} m{sup -1}. This leads to a dimensionless figure of merit of 0.14.

  9. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    (Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy) trial, CD4/CD8 ratio, smoking, comorbid conditions, serum lipids, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]), and educational level were assessed. RESULTS: Demographics associated with higher IL-6 levels were older age and lower...

  10. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  11. Factors Associated With Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sakshi; Firdaus, Uzma; Ali, Syed Manazir; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-15

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of elevated blood lead level in children (6-144 months) of Aligarh. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Venous blood was obtained for lead estimation and a structured questionnaire was filled. A total of 260 children were enrolled. The prevalence of elevated blood lead level was 44.2%, seen mostly in children below 5 years of age. Old and deteriorating wall paints at home was found to be significantly associated with elevated levels. Lead-based house paints are potential source of lead exposure. Meticulous renovation and painting of the walls with safe paints is desirable.

  12. Importance of high triglycerides levels between novel coronary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The analysis of new cardiovascular risk factors is under an extensive debate in the cardiology and metabolic research fields. Objective: To determine the main factors that contribute to the classification of individuals with higher coronary risk in the adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with multistage random sampling in 1379 individuals belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study (MMSPS was performed. They were classified according to the coronary risk by Framingham-Wilson equation adapted to our population. The association between various risk factors was evaluated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results: 1,379 subjects (females 55.9%; n = 771 were evaluated, 66.2% (n = 913 were classified with low coronary risk. In univariate (χ2 = 112.35; p < 0.00001 and multivariate analysis [OR: 3.98 (2.39-6.63; p < 0.01], the main factors associated to be classified as the highest risk category were hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion: There are several factors that should be included in predictive models use worldwide. The most important in our population were dyslipidemia such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a and insulin resistance. Resumen: Introducción: El análisis de nuevos factores de riesgo cardiovascular constituye un tema de amplio debate en la investigación cardio-metabólica. Objetivo: Determinar los principales factores que contribuyen a la clasificación de sujetos en las categorías de mayor riesgo coronario en individuos adultos de la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, trasversal con muestreo aleatorio multietapas en 1.379 individuos pertenecientes al Estudio de Prevalencia de Síndrome Metabólico de la Ciudad de Maracaibo (EPSMM. Estos fueron clasificaron de acuerdo con el riesgo coronario mediante la fórmula Framingham-Wilson adaptada para

  13. MENINGKATKAN TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL SISWA KELAS VIII MELALUI LAYANAN BIMBINGAN KELOMPOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Farikhatun Nisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the efforts and success in improving students' social responsibility through group counseling services. Type of research used action research. Subjects were 12 students who had low social responsibility and being. Data collection technique used were psychological scales and observation. Data analysis techniques used are non-parametric statistics with the Wilcoxon test. Based on the calculations for the Wilcoxon test, a small amount of levels or Z value was 78.0. While Ztabel for n = 12 with an error level of 5% value is 14. So Z 78.0> 14.0 Ztabel or imply hypothesis accepted. These results demonstrate social responsibility of students prior to obtaining counseling services group at 51.93% (low. After following the guidance services at 81.51% (high. Conclusions from this research is a social responsibility to the students of class VIII SMP Putra Bangsa Bantarkawung increase after getting tutoring services group.

  14. PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN CINEMATHERAPY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PROSOSIAL PADA SISWA KELAS VIII DI BOSOWA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeruddin Niva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are: (i to know the prosocial behavioral level of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar before and after giving cinematography approach, and (ii to know whether or not the approach is able to enhance the prosocial behavior of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar. The research is a quantitative research using experimental method. The research design used is quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group design. The data collection technique applied is scale and FGD (Focus Group Discussion. The findings shows that (i the prosocial behavioral level of the students was low in pretest while after giving treatment there were significant increase to the prosocial behavior in the experimental group, and (ii the cinematography approach was able to increase the prosocial behavior of the Grade VIII students in Bosowa Internatinal School Makassar. 

  15. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  16. Some factors influencing liver metallothionein levels in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, T.; Lee, M.

    1981-01-01

    Liver metallothionein (MT) was measured by the 203-mercury binding method of Piotrowski in the livers of rats and mice subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy or to sham adrenalectomy. Sham operation was followed by an increase in the level of MT at 24 hours; this immediately began to decrease, reaching control levels by 7 days. Adrenalectomy was also followed by an increase in MT, but the levels remained elevated for several days before beginning to decline. Mice which were adrenalectomized and allowed to recover for 28 days showed an increase in MT when subjected to sham operation. Ether anaesthesia without an incision did not increase the level of MT. Hypophysectomized mice had higher levels of MT than did controls, and these levels were further increased by sham adrenalectomy. Sprague-Dawley rats showed a similar response to adrenalectomy and to sham operation. It is concluded that the sham operation-induced increase in MT is probably not a result of a stress-induced release of adrenal hormones, but that adrenal hormones may play some role in the degradation or turnover of MT. The pituitary may also have some role in MT turnover

  17. Psychopathy and Violence: The Importance of Factor Level Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative…

  18. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and

  19. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P.; Barten, A. D.; van Waarde, M. A.; Vujaskovic, Z.; van Tienhoven, G.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and active

  20. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). ... à Madagascar en utilisant un panel national unique de communes (c. ... maternal death one of the leading causes of death ... find that factors like female wages and literacy are .... The poverty gap measures how ..... The previous evidence of the effects of.

  1. Interrelation and interaction level of dental health and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and intensity of dental disease among the examinees of the same sex and adolescence. The relationship of the influence of some environmental, nutritional and endogenous factors on the manifestation of dental caries and anomalies of occlusion

  2. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-Level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced…

  3. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  4. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  5. Propagation & Level: Factors Influencing in the ICT Composite Index at the School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Kim, JaMee; Lee, WonGyu

    2013-01-01

    Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the…

  6. Global Sourcing, Technology, and Factor Intensity: Firm-level Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIURA Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines how technology and capital intensity are related with the firm's global sourcing decision. Firm-level data are derived from a survey covering all manufacturing industries in Japan without any firm-size threshold. Firms are disaggregated by their make-or-buy decision (in-house or outsourcing) and by their choice of sourcing location (offshore or domestic). Capital-intensive or R&D-intensive firms tend to source in-house from their FDI affiliates rather than outs...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity LDR...

  9. Type VIII collagen is elevated in diseases associated with angiogenesis and vascular remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N. U. B.; Willumsen, N.; Bülow Sand, Jannie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Type VIII collagen is involved in angiogenesis and remodeling of arteries. We hypothesized that type VIII collagen was upregulated in diseases associated with vascular remodeling, e.g. pulmonary fibrosis and cancer. In this paper we present the development and validation of a competitive...

  10. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING INSOLVENCY AT THE LEVEL OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Constantin MORAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study from the present work was to assess the risk of insolvency at the level of companies in Romania, via an analysis based on the calculation of financial ratios as significant for the state of companies. The correlations established between the values of financial rates and their influence upon the state of insolvency were tested using the logistic model and the probability model on a data sample consisting of a total of ten companies, grouped into companies in insolvency and companies with healthy financial statements having as reference period 2008 - 2012. The results of the study point to the direct influence of indebtedness and speed of rotation of the insolvency claims.

  12. Factors influencing the transport accessibility level - seniors point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakowska, L.; Pulawska-Obiedowska, S.

    2016-07-01

    The growing group of European older inhabitants, namely senior citizens (aged + 65) belong to the most vulnerable group to social exclusion. Transport accessibility is a concept, that can lead to enhancing life quality of seniors, which is shown based on the case study of Cracow, Poland as a European city. 100 seniors, that are living in different areas (urban, suburban), were asked for define different aspects that may influence their travel behaviour. Respondents were indicating their individual concerns connected with travelling, the existing barriers and expected solutions.The goal of the paper is to present the main outcomes of the conducted surveys, in order to present the concept of transport accessibility in the context of the most important factors influencing seniors life quality. The accessibility conditions and barriers, which can affect mobility possibilities and different activities of senior citizens in urban areas, are indicated in the paper. The identification of the crucial aspects of accessibility play an important role in development of sustainable transport system together with sustainable urban design, that will be friendly for all citizens in aging society. (Author)

  13. Partial Safety Factors and Target Reliability Level in Danish Structural Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hansen, J. O.; Nielsen, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    The partial safety factors in the newly revised Danish structural codes have been derived using a reliability-based calibration. The calibrated partial safety factors result in the same average reliability level as in the previous codes, but a much more uniform reliability level has been obtained....... The paper describes the code format, the stochastic models and the resulting optimised partial safety factors....

  14. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX.......Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX....

  15. Hadron spectroscopy and form factors at quark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, S.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, N.N.; Mitra, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical status of hadrons as quark composites is examined from the point of view of a simultaneous understanding of their on-shell (mass spectra) and off-shell (form factors, transition amplitudes) properties. Greater stress is laid on light quark systems which are more sensitive to the confinement regime, and more prone to relativistic effects than on heavy quarkonia (on which many reviews exist). Two broad theoretical approaches obeying Lorentz and gauge invariance are identified: (i) QCD sum rules as a means of extrapolation from high to low energies; and (ii) dynamical equations for providing a microcausal link in the opposite direction (from low to high energies). The latter represents the major focus of attention in this article, with the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) providing a formal plank for a comparative assessment of several models. The Null-plane ansatz which facilitates the reduction of the 4-D BSE to a covariant 3-D form also provides the language for its comparison with other covariant 3-D equations. In particular, attention is drawn to the interesting possibility of reconstructing the 4-D BS wave function from its 3-D form (in a two-tier fashion) as a practical tool for generating higher Fock-space components (qq effects) in the BS wave function, and (more interestingly) for a clean separation between soft and hard QCD effects. To illustrate one such practical tool for an integrated view of different hadronic sectors within a single framework, the results of a two-tier BS model are presented in respect of qq-bar, qqq, gg, ggg, gqq-bar states and compared with experiment as well as with the results of other contemporary models. The N.R Resonating Group Method, which becomes necessary for bigger (six-quark) systems is briefly discussed from the point of view of its compatibility with a relativistic form of quark dynamics motivated from the BSC. (Author)

  16. Grotrian diagrams of highly ionized iron Fe(VIII)-Fe(XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuo; Otsuka, Masamoto; Kato, Takako.

    1977-08-01

    Energy levels and Grotrian diagrams of Fe(VIII) to Fe(XXVI) are presented. This report summarized the data published recently up to 1976, and the wavelength tables compiled were converted to the Grotrian diagrams. The diagrams showing transition from one energy level to another are called Grotrian diagrams. Typical examples of the diagrams are found in the book by Bashkin et al. In the present diagrams, all lines are drawn in parallel, and connected to the extended lines from lower levels. As the results, locally dense packing of lines and figures is avoided. The ordinate of the diagrams indicates level energy, and the J values are shown on the left side of the levels. The wavelength values in angstrom unit are written in parallel with the vertical transition lines. This vertical lines show the resonance transition having absorption oscillator strength f larger than 0.1. The present diagrams are the combination of the tables of wavelength and energy level. Accordingly, the desired wavelength and level energy are easily found. The figures of wavelength are lined up in various groups, so that the characteristics of the transition can be discriminated at a glance. Wavelength and level energy have been mostly derived from experimental spectra in laboratory or solar plasma, except a few by Fawcett's prediction. (Kato, T.)

  17. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  18. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  19. Item-level and subscale-level factoring of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) in a mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, J; Gao, L

    2000-09-01

    The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.

  20. Efeitos de humor no poema VIII de Catulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Vasconcellos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresenta-se uma contribuição ao estudo dos efeitos de humor no poema VIII de Catulo; de fato, além do metro dessa composição e de outros elementos criadores de distanciamento irônico que os estudiosos têm apontado, um outro aspecto de sua forma, ainda pouco percebido, guia a leitura para essa interpretação: o jogo, a maneira de anagrama imperfeito (o “hipograma”, ou, mais precisamente, “criptograma”, de Saussure, com os sons do nome da amada, aparentemente calado. E mais uma das maneiras com que o poeta elabora a jocosa diferença entre o que se diz e o que, sentido e reprimido, deixa-se, porém, transparecer.

  1. Valor preditivo da expressão dos anticorpos Antifator VIII no carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago Predictive value of antifactor VIII antibody expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gonzaga Barbosa-Neto

    2007-12-01

    to progress knowledge on protein expression alterations for such neoplasia. AIM: To quantify protein expression implicated in the angiogenesis process and correlate to clinical-pathological features. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry procedure, cytophotometric imaging by SAMBA, 29 sampled-tissue embedded in paraffin blocks of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were analyzed. Clinical criteria, such as age and gender, as well as histophatological criteria, such as differentiated grade features, size and tumor location, were considered. Parameters evaluated were labeling index and optical density. The marker used in the present study was antifactor VIII. RESULTS: Verification on the expression of the marker in labeling index parameter was greater than optical density. Factor VIII presented homogeneous reading out. Labeling index was 80,17 + 10,40 (P=0,073 and optical density 51,25 + 11,02 (P=0,245. CONCLUSION: Protein expression reading analysis involved in angiogenesis process allows to define subgroups according to differentiated grade carcinoma, tumoral staging, size and tumor localization, although it does not allow association with gender and patient age. Optical density for factor VIII does not have statistical significant expression in any subgroup evaluated.

  2. Effects on coagulation factor production following primary hepatomitogen-induced direct hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kohei; Ohashi, Kazuo; Taminishi, Sanae; Takagi, Soichi; Utoh, Rie; Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2009-11-14

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in coagulation factor expression and/or function during direct hyperplasia (DH)-mediated liver regeneration. Direct hyperplasia-mediated liver regeneration was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by administering 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP), a representative hepatomitogen. Mice were weighed and sacrificed at various time points [Day 0 (D0: prior to injection), 3 h, D1, D2, D3, and D10] after TCPOBOP administration to obtain liver and blood samples. Using the RNA samples extracted from the liver, a comprehensive analysis was performed on the hepatic gene expression profiling of coagulation-related factors by real-time RT-PCR (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, protein S, ADAMTS13, and VWF). The corresponding plasma levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and VWF) were also analyzed and compared with their mRNA levels. Gavage administration of TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked and gradual increase in the weight of the mouse livers relative to the total body weight to 220% by D10 relative to the D0 (control) ratios. At the peak of liver regeneration (D1 and D2), the gene expression levels for most of the coagulation-related factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, ADAMTS13, VWF) were found to be down-regulated in a time-dependent manner, and gradually recovered by D10 to the basal levels. Only mRNA levels of factor X and protein S failed to show any decrease during the regenerative phase. As for the plasma levels, 5 clotting factors (prothrombin, factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) demonstrated a significant decrease (Pfactors, factor IX and factor XI showed the most dramatic decline in their activities by about 50% at D2 compared to the basal levels, and these reductions in

  3. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  4. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  5. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disr...

  6. The 4p5rd10 and 4d86p configurations of Te VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.S.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Troitsk; Joshi, Y.N.; Kildiyarova, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The spectrum of tellurium was photographed in the 100-500 A region on a variety of grazing incidence spectrographs using a triggered spark source. The analysis of the lines in the 117-216 A region has lead to establishing 42 out of 45 levels of the 4d 8 6p configuration of Te VIII. Four levels of the 4d 8 4f configuration were confirmed and their level values revised, and an additional 4d 8 4f level was established. The 4p 5 4d 10 levels reported earlier were found to be erroneous and new values have been found for them. Eighty seven (87) new lines have been classified in the (4d 9 + 4d 8 5s)-(4d 8 4f + 4p 5 4d 10 + 4d 8 6p) transition array. Hartree-Fock with relativistic corrections (HFR) and parametric least-squares-fitted (lSF) calculations were carried out to interpret the present analysis adequately. (orig.)

  7. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zittel, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of factors related to the site suitability of low-level waste disposal sites are discussed. The factors are a combination of those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Among the factors covered are: possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria and community involvement considerations. All these factors are discussed in a manner based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low-level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. The conclusion of the discussion is that problems encountered in siting low-level waste facilities will be largely societal and political in nature

  8. A Dynamic Multi-Level Factor Model with Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A dynamic multi-level factor model with stationary or nonstationary global and regional factors is proposed. In the model, persistence in global and regional common factors as well as innovations allows for the study of fractional cointegrating relationships. Estimation of global and regional...

  9. Neonatal levels of neurotrophic factors and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Mortensen, E L; Greaves-Lord, K

    2013-01-01

    To examine levels of 3 neurotrophic factors (NTFs): Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in dried blood spot samples of neonates diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) later in life and frequency-matched controls....

  10. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Magalhães Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. Results: altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. Conclusions: risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation.

  11. Factors associated with D-dimer levels in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher plasma D-dimer levels are strong predictors of mortality in HIV+ individuals. The factors associated with D-dimer levels during HIV infection, however, remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in three randomized controlled trials...... with measured D-dimer levels were included (N = 9,848). Factors associated with D-dimer were identified by linear regression. Covariates investigated were: age, gender, race, body mass index, nadir and baseline CD4+ count, plasma HIV RNA levels, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6...... viruses, was positively correlated with D-dimer. Other factors independently associated with higher D-dimer levels were black race, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, being off ART at baseline, and increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and cystatin C. In contrast, higher baseline CD4+ counts and higher high...

  12. Time Transfer Experiment by TCE on the ETS-VIII Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Fumimaru; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Amagai, Jun; Tabuchi, Ryo; Hama, Shin'ichi; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko

    2007-01-01

    .... At NICT, we developed Time Comparison Equipment (TCE) both onboard ETS-VIII and in the Earth station for precise time transfer between the atomic clocks on the satellite and a ground reference clock...

  13. Class VIII Medical Materiel Controls in the U.S. European Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    .... Class VIII medical materiel inventories are maintained as part of the U.S. war reserve stocks to ensure military readiness and to provide needed health care during wartime or contingencies. The U.S...

  14. Mechanistic aspects of Os(VIII) catalysed oxidation of loop diuretic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    furosemide by Ag(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium. SHWETA J .... Os(VIII) catalysed DPA oxidation, the order in [OH. −. ] ... Victoria-3170, Australia) connected to a rapid ..... follows. The furosemide, periodate and hydroxide ion.

  15. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  16. Design local exhaust ventilation on sieve machine at PT.Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater using design for assembly (DFA) approach with Boothroyd and Dewhurst method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalqihi, K. I.; Rahayu, M.; Rendra, M.

    2017-12-01

    PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater is a company produced black tea orthodox more or less 4 tons every day. At the production section, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII will use local exhaust ventilation specially at sortation area on sieve machine. To maintain the quality of the black tea orthodox, all machine must be scheduled for maintenance every once a month and takes time 2 hours in workhours, with additional local exhaust ventilation, it will increase time for maintenance process, if maintenance takes time more than 2 hours it will caused production process delayed. To support maintenance process in PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater, designing local exhaust ventilation using design for assembly approach with Boothroyd and Dewhurst method, design for assembly approach is choosen to simplify maintenance process which required assembly process. There are 2 LEV designs for this research. Design 1 with 94 components, assembly time 647.88 seconds and assembly efficiency level 23.62%. Design 2 with 82 components, assembly time 567.84 seconds and assembly efficiency level 24.83%. Design 2 is choosen for this research based on DFA goals, minimum total part that use, optimization assembly time, and assembly efficiency level.

  17. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Yuliani; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani

    2018-02-01

    One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05). This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  18. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningsih Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05. This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  19. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  20. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  1. Serum and Urinary Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Ciftci, Hayriye; Demir, Erol; Savran Karadeniz, Meltem; Tefik, Tzevat; Yazici, Halil; Nane, Ismet; Savran Oguz, Fatma; Aydin, Filiz; Turkmen, Aydin

    2017-12-18

    Allograft rejection is an important cause of early and long-term graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes T-cell activation, the key reaction leading to allograft rejection. Here, we investigated whether serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels can predict allograft rejection. This study included 65 living related-donor renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 26 ± 9 months. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured at pretransplant and at posttransplant time points (days 1 and 7 and months 3 and 6); serum creatinine levels were also monitored during posttransplant follow-up. Standard enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to detect tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Clinical variables were monitored. Nine of 65 patients (13.8%) had biopsy-proven rejection during follow-up. Preoperative serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were not significantly different when we compared patients with and without rejection. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were significantly higher in the allograft rejection versus nonrejection group at day 7 (11.5 ± 4.7 vs 15.4 ± 5.8; P = .029) and month 1 (11.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.8 ± 10.9; P =.003). Urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were also elevated in the allograft rejection versus the nonrejection group at days 1 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 14.1 ± 6.8; P = .002) and 7 (9.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 2.7; P tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a role in diagnosing renal transplant rejection. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels may be a possible predictor for allograft rejection.

  2. Levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetics with retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, N.; Rahman, S.; Khan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ischemic retina in diabetic patients releases a number of chemical substances including vascular endothelial growth factor which leads to retinal vascular proliferation and blindness following rupture and bleeding of vessels. Strategies to control this action can considerably halt this process. Objectives: To determine the relationship of various stages of diabetic retinopathy with the levels vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional analytical study was done over one year (2010-2011) in three major public sector hospitals of Peshawar. Patients and Methods: Adult patients of either gender having type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative or non proliferative retinopathy and those without retinopathy were selected for the study. Retinopathy was diagnosed on fundoscopy. Non-diabetic patients without retinopathy were selected as controls. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were done in patients and controls using ELISA. Results: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were significantly higher in all cases having retinopathy as compared to controls. These levels progressively increased with the grades of retinopathy. Levels were higher in females. Conclusions: Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are raised in diabetic retinopathy and rising levels can alert the clinician in worsening of retinopathy so that preventive and therapeutic measures can be taken promptly. Policy message: Further larger scale studies are recommended on national level to pave way for the establishment of appropriate management paradigms for diabetic retinopathy through anti-VEGF treatment. (author)

  3. Organizational factors related to low levels of sickness absence in a representative set of Swedish companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bergman, Peter; Aborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Parmsund, Marianne; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify manageable organizational factors that could explain why some companies have low levels of sickness absence. There may be factors at company level that can be managed to influence levels of sickness absence, and promote health and a prosperous organization. 38 representative Swedish companies. The study included a total of 204 semi-structured interviews at 38 representative Swedish companies. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to the interviews, primarily with managers, to indicate the organizational factors that characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence. The factors that were found to characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence concerned strategies and procedures for managing leadership, employee development, communication, employee participation and involvement, corporate values and visions, and employee health. The results may be useful in finding strategies and procedures to reduce levels of sickness absence and promote health. There is research at individual level on the reasons for sickness absence. This study tries to elevate the issue to an organizational level. The findings suggest that explicit strategies for managing certain organizational factors can reduce sickness absence and help companies to develop more health-promoting strategies.

  4. INSIGHT in risk factors and treatment of inhibitors in nonsevere hemophilia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A is an inherited X-linked bleeding disorder that occurs in male offspring of carrier females. In these individuals a mutation in the F8 gene, located on the X-chromosome, causes a deficiency of the factor VIII protein, clotting factor VIII. The worldwide prevalence of hemophilia is 1 in

  5. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Letourneau, Valerie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual ...

  6. Application of fuzzy synthetic assessment to assess human factors design level on reactor control panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xuecheng

    1999-01-01

    Reactor control panel design level on human factors must be considered by designer. The author evaluated the human factor design level of arrangement and combinations including the switch buttons, meter dials and indication lamps on Minjiang Reactor and High-Flux Engineer Test Reactor (HFETR) critical device by application of fuzzy synthetic assessment method in mathematics. From the assessment results, the advantages and shortcomings are fount, and some modification suggestions have also been proposed

  7. Effectiveness of Adaptive Contextual Learning Model of Integrated Science by Integrating Digital Age Literacy on Grade VIII Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrizal, A.; Amran, A.; Ananda, A.; Festiyed, F.

    2018-04-01

    Educational graduates should have good competencies to compete in the 21st century. Integrated learning is a good way to develop competence of students in this century. Besides that, literacy skills are very important for students to get success in their learning and daily life. For this reason, integrated science learning and literacy skills are important in 2013 curriculum. However, integrated science learning and integration of literacy in learning can’t be implemented well. Solution of this problem is to develop adaptive contextual learning model by integrating digital age literacy. The purpose of the research is to determine the effectiveness of adaptive contextual learning model to improve competence of grade VIII students in junior high school. This research is a part of the research and development or R&D. Research design which used in limited field testing was before and after treatment. The research instruments consist of three parts namely test sheet of learning outcome for assessing knowledge competence, observation sheet for assessing attitudes, and performance sheet for assessing skills of students. Data of student’s competence were analyzed by three kinds of analysis, namely descriptive statistics, normality test and homogeneity test, and paired comparison test. From the data analysis result, it can be stated that the implementation of adaptive contextual learning model of integrated science by integrating digital age literacy is effective to improve the knowledge, attitude, and literacy skills competences of grade VIII students in junior high school at 95% confidence level.

  8. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  9. The spectrum of seven times ionized tungsten (W VIII) relevant to tokamak divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabtsev, A N; Kononov, E Ya; Kildiyarova, R R; Tchang-Brillet, W-Ü L; Wyart, J-F

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten spectra excited in the vacuum sparks of different setups and electric circuits were recorded on two high-resolution vacuum spectrographs. For the region 190–500 Å, a 10 m normal incidence spectrograph with a 3600 lines/mm grating was used in the Meudon Observatory. In the region below 350 Å, a set of spectra was produced using a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph with a 3600 lines/mm grating in the Institute of Spectroscopy in Troitsk. A total of 187 lines in the region 160–271 Å were identified as transitions to the low-lying odd configurations 4f 13 5s 2 5p 6 and 4f 14 5s 2 5p 5 from the interacting excited even 4f 12 5s 2 5p 6 5d + 4f 13 5s 2 5p 5 (5d + 6s) + 4f 14 5s 2 5p 4 (5d + 6s) + 4f 14 5s5p 6 configurations. It was found that 4f 13 5s 2 5p 6 2 F 7/2 is the ground level of W VIII. The fine structure splitting and relative positions of the odd terms were established, and 98 levels of the excited even configurations were found. (paper)

  10. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  11. Two-Level Designs to Estimate All Main Effects and Two-Factor Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Schoen, E.D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the design of two-level experiments with N runs and n factors large enough to estimate the interaction model, which contains all the main effects and all the two-factor interactions. Yet, an effect hierarchy assumption suggests that main effect estimation should be given more prominence

  12. AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY: DO DIFFERENT FACTORS HAVE VARIOUS INFLUENCES IN DIFFERENT LOYALTY LEVELS?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuusik

    2007-01-01

    The current paper studies the influence of various factors on customer loyalty. The main hypothesis of the study insists that the list of most important factors affecting loyalty is dependant on the level of loyalty of costumers. LOGIT method was used for testing the hypotheses on the sample of survey data about 1000 private customers of the biggest telecommunication company in Estonia. The results reveal that four analysed factors affecting customer loyalty (satisfaction, trustworthiness, im...

  13. Level-3 Cholesky Factorization Routines Improve Performance of Many Cholesky Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Wasniewski, Jerzy; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2013-01-01

    Four routines called DPOTF3i, i = a,b,c,d, are presented. DPOTF3i are a novel type of level-3 BLAS for use by BPF (Blocked Packed Format) Cholesky factorization and LAPACK routine DPOTRF. Performance of routines DPOTF3i are still increasing when the performance of Level-2 routine DPOTF2 of LAPACK...

  14. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  15. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  16. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels in Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelakakis, H.; Spanou, C.; Kondyli, A.; Dimitriou, E.; van Weely, S.; Hollak, C. E.; van Oers, M. H.; Aerts, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels were measured in the plasma of patients with different types of Gaucher disease (GD) and patients with other lysosomal storage diseases. The highest TNF-a levels were observed in the most severe neuronopathic type of GD, exceeding those found in healthy

  17. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  18. INTRAOCULAR AND SERUM LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertz, Karin; De Visser, Lenneke; Rijkers, Ger; De Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda; Los, Leonie; Rothova, Aniki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intraocular and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and compare those with VEGF levels found in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Methods: Paired intraocular fluid and serum samples of 17 patients with

  19. Lande gJ factors for even-parity electronic levels in the holmium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Werbowy, S.; Krzykowski, A.; Furmann, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the hyperfine structure of the Zeeman splitting for 18 even-parity levels in the holmium atom was investigated. The experimental method applied was laser induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. 20 spectral lines were investigated involving odd-parity levels from the ground multiplet, for which Lande gJ factors are known with high precision, as the lower levels; this greatly facilitated the evaluation of gJ factors for the upper levels. The gJ values for the even-parity levels considered are reported for the first time. They proved to compare fairly well with the values obtained recently in a semi-empirical analysis for the even-parity level system of Ho I.

  20. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Pwomen (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Agnostic stacking of intergalactic doublet absorption: measuring the Ne VIII population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephan; Pieri, Matthew M.; Mathur, Smita; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a blind search for doublet intergalactic metal absorption with a method dubbed `agnostic stacking'. Using a forward-modelling framework, we combine this with direct detections in the literature to measure the overall metal population. We apply this novel approach to the search for Ne VIII absorption in a set of 26 high-quality COS spectra. We probe to an unprecedented low limit of log N>12.3 at 0.47≤z ≤1.34 over a path-length Δz = 7.36. This method selects apparent absorption without requiring knowledge of its source. Stacking this mixed population dilutes doublet features in composite spectra in a deterministic manner, allowing us to measure the proportion corresponding to Ne VIII absorption. We stack potential Ne VIII absorption in two regimes: absorption too weak to be significant in direct line studies (12.3 13.7). We do not detect Ne VIII absorption in either regime. Combining our measurements with direct detections, we find that the Ne VIII population is reproduced with a power-law column density distribution function with slope β = -1.86 ^{+0.18 }_{ -0.26} and normalization log f_{13.7} = -13.99 ^{+0.20 }_{ -0.23}, leading to an incidence rate of strong Ne VIII absorbers dn/dz =1.38 ^{+0.97 }_{ -0.82}. We infer a cosmic mass density for Ne VIII gas with 12.3 value significantly lower that than predicted by recent simulations. We translate this density into an estimate of the baryon density Ωb ≈ 1.8 × 10-3, constituting 4 per cent of the total baryonic mass.

  2. The effect of psychosocial factors on the level of cholyglycine before childbirth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongmei; Fan Jie; Yu Jie; Wu Aiqin

    2005-01-01

    To observe the effect of psychosocial factors on the level of cholyglycine(CG) before childbirth, 69 gravidas were investigated by using the Gravida General Situation Questionnaire, the A Strait Behavior Questionnaire, and Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90) in the term of pregnancy till giving birth. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. The result showed that: (1) The level of CG was significantly higher in the group with A-behavior than that in the group with B-or M-Behavior(P<0.05); (2) The incidence of post partum complication in the high CG group (8%) was significantly higher than that in the low CG group (P<0.01); (3)The gestational period, the relation with parents of gravidas husband and SCL-90 panic score were main influencing factors on the level of CG . Besides physiological factors' effecting on CG, psychosocial factors should also be paid attention to. (authors)

  3. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittel, H. E.

    Factors related to the site suitability of low level waste disposal sites are discussed including those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria, and community involvement are considered. All these factors are based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. It is concluded that problems encountered in siting low level waste facilities are largely societal and political in nature.

  4. On existence and properties of plutonium(VIII) derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.M.; Dolzhenko, V.D.; Ermilov, A.Yu. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Nikonov, M.V.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Tananaev, I.G. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2014-04-01

    The existence of Pu(VIII) was shown in alkaline solutions and in nonpolar solvents (CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3}) on the ground of such experimental facts like extraction of plutonium species, obtained by means of ozonization of Pu(VI) alkaline solutions into CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3}; volatility of Pu compounds out of aqueous alkaline solutions, and the mentioned solvents. The product of interaction between PuO{sub 3}.0.8H{sub 2}O and XeF{sub 2} in CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3} was of the same chemical form for both cases and identical with the form of the product of volatility of Pu out of these organic solutions. The electronic absorbance spectra of these products in CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3} were fairly similar to the ones for OsO{sub 4} and RuO{sub 4}. The band of absorption in these spectra with the maximum at 332 nm corresponds to the charge transfer of metal-ligand type [π(O)→Pu], as the value of molar extinction coefficient e was found to be higher than 2 x 10{sup 3} L/mole cm. A satisfactory agreement between the energies for the transitions of PuO{sub 4} molecule designed by X{sub α}-SW method and experimental data was observed. A similar accordance was observed for the designed vibration frequency (DFT-method) with the one found as result of analysis of the vibration structure of the experimental spectra. (orig.)

  5. Music exposure differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in the mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-12-18

    It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music exposure in mice on hypothalamic levels of BDNF and NGF. We exposed young adult mice to slow rhythm music (6h per day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 dB) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment mice were sacrificed and BDNF and NGF levels in the hypothalamus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that music exposure significantly enhanced BDNF levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we observed that music-exposed mice had decreased NGF hypothalamic levels. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music in mice can influence neurotrophin production in the hypothalamus. Our findings also suggest that physiological effects of music might be in part mediated by modulation of neurotrophins.

  6. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples form other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process

  7. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process

  8. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (plevel of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  9. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  10. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  11. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berbasis Problem Based Learning (PBL untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Peserta Didik Kelas VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizza Yustianingsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pendahuluan pada kelas VIII SMP di lapangan, masih ditemukan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematis siswa dalam masalah nyata yang belum optimal dan aktivitas siswa tidak mendukung proses belajar mereka. Salah satu faktornya adalah tidak cocoknya perangkat pembelajaran yang dapat memudahkan pembelajar untuk memperbaiki pemecahan kemampuan matematika dan kemampuan belajar siswa. Dari situ, untuk mendasari melakukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran matematika, ada rencana rencana pembelajaran (RPP dan lembar kerja siswa (LKPD berbasis Problem Based Learning (PBL, yang dapat memberikan pengalaman belajar untuk belajar pemecahan masalah dan dapat memberikan efek potensial yang baik pada aktivitas siswa selama proses belajar. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi, kuesioner, wawancara, dan uji kemampuan pemecahan masalah. Subyek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP N 3 Sawahlunto. Pengembangan penelitian ini yang digunakan adalah mode Plomp yang terdiri dari tahap awal penelitian, tahap prototipe, dan tahap penilaian. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, terlihat bahwa alat pembelajaran berdasarkan PBL telah memenuhi kriteria yang valid dalam hal isi dan konstruksi. Peralatan pelajaran telah dianggap praktis dalam hal pelaksanaan dan efisiensi penggunaan waktu oleh guru dan siswa. Alat pelajaran juga efektif dalam hal proses penguasaan presentasi siswa belajar setelah menggunakan pembelajaran berbasis perangkat berbasis pembelajaran lebih besar dari atau sama dengan 75% sedangkan dalam hal hasil rata-rata siswa telah aktif dalam belajar. Kata kunci: Perangkat Pelajaran Matematika, Pemecahan Masalah, PBL.   Abstract. Based on the results of preliminary studies at grade VIII SMP in the field, it is still  found a mathematical problem solving ability of students in real problem who have not optimally and students activities do not support their learning process. One of the  factor is unsuitable of learning tools

  12. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Işık, Ümit; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurotrophins are involved in the etiopathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NTF3) levels between children with ADHD and healthy controls. A total of 110 treatment-naive children with the combined presentation of ADHD and 44 healthy controls aged 8-18 years were enrolled in this study. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised Short. The severity of depression and anxiety symptoms of the children were evaluated by the self-report inventories. Serum levels of neurotrophins were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed a significant main effect of groups in the levels of serum neurotrophins, an effect that was independent of age, sex, and the severity of the depression and anxiety. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the mean serum GDNF and NTF3 levels of ADHD patients were significantly higher than that of controls. However, serum BDNF and NGF levels did not show any significant differences between groups. No correlations between the levels of serum neurotrophins and the severity of ADHD were observed. These results suggest that elevated serum GDNF and NTF3 levels may be related to ADHD in children.

  13. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...

  14. Academic level and student’s faculty as factors of test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Oladipo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety as a prominent problem among students has been a focus of study for decades now, with studies focusing more on such factors as age, gender and study habit in relation to test anxiety. There is a dearth of literature in respect of such factors as academic level and student’s faculty in relation to test anxiety among undergraduates. The focus of the present study therefore, was to investigate academic level and students’ faculty as factors predicting test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 197(126 males and 71 females undergraduates participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30years (M=21.6,SD=2.68.Four hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that academic level and students’ faculty had no correlation with test anxiety. Moreover, the result of the multiple regression analysis showed that academic level and students’ faculty have no independent and joint influence on test anxiety. It was concluded that irrespective of student’s academic level and faculty, test anxiety is unavoidable. Other factors might be responsible for student test anxiety especially among undergraduates Nigeria. It is therefore recommend that more research should be conducted in this area so as to determine the salient factors that predict test anxiety.

  15. Level of inflammatory factors in chronic hemodialysis patients with and without cardiovascular disease

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    Shahram Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the existence of controversies about the predictive value of inflammatory markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD, we aimed to compare the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interlukin-6 (IL-6 level in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients with and without CVD. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, HD patients with and without CVD disease were enrolled. The presence of CVD risk factors, level of inflammatory factors including IL-6 and hs-CRP as well as lipid levels, fasting blood sugar, and other biochemical factors were compared in two studied groups. Results: During the study, eighty HD patients with (n = 40 and without (n = 40 CVD were enrolled. Diabetes was more prevalent among HD patients with CVD than those without CVD (P 0.05. Univariate analysis of variance test indicated that there was not any significant relationship between hs-CRP and CVD (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the level of inflammatory factors including hs-CRP and IL-6 are not significantly different in HD patients with and without CVD. However, for obtaining more definite conclusion in this field and evaluation their predicting role in this field, it is recommended to study other novel inflammatory markers as well as the additive effect of the inflammatory factors with traditional ones in larger sample size and longer follow-up.

  16. The effect of platelet rich fibrin on growth factor levels in urethral repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Tutku; Ayva, Şebnem; Boybeyi, Özlem; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Çakmak, Murat

    2013-12-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous source of growth factors and promotes wound healing. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of PRF on growth factor levels in urethral repair. Eighteen Wistar albino rats were included in the study. Rats were allocated in three groups (n:6): control (CG), sham (SG), and PRF (PRFG). In SG, a 5 mm vertical incision was performed in the penile urethra and repaired with 10/0 Vicryl® under a microscope. In PRFG, during the urethral repair as described in SG, 1 cc of blood was sampled from each rat and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2400 rpm. PRF obtained from the centrifugation was placed on the repair site during closure. Penile urethras were sampled 24 hours after PRF application in PRFG and after urethral repair in SG. Transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-β-R-CD105), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGF-R), as well as endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), were evaluated in subepithelia of the penile skin and urethra. Groups were compared for growth factor levels and growth factor receptor expression with the Kruskal Wallis test. TGF-β-R levels were significantly decreased in SG when compared to CG (p0.05). Use of PRF after urethral repair increases TGF-β-R and VEGF expressions in urethral tissue. PRF can be considered as an alternative measure to improve the success of urethral repair. © 2013.

  17. Myosin VIII regulates protonemal patterning and developmental timing in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Zon; Ritchie, Julie A; Pan, Ai-Hong; Quatrano, Ralph S; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2011-09-01

    Plants have two classes of myosins. While recent work has focused on class XI myosins showing that myosin XI is responsible for organelle motility and cytoplasmic streaming, much less is known about the role of myosin VIII in plant growth and development. We have used a combination of RNAi and insertional knockouts to probe myosin VIII function in the moss Physcomitrella patens. We isolated Δmyo8ABCDE plants demonstrating that myosin VIII is not required for plant viability. However, myosin VIII mutants are smaller than wild-type plants in part due to a defect in cell size. Additionally, Δmyo8ABCDE plants produce more side branches and form gametophores much earlier than wild-type plants. In the absence of nutrient media, Δmyo8ABCDE plants exhibit significant protonemal patterning defects, including highly curved protonemal filaments, morphologically defective side branches, as well as an increase in the number of branches. Exogenous auxin partially rescues protonemal defects in Δmyo8ABCDE plants grown in the absence of nutrients. This result, together with defects in protonemal branching, smaller caulonemal cells, and accelerated development in the Δmyo8ABCDE plants, suggests that myosin VIII is involved in hormone homeostasis in P. patens.

  18. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  19. THE FACTORS AFFECTING SATISFACTION LEVELS IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS: AN APPLICATION IN PUBLIC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe ACAR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the level of satisfaction of services provided by public hospitals. Patients' satisfaction levels were measured by interviewing 156 patients in a public hospital. Factor analysis of the data obtained from the research resulted in five factors called nurses 'behaviors, physical conditions, doctors' behavior, technical staff behaviors, food and beverage. MANOVA analysis was conducted to determine the differences in the perception of factors with respect to the demographic characteristics of the patients and differences were found in terms of profession. It has been seen that it is important that public hospitals have specialist doctors and modern equipment and that they have qualities such as the quality of the health personnel in preferring patients to public hospitals.

  20. The measurement equivalence of Big Five factor markers for persons with different levels of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammstedt, Beatrice; Goldberg, Lewis R; Borg, Ingwer

    2010-02-01

    Previous findings suggest that the Big-Five factor structure is not guaranteed in samples with lower educational levels. The present study investigates the Big-Five factor structure in two large samples representative of the German adult population. In both samples, the Big-Five factor structure emerged only in a blurry way at lower educational levels, whereas for highly educated persons it emerged with textbook-like clarity. Because well-educated persons are most comparable to the usual subjects of psychological research, it might be asked if the Big Five are limited to such persons. Our data contradict this conclusion. There are strong individual differences in acquiescence response tendencies among less highly educated persons. After controlling for this bias the Big-Five model holds at all educational levels.

  1. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end-stage PAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Determinant Factors in Preoperative Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with negative effects on perioperative period but is usually ignored. The objectives of this study are to identify the preoperative anxiety levels of surgical patients and to evaluate the associated factors affecting this level. Methods: One hundred volunteer patients scheduled for elective surgery were included the study. Data were collected by using “Personal Information Form “and “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I”. Evaluations were based on a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The percentage of female to male patients was 48% and 52%. The mean anxiety levels of both gender were 42.46 ± 8.95 and 42.10 ± 9.49 respectively (p=0.85. There was no difference between females and males in terms of anxiety. Age, occupational condition, marital status, and education level was not found as determinant factors on preoperative anxiety levels. Male individuals of large families were more anxious than the others, but this difference was not significant (p=0.11. Previous surgical experience was not a predictive factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level was significantly high in men using cigarette and alcohol (p<0.01. Fear, apprehension, and stress was highly related with high level of anxiety, but insecurity and inexperience were not a predicting factor. The anxiety levels of cool patients were significantly lower than the others (p<0.01. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a multifactorial issue and must be good handled. The aim must be based on reduction strategies. It must be considered that preoperative information is the best way to decrease preoperative anxiety.

  3. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  4. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Easterbrook, Philippa; Genberg, Becky; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kambugu, Andrew; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Somi, Geoffrey R; Geng, Elvin H; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6) and 16.7 (16.3-17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

  5. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    Full Text Available Losses to follow-up (LTFU remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1, 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6 and 16.7 (16.3-17.2 per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only, when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only, and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only. Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

  6. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Takken, Willem

    2018-06-01

    The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the relationships between personal factors and information-seeking behaviour. We combined IPM and RISP to determine important relationships between factors driving insect tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour through an online survey and tested whether this model is valid and generally applicable. Relationships between variables from both IPM and RISP models were tested for seven insect species. Tolerance levels were measured with two factors: willingness to pay for pest control and whether insects are tolerated. Willingness to pay for control was positively affected by age, experience, risk perception, insect characteristics, and negative emotions and affected behavioural intention, by influencing information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. Tolerability was influenced by perception of insect characteristics and determines whether control measures are taken. It was possible to combine the RISP and IPM models. Relevant driving factors were a person's age, experience, risk perception, negative affective responses, tolerance levels, relevant channel beliefs about online forums, information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. There was, however, variation in important factors between different insects. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effects of three factor VII polymorphisms on factor VII coagulant levels in healthy Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S C; Low, P S; Saha, N; Heng, C K

    2006-11-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Three polymorphisms of the factor VII gene (F7) were studied in a group of healthy newborns comprising 561 Chinese, 398 Malays and 226 Asian Indians from Singapore. The allele frequencies of 3 polymorphisms (R353Q, Promoter 0/10bp Del/Ins and Intron 7) in the FVII gene were ascertained through genotyping by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion of amplified fragments. In Chinese the minor allele frequencies are Q: 0.04, Ins: 0.03, R7: 0.44; Malays, Q: 0.06, Ins: 0.10, R7: 0.41; and Indians, Q: 0.25, Ins: 0.23, R7: 0.43. Strong linkage disequilibrium (Delta > 0.7) is observed between the 0/10 bp and the R353Q sites in all ethnic groups. We conclude that: (i) the prevalence of the minor Q and Ins alleles of the R353Q and 0/10 bp polymorphisms are significantly higher in the Indian newborns than the Chinese and Malays; (ii) the Q allele is significantly associated (p = 0.01) with a lower plasma FVII coagulant level in the Indian and Malay neonates; and this polymorphism explains up to 3.8% of the variance in FVII coagulant levels; (iii) there is no significant difference in allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms between neonates with and without family histories of CAD.

  8. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  9. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of motivation levels and associated factors among the nursing staff of tertiary-level government hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Goel, Sonu; Koushal, Vipin

    2018-04-15

    The present study assessed the motivation level of nurses working in 3 highly decorated tertiary-level government hospitals of India and also underpins the factors attributing to motivation levels. A sequential mixed-method design was used in this study wherein 400 nurses working in 5 units of nursing care in the hospitals were enrolled based upon proportionate random stratified sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire with Likert scale was developed based upon scale used by Mbindyo et al. The attributes of motivation were then categorized into external and internal attributes. For the qualitative component, participants with varied responses in quantitative data were selected and interviewed. Overall mean motivation score of the nursing staff was found 3.57 ± 0.93, which was higher for extrinsic motivational attributes (3.67 ± 0.88) as compared with intrinsic attributes (3.47 ± 0.98). The intrinsic motivational attribute of organizational commitment was rated highest followed by general motivation, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy. Personal issues, timeliness, and burnout were prime discouraging attributes among study participants. Sociodemographic characteristics and work profile characteristics showed significant relationship with the attributes of motivation. This study underscores the significance of different attributes of motivation which needs to be considered while framing administrative strategies and policy guidelines by authorities. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Factor Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the differences in the amount and the structure of residential energy consumption at the provincial level in China and identifies the hidden factors behind such differences. The econometrical analysis reveals that population, economic development level, energy resource endowment and climatic conditions are the main factors driving residential energy consumption; while the regional differences in energy consumption per capita and the consumption structure can be mainly illustrated by various economic development levels, energy resource endowments and climatic conditions. Economic development level has a significant positive impact on the proportion of gasoline consumption, whereas its impact on the proportion of electricity consumption is not notable; energy resource endowment and climatic condition indirectly affect both the proportion of electricity consumption and that of gasoline consumption, primarily through their impacts on the proportions of coal consumption and heat consumption.

  12. Hydrologic factors and 90Sr transport at a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    There are several hydrologic factors that can affect contaminant migration at a waste disposal site. Many studies recognize surface water and groundwater controls as major factors. But what are the specific hydrologic processes most often associated with contaminant transport. Studies of solid waste storage areas (SWSAs) for low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is located in the humid environment of east Tennessee, have identified several mechanisms. Most of the processes are associated with groundwater movement, but in at least one case, surface runoff has played a dominant role. In all cases, consideration of localized hydrologic conditions has been the key to understanding the factors responsible for radionuclide migration

  13. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity and serum level of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjac, Lidija; Bokan, Vesna

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to measure and compare serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels at postmenstrual age of 33 weeks between preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP occurs in two phases. Low serum levels of IGF-1 during ROP phase 1 have been found to correlate with the severity of ROP. ROP phase 2 begins around postmenstrual week 33. We conducted a prospective cohort study to measure serum IGF-1 levels in premature infants at postmenstrual age of 33 weeks. The study included all premature infants (N = 74), gestational age large controlled study with repeated measurement of IGF-1 level in the neonatal period is needed to confirm that restoration of IGF-I level occurs in ROP phase 2, i.e. that the low level of IGF-1 is only a feature of ROP phase 1.

  15. Serum placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and -2 levels in periodontal disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Tuba; Kırzıoğlu, F Yeşim; Fentoğlu, Ozlem; Aylak, Firdevs; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and soluble VEGF receptor (sVEGFR)-1 and -2 in the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. One hundred and nine mothers, who recently gave birth, and 51 women who were not recently pregnant, aged 18 to 35 years, were included in this study. The mothers were classified as term birth, preterm birth (PTB), and preterm low birth weight (PLBW) in respect to their gestational age and baby's birth weight. The birth mothers were grouped as having gingivitis or periodontitis. The non-pregnant group also included periodontally healthy patients. Venous blood samples were collected to evaluate serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, PIGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 levels. Mother's weight, education, and income level were significantly associated with pregnancy outcomes. Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 showed an increase in significance when related to pregnancy. Whereas in the PLBW group IL-1β, VEGF, and sVEGFR-2 levels were increased, in the PTB group sVEGFR-1 levels were increased. Additionally, the patients in the PLBW group with periodontitis had higher serum levels of IL-1β, VEGF, sVEGFR-2, and IL-1β/IL-10. The serum levels of IL-1β, VEGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 may have a potential effect on the mechanism of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Individual-level factors associated with mental health in Rwandan youth affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Pamela; Duarte, Cristiane S; Stevenson, Anne; Mushashi, Christine; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyana, Morris; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-07-01

    Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda. An earlier qualitative study of the same population identified the constructs "kwihangana" (patience/perseverance) and "kwigirira ikizere" (self-esteem) as capturing local perceptions of individual-level characteristics that helped reduce risks of mental health problems in youth. Nine items from the locally derived constructs were combined with 25 items from an existing scale that aligned well with local constructs-the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). We assessed the factor structure of the CD-RISC expanded scale using exploratory factor analysis and determined the correlation of the expanded CD-RISC with depression and functional impairment. The CD-RISC expanded scale displayed high internal consistency (α = 0.93). Six factors emerged, which we labeled: perseverance, adaptability, strength/sociability, active engagement, self-assuredness, and sense of self-worth. Protective factor scale scores were significantly and inversely correlated with depression and functional impairment (r = -0.49 and r = - 0.38, respectively). An adapted scale displayed solid psychometric properties for measuring protective factors in Rwandan youth. Identifying culturally appropriate protective factors is a key component of research associated with the prevention of mental health problems and critical to the development of cross-cultural strength-based interventions for children and families.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Mitsuru; Kamino, Shinichiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Takada, Shingo; Mitani, Shota; Yanagihara, Rika; Asano, Mamiko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-03

    Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide was accomplished with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone (MCPF) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In the determination of hydrogen peroxide based on the fading of the color of osmium(VIII)-MCPF complex, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 20-406 ng mL(-1), with an effective molar absorption coefficient (at 580 nm) of 5.21×10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 0.33% (n=6). Further, we performed the characterization of MCPF and obtained the crystal structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries.

  19. VIII Spanish meeting on statistical physics: Proceeding of the Meeting held at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, J.A.; Sanchez, A.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of ''Fisica Estadistica'97'' (FisEs'97, VIII Spanish Meeting on Statistical Physics), held at the Campus of Getafe (Madrid, Spain) of the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on September 25 through 27, 1997. Although this is the first time the Proceedings of a Meeting in this series are published, ''Fisica Estasdistica'' dates back to 1986, when about fifty Spanish scientists attended the first edition in Barcelona. That first Meeting was organized by a group of young and not so young physicists who wanted to set up a national conference of an international level and with a broader, more interdisciplinary scope than others held at that time. Their idea quickly got off the ground and following the first edition, sequels took place every year and a half: Palma de Mallorca (1988), Badajoz (1990), Cabuenas, Asturies (1991), El Escorial, Madrid (1993), Sevilla (1994), and Zaragoza (1996)

  20. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  1. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  2. The Factors Affecting the Intercultural Sensitivity Perception Level of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ibrahim; Aricioglu, Ahu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity perception levels of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students. This study was conducted in Pamukkale University which is located in the western part of Turkey. Data were gathered from 524 freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior students who are…

  3. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  4. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Sjors A.; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V.; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E.; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed

  5. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Batista Fontana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.

  6. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  7. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  8. Predicting Dropout Using Student- and School-Level Factors: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors…

  9. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-12-16

    To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Crossover trial. Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. The primary outcome measures were markers, or "fear factors" of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  11. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Guxens, Monica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  12. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  13. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  14. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    Full Text Available A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans.Circulating irisin levels (ELISA and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women. Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence.Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006. Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001. The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014. Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides. The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = < 0.0001 contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity.In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  15. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaninejad, Hosein; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-03

    Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies' competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets' needs.

  16. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes...... and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). METHODS: WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic...... regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. RESULTS: This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have...

  17. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  18. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03 and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01 negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004. The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03. Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03, social support (P = 0.03, and perceived severity (P = 0.045. Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  19. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  20. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  1. Determination of serum insulinlike growth factor II levels in coronary heart disease patient and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Zhao Junfei; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Li Jiangao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF II) levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: The serum IGF II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 30 controls with only mild non-cardiac diseases. Results: Compared with the controls, the serum IGF II level in CHD patients were increased significantly (0.66 ± 0.13 μg/L vs 0.51 ± 0.11 μg/L; t = 5.506, p 0.05). Level in patients dies in hospital (n = 9) were much higher than those in patients recovered (n = 59) (t = 2.402, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF II levels seems to be related to the seriousness of CHD; the actual mechanism remains to be defined

  2. Factors controlling indoor radon levels. Annual report, June 1983-May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The factors which contribute to indoor radon levels were investigated. Soil moisture content appears to be such a factor and influences indoor radon levels in a subtle way. The single family dwelling studied here is a typical suburban home, with a full basement, two living levels and a full attic. Seasonal data for 1981 to 1983 are shown by hour (about 90 hours in each average) for the basement, first floor and outdoors. A twenty-five story, 225 apartment, high rise building has been under study for about the same time interval. The apartment has five rooms, and is on the 24th floor. Continuous monitors are located in a work room and outdoors on a terrace. Data are available from the summer of 1981. 2 references, 12 figures, 9 tables

  3. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  4. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  5. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    The levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X and of blood platelets (thrombocytes) as well as of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors were studied in the patients with malaria or meningococcal infections. The coagulation factors were decreased particularly in the meningococcal patients, while...... thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  6. A STUDY ON PLASMA 25 - HYDROXY VITAMIN D LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinandana Gowda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor in many chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, auto immune disease and tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine serum 25 - hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with primary hypertension. This study also attempts to demonstrate an inverse co - relation between vitamin D levels and primary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: 30 patients who are primary hype rtensive were selected, their vitamin D levels measured and the vitamin D levels were compared to age and sex matched non hypertensive controls. STATISTICAL METHODS: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study . ANOVA test and Chi - square test was applied for quantitative and qualitative data respectively to find significant associations between two variables. RESULTS: It is seen from this study that serum vitamin D levels was lower in hypertensive patients when compared to non - hypertensive controls. Hypertensive patients had lower levels of vitamin D with vitamin D status of deficiency in 50% of the cases and insufficiency in 43.3% of the cases and normal levels in 6.7% of the cases. Non hypertensive controls sho wed vitamin D status of normal in 66.7% of controls and insufficiency in 33.3% of the controls without deficiency. Age of the cases, duration of hypertension, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure inversely correlated to vitamin D levels. Bo dy mass index, diet of the patient, alcohol consumption, number of anti - hypertensive drugs, drug compliance, family history of hypertension and fundus status did not correlate to vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observations of the study, Vitami n D is an independent risk factor that is associated with primary or essential hypertension. The level of vitamin D also correlated inversely to age, duration of

  7. [Study on the dynamic variations and influencing factors of serum lipid levels during pregnancy and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all Ppregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all Ppregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.61-5.32 and 1.94-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 5.24-8.10 and 4.53-8.86 mmol/L. (3) Serum lipids levels

  8. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E

    2017-06-05

    to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation. identificar evidências na literatura acerca de possíveis fatores de risco do diagnóstico risco de glicemia instável para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e compará-los com os fatores de risco descritos pela NANDA International . revisão integrativa norteada pela pergunta: quais são os fatores de risco de glicemia instável em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2? Incluíram-se estudos primários cujos desfechos eram variações nos níveis glicêmicos, publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol no PubMed ou CINAHL entre 2010 e 2015. observou

  9. IAEA/SSDL intercomparison of calibration factors for therapy level ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jilong; Cheng Jinsheng; Guo Zhaohui; Li Kaibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: By participating in IAEA-SSDL intercomparison, a dose to water calibration factor was introduced in order to check the measuring accuracy of 60 Co radiotherapy dose level standard and ensure the reliability and consistency of our calibration. Methods: The authors carried out both air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibrations against 60 Co γ-rays for one of our field class ionization chambers, and sent the results together with the chamber to IAEA dosimetry laboratory for calibration, then IAEA calibrated it and gave the deviation of the intercomparison. Results: The deviation of our air kerma calibration factors is -0.5%, and the deviation of our absorbed dose to water calibration factors is 0.4%. Conclusion: The deviation of calibration factors between IAEA and SSDL should be no more than ±1.5%. Therefore, the result of this intercomparison is considered satisfactory. (authors)

  10. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between - Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  11. Evaluation of angiopoietin 1 and 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Burcu Tahire; Ozbek, Ozlem Yilmaz; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is associated with structural changes termed airway remodeling. Recently, cytokines/mediators that augment inflammation have been attracting attention in this field. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha values, which have important roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, and remodeling in asthmatic children. We also documented correlations between demographic features, duration of asthma, and pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters. Randomly selected 40 children (20 male and 20 female children, aged 6-16 years) with mild or moderate persistent asthma and 32 healthy children (15 male and 17 female children, aged 6-16 years) enrolled in the study. All asthmatic children had been using inhaled corticosteroids at least for the last 3 months. Serum Ang-1 levels were significantly lower in asthmatic children than those in normal controls. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio was also significantly lower in asthmatic children compared with those in normal controls (p < 0.01). However, serum Ang-2, VEGF, and TNF-alpha levels were similar in the two groups. A significant positive correlation was found between VEGF and duration of asthma. No correlation between serum Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF values, and PFT parameters was obtained. On the other hand, significant negative correlation was detected between serum TNF-alpha and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We have shown that serum Ang-1 levels and Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio were significantly reduced and balance was toward Ang-2 in asthmatics children. This process may lead to inflammation, destabilization of blood vessels, and trigger remodeling.

  12. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, P.; Preece, A.W.; Goodfellow, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m -3 (range 4-518 Bq m -3 ) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m -3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m -3 . Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m -3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors. (author)

  13. Estimation of sources and factors affecting indoor VOC levels using basic numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mentese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs are a concern due to their adverse health effects and extensive usage. Levels of indoor VOCs were measured in six homes located in three different towns in Çanakkale, Turkey. Monthly indoor VOC samples were collected by passive sampling throughout a year. The highest levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, benzene, toluene, and xylenes occurred in industrial, rural, and urban sites in a descending order. VOC levels were categorized as average values annually, during the heating period, and non-heating period. Several building/environmental factors together with occupants’ habits were scored to obtain a basic indoor air pollution index (IAPi for the homes. Bivariate regression analysis was applied to find the associations between the pollutant levels and home scores. IAPi scores were found to be correlated with average indoor VOC levels. In particular, very strong associations were found for occupants’ habits. Furthermore, observed indoor VOC levels were categorized by using self-organizing map (SOM and two simple scoring approaches, rounded average and maximum value methods, to classify the indoor environments based on their VOC compositions (IAPvoc. Three classes were used for both IAPi and IAPvoc approaches, namely “good”, “moderate”, and “bad”. There is an urgent need for indexing studies to determine the potential sources and/or factors affecting observed VOCs. This study gives a basic but good start for further studies.

  14. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  15. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  16. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  17. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Invited commentary: genetic variants and individual- and societal-level risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, leading epidemiologists have noted the importance of social factors in studying and understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations; but to what extent are epidemiologic studies integrating genetic information and other biologic variables with information about individual-level risk factors and group-level or societal factors related to the broader residential, behavioral, or cultural context? There remains a need to consider ways to integrate genetic information with social and contextual information in epidemiologic studies, partly to combat the overemphasis on the importance of genetic factors as determinants of disease in human populations. Even in genome-wide association studies of coronary heart disease and other common complex diseases, only a small proportion of heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified to date. It is possible that familial clustering due to genetic factors has been overestimated and that important environmental or social influences (acting alone or in combination with genetic variants) have been overlooked. The accompanying article by Bressler et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(1):14-23) highlights some of these important issues.

  19. The Effects of Hospital-Level Factors on Patients' Ratings of Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mona; Makarem, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    The quality of physician-patient communication influences patient health outcomes and satisfaction with healthcare delivery. Yet, little is known about contextual factors that influence physicians' communication with their patients. The main purpose of this article is to examine organizational-level factors that influence patient perceptions of physician communication in inpatient settings. We used the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey and American Hospital Association data to determine patients' ratings of physician communication at the hospital level, and to collect information about hospital-level factors that can potentially influence physician communication. Our sample consisted of 2,756 hospitals. We ran a regression analysis to determine the predictors of poor physician communication, measured as the percentage of patients in a hospital who reported that physicians sometimes or never communicated well. In our sample of hospitals, this percentage ranged between 0% and 21%, with 25% of hospitals receiving poor ratings from more than 6% of patients. Three organizational factors had statistically significant negative associations with physician communication: for-profit ownership, hospital size, and hospitalists providing care in the hospital, On the other hand, the number of full-time-equivalent physicians and dentists per 10,000 inpatient days, physician ownership of the hospital, Medicare share of inpatient days, and public ownership were positively associated with patients' ratings of physician communication. Physician staffing levels are an understudied area in healthcare research. Our findings indicate that physician staffing levels affect the quality of physician communication with patients. Moreover, for-profit and larger hospitals should invest more in physician communication given the role that HCAHPS plays in value-based purchasing.

  20. The macroeconomic factors impact on the Level of Food Expenditure of St. Petersburg Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bulatova Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this research is the impact of the macroeconomic factors on food spending residents of St. Petersburg. The problem of the study is the ambiguity of the food sanctions impact on the consumer spending on food. The aim of the work are the trend analyze in the level of food spending in St. Petersburg since the first quarter of 2007 to the third quarter 2015, and the identifying of factors influencing these food waste. St. Petersburg was chosen because it is a city with a large popula...

  1. Problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. The study found significant differences between "problem solving level" and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers' siblings' closeness level; between "loneliness level" and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers', siblings' closeness level; between "depression level" and life quality, family income, fathers' closeness level. Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended.

  2. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels Associate with AKI and Death in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, David E; Jacob, Kirolos A; Srivastava, Anand; Chen, Margaret E; Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Martin, Aline; Wolf, Myles; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2017-06-01

    Elevated plasma levels of the osteocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have emerged as a powerful biomarker of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with CKD. Whether elevated urinary or plasma FGF23 levels are prospectively associated with AKI and death in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of 350 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units at an academic medical center to investigate whether higher urinary FGF23 levels associate with the composite end point of AKI or in-hospital mortality (AKI/death). We measured urinary FGF23 levels within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit. In a subcohort ( n =131) we also measured plasma levels of FGF23, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D metabolites. Urinary and plasma FGF23 levels, but not other mineral metabolites, significantly associated with AKI/death. In multivariate analyses, patients in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary FGF23 had a 3.9 greater odds (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 9.5) of AKI/death. Higher urinary FGF23 levels also independently associated with greater hospital, 90-day, and 1-year mortality; longer length of stay; and several other important adverse outcomes. In conclusion, elevated FGF23 levels measured in the urine or plasma may be a promising novel biomarker of AKI, death, and other adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Living in a physical world VIII. Gravity and life in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-07-31

    Jul 31, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 3. Living in a physical world VIII. Gravity and life in water. Steven Vogel. Series Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 309-322. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/03/0309-0322 ...

  5. Visualizing the Life and Legacy of Henry VIII: Guiding Students with Eight Types of Graphic Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Kottler, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Delving into the life and legacy of Henry VIII is both complex and captivating. People seem compelled to learn more abut his critical contributions and controversial conduct that range from the significant to the scandalous. Reflecting on the history of the world would be incomplete without investigating the events and escapades associated with…

  6. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the ... The self-bound state appears to be at ρ ... The observations suggest that the Hubble expansion of the Universe ... Taking motivation from.

  7. Glioneuronal Heterotopia Presenting As a Cerebellopontine angle Tumor of the cranial Nerve VIII, Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Celda, M; Giannini, C; Diehn, F E; Eckel, L J; Neff, B A; Van Gompel, J J

    2018-04-03

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas account for the great majority of lesions arising in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). In this report, we present a case of glioneuronal heterotopia, also known as glioneuronal hamartoma, arising from the VIII cranial nerve, which is an extremely uncommon lesion. Important radiologic and surgical aspects are reviewed, which may help in early recognition and intraoperative decision making when these lesions are encountered. A healthy 29-year-old female presented with intermittent right facial numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an incidental minimally enhancing cerebellopontine angle lesion on the right VII-VIII cranial nerve complex. The patient declined serial observation and opted for operative intervention for resection. Intraoperatively, the lesion resembled neural tissue and was continuous with the VIII cranial nerve. Pathological analysis demonstrated mature glioneuronal tissue consistent with hamartomatous brain tissue. The patient maintained normal hearing and facial nerve function after surgery. Radiologic, surgical and pathological characteristics are described. Ectopic glioneuronal tissue of the VIII cranial nerve is a rare non-neoplastic lesion, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual appearing intracanalicular and cerebellopontine angle lesions. The congenital and benign nature of this entity makes observation a valid option for these cases, although they are so infrequent that they are often presumptively managed as vestibular schwannomas. Attempts to radically resect these lesions may result in higher rates of hearing loss or facial palsy due to their continuity with the cranial nerves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  9. Chaos in long-term behavior of some Bianchi-type VIII models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, P

    1987-01-01

    The long-term behavior of Bianchi-type VIII models with three different types of stress-energy tensors are examined and compared. The vacuum model, a matter-filled model, and a model with an electromagnetic field are considered. In each case the existence of chaotic behavior and transitions to chaotic behavior are discussed.

  10. Absorption signatures of warm-hot gas at low redshift : Ne VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tepper-García, T

    2013-01-01

    At z {lt} 1 a large fraction of the baryons is thought to reside in diffuse gas that has been shock-heated to high temperatures (10$^{5}$-10$^{6}$ K). Absorption by the 770.41, 780.32 å doublet of Ne VIII in quasar spectra represents a unique tool to study this elusive warm-hot phase. We have

  11. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-10

    Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching

  12. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2010-10-01

    To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 1418 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  13. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  14. Individual- and contextual-level factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.

  15. Impact of Individual-, Environmental-, and Policy-Level Factors on Health Care Utilization Among US Farmworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Joni A.; Gabbard, Susan; Kronick, Richard G.; Roesch, Scott C.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Zuniga, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual-, environmental-, and policy-level correlates of US farmworker health care utilization, guided by the behavioral model for vulnerable populations and the ecological model. Methods. The 2006 and 2007 administrations of the National Agricultural Workers Survey (n = 2884) provided the primary data. Geographic information systems, the 2005 Uniform Data System, and rurality and border proximity indices provided environmental variables. To identify factors associated with health care use, we performed logistic regression using weighted hierarchical linear modeling. Results. Approximately half (55.3%) of farmworkers utilized US health care in the previous 2 years. Several factors were independently associated with use at the individual level (gender, immigration and migrant status, English proficiency, transportation access, health status, and non-US health care utilization), the environmental level (proximity to US–Mexico border), and the policy level (insurance status and workplace payment structure). County Federally Qualified Health Center resources were not independently associated. Conclusions. We identified farmworkers at greatest risk for poor access. We made recommendations for change to farmworker health care access at all 3 levels of influence, emphasizing Federally Qualified Health Center service delivery. PMID:21330594

  16. Constructing the tree-level Yang-Mills S-matrix using complex factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Philip C.; Toro, Natalia

    2009-06-01

    A remarkable connection between BCFW recursion relations and constraints on the S-matrix was made by Benincasa and Cachazo in 0705.4305, who noted that mutual consistency of different BCFW constructions of four-particle amplitudes generates non-trivial (but familiar) constraints on three-particle coupling constants — these include gauge invariance, the equivalence principle, and the lack of non-trivial couplings for spins > 2. These constraints can also be derived with weaker assumptions, by demanding the existence of four-point amplitudes that factorize properly in all unitarity limits with complex momenta. From this starting point, we show that the BCFW prescription can be interpreted as an algorithm for fully constructing a tree-level S-matrix, and that complex factorization of general BCFW amplitudes follows from the factorization of four-particle amplitudes. The allowed set of BCFW deformations is identified, formulated entirely as a statement on the three-particle sector, and using only complex factorization as a guide. Consequently, our analysis based on the physical consistency of the S-matrix is entirely independent of field theory. We analyze the case of pure Yang-Mills, and outline a proof for gravity. For Yang-Mills, we also show that the well-known scaling behavior of BCFW-deformed amplitudes at large z is a simple consequence of factorization. For gravity, factorization in certain channels requires asymptotic behavior ~ 1/z2.

  17. Constructing the tree-level Yang-Mills S-matrix using complex factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Philip C.; Toro, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable connection between BCFW recursion relations and constraints on the S-matrix was made by Benincasa and Cachazo in 0705.4305, who noted that mutual consistency of different BCFW constructions of four-particle amplitudes generates non-trivial (but familiar) constraints on three-particle coupling constants - these include gauge invariance, the equivalence principle, and the lack of non-trivial couplings for spins > 2. These constraints can also be derived with weaker assumptions, by demanding the existence of four-point amplitudes that factorize properly in all unitarity limits with complex momenta. From this starting point, we show that the BCFW prescription can be interpreted as an algorithm for fully constructing a tree-level S-matrix, and that complex factorization of general BCFW amplitudes follows from the factorization of four-particle amplitudes. The allowed set of BCFW deformations is identified, formulated entirely as a statement on the three-particle sector, and using only complex factorization as a guide. Consequently, our analysis based on the physical consistency of the S-matrix is entirely independent of field theory. We analyze the case of pure Yang-Mills, and outline a proof for gravity. For Yang-Mills, we also show that the well-known scaling behavior of BCFW-deformed amplitudes at large z is a simple consequence of factorization. For gravity, factorization in certain channels requires asymptotic behavior ∼ 1/z 2 .

  18. A Proof of Factorization Theorem of Drell–Yan Process at Operator Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    An alternative proof of factorization theorem for Drell–Yan process that works at operator level is presented in this paper. Contributions of interactions after the hard collision for such inclusive processes are proved to be canceled at operator level according to the unitarity of time evolution operator. After this cancellation, there are no longer leading pinch singular surface in Glauber region in the time evolution of electromagnetic currents. Effects of soft gluons are absorbed into Wilson lines of scalar-polarized gluons. Cancelation of soft gluons is attribute to unitarity of time evolution operator and such Wilson lines. (paper)

  19. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  20. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  1. Antioxidant factors, nitric oxide levels, and cellular damage in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysa Ribeiro Schalcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The immune response caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a risk factor for the development of oxidative stress (OS in leprosy patients. This study aimed to assess OS in leprosy patients before the use of a multidrug therapy. Methods We evaluated the nitric oxide (NO concentration; antioxidant capacity; levels of malondialdehyde, methemoglobin and reduced glutathione; and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in leprosy patients. Results We observed lower SOD activity in these leprosy patients; however, the NO levels and antioxidant capacity were increased. Conclusions The infectious process in response to M. leprae could primarily be responsible for the OS observed in these patients.

  2. Analysis of stationary availability factor of two-level backbone computer networks with arbitrary topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This scientific paper deals with the two-level backbone computer networks with arbitrary topology. A specialized method, offered by the author for calculation of the stationary availability factor of the two-level backbone computer networks, based on the Markov reliability models for the set of the independent repairable elements with the given failure and repair rates and the methods of the discrete mathematics, is also discussed. A specialized algorithm, offered by the author for analysis of the network connectivity, taking into account different kinds of the network equipment failures, is also observed. Finally, this paper presents an example of calculation of the stationary availability factor for the backbone computer network with the given topology.

  3. Prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe: Examining the role of community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2017-12-01

    This paper assesses the importance of community-level factors on prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe. The analysis is performed using data from the two most recent rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11 linked with other community-level data. We use logistic, generalized linear regressions as well as multilevel mixed models to examine the factors associated with the frequency, timing and quality of prenatal care. Our results suggest that contraceptive prevalence, religious composition, density of nurses, health expenditures per capita and availability of government hospitals in communities are important predictors of prenatal care use in Zimbabwe. These findings have important implications for public health policy in Zimbabwe - a country with unfavorable maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Lochan; Huang, Hong; Pant, Amrita; Westgate, Philip M; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J; Sithisarn, Thitinart

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS. To compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS. This is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS. 67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p  = 0.028). Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group ( p  = 0.04). There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p  = 0.47). There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay ( p  = 0.68) among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p  = 0.045). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased in NAS infants

  5. The levels of 12 cytokines and growth factors in tears: hyperthyreosis vs euthyreosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Jelena Juri; Kozmar, Ana; Kusačić-Kuna, Sanja; Jazbec, Anamarija; Mandić, Krešimir; Mrazovac, Danijela; Vukojević, Nenad

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous analyses of the contents and ratios of 12 cytokines and growth factors in single samples of human tears were performed, and the results were compared between a group of healthy subjects and a group of patients with Graves' hyperthyreosis (GH) without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Determinations and concentration measurements of interleukins (IL-2, IL4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, and IL-1β) interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were performed with single tear samples from 21 patients with hyperthyreosis and 22 healthy subjects. The analyses were performed using a Randox microchip with an Evidence Biochip Array Analyzer. We found significant differences between the healthy donor group and the hyperthyreosis group in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, VEGF, IL-1α, and MCP-1. The concentration of IL-6 was considerably higher in the hyperthyreosis group, IL-10 was higher in the healthy donor group, and VEGF and MPC-1 were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The IL-8 and IFN-γ levels were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The ratios of all of the cytokines to anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly elevated in the hyperthyreosis group. There are clear differences in the levels of cytokines and growth factors in the tears of healthy subjects and patients with GH without TAO. Tear cytokine changes and related dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) could be an early sign of occult TAO in Graves' hyperthyreosis patients.

  6. Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H; Afifi, Tracie O

    2018-05-01

    Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative adult samples. To address these limitations, the current study investigated the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compute the prevalence of mental health indicators by child maltreatment types, 2) estimate the prevalence of overall good, moderate, and poor mental health by child maltreatment types; and 3) examine the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status of adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment. Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey of Adolescents (NCS-A; n = 10,123; data collection 2001-2004); a large, cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 13-17 years from the United States. All types of child maltreatment were significantly associated with increased odds of having poor mental health (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 3.2 to 9.5). The individual-level factors significantly associated with increased odds of good mental health status included: being physically active in the winter; utilizing positive coping strategies; having positive self-esteem; and internal locus of control (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.7 to 38.2). Interventions targeted to adolescents with a history of child maltreatment may want to test for the efficacy of the factors identified above. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer factors predicting level of treatment response to illness management and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Kara, Mehmet; Tekin, Neslihan; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Ozturk, Onder; Eker, Sevda; Kizilgun, Murat

    2014-02-07

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. The etiopathogeny of ADHD has not been totally defined. Recent reports have suggested a pathophysiological role of neurotrophins in ADHD. In this study, we evaluated serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with ADHD. The sample population consisted of 44 child or adolescent patients diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria; 36 healthy subjects were included in the study as controls. Venous blood samples were collected, and NGF levels were measured. The mean serum NGF levels of the ADHD patients were significantly higher than those of the controls. Age and gender of the patients were not correlated with serum NGF levels. There were no significant differences in NGF levels among the combined and predominantly inattentive subtypes of ADHD. Our study suggests that there are higher levels of serum NGF in drug naive ADHD patients, and that increased levels of NGF might have an important role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in tears of patients with retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, M; Balogh, Z; Biro, L; Ujhelyi, B; Damjanovich, J; Csutak, A; Várdai, J; Berta, A; Nagy, V

    2015-09-01

    We measured vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in tear fluid and serum in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Eight patients with RVO due to secondary macular oedema were examined. VEGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients had a full ophthalmic examination (visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, perimetry, and fluorescein angiography). Central retinal thickness (CRT) was examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Tear and serum samples were collected and examinations were performed at diagnosis and 1 and 4 weeks later. VEGF levels in the tears of RVO eyes were significantly higher than in fellow eyes at diagnosis and after both 1 and 4 weeks (paired t test, p1 = 0.01, p2 = 0.02, p3 = 0.006). We found a weak but significant positive correlation between VEGF levels in tear fluid and serum of patients with RVO (r = 0.21), while this correlation tended to be stronger between the fellow eyes and serum levels (r = 0.33). To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report an increased level of VEGF in the tear fluid of patients with RVO. Alterations of VEGF levels in tears may be useful for determining stages of RVO. This non-invasive and objective method may also be helpful for estimating the severity of macular oedema and efficacy of treatment.

  10. Elevated Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fangsen; Lin, Mingzhu; Huang, Peiying; Zeng, Jinyang; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Zhibin; Li, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence from animal studies indicates that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that regulates glucose, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis, is regulated by T3. However, the role of FGF21 in hyperthyroid patients is unknown. The objective was to study serum FGF21 levels in hyperthyroid patients and the association of serum FGF21 levels with hyperthyroidism. This was a case-control study. A total of 119 hyperthyroid patients and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. Of them, 41 hyperthyroid patients received thionamide treatment for 3 months until euthyroidism was obtained. Serum FGF21 levels were determined using the ELISA method. Serum FGF21 levels were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid patients as compared with normal subjects [median 290.67 (interquartile range, 156.60-502.33) vs 228.10 (169.85.25-320.10) pg/mL; P treatment, serum FGF21 levels in hyperthyroid patients declined markedly from 249.10 (139.10-444.00) to 106.90 (38.70-196.15) pg/mL (P hyperthyroidism. With adjustment for potential confounders, serum FGF21 remained independently associated with hyperthyroidism, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.123 (95% confidence interval, 1.306-7.468) (P = .010). Serum FGF21 levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism and declined after thionamide treatment. And serum FGF21 level was independently associated with hyperthyroidism.

  11. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  12. Factors Influencing the Measurement of Plasma/Serum Surfactant Protein D Levels by ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Bratcher, Preston E.; Gaggar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensive variations in human surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels in circulation as measured by ELISA exist in the published literature. In order to determine the source of these variations, factors influencing the measurement by ELISA were explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood from healthy individuals was collected into various vacutainers during the same blood draw. Recombinant SP-D was diluted into different matrices and used for a standard curve. Samples were analyz...

  13. ELEVATED CIRCULATING LEVELS OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    González, Frank; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. M...

  14. DEGREE OF BURNOUT AMONG EMERGENCY HEALTHCARE WORKERS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING LEVEL OF BURNOUT: A STUDY PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Shyamanta; Sashibha; Navoneela; Marami; Bornali; Sakhee; Anjana; Dipesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burnout is a feeling of failure and exhaustion. It is felt both at the physical and emotional level. Depletion of the person’s resources is a consequence and also has an impact on the organisation. Nature of the work itself makes emergency healthcare workers vulnerable to burnout. METHOD This study is designed to measure the degree of burnout among emergency healthcare workers in a hospital and to identify the factors that influence burnout. The study h...

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in children with Beta-thalassemia minor

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Karimi; Hamdollah Karamifar; Nargrs Sobhani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Growth retardation in children with b-thalassemia major is multifactorial. Some etiologies described for this condition are hemochromatosis, disturbed growth hormone (GH) / insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, undernutrition and hypermetabolism. It has also been proven that growth retardation is present in b-thalassemia major children despite regular transfusion and chelation. Our aim was to evaluate the level of IGF-1 in b-thalassemia minor subjects and compare it with that in he...

  16. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT 2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Room from a Tertiary Level Hospital: Risk Factors and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Timely identification and prompt resuscitation of newborns in the delivery room may cause a decline in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We try to identify risk factors in mother and fetus that result in birth of newborns needing resuscitation at birth. Methods Case notes of all deliveries and neonates born from April 2010 to March 2011 in Mahdieh Medical Center (Tehran, Iran), a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, were reviewed; relevant maternal, fetal and perinatal data was e...

  18. Hospital-Level Factors Associated with Pediatric Emergency Department Return Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsenbarger, Zachary; Thurm, Cary; Neuman, Mark; Spencer, Sandra; Simon, Harold; Gosdin, Craig; Shah, Samir; McClead, Richard; Stack, Anne; Alpern, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Return visits (RVs) and RVs with admission (RVAs) are commonly used emergency department quality measures. Visit- and patient-level factors, including several social determinants of health, have been associated with RV rates, but hospital-specific factors have not been studied. To identify what hospital-level factors correspond with high RV and RVA rates. Multicenter mixed-methods study of hospital characteristics associated with RV and RVA rates. Pediatric Health Information System with survey of emergency department directors. Adjusted return rates were calculated with generalized linear mixed-effects models. Hospitals were categorized by adjusted RV and RVA rates for analysis. Twenty-four hospitals accounted for 1,456,377 patient visits with an overall adjusted RV rate of 3.7% and RVA rate of 0.7%. Hospitals with the highest RV rates served populations that were more likely to have government insurance and lower median household incomes and less likely to carry commercial insurance. Hospitals in the highest RV rate outlier group had lower pediatric emergency medicine specialist staffing, calculated as full-time equivalents per 10,000 patient visits: median (interquartile range) of 1.9 (1.5-2.1) versus 2.9 (2.2-3.6). There were no differences in hospital population characteristics or staffing by RVA groups. RV rates were associated with population social determinants of health and inversely related to staffing. Hospital-level variation may indicate population-level economic factors outside the control of the hospital and unrelated to quality of care. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  19. Adolescent obesity as a risk factor for high-level nicotine addiction in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Aliya Esmail; Nicholson, Lisa Marie; Shera, David; Stettler, Nicolas; Kinsman, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Obesity and cigarette smoking are two of the most frequent and preventable causes of disease and death in the United States; both are often established during youth. We hypothesized that obese, adolescent girls would be at higher risk for nicotine addiction in young adulthood, and that particular individual and social factors would mediate this association. Students surveyed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative school-based and in-home survey conducted in three waves, comprised the sample. More than 4,000 respondents were used for the multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses used to determine the association between obesity and level of nicotine addiction. Potential mediation effects of the association were also examined. Obesity doubled the risk of the highest level of nicotine addiction after controlling for demographic factors, parent and friend smoking, and baseline smoking (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Family smoking was the strongest predictor of nicotine addiction (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.89-7.72). Grade point average was a partial mediator of this relationship (OR, .48; 95% CI, .32-.74). Obese, adolescent females are at increased risk for high-level nicotine addiction in young adulthood as compared with their nonobese peers. Grade point average partially mediates the association, and may represent a confluence of factors including increased absenteeism, social marginalization, biases, and lack of confidence in academic ability. Obese, adolescent females may require targeted interventions to address their risk of subsequent high-level nicotine addiction, especially if risk factors such as parental smoking and poor school performance are present. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Item-level factor analysis of the Self-Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp Käll, Lina

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the internal structure of the Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) using item response analysis. The SES was previously translated into Swedish and modified to encompass all types of pain, not exclusively back pain. Data on perceived self-efficacy in 47 patients with subacute whiplash-associated disorders were derived from a previously conducted randomized-controlled trial. The item-level factor analysis was carried out using a six-step procedure. To further study the item inter-relationships and to determine the underlying structure empirically, the 20 items of the SES were also subjected to principal component analysis with varimax rotation. The analyses showed two underlying factors, named 'social activities' and 'physical activities', with seven items loading on each factor. The remaining six items of the SES appeared to measure somewhat different constructs and need to be analysed further.

  1. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  2. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low level tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects cardiomyocytes against high level tumor necrosis factor-alpha: brief insight into a beneficial paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Minotti, Giorgio; Afeltra, Antonella; Menna, Pierantonio

    2014-12-01

    Whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) caused beneficial or detrimental cardiovascular effects remains poorly defined. Anti-TNFα agents improved cardiac end points in chronic rheumatic diseases characterized by progressive deterioration of cardiac function. In contrast, anti-TNFα agents did not always improve but actually worsened cardiac function in non-rheumatic patients with heart failure (HF), in spite of that HF usually accompanies with high circulating levels of TNFα. To shed light on these mixed findings, we characterized the effects of TNFα in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of TNFα, hydrogen peroxide, aminotriazole, or etoposide. Posttreatment cell viability was assessed by antimycin A-inhibitable reduction of 3-(4,dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and the IC50 value of each test compound was defined. H9c2 cells were also preconditioned with a low non-toxic concentration of TNFα and then re-challenged with increasing concentrations of TNFα and other stressor agents. In re-challenge experiments, all of the IC50 values increased significantly, with the IC50 value of TNFα increasing approximately 16-fold. TNFα preconditioning increased cardiomyocytes shedding of the external portion of transmembrane type 1 and type 2 TNFα receptors [(soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR)]. Levels of survival-oriented soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) always exceeded those of death-oriented sTNFR1. When exposed to TNFα at its IC50 value, preconditioned cardiomyocytes showed an increased release of sTNFR2 but not sTNFR1. These results denoted that preconditioning by "low TNFα" helped cardiomyocyte to withstand toxicity from "high TNFα" or other agents. These results also suggested that beneficial or detrimental effects of anti-TNFα agents might well depend on whether these agents spared or intercepted discrete amounts of TNFα that preconditioned cardiomyocytes and made them more resistant to high

  4. [Risk factors and burnout levels in Primary Care nurses: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Monsalve-Reyes, Carolina S; San Luis-Costas, Concepción; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Aguayo-Estremera, Raimundo; Cañadas-de la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the risk factors and levels of burnout in Primary Care nurses. A systematic review was performed. CINAHL, CUIDEN, LILACS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were consulted. Search equations were 'burnout AND community health nursing' and 'burnout AND primary care nursing'. The search was performed in October 2015. The final sample was n=12 studies. Quantitative primary studies that used Maslach Burnout Inventory for burnout assessment in Primary Care nurses were included without restriction by publication date. The main variables were the mean and standard deviation of the three burnout dimensions, high, medium and low prevalence rates of each dimension, and socio-demographic, occupational and psychological variables that potentially influence burnout level. Studies show high prevalence rates, generally between 23% and 31%, of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence rates of high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment show heterogeneity, varying between 8%-32% and 4%-92% of the sample, respectively. Studies show that older nurses with more seniority, anxiety and depression, among other variables, have higher burnout levels, while nurses with higher salary, high job satisfaction, organisational support, and good self-concept have less burnout. High emotional exhaustion is the main affected dimension of burnout in Primary Care nursing. There is heterogeneity in depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Burnout must be prevented in these professionals, by increasing protective factors and monitoring its appearance in those with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([ 125 I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

  6. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in the bone loss developed in this disease. PMID:23559954

  7. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  9. Determinants of Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Blood Levels in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Ramoz, Nicolas; Girard, Murielle; Malauzat, Dominique; Gorwood, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of 6 months, for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, body mass index, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and 2 genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed. The presence of the Met allele, 2 markers of the history of alcohol dependence (gamma glutamyl transferase and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the 2 blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after 6 months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes in BNDF levels after 6 months. Low serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol use disorder patients. The factors that most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Zinc Serum Level Can Be a Risk Factor In Babol Stroke Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijan AhmadiAhangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of stroke was considered. Results: This cross-sectional study on 100 stroke patients in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and 100 control group from cohort master plan "Ageing and health projects Amirkola was conducted. Zinc levels Serum simultaneously with other blood tests in the early hours of hospitalization. Zinc serum level was defined 70 to 120 micrograms per deciliter. Findings: The difference in mean of zinc level in patients and control group was not significant (102.6±47.7 in control group vs 100.9±35.8 in patient, p=0.7. Difference in zinc Serum level had statically significant with IHD (under70 0 cases (0, 70 to120 8 cases (24, 120 and upper24 cases (75, p=0.003 and with type of stroke (under70 (3(3.3 hemorrhagic vs 0(0 ischemic, 70 to 120(19(21 vs6 (60, 120 and upper68 (75.6 vs4 (40, p=0.025 and also with patient and control group (under70 (3(3 in patient's vs 20(20 control group, 70 to 120(25(25 vs54 (54, 120 and upper72 (72 vs26 (26, p<0001. In patients group 72(73.5 of cases had zinc serum level above 120. HLP difference was significant in patient and control group (50(50 in control group vs 35(35 in patients, p=0.04. Regression logistic show that IHD (p<0001, OR=30, CI=6-152, HLP (p<0001, OR=4, CI=9.09-1.85, zinc serum level (p<0001, OR=15.5, CI=4-59.8 had significant role. Conclusions: Zinc serum levels, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyperlipidemia were most risk factor that play role in Babol stroke patients.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF INTEREST, LEARNING MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDE WITH RESULTS LEARNING CLASS VIII SMP STATE 13 MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Athirah Azis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining (1 the correlation of learning interest towards learning result of grade students, (2 the correlation of learning motivation towards learning result of grade students, (3 the correlation of students attitude towards learning result, (4 the correlationof interest, learning motivation, and attitude collaboratively towards learning result. The study is an ex post facto. The population of the study was grade VIII at SMPN 13 Makassar. Samples were 105 students taken by employing random sampling technique. Data were collected through questionnaire and documentation. Data were analyzed using regression test. The result of study reveal that (1 there is significant correlation (p<0,01 of interest towards learning result of grade VIII students at SMPN 13 Makassar. Co-efficient correlation (r is 0,718 and its effectiveness contribution (R2 is 51,5%, (2 there is significant correlation (p<0,01 of motivation towards learning result of grade VIII students at SMPN 13 Makassar. Co-efficient correlation (r is 0,775 and its effectiveness contribution (R2 is 60,1%, (3 there is significant correlation (p<0,01 of attitude towards learning result of grade VIII students at SMPN 13 Makassar. Co-efficient correlation (r is 0,737 and its effectiveness contribution (R2 is 54,4%, (4 there is significant correlation (p<0,01 of interest, motivation and attitude collaboratively towards learning result of grade VIII students at SMPN 13 Makassar. Co-efficient correlation (r is 0,861 and its effectiveness contribution (R2 is 74,1%,

  12. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  13. [Assessment of venous thromboembolism risk in hospitalized medical patients. Concordance between PRETEMED guide and the recommendations of the viii conference of the American College of Chest Physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo Jiménez, Patricia; Guijarro Merino, Ricardo; Vallejo Herrera, Verónica; Sánchez Morales, David; Villalobos Sánchez, Aurora; Perelló González-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    2012-11-03

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients using 2 clinical practice guidelines and to analyze the agreement between them. Cross-sectional study of medical services in a third level hospital. We calculated the thromboembolic risk and the thromboprophylaxis adequacy by implementing the recommendations of viii conference of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and PRETEMED guide as well as their agreement. One hundred and twenty eight patients were included in the study. According to the PRETEMED guide, 34.4% of patients were low risk, 6.3% moderate and 59.4% high, with appropriate prophylaxis in 72.7% of patients (CI95%: 64.4-79.9), 18.8% (CI95%: 12.7-26.2) were undertreated and 8.6% (CI95%: 4.6-14.4) overtreated. According to ACCP recommendations, 50% of patients were low risk and 50% high, with appropriate prophylaxis in 74.2% of patients (CI95%: 66.1-81.2), 10.9% (CI95%: 6.4-17.3) were undertreated and 14.8% (CI95%: 9.4-21.8) overtreated. When PRETEMED risk was classified into low or moderate-high group versus ACCP risk low or high, the grade of concordance between both guides was 0.68 (CI95%: 0.56-0.81). When PRETEMED risk was classified into low-moderate or high group versus ACCP risk low or high, the grade of concordance between both guides was 0.81 (CI95%: 0.71-0.91). About a quarter of hospitalized medical patients did not receive adequate prophylaxis, showing an important room for improvement. PRETEMED guide and ACCP recommendations differ in risk assessment mainly because PRETEMED guide overestimates the risk of venous thromboembolism since it includes more risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  15. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  16. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor and adiponectin levels in patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalandra, Carla; Coviello, Maria; Falco, Gaetano; Divella, Rosa; Trojano, Giuseppe; Laterza, Anna Maria; Quero, Carmela; Pepe, Vito; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Quaranta, Michele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most specific and critical regulators of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which regulates endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor is an angiogenic mediator in tumors and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Adipose tissue is a major endocrine and it secretes hormones termed adipokines. These factors are derived from adipocytes and include proteins and metabolites such as adiponectin. Recently, adiponectin was also shown to modulate angiogenesis. This study was designed to determine the serum VEGF and adiponectin levels in patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases and if there was a correlation between serum VEGF and adiponectin. Serum samples, collected fasting before surgery or intervention, were available for total of 114 female patients recorded between October 2006 and December 2008. Diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological diseases was established by biopsy. Serum levels VEGF and adiponectin were using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems Inc, Minneapolis, MN), respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 9.0 software package (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL). The correlation between serum VEGF and serum Adiponectin was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. P values of benign and malignant gynecological diseases of the patient. Only for serum VEGF levels was a significant difference observed (P = 0.004) between patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases. A significantly inverse correlation between serum VEGF and adiponectin levels among patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases was found. Adiponectin level is not correlated with body mass index. This is one of the first report on adiponectin in benign and malignant gynecological diseases. Future studies are needed to address the clinical potential role of adiponectin in cancer.

  17. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  18. Environmental and state-level regulatory factors affect the incidence of autism and intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Rzhetsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID. To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a surrogate for environmental exposure of parents to unmeasured developmental risk factors, including toxins. Adjusted for gender, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical factors, the ASD incidence rates were strongly linked to population-normalized rates of congenital malformations of the reproductive system in males (an increase in ASD incidence by 283% for every percent increase in incidence of malformations, 95% CI: [91%, 576%], p<6×10(-5. Such congenital malformations were barely significant for ID (94% increase, 95% CI: [1%, 250%], p = 0.0384. Other congenital malformations in males (excluding those affecting the reproductive system appeared to significantly affect both phenotypes: 31.8% ASD rate increase (CI: [12%, 52%], p<6×10(-5, and 43% ID rate increase (CI: [23%, 67%], p<6×10(-5. Furthermore, the state-mandated rigor of diagnosis of ASD by a pediatrician or clinician for consideration in the special education system was predictive of a considerable decrease in ASD and ID incidence rates (98.6%, CI: [28%, 99.99%], p = 0.02475 and 99% CI: [68%, 99.99%], p = 0.00637 respectively. Thus, the observed spatial variability of both ID and ASD rates is associated with environmental and state-level regulatory factors; the magnitude of influence of compound environmental predictors was approximately three times greater than that of state-level incentives. The estimated county-level random effects exhibited marked spatial clustering, strongly

  19. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumaran Anil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  20. Factors influencing the level of self-stigmatisation in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisova, Lucie; Michalec, Jiri; Hadjipapanicolaou, Demetra; Raboch, Jiri

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess sociodemographic factors and factors connected with treatment of mental illness and to decide whether they can influence the level of self-stigma. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, family status, level of employment, level of education) and characteristics related to illness and treatment (diagnosis, length of treatment, adherence to treatment) were gathered in a group of patients in stable mental condition, without acute symptoms of mental illness. Self-stigma was measured using the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale - short form (SSMIS-SF). The sample included 197 patients: 99 patients in group 1 (G1) with psychosis and 98 in group 2 (G2) with anxious and affective disorders. The average age was 44.15 ± 12.91 years, the length of illness was 11.67 ± 9.21 years and 48% of patients were men. The total average SSMIS-SF score was 61.54 ± 23.34. We found no statistically significant difference in the total level of self-stigmatisation between these groups ( t(197) = 0.77; p = .441). The level of self-stigmatisation (total score of SSMIS-SF) in patients in G1 (psychosis) increased with the length of illness r(99) = .253; p = .011. Employment status seems to correlate with the level of self-stigmatisation ( F(3, 184) = 5.27; p = .002). Patients unemployed and on disability pension had higher levels of self-stigmatisation than patients working full-time. Patients who took medication regularly (full medical adherence) had lower scores of SSMIS-SF total scores in comparison with patients with lower compliance ( t(195) = 3.476; p = .001; Cohen's d = .25). According to our results, with regard to the factors that were followed, self-stigmatisation correlates with the presence of employment (social inclusion), duration of illness in patients with psychosis and treatment adherence. We did not find a statistically significant influence of age, gender, marital status or clinical diagnosis on the level of self-stigma.

  1. Serum Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Women with Postadolescent Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Polat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. It usually starts after puberty but may continue into adulthood. We studied Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 levels in women patients with acne vulgaris in whom all other hormon levels were normal. We aimed to show any relation of the acne vulgaris lesion type and GH and IGF-1 levels. Material and Method: The study conducted on the postadolesance period woman patients applying to out patient dermatology department with complaint of acne symptoms between Semtember 2005 and July 2006. All other hormonal parameters were normal in patients. 25 healthy similar age women were accepted as control. IGF-I and GH were quantified by solid-phase competitive chemiluminescence assays. Results: There was no difference according to age between the groups (p=0.726. The mean IGF-1 level was 336.5±112.88 ng/ml in patients and 194±31.32 ng/ml in control; the difference was significantly important (p=0.000. The mean GH level was 3.16±4.35 µIU/ml in patients and 1.15±1.21 µIU/ml in control; and the diffrence was not found as important (p=0.03. IGF-1 level was significantly important in patients with noduler involvement (p=0.015, and GH level was also significantly important in patients with cystic involvement (p=0.05. Conclusion: We supported the hypothesis that GH and IGF-1 levels were important in postadolasence period women patients with acne vulgaris. We recommend new studies comparing GH and IGF-1 levels in adolesence and postadolesence period women patients in order to support the role of these hormones in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  2. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  3. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. Studies on levels and interactions of contact activation factors in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoem, N.O.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of findings and conclusions of relevance: A part of the thesis concerns the effects of intravenous contrast media on the blood pressure and on factors of the contact activation system in the rat. The intravenous injection of dextran induced a profound and lasting fall in blood pressure, preceded by significant lowering in prekallikrein and activation factor 12. The non-ionic radiographic contrast media iohexol caused no significant alterations, neither in blood pressure, nor in levels of contact factors, whereas the ionic radiographic contrast media iodipamide had effects. It induced a rapid, but short-lived, fall in blood pressure and a small, but statistically significant reduction in the measurable amount of activation factor 12a. An observation of significance was that pretreatment of the rats with iodipamide almost blocked the dextran-induced blood pressure fall, and abolished the reduction in prekallikrein and activation factor 12a. It is concluded that the ionic radiographic contrast media used was capable of blocking dextran shock in the rat by preventing an activation of contact activation system. 130 refs., 5 figs

  5. Teen Dating Violence Victimization among High School Students: A Multilevel Analysis of School-Level Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J.; Milam, Adam J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical…

  6. Effect of different anesthesia techniques on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A B; Demirel, I; Erhan, O L; Firdolas, F; Ustundag, B

    2015-10-01

    Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are associated with neurotransmission and cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia on BDNF levels. It was also to reveal whether this effect had a relationship with the surgical stress response or not. The study included 50 male patients, age 20-40, who were scheduled to have inguinoscrotal surgery, and who were in the ASA I-II risk group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia techniques used: general (GA) and spinal (SA). In order to measure serum BDNF, cortisol, insulin and glucose levels, blood samples were taken at four different times: before and after anesthesia, end of the surgery, and before transferal from the recovery room. Serum BDNF levels were significantly low (p BDNF and the stress hormones. Our findings suggested that general anesthetics had an effect on serum BDNF levels independent of the stress response. In future, BDNF could be used as biochemical parameters of anesthesia levels, but studies with a greater scope should be carried out to present the relationship between anesthesia and neurotrophins.

  7. Factors associated with elevated serum chromogranin A levels in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan

    2016-11-01

    Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.

  8. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter “Snow Geese”) and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese.

  9. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    on seasonal factors. Ratios in single-storey homes clustered around 1.0, indicating that house design, rather than lifestyle, is the dominant factor in determining bedroom radon levels. Homes with higher mean annual radon levels showed lower bedroom/living-room ratios, supporting our proposal that radon emanation from building materials comprises a significant component of the overall level. (authors)

  10. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    seasonal factors. Ratios in single-storey homes clustered around 1.0, indicating that house design, rather than lifestyle, is the dominant factor in determining bedroom radon levels. Homes with higher mean annual radon levels showed lower bedroom/living-room ratios, supporting our proposal that radon emanation from building materials comprises a significant component of the overall level. (authors)

  11. Factors that Influence Students in Choosing Physics Programmes at University Level: the Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Kalliopi; Lavidas, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Low enrolment in undergraduate level physics programmes has drawn the attention of the relevant disciplines, education policy-makers, and researchers worldwide. Many reports released during the previous decades attempt to identify the factors that attract young people to study science, but only few of them focus explicitly on physics. In Greece, in contrast to many other countries, physics departments are overflowing with young students. However, there are two categories of students: those for whom physics was the optimal choice of a programme ("choosers") and those for whom physics was an alternative choice that they had to settle for. We suggest that the latter category be called "nearly-choosers," in order to be differentiated from choosers as well as from "non-choosers," namely those candidates that did not apply to a physics programme at all. We are interested in the factors that attract high school students to study physics and the differences (if any) between choosers and nearly-choosers. A newly formed questionnaire was distributed within a Greek physics department (University of Patras), and the students' responses (n = 105) were analysed with exploratory factor analysis and specifically principal component analysis so as to extract broad factors. Three broad factors have arisen: school-based, career, and informal learning. The first two factors proved to be motivating for pursuing a degree in physics, while the third factor appeared to have a rather indifferent association. t tests and Pearson correlations indicated mild differentiations between choosers and nearly-choosers that pertain to school-based influences and informal learning.

  12. College students' drinking motives and social-contextual factors: Comparing associations across levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions' drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking-social and conformity motives-showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking-enhancement and coping motives-demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future microlongitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Secher, Thomas; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2017-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high plasma levels of FGF23 in uremia. FGF23 mRNA was not detected in normal kidneys, but was clearly demonstrated in injured kidneys, already after four hours in obstructive nephropathy and at 8 weeks in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats. No renal extraction was found in uremic rats in contrast to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. College Students’ Drinking Motives and Social-Contextual Factors: Comparing Associations across Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143

  15. A meta-analysis of peripheral blood nerve growth factor levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X-Y; Wu, H-T; Cao, C; Loh, Y P; Cheng, Y

    2017-09-01

    Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses. However, the regulation of NGF in SCZ remains unclear because of the inconsistent findings from the clinical studies. Therefore, we undertook, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic review with a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the peripheral blood NGF data in SCZ patients compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 13 articles encompassing a sample of 1693 individuals for the meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that patients with SCZ had significantly decreased peripheral blood levels of NGF when compared with the HC subjects (Hedges's g=-0.633, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.948 to -0.318, Pmeta-regression analyses showed that age, gender and sample size had no moderating effects on the outcome of the meta-analysis, whereas disease severity might be a confounding factor for the meta-analysis. These results demonstrated that patients with SCZ are accompanied by the decreased peripheral blood NGF levels, strengthening the clinical evidence of an abnormal neurotrophin profile in the patients with SCZ.

  16. Aqueous transforming growth factor-beta-I levels in rabbit eyes after excimer laser photoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Gürelik, G; Okur, H; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoglu, B; Imir, T

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in anterior segment wound healing, by controlling the cell proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix composition and mediating the immunosuppressive properties of the aqueous humor. The present study was undertaken to clarify the possible changes of aqueous humor TGF-betaI levels after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 served as control, the central 7 mm of corneal epithelium was removed in groups 2, 3 and 4. We performed 50-microm corneal photoablation in group 3, and 100-microm ablation in group 4. After 48 h we measured the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor by ELISA method. The mean TGF-betaI value of the aqueous humor was found to be 162.94+/-13.73 pg/ml in the control group. Mechanical deepithelialization did not change the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 50-microm photoablated group and the controls (p > 0.05), but the TGF-betaI levels of the 100-microm photoablated group were found to be significantly higher than those of both the control group and 50-microm photoablated group (p < 0.05). Many factors and cytokines may induce corneal haze and myopic regression after excimer laser photoablation; our study demonstrated that TGF-betaI is one of these factors and there is a positive correlation between the depth of corneal photoablation and aqueous TGF-betaI concentrations.

  17. Emotions and personality traits as high-level factors in visual attention: a review

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    Kai eKaspar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual sense has outstanding significance for human perception and behavior, and visual attention plays a central role in the processing of the sensory input. Thereby, multiple low- and high-level factors contribute to the guidance of attention. The present review focuses on two neglected high-level factors: emotion and personality. The review starts with an overview of different models of attention, providing a conceptual framework and illustrating the nature of low- and high-level factors in visual attention. Then, the ambiguous concept of emotion is described, and recommendations are made for the experimental practice. In the following, we present several studies showing the influence of emotion on overt attention, whereby the distinction between internally and externally located emotional impacts is emphasized. We also provide evidence showing that emotional stimuli influence perceptual processing outside of the focus of attention, whereby results in this field are mixed. Then, we present some detached studies showing the reversed causal effect: attention can also affect emotional responses. The final section on emotion–attention interactions addresses the interplay on the neuronal level, which has been neglected for a long time in neuroscience. In this context, several conceptual recommendations for future research are made. Finally, based on findings showing inter-individual differences in human sensitivity to emotional items, we introduce the wide range of time-independent personality traits that also influence attention, and in this context we try to raise awareness of the consideration of inter-individual differences in the field of neuroscience.

  18. FACTOR-ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EXPRESSED EMOTION SCALE, A QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED TO MEASURE PERCEIVED EXPRESSED EMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; VANDERLUBBE, PM; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, C

    When the factor structure and psychometric qualities of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale, an instrument intended to assess patient's perceptions of expressed emotion, were evaluated, three moderately intercorrelated factors emerged, with good internal consistency; these were lack of emotional

  19. Changes in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Level in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock

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    Sang Hoon Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite many ongoing, prospective studies on the topic, sepsis still remains one of the main causes of death in hospital. The hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has a similar molecular structure to that of insulin. IGF-1 exerts anabolic effects and plays important roles in both normal physiology and pathologic processes. Previous studies have observed low serum IGF-1 level in patients with critical illnesses. Here, we evaluated changes in IGF-1 level based on survival of septic patients. Methods We evaluated 140 patients with sepsis and septic shock (21 with sepsis and 119 with septic shock admitted to the intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea. Serum IGF-1 level was measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Patients with liver disease were excluded from this study. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Patients with septic shock had significantly lower serum IGF-1 level on days 1 and 3 than patients without septic shock (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively. Generally, there was a negative relationship between IGF-1 and serum cortisol levels; however, this relationship was only significant on day 3 (p = 0.029. Furthermore, renin showed significantly negative correlation with IGF-1 on day 3 (p = 0.038. IGF-1 level did not show significant difference between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions Our results showed that IGF-1 was associated with septic shock, and that the IGF-1 axis is severely disrupted in septic patients. Additionally, serum cortisol and renin levels were associated with IGF-1 level.

  20. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  1. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the industry level as the country moves towards the ultimate safety management strategy of self-regulation. The findings also indicate that the challenge of making worksites safe should not be placed solely on the contractors but should be shared by all parties affecting the value chain of construction, including the developers, the consultants and the government. The factors identified through factor analysis may inform legislators and industry practitioners in terms of the sources of problems and help develop effective strategies for improvement. Some of the experiences mentioned in the paper could also be relevant to other countries facing similar circumstances.

  2. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  3. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  4. Lack of Day/Night variation in fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, J-P; Aronis, K N; Chamberland, J P; Mantzoros, C S

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor with an emerging role as a metabolic regulator. We previously reported the presence of a significant day/night variation of FGF-21 in energy-replete, healthy female subjects. However the day/night patterns of secretion in male subjects remain to be fully elucidated. To elucidate day/night pattern of FGF-21 levels in male subjects in the energy-replete state, its relationship to FFA and to investigate whether a sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology. Eight healthy lean male subjects were studied for up to 5 days while on an isocaloric diet. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of FGF-21 and free fatty acids (FFA) hourly from 0800 AM on day 4 till 0800AM on day 5. FGF-21 did not exhibit any statistically significant day/night variation pattern of circulating FGF-21 levels during the isocaloric fed state in male subjects. FGF-21 levels in male subjects are closely cross-correlated with FFA levels, similar to female subjects. A sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology; that as opposed to female subjects, no significant day/night variation exists in FGF-21 rhythm in male subjects in the energy-replete state. Circulating pattern of FGF-21, similar to the female subjects, was highly cross-correlated to the FFA levels in the male subjects, signifying that the sexual dimorphism in FGF-21 physiology may be related to the differing lipid metabolism in both the genders.

  5. Serum and Peritoneal Fluid Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Women with Endometriosis

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    Fatemeh Eshraghi-Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is known as one of the most common disease in women ofreproductive age. Due to important role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inneo-vascularization for the implantation of endometrial cell, and also presence of differentstudies reported VEGF level in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF in endometriosispatients, this study was designed to determine the serum and PF levels of VEGF in endometriosispatients, and to compare with normal subjects.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 179 women subjected to laparoscopyfor the evaluation of infertility or pelvic pain were allocated into the following two groups:group I: different types of endometriosis patients (n=90 and group II: non-endometriosispatients (n=89. The PF from pelvis and venous blood samples were obtained. The VEGFconcentration of the serum and PF were measured using enzyme immunoassay kit and werecompared using t test.Results: The level of VEGF in serum was significantly less than that in PF in both groups(p=0.00. However, endometriosis patients had significantly higher level of VEGF inperitoneal fluid than non-endometriosis patients (p=0.043.Conclusion: According to our findings, endometriosis is not associated with change inthe level of circulating VEGF.

  6. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.C. Neves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  7. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A

    2017-10-19

    Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  8. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all......-cause mortality in these persons. METHODS: We enrolled 126 subjects at or around the time of their 100th birthday. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, and we determined the associations between the markers of inflammation and mortality during...... the subsequent 5 years. RESULTS: Only 9 subjects were alive after 5 years. Elevated levels of TNF-alpha were associated with mortality in both men and women (hazard ratio = 1.34 per SD of 2.81 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.60, P = 0.001). Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 did not affect survival; levels of C...

  9. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  10. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  11. [Investigation on level and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Tian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Ge; Kong, Jing-Jun; Pan, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The study aims to investigate the cognition degree and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province, and to provide suggestions for the training of oral clinician. A questionnaire was designed for this study. It included the basic situation of population, first aid knowledge level, emergency situation often encountered in stomatology clinic, first aid training situation, learning approach and attitude of first aid knowledge, etc. This questionnaire was used to investigate the dentists of medical institutions in various cities in Sichuan province. The survey results was statistical analyzed. There were 245 valid questionnaires. 1) The level of first aid knowledge of dentists was generally lower in Sichuan province. Work department and other departments work experience were the influencing factors of knowledge level of first aid knowledge among dentists. 2) 87.3% of dentists believed that it was very necessary to master the knowledge of first aid, but in the event of an emergency situation, 73.5% of dentists only can find other doctors to guide themselves to help. 3) The most common way to learn first aid knowledge was through work experience and medical school's first aid course. Dentists should strengthen the learning and training to improve the first aid skill.

  12. Factors that affect the ecological footprint depending on the different income levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tung Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological footprint provides a method for measuring how much lands can support the consumption of the natural resources. Development and biocapacity debates revolve mainly around the factors that affect the ecological footprint and the approaches to improve the environmental quality. Therefore, we conducted the panel analysis of data for 99 countries from 1981 to 2006 to determine what factors affect the ecological footprint. The empirical results show that the effect of GDP per capita on the ecological footprint varies for different income levels. The effect of urbanization is significantly positive across income levels, which means that the higher the rate of urbanization in high or low income country, the higher the ecological footprint. As developing countries pursue economic development, there will be an impact on the environment. The developed countries may seek to develop their economies through activities that are more detrimental to the environment. Additionally, the export of goods and services divided by GDP is significant, which means that the higher the volume of exports, the greater the burden on the environment. However, this effect is not significant across different income level models. The income effect may explain the diverse effects of export on the environment. Therefore, panel data analysis and income classification are necessary to discuss the effect of export on the environment.

  13. Association of Serum Adiponectin Levels with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Malay Adults

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    Nur Firdaus Isa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in adults living in rural Malaysia. Methods: A total of 299 Malay adults (men=124; women = 175 with a mean age 48.8 (11.7 years were recruited. Measurements for waist circumference and blood pressure were taken before drawing an overnight fasting blood samples. Biochemical tests for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose and serum adiponectin concentration were measured. Results: Our results show that the adiponectin level in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly lower than those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05. Among the metabolic syndrome risk factors, adiponectin level was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The outcome from this study which highlights the association of hypoadiponectinemia with risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Malay adults, suggests that the reduced level of adiponectin may play a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome in this ethnic group.

  14. Reconnect on Facebook: The Role of Information Seeking Behavior and Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson

    2016-08-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered.

  15. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  16. FACTOR ANALYSIS ABOUT EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL AMONG MOTHERS WHO PROVIDE BREASTMILK TO THEIR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiyas Kusumaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of mother who breastfeed their babies exclusively in Indonesia is low. It caused by many factors such as high intensity of formula milk advertisement, lack of awareness about the importance of breastfeeding, working mother, social culture, family support and the role of health care provider. The purpose of this research was to analyze factors related with successfulness level of exclusive breastfeeding. Method: Design used in this research was analytic retrospective. The population were all mothers at Pacarkeling Public Health Center area. Sample obtained through purposive sampling. Total sample was 61 respondents. Independent variables were knowledge, information and promotion, family support, social cultural, role of health provider, work/occupation, education and breast physiology anatomy. The dependent variable was exclusive breastfeeding. Result: The result indicated that exclusive breastfeeding achievement level was related with information and promotion (r = 0.271, family support (r = 373, health care provider role (r = 231, mother occupation (r = 251, anatomy and physiology of breast (r = 293, while the knowledge (r = 108, social cultural (r = 180 and education (r = 093 not significantly related. Discussion: In conclusion, there was a positive correlation between information and promotion, family support, health care provider role, mother’s occupation, anatomy and physiology of breast with successfulness level of exclusive breastfeeding. While the knowledge, social cultural and education did not indicate significant result. Therefore it is suggested to increase the quantity and quality of information and promotion about exclusive breastfeeding to the society, health care provider and pregnant and breastfeeding mother.

  17. Disclosure Level of CPC 29 Biological Assets: Analysis of Determining Factors in Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research question guiding this research is "What are the Determining Factors of CPC 29 Disclosure in Brazilian Companies?". In this aspect, the research objective was to evaluate the main factors that affect the disclosure of information related to biological assets. For this, 5 variables highlighted in the literature were selected as evidence influencers. The sample was composed of Brazilian companies with biological assets in the Balance Sheet. From this list, financial statements, explanatory notes, corporate management level and independent auditing company for the 6 years (2010 to 2015 were collected. With the collected information, the dependent variable (Disclosure level of CPC 29 and the independent variables of each year were verified. At the end (after exclusions, 100 observations were analyzed. The results indicated that the variables Size, Representativeness of Biological Assets and Effectiveness of OCPC 07 positively impacted the level of Disclosure. The first two confirmed the predicted hypothesis and OCPC 07 presented a relation that was different from what was expected, showing an increase and not a reduction in the number of disclosures in the years 2014 and 2015.

  18. Application of geometry correction factors for low-level waste package dose measurements. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, M.C.; Parish, B.

    1995-01-01

    Plans are to determine the Cs-137 content of low-level waste packages generated in High-Level Waste by measuring the radiation level at a specified distance from the package with a hand-held radiation instrument. The measurement taken at this specified distance, either 3 or 5 feet, is called the far-field measurement. This report documents a method for adjusting the gamma exposure rate (mR/hr) reading used in dose-to-curie determinations when the far-field measurement equals the background reading. This adjustment is necessary to reduce the conservatism resulting from using a minimum detection limit exposure rate for the dose-to-curie determination for the far-field measurement position. To accomplish this adjustment, the near-field (5 cm) measurement is multiplied by a geometry correction factor to obtain an estimate of the far field exposure rate (which is below instrument sensitivity). This estimate of the far field exposure rate is used to estimate the Cs-137 curie content of the package. This report establishes the geometry correction factors for the dose-to-curie determination when the far-field gamma exposure measurement equals the background reading. This report also provides a means of demonstrating compliance to 1S Manual requirements for exposure rate readings at different locations from waste packages while specifying only two measurement positions. This demonstration of compliance is necessary to minimize the number of locations exposure rate measurements that are required, i.e., ALARA

  19. The Carina Project. VIII. The α-element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, M.; Nonino, M.; Bono, G.; Primas, F.; Thévenin, F.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Buonanno, R.; Coppola, G.; da Silva, R. O.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Genovali, K.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Romaniello, M.; Walker, A. R.

    2015-08-01

    We have performed a new abundance analysis of Carina red giant (RG) stars from spectroscopic data collected with UVES (high spectral resolution) and FLAMES/GIRAFFE (high and medium resolution) at ESO/VLT. The former sample includes 44 RGs, while the latter consists of 65 (high-resolution) and ~800 (medium-resolution) RGs, covering a significant fraction of the galaxy's RG branch, and red clump stars. To improve the abundance analysis at the faint magnitude limit, the FLAMES/GIRAFFE data were divided into ten surface gravity and effective temperature bins. The spectra of the stars belonging to the same gravity and temperature bin were stacked. This approach allowed us to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the faint magnitude limit (V≥ 20.5 mag) by at least a factor of five. We took advantage of the new photometry index cU,B,I introduced recently as an age and probably a metallicity indicator to split stars along the red giant branch. These two stellar populations display distinct [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] distributions: their mean iron abundances are -2.15 ± 0.06 dex (σ = 0.28), and -1.75 ± 0.03 dex (σ = 0.21), respectively. The two iron distributions differ at the 75% level. This supports preliminary results. Moreover, we found that the old and intermediate-age stellar populations have mean [Mg/H] abundances of -1.91 ± 0.05 dex (σ = 0.22) and -1.35 ± 0.03 dex (σ = 0.22); these differ at the 83% level. Carina's α-element abundances agree, within 1σ, with similar abundances for field halo stars and for cluster (Galactic and Magellanic) stars. The same outcome applies to nearby dwarf spheroidals and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies in the iron range covered by Carina stars. Finally, we found evidence of a clear correlation between Na and O abundances, thus suggesting that Carina's chemical enrichment history is quite different from that in the globular clusters. Based on spectra retrieved from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility and collected either with UVES at

  20. Analysis of the 4d7 (4f + 6p) and 4p54d9 configurations of Sn VII, Sb VIII and Te IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.I.; Joshi, Y.N.; Churilov, S.S.; Ryabtsev, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The spectra of tin, antimony and tellerium were photographed in the 120-200 A region on 10.7 m and 3 m grazing incidence spectrographs using a triggered spark source. The 4d 8 -4d 7 (4f + 6p) + 4p 5 4d 9 transitions of Sn VII, Sb VIII and Te IX were investigated. In the Sn VII spectrum 109 new lines were classified in the 152-192 A region and 34 new levels were established, in the Sb VIII spectrum 78 new lines were classified in the 138-158 A region and 21 new levels were established, and in the Te IX 76 new lines were classified in the 121-139 A region and 21 new levels were established. Strong configuration interaction among the 4d 7 (np + mf), and 4p 5 4d 9 (n = 5, 6; m = 4, 5) configurations was observed. Least-squares-fitting (LSF) parametric calculations involving configuration interaction were carried out to interpret the observed spectra. (orig.)

  1. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called "fast foods" (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P

  2. THE LEVEL OF GRAMMAR SCHOOL STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraković, Milana; Mihajlović, Bojan; Ćemerlić, Snežana; Ađić, Filip; Sladojević, Miroslava; Mihajlović, Boaoliub

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (pgrammar school and after the lectures, the student's knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005). Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  3. Animal level risk factors associated with Babesia and Theileria infections in cattle in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Salama, Akram; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd-El-Salam; Elsify, Ahmed; El-Ashkar, Maged; Ibrahim, Hussam; Youssef, Mohamed; El-Khodery, Sabry

    2017-12-20

    In present study, blood samples were collected randomly from 439 cows at three main regions of Egypt (northern, central and southern). Molecular diagnosis of Babesia and Theileria infections by PCR amplification of DNA (gene) fragments, then cloning and sequencing of the positive samples were conducted. A questionnaire was created to imply the assumed risk factors and logistic regression statistical analysis was carried out to appraise the potential factors on the animal level. The results revealed that 49 (11.16%) and 45 (10.25%) cattle were infected with Babesia and Theileria parasites, respectively. B. bigemina (7.97%) and T. annulata (9.56%) were the most prevalent parasites. For Babesia sp., final multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the infection and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P = 0.003; OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.65), management practice (P = 0.029; OR: 6.66; 95% CI: 1.21-36.59) and ecology area (P = 0.006; OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.63-19.31). However, for Theileria sp. infection, animal breed (P = 0.003; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: .45-1.00) and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (PBabesia and Theileria sp. in Egypt based on molecular description. An impression on the potential risk factors associated with infections was obtained. Recognition of the potential risk factors associated with tick borne disease may be helpful to construct the best preventive measures.

  4. Levothyroxine treatment restored the decreased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Ning; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Li; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone has been shown to regulate hepatic FGF21 expression in rodents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma FGF21 levels in participants with normal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, or overt hypothyroidism and to investigate the change of plasma FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism after levothyroxine treatment. A total of 473 drug-naive participants were recruited, including 250 healthy control subjects, 116 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 107 patients with overt hypothyroidism. Thirty-eight patients with overt hypothyroidism were assigned to receive levothyroxine treatment. The overt hypothyroidism group had decreased FGF21 levels compared with the control and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (Ptreatment markedly attenuated the increased circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with overt hypothyroidism. A significant increase in plasma FGF21 levels was observed after levothyroxine treatment (Ptreatment (FT3: r=0.44; FT4: r=0.53; all Ptreatment ameliorated metabolic disorders and restored the decreased circulating FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The increase in FGF21 levels after levothyroxine treatment might be partly associated with the amelioration of metabolic disorders in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Associated With Changes in Magnesium Levels in Asymptomatic Neonates: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yogesh; Shitole, Charudatta; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-02-01

    Neonates and infants with hypomagnesemia present with seizures and psychomotor delay. The present study evaluated the changes in magnesium (Mg) levels and factors associated with these in the first three days of life. We monitored 50 clinically asymptomatic neonates; they were not given any magnesium supplements even if they had hypomagnesemia at baseline. The variables analysed were: serum Mg; gestational age; birth weight; length; and the ponderal index. We used random effects (RE) models for longitudinal analysis of these data. The mean standard deviation (SD) gestational age was 36.3 (3.6) weeks and the mean (SD) weight was 2604.2 (754.4) grams. About 31% of the neonates had hypomagnesemia (< 1.6 mg/dL) on day one; however, all had normal magnesium levels by day three of life (P < 0.001). At birth, after adjusting for intrauterine growth retardation status (IUGR), serum Mg levels were lower by 0.0097 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.019 to -0.0003) per 100 grams increase in weight of the neonate. After adjusting for IUGR status, the mean increase in the serum Mg levels was 0.14 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.10 to 0.18) per day. The per-day increase in magnesium levels was significantly higher in low birth weight babies (0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.18) compared with normal birth weight babies. Asymptomatic neonates may have a high prevalence of hypomagnesemia; however, the levels become normal without any magnesium supplementation. Even though regular monitoring of magnesium levels is useful, no supplements are required - particularly in clinically asymptomatic neonates.

  6. The effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in women with elevated androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Gilowska, Małgorzata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-02-01

    In unselected reproductive-aged women, use of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills has been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of women with hyperandrogenism. The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30μg) and drospirenone (3mg). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, circulating levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Compared to healthy women, women with elevated androgen levels showed increased plasma levels of hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as a higher value of UACR. Oral contraception reduced androgen levels only in hyperandrogenic women. In healthy women, ethinyl estradiol plus drospirenone increased plasma levels of insulin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, while in women with elevated androgen levels their effect was limited only to a small increase in hsCRP. Our results suggest that a deteriorating effect of oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in hyperandrogenic women is weaker than in healthy young women and that ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone combination therapy may be safely used in the former group of patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  7. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION