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Sample records for factor tu ef-tu

  1. Roles of Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor EF-Tu in Heat Tolerance in Plants

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    Jianming Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EF-Tu proteins of plastids, mitochondria, and the cytosolic counterpart EF-1α in plants, as well as EF-Tu proteins of bacteria, are highly conserved and multifunctional. The functions of EF-Tu include transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during protein biosynthesis; chaperone activity in protecting other proteins from aggregation caused by environmental stresses, facilitating renaturation of proteins when conditions return to normal; displaying a protein disulfide isomerase activity; participating in the degradation of N-terminally blocked proteins by the proteasome; eliciting innate immunity and triggering resistance to pathogenic bacteria in plants; participating in transcription when an E. coli host is infected with phages. EF-Tu genes are upregulated by abiotic stresses in plants, and EF-Tu plays important role in stress responses. Expression of a plant EF-Tu gene confers heat tolerance in E. coli, maize knock-out EF-Tu null mutants are heat susceptible, and over-expression of an EF-Tu gene improves heat tolerance in crop plants. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of EF-Tu proteins in stress responses in plants and progress on application of EF-Tu for developing crop varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures.

  2. Bacterial elongation factors EF-Tu, their mutants, chimeric forms, and domains: isolation and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonák, J

    2007-04-15

    Prokaryotic elongation factors EF-Tu form a family of homologous, three-domain molecular switches catalyzing the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to ribosomes during the process of mRNA translation. They are GTP-binding proteins, or GTPases. Binding of GTP or GDP regulates their conformation and thus their activity. Because of their particular structure and regulation, various activities (also outside of the translation system) and a relative abundance they represent attractive tools for studies of many basic but still not fully understood mechanisms both of the translation process, the structure-function relationships in EF-Tu molecules themselves and proteins and energy transduction mechanisms in general. The review critically summarizes procedures for the isolation and purification of native and engineered eubacterial elongation factors EF-Tu and their mutants on a large as well as small scale. Current protocols for the purification of both native and polyHis-tagged or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged EF-Tu proteins and their variants using conventional procedures and the Ni-NTA-Agarose or Glutathione Sepharose are presented.

  3. Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2011-01-01

    elongation factor, EF-Ts, catalyse the dissociation of GDP from EF-Tu which in turn allows EF-Tu to bind another GTP molecule. The resulting EF-Tu:GTP complex is then cable of forming a ternary complex with a new aa-tRNA which can then associate with the ribosome. During my time as a Ph. D. student I have...... and in manuscript I. G. anatolicus is a hyperthermophilic bacteria isolated from a thermal vent. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts has been determined in complex with E. coli EF-Tu by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts is more similar to the previously determined...... structures of E. coli and bovine mitochondrial EF-Ts rather than EF-Ts from the thermophilic bacteria T. thermophilus. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts in complex with E. coli EF-Tu is presented in chapter 3 and in manuscript II. Mammalian mitochondria contain an independent genome which encodes 13...

  4. Elongation Factor-Tu (EF-Tu) proteins structural stability and bioinformatics in ancestral gene reconstruction

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    Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Tremberger, G.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Holden, T.; Cheung, T.

    2013-09-01

    A paleo-experimental evolution report on elongation factor EF-Tu structural stability results has provided an opportunity to rewind the tape of life using the ancestral protein sequence reconstruction modeling approach; consistent with the book of life dogma in current biology and being an important component in the astrobiology community. Fractal dimension via the Higuchi fractal method and Shannon entropy of the DNA sequence classification could be used in a diagram that serves as a simple summary. Results from biomedical gene research provide examples on the diagram methodology. Comparisons between biomedical genes such as EEF2 (elongation factor 2 human, mouse, etc), WDR85 in epigenetics, HAR1 in human specificity, DLG1 in cognitive skill, and HLA-C in mosquito bite immunology with EF Tu DNA sequences have accounted for the reported circular dichroism thermo-stability data systematically; the results also infer a relatively less volatility geologic time period from 2 to 3 Gyr from adaptation viewpoint. Comparison to Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and Psychrobacter shows that Thermus thermophilus HB8 EF-Tu calibration sequence could be an outlier, consistent with free energy calculation by NUPACK. Diagram methodology allows computer simulation studies and HAR1 shows about 0.5% probability from chimp to human in terms of diagram location, and SNP simulation results such as amoebic meningoencephalitis NAF1 suggest correlation. Extensions to the studies of the translation and transcription elongation factor sequences in Megavirus Chiliensis, Megavirus Lba and Pandoravirus show that the studied Pandoravirus sequence could be an outlier with the highest fractal dimension and lowest entropy, as compared to chicken as a deviant in the DNMT3A DNA methylation gene sequences from zebrafish to human and to the less than one percent probability in computer simulation using the HAR1 0.5% probability as reference. The diagram methodology would be useful in ancestral gene

  5. Chloroplast EF-Tu and thermal aggregation of Rubisco activase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize. The recombinant precursor of this protein, pre-EF-Tu, has been found to exhibit chaperone activity and protect heat-labile proteins, such as citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, from therma...

  6. Protein synthesis alongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A: biosynthesis, functions and application in the improvement of heat tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A (EFs) represent a group of highly conserved and abundant GTPases with an important role in transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during elongation phase of translation. EF-Tu proteins are located in bacteria and, du...

  7. Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2011-01-01

    proteins and 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mammalian mitochondria have their own specialised translational system for maintaining the synthesis of the 13 proteins. The mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis resembles the prokaryotic system more than the cytosolic system from eukaryotes. Some of the t...... and tRNASerGCU was produced by in vitro transcription. The ternary complex composed of EF-Tu:GDPNP:tRNASerGCU was reconstituted for crystallisation experiments. Unfortunately, we have not succeeding in crystallising neither the free components nor the ternary complex so far. The results of this project...

  8. Association of Acinetobacter baumannii EF-Tu with Cell Surface, Outer Membrane Vesicles, and Fibronectin

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    Shatha F. Dallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conundrum has long lingered over association of cytosol elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu with bacterial surface. Here we investigated it with Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. The gene for A. baumannii EF-Tu was sequenced, and recombinant EF-Tu was purified for antibody development. EF-Tu on the bacterial surface and the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs was revealed by immune electron microscopy, and its presence in the outer membrane (OM and the OMV subproteomes was verified by Western blotting with the EF-Tu antibodies and confirmed by proteomic analyses. EF-Tu in the OM and the OMV subproteomes bound to fibronectin as detected by Western blot and confirmed by a label-free real-time optical sensor. The sensor that originates from photonic crystal structure in a total-Internal-reflection (PC-TIR configuration was functionalized with fibronectin for characterizing EF-Tu binding. Altogether, with a novel combination of immunological, proteomical, and biophysical assays, these results suggest association of A. baumannii EF-Tu with the bacterial cell surface, OMVs, and fibronectin.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Stephanie O. Palmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have cloned genes encoding elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expressed and purified the proteins to greater than 95% homogeneity. Sequence analysis indicated that P. aeruginosa EF-Tu and EF-Ts are 84% and 55% identical to E. coli counterparts, respectively. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active when assayed in GDP exchange assays. Kinetic parameters for the interaction of EF-Tu with GDP in the absence of EF-Ts were observed to be = 33 μM, = 0.003 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. In the presence of EF-Ts, these values were shifted to = 2 μM, = 0.005 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. The equilibrium dissociation constants governing the binding of EF-Tu to GDP ( were 30–75 nM and to GTP ( were 125–200 nM. EF-Ts stimulated the exchange of GDP by EF-Tu 10-fold. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in forming a ternary complex with GTP and aminoacylated tRNA and was functional in poly(U-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe at the A-site of P. aeruginosa ribosomes. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in poly(U-programmed polyphenylalanine protein synthesis system composed of all P. aeruginosa components.

  10. EF-Tu dynamics during pre-translocation complex formation: EF-Tu·GDP exits the ribosome via two different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Chunlai; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Knudsen, Charlotte R; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2015-10-30

    The G-protein EF-Tu, which undergoes a major conformational change when EF-Tu·GTP is converted to EF-Tu·GDP, forms part of an aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) that accelerates the binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide elongation. Such binding, placing a portion of EF-Tu in contact with the GTPase Associated Center (GAC), is followed by GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and results in formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Although tRNA movement through the ribosome during PRE complex formation has been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of EF-Tu interaction with either the ribosome or aa-tRNA. Here we examine these dynamics, utilizing ensemble and single molecule assays employing fluorescent labeled derivatives of EF-Tu, tRNA, and the ribosome to measure changes in either FRET efficiency or fluorescence intensity during PRE complex formation. Our results indicate that ribosome-bound EF-Tu separates from the GAC prior to its full separation from aa-tRNA, and suggest that EF-Tu·GDP dissociates from the ribosome by two different pathways. These pathways correspond to either reversible EF-Tu·GDP dissociation from the ribosome prior to the major conformational change in EF-Tu that follows GTP hydrolysis, or irreversible dissociation after or concomitant with this conformational change.

  11. EF-Tu from the enacyloxin producing Frateuria W-315 strain: Structure/activity relationship and antibiotic resistance.

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    Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Malosse, Christian; Hountondji, Codjo

    2016-08-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated that the poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis activity of elongator factor Tu (EF-Tu) from the enacyloxin producing strain Frateuria sp. W-315 is inhibited by the antibiotic similarly to that of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The inhibitory effect of enacyloxin observed in a purified system was the same as that obtained with an S30 extract from E. coli or Frateuria sp. W-315, respectively, suggesting that antibiotic resistance of enacyloxin producing Frateuria sp. W-315 is not due neither to EF-Tu nor to other components of the translation machinery but to a still unknown mechanism. The EF-Tu gene, as PCR amplified from Frateuria W-315 genomic DNA and sequenced represented an ORF of 1191 nucleotides corresponding to 396 amino acids. This protein is larger than the product of tufA from E. coli by only two amino acid residues. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from E. coli with those of Frateuria and Ralstonia solanacearum indicates on average 80% identical amino acid residues and 9.7% conservative replacements between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli, on one hand, and 97% identity and 1.7% conservative replacement between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu Ralstonia solanacearum, on the other hand. These strong primary structure similarities between EF-Tu from different origins are consistent with the fact that this factor is essential for the translation process in all kingdoms of life. Comparison of the effects of antibiotics on EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli revealed that enacyloxin, kirromycin and pulvomycin exert a stronger stimulation of the GDP dissociation rate on EF-Tu Frateuria, while the effects of the antibiotics on the GDP association rate were comparable for the two EF-Tu species. Different mutants of EF-Tu E. coli were constructed with the help of site directed mutagenesis by changing one or several residues of EF-Tu E. coli by the corresponding residues of EF-Tu Frateuria. The single A45K substitution did

  12. Function and structure in phage Qbeta RNA replicase. Association of EF-Tu-Ts with the other enzyme subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenthal, T; Young, R A; Brown, S

    1976-01-01

    Qbeta replicase is a complex of four nonidentical subunits readily dissociable into two subcomplexes: 30 S ribosomal protein S1 and the phage-coded polypeptide (Subunits I + II) and protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts (Subunits III + IV). The affinity of the two subcomplexes...... of EF-Tu-Ts from the other enzyme subunits: whereas free EF-Tu-Ts binds GDP independently of salt concentration, this binding by Qbeta replicase is sensitive to high ionic strength and remains so in the presence of Qbeta RNA. Furthermore, RNA does not allow the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu by GTP...... as measured by sensitivity of EF-Ts activity to N-ethylmaleimide....

  13. Duplication of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial EF-Tu: pre-adaptation to T-arm truncation and exclusion of bulky aminoacyl residues.

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    Sato, Aya; Suematsu, Takuma; Aihara, Koh-Ki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi

    2017-03-07

    Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) delivers aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to ribosomes in protein synthesis. EF-Tu generally recognizes aminoacyl moieties and acceptor- and T-stems of aa-tRNAs. However, nematode mitochondrial (mt) tRNAs frequently lack all or part of the T-arm that is recognized by canonical EF-Tu. We previously reported that two distinct EF-Tu species, EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2, respectively, recognize mt tRNAs lacking T-arms and D-arms in the mitochondria of the chromadorean nematode Caenorhabditis elegansC. elegans EF-Tu2 specifically recognizes the seryl moiety of serylated D-armless tRNAs. Mitochondria of the enoplean nematode Trichinella possess three structural types of tRNAs: T-armless tRNAs, D-armless tRNAs, and cloverleaf tRNAs with a short T-arm. Trichinella mt EF-Tu1 binds to all three types and EF-Tu2 binds only to D-armless Ser-tRNAs, showing an evolutionary intermediate state from canonical EF-Tu to chromadorean nematode (e.g. C. elegans) EF-Tu species. We report here that two EF-Tu species also participate in Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria. Both D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2 bound to cloverleaf and D-armless tRNAs. D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 has the ability to recognize T-armless tRNAs that do not evidently exist in D. melanogaster mitochondria, but do exist in related arthropod species. In addition, D. melanogaster EF-Tu2 preferentially bound to aa-tRNAs carrying small amino acids, but not to aa-tRNAs carrying bulky amino acids. These results suggest that the Drosophila mt translation system could be another intermediate state between the canonical and nematode mitochondria-type translation systems. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA of Lactobacillus plantarum 423, monitored with real-time PCR.

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    Ramiah, K; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2007-05-30

    Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA by Lactobacillus plantarum 423, grown in the presence of bile, pancreatin and at low pH, was studied by real-time PCR. Mub, MapA and EF-Tu were up-regulated in the presence of mucus, proportional to increasing concentrations. Expression of MapA was up-regulated in the presence of 3.0 g/l bile and 3.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Similar results were recorded in the presence of 10.0 g/l bile and 10.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Expression of Mub was down-regulated in the presence of bile and pancreatin, whilst the expression of EF-Tu and plaA remained unchanged. Expression of Mub and MapA remained unchanged at pH 4.0, whilst expression of EF-Tu and plaA were up-regulated. Expression of MapA was down-regulated in the presence of 1.0 g/l l-cysteine HCl, suggesting that the gene is regulated by transcription attenuation that involves cysteine.

  15. A neutron scattering study of the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP-valyl-tRNAVal1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, R.; Elias, P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    matched by the solvents. The results indicate that EF-Tu undergoes a conformational change and contracts as a result of the complex formation, since the radius of gyration decreases by 15% from 2.82 to 2.39 nm. tRNAVal1A, on the other hand, seems to mainly retain its conformation within the complex, since......The complex formation between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), GTP, and valyl-tRNAVal1A has been investigated in a hepes buffer of "pH" 7.4 and 0.2 M ionic strength using the small-angle neutron scattering method at concentrations of D2O where EF-Tu (42% D2O) and tRNA (71% D2O) are successively...

  16. Papel de EF-Tu en la interacción de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con los queratinocitos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramos, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un patógeno oportunista que causa una gran variedad de infecciones, entre las que destacan las infecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas y las infecciones de heridas por quemaduras. En un trabajo previo, usamos anticuerpos específicos para detectar la presencia del epítopo de fosforilcolina en la superficie bacteriana asociado al factor de elongación Tu (EF-Tu). Identificamos que el gen eftM (Elongation Factor Tu Modifying enzime) es el...

  17. A conserved P-loop anchor limits the structural dynamics that mediate nucleotide dissociation in EF-Tu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu·GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25566871

  18. A conserved P-loop anchor limits the structural dynamics that mediate nucleotide dissociation in EF-Tu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu.GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation.

  19. A tRNA body with high affinity for EF-Tu hastens ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids.

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    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that tRNA bodies have evolved to reduce differences between aminoacyl-tRNAs in their affinity to EF-Tu. Here, we study the kinetics of incorporation of L-amino acids (AAs) Phe, Ala allyl-glycine (aG), methyl-serine (mS), and biotinyl-lysine (bK) using a tRNA(Ala)-based body (tRNA(AlaB)) with a high affinity for EF-Tu. Results are compared with previous data on the kinetics of incorporation of the same AAs using a tRNA(PheB) body with a comparatively low affinity for EF-Tu. All incorporations exhibited fast and slow phases, reflecting the equilibrium fraction of AA-tRNA in active ternary complex with EF-Tu:GTP before the incorporation reaction. Increasing the concentration of EF-Tu increased the amplitude of the fast phase and left its rate unaltered. This allowed estimation of the affinity of each AA-tRNA to EF-Tu:GTP during translation, showing about a 10-fold higher EF-Tu affinity for AA-tRNAs formed from the tRNA(AlaB) body than from the tRNA(PheB) body. At ∼1 µM EF-Tu, tRNA(AlaB) conferred considerably faster incorporation kinetics than tRNA(PheB), especially in the case of the bulky bK. In contrast, the swap to the tRNA(AlaB) body did not increase the fast phase fraction of N-methyl-Phe incorporation, suggesting that the slow incorporation of N-methyl-Phe had a different cause than low EF-Tu:GTP affinity. The total time for AA-tRNA release from EF-Tu:GDP, accommodation, and peptidyl transfer on the ribosome was similar for the tRNA(AlaB) and tRNA(PheB) bodies. We conclude that a tRNA body with high EF-Tu affinity can greatly improve incorporation of unnatural AAs in a potentially generalizable manner.

  20. Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.

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    Bergman, Jessica M; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2014-01-01

    Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg) in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase) as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase) also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bergman

    Full Text Available Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Effect of thiostrepton and 3'-terminal fragments of aminoacyl-tRNA on EF-Tu and ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuta, P; Chládek, S

    1982-08-30

    The effect of the antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin on EF-Tu-catalyzed (ribosome-dependent) GTP hydrolysis in the presence of A-Phe, C-A-Phe, or C-C-A-Phe (related to the sequence of the 3'-terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA)(System I) or by methanol ('uncoupled GTPase', System II) was investigated. In System I, thiostrepton increases the binding affinities of the effectors to the EF-Tu.GTP.70 S ribosome complex, as well as the extent of the GTP hydrolysis, while the KmGTP is virtually unchanged. Similarly, in the uncoupled system (System II) and in the absence of effectors, thiostrepton significantly increases VmaxGTP, whereas KmGTP remains unaffected. Micrococcin is without any effect in both systems. The 'uncoupled GTPase' (in System II) is also strongly inhibited by C-A-Phe. The results indicate the crucial role of the EF-Tu site which binds the aminoacylated C-C-A terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA in promoting GTP hydrolysis. It follows that the binding of the model effectors (such as C-C-A-Phe) to that site is favorably influenced by the interaction of thiostrepton with the 50 S ribosomal subunit, whereas thiostrepton, per se, does not influence the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP.

  3. The tuf3 gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encodes an inessential elongation factor Tu that is apparently subject to positive stringent control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and

  4. The tuf3 gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encodes an inessential elongation factor Tu that is apparently subject to positive stringent control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and tr

  5. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  6. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  7. Precursor for elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tufA gene, one of two genes in Escherichia coli encoding elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), was cloned into a ColE1-derived plasmid downstream of the lac promoter-operator. In cells carrying this plasmid, the synthesis of EF-Tu was increased four- to fivefold upon the addition of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (an inducer of the lac promoter). This condition led to the synthesis of a novel protein, called pTu, which comigrated with EF-Tu on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel b...

  8. Ribosome-induced changes in elongation factor Tu conformation control GTP hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Elizabeth; Sengupta, Jayati; Trabuco, Leonard G.

    2009-01-01

    In translation, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) molecules deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome. The GTPase activity of EF-Tu is triggered by ribosome-induced conformational changes of the factor that play a pivotal role in the selection of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNAs. We present a...

  9. Reconstitution of Qbeta RNA replicase from a covalently bonded elongation factor Tu-Ts complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Blumenthal, T

    1976-01-01

    (C) and Qbeta RNA normally and had approximately the same specific activity as control enzyme. Denatured Qbeta replicase formed with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts was found to renature much more rapidly than untreated enzyme and, in contrast to normal replicase, its renaturation was not inhibited by GDP. The results...... by its ability to replace EF-Tu and EF-Ts in the renaturation of denatured Qbeta replicase. A sample of Qbeta replicase with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts replacing the individual elongation factors was prepared. Although it lacked EF-Tu and EF-Ts activities, it could initiate transcription of both poly...

  10. Functional studies of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli : Site-directed mutagenesis and antibiotic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, Ivo Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes several studies into the structure and function of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu). EF-Tu plays a central role in the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as the carrier of "coded building blocks" for protein synthesis, aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA). Without E

  11. Elongation factor Tu D138N, a mutant with modified substrate specificity, as a tool to study energy consumption in protein biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijland, A; Parlato, G; Parmeggiani, A

    1994-09-06

    Substitution Asp138-->Asn changes the substrate specificity of elongation factor (EF) Tu from GTP to XTP [Hwang & Miller (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 13081-13085]. This mutated EF-Tu (EF-Tu D138N) was used to show that 2 XTP molecules are hydrolyzed for each elongation cycle [Weijland & Parmeggiani (1993) Science 259, 1311-1313]. Here we extend the study of the properties of this EF-Tu mutant and its function in the elongation process. In poly(U)-directed poly(phenylalanine) synthesis, the number of peptide chains synthesized using EF-Tu D138N.XTP was 30% higher than with EF-Tu wild type (wt).GTP. However, since in the former case the average peptide chain length was correspondingly reduced, the number of the residues incorporated turned out to be nearly the same in both systems. The K'd values of the XTP and XDP complexes of EF-Tu D138N were similar to those of the GTP and GDP complexes of EF-Tu wt. The extent of leucine misincorporation and the kirromycin effect were also comparable to those in the EF-Tu wt/GTP system. The hydrolysis of two XTP molecules, very likely as part of two EF-Tu D138N.XTP complexes, for each elongation cycle was found to be independent of (i) MgCl2 concentration, (ii) ribosome concentration, and (iii) temperature (5-40 degrees C). With rate-limiting amounts of XTP the K'm of its XTPase activity corresponded to the K'm for XTP of poly(phenylalanine) synthesis (0.3-0.6 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde;

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF......-Tu could be involved in the binding of the 3' CCA-Phe end of the aminoacylated tRNA. Therefore, the corresponding residue, Glu259, of Escherichia coli EF-Tu was mutated into alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine and tyrosine, in order to substantiate the crystallographic structural evidence and to obtain...... of interaction with tRNA, while mutation to tyrosine abolished completely the interaction with tRNA. Finally, mutation to glutamine resulted in an elongation factor Tu variant behaving like the wild type. In conclusion, the environment around the site binding the CCA-Phe end of the tRNA is very restricted...

  13. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  14. Characterization of Elongation Factor Tu of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhang, Yue-feng Chu, Ping Zhao, Peng-cheng Gao, Ying He, Nu Wang and Zhong-xin Lu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered as an important pathogen of small ruminants, but its antigenic proteins are not well known so far. In this study, we cloned the EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae and analyzed the molecular features of the gene and its coding protein for the first time. The gene was then expressed in E.coli and the antigenicity of the coding protein was evaluated as well. The EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae is 1209 bp in length, encodes 402 amino acids, and shares the highest DNA sequence identity of 87.5% and deduced amino acid sequence identity of 97.8% with those of M. hyopneumoniae, respectively. The recombinant EF-Tu protein can react with the polyclonal antiserum of M. ovipneumoniae and can induce humoral immune responses in mice, which indicated that the EF-Tu may be used as a candidate protein in developing the technologies to control the disease.

  15. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  16. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  17. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  18. Mutation of the conserved Gly94 and Gly126 in elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli. Elucidation of their structural and functional roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Kjaersgård, I V; Wiborg, O

    1995-01-01

    All guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins cycle between an inactive, GDP-bound and an active, GTP-bound conformation whereby they function as molecular switches. Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli is used as a model for defining residues important in the switch mechanism. Gly94 and Gly126...... for GDP over GTP. Furthermore the [G94A]EF-Tu mutant possesses an increased GTPase activity. The aminoacyl-tRNA affinity is much reduced for [G94A]EF-Tu, as reflected in an increase of the dissociation rate constant for the ternary complex by a factor of 40. Surprisingly, however, both mutants...... in their GDP forms have a low, but significant affinity for aminoacyl-tRNA, which is not seen for the wild-type elongation factor Tu. The mutants only exhibit minor changes compared to the wild type with respect to in vitro translation of a poly(U) messenger. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb-15...

  19. IgG and IgG2 antibodies from cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale recognize the recombinant vaccine candidate antigens VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flábio R Araújo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5. Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu. VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS, which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that sera of cattle infected with A. marginale, with homologous or heterologous isolates recognize recombinant VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu. IgG2 from naturally infected cattle also reacts with these proteins. Recognition of epitopes by total IgG and by IgG2 from infected cattle with A. marginale support the inclusion of these proteins in recombinant vaccines against this rickettsia.

  20. Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.

  1. Immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Liu

    Full Text Available Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu. In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.

  2. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD+ and NADP+. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.

  3. On the origin of protein synthesis factors: a gene duplication/fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, B; Leclerc, F; Cedergren, R

    1997-12-01

    Sequence similarity has given rise to the proposal that IF-2, EF-G, and EF-Tu are related through a common ancestor. We evaluate this proposition and whether the relationship can be extended to other factors of protein synthesis. Analysis of amino acid sequence similarity gives statistical support for an evolutionary affiliation among IF-1, IF-2, IF-3, EF-Tu, EF-Ts, and EF-G and suggests further that this association is a result of gene duplication/fusion events. In support of this mechanism, the three-dimensional structures of IF-3, EF-Tu, and EF-G display a predictable domain structure and overall conformational similarity. The model that we propose consists of three consecutives duplication/fusion events which would have taken place before the divergence of the three superkingdoms: eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. The root of this protein superfamily tree would be an ancestor of the modern IF-1 gene sequence. The repeated fundamental motif of this protein superfamily is a small RNA binding domain composed of two alpha-helices packed along side of an antiparallel beta-sheet.

  4. Intrinsic and selected resistance to antibiotics binding the ribosome: analyses of Brucella 23S rrn, L4, L22, EF-Tu1, EF-Tu2, efflux and phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Allen E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella spp. are highly similar, having identical 16S RNA. However, they have important phenotypic differences such as differential susceptibility to antibiotics binding the ribosome. Neither the differential susceptibility nor its basis has been rigorously studied. Differences found among other conserved ribosomal loci could further define the relationships among the classical Brucella spp. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of Brucella reference strains and three marine isolates to antibiotics binding the ribosome ranged from 0.032 to >256 μg/ml for the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin and 2 to >256 μg/ml for the lincosamide, clindamycin. Though sequence polymorphisms were identified among ribosome associated loci 23S rrn, rplV, tuf-1 and tuf-2 but not rplD, they did not correlate with antibiotic resistance phenotypes. When spontaneous erythromycin resistant (eryR mutants were examined, mutation of the peptidyl transferase center (A2058G Ec correlated with increased resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin. Brucella efflux was examined as an alternative antibiotic resistance mechanism by use of the inhibitor L-phenylalanine-L-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN. Erythromycin MIC values of reference and all eryR strains, except the B. suis eryR mutants, were lowered variably by PAβN. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated ribosomal associated loci supported separate evolutionary paths for B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis/B. canis, clustering marine Brucella and B. neotomae with B. melitensis. Though Brucella ovis was clustered with B. abortus, the bootstrap value was low. Conclusion Polymorphisms among ribosomal loci from the reference Brucella do not correlate with their highly differential susceptibility to erythromycin. Efflux plays an important role in Brucella sensitivity to erythromycin. Polymorphisms identified among ribosome associated loci construct a robust phylogenetic tree supporting classical Brucella spp. designations.

  5. Mammalian translation elongation factor eEF1A2: X-ray structure and new features of GDP/GTP exchange mechanism in higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V

    2014-11-10

    Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Two proofreading steps amplify the accuracy of genetic code translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Uzun, Ülkü; Selmer, Maria; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2016-11-29

    Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are selected by the messenger RNA programmed ribosome in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP and then, again, in a proofreading step after GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu. We use tRNA mutants with different affinities for EF-Tu to demonstrate that proofreading of aa-tRNAs occurs in two consecutive steps. First, aa-tRNAs in ternary complex with EF-Tu·GDP are selected in a step where the accuracy increases linearly with increasing aa-tRNA affinity to EF-Tu. Then, following dissociation of EF-Tu·GDP from the ribosome, the accuracy is further increased in a second and apparently EF-Tu-independent step. Our findings identify the molecular basis of proofreading in bacteria, highlight the pivotal role of EF-Tu for fast and accurate protein synthesis, and illustrate the importance of multistep substrate selection in intracellular processing of genetic information.

  7. Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Schrader, Jared

    2014-01-01

    The universally conserved translation elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA in the form of an aa-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) to the ribosome where it binds to the cognate mRNA codon within the ribosomal A-site, leading to formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Here w...

  8. Towards an understanding of structure-function relationships of elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1994-01-01

    In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point-mutated. Prel......In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point...

  9. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    were characterized with respect to thermal and chemical stability, GTPase activity, tRNA affinity, and activity in an in vitro translation assay. Most conspicuously tRNA affinities were reduced for all mutants. The results verify our structural analysis of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl...

  10. Is tRNA binding or tRNA mimicry mandatory for translation factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Liljas, Anders; Selmer, Maria

    2002-02-01

    tRNA is the adaptor in the translation process. The ribosome has three sites for tRNA, the A-, P-, and E-sites. The tRNAs bridge between the ribosomal subunits with the decoding site and the mRNA on the small or 30S subunit and the peptidyl transfer site on the large or 50S subunit. The possibility that translation release factors could mimic tRNA has been discussed for a long time, since their function is very similar to that of tRNA. They identify stop codons of the mRNA presented in the decoding site and hydrolyse the nascent peptide from the peptidyl tRNA in the peptidyl transfer site. The structures of eubacterial release factors are not yet known, and the first example of tRNA mimicry was discovered when elongation factor G (EF-G) was found to have a closely similar shape to a complex of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) with aminoacyl-tRNA. An even closer imitation of the tRNA shape is seen in ribosome recycling factor (RRF). The number of proteins mimicking tRNA is rapidly increasing. This primarily concerns translation factors. It is now evident that in some sense they are either tRNA mimics, GTPases or possibly both.

  11. Unravelling potential virulence factor candidates in Xanthomonas citri. subsp. citri by secretome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker is a major disease affecting citrus production in Brazil. It’s mainly caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac. We analysed the differential expression of proteins secreted by wild type Xac and an asymptomatic mutant for hrpB4 (ΔhrpB4 grown in Nutrient Broth (NB and a medium mimicking growth conditions in the plant (XAM1. This allowed the identification of 55 secreted proteins, of which 37 were secreted by both strains when cultured in XAM1. In this secreted protein repertoire, the following stand out: Virk, Polyphosphate-selective porin, Cellulase, Endoglucanase, Histone-like protein, Ribosomal proteins, five hypothetical proteins expressed only in the wild type strain, Lytic murein transglycosylase, Lipoprotein, Leucyl-tRNA synthetase, Co-chaperonin, Toluene tolerance, C-type cytochrome biogenesis membrane protein, Aminopeptidase and two hypothetical proteins expressed only in the ΔhrpB4 mutant. Furthermore, Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein, Regulator of pathogenicity factor, Outer membrane proteins, Endopolygalacturonase, Chorismate mutase, Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and seven hypothetical proteins were detected in both strains, suggesting that there was no relationship with the secretion mediated by the type III secretory system, which is not functional in the mutant strain. Also worth mentioning is the Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu, expressed only the wild type strain, and Type IV pilus assembly protein, Flagellin (FliC and Flagellar hook-associated protein, identified in the wild-type strain secretome when grown only in NB. Noteworthy, that FliC, EF-Tu are classically characterized as PAMPs (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, responsible for a PAMP-triggered immunity response. Therefore, our results highlight proteins potentially involved with the virulence. Overall, we conclude that the use of secretome data is a valuable approach that may bring more knowledge of the

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of Arg58 and Asp86 of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli: effects on the GTPase reaction and aminoacyl-tRNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination...

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis of Arg58 and Asp86 of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli: effects on the GTPase reaction and aminoacyl-tRNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination of th...

  14. Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.

  15. DNA barcoding for identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas' using a fragment of the elongation factor Tu gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Makarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene for phytoplasma identification is reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420-444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX. Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed that the tuf tree is highly congruent with the 16S rRNA tree and had higher inter- and intra- group sequence divergence. Mean K2P inter-/intra- group divergences of the tuf barcode did not overlap and had approximately one order of magnitude difference for most groups, suggesting the presence of a DNA barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied for identification of phytoplasmas. Our findings suggest that the tuf barcode performs as well or better than a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and thus provides an easy procedure for phytoplasma identification. The obtained sequences were used to create a publicly available reference database that can be used by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification.

  16. RpoH2 sigma factor controls the photooxidative stress response in a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Rai, Ashutosh Kumar; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Shukla, Mansi; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria normally harbour multiple copies of the heat shock sigma factor (known as σ(32), σ(H) or RpoH). Azospirillum brasilense, a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, harbours five copies of rpoH genes, one of which is an rpoH2 homologue. The genes around the rpoH2 locus in A. brasilense show synteny with that found in rhizobia. The rpoH2 of A. brasilense was able to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Escherichia coli rpoH mutant. Inactivation of rpoH2 in A. brasilense results in increased sensitivity to methylene blue and to triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). Exposure of A. brasilense to TTC and the singlet oxygen-generating agent methylene blue induced several-fold higher expression of rpoH2. Comparison of the proteome of A. brasilense with its rpoH2 deletion mutant and with an A. brasilense strain overexpressing rpoH2 revealed chaperone GroEL, elongation factors (Ef-Tu and EF-G), peptidyl prolyl isomerase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase as the major proteins whose expression was controlled by RpoH2. Here, we show that the RpoH2 sigma factor-controlled photooxidative stress response in A. brasilense is similar to that in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but that RpoH2 is not involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal in A. brasilense.

  17. MAMPs/PAMPs - elicitors of innate immunity in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs), are recognised by the plant innate immune systems Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). General bacterial elicitors, like lipopolysaccharides (LPS), flagellin (Flg), elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), cold shock protein (CSP), peptidoglycan (PGN) and the enzyme superoxide dismutase...... elicitors have, in recent years, been identified. Here, the current knowledge regarding bacterial elicitors of innate immunity in plants is presented...

  18. Investigation of functional aspects of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli using a protein engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structura...

  19. Thermodynamics of the GTP-GDP-operated conformational switch of selenocysteine-specific translation factor SelB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-08-10

    SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.

  20. Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1997-01-01

    -type factor with regard to the association and dissociation of guanine nucleotides, and the intrinsic GTPase activities are unchanged. Furthermore, the mutants were as efficient as the wild-type factor in carrying out protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of an excess of aminoacyl-tRNA. However...

  1. Ribosome-induced tuning of GTP hydrolysis by a translational GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracci, Cristina; Peske, Frank; Dannies, Ev; Pohl, Corinna; Rodnina, Marina V

    2014-10-07

    GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), a translational GTPase that delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, plays a crucial role in decoding and translational fidelity. The basic reaction mechanism and the way the ribosome contributes to catalysis are a matter of debate. Here we use mutational analysis in combination with measurements of rate/pH profiles, kinetic solvent isotope effects, and ion dependence of GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu off and on the ribosome to dissect the reaction mechanism. Our data suggest that--contrary to current models--the reaction in free EF-Tu follows a pathway that does not involve the critical residue H84 in the switch II region. Binding to the ribosome without a cognate codon in the A site has little effect on the GTPase mechanism. In contrast, upon cognate codon recognition, the ribosome induces a rearrangement of EF-Tu that renders GTP hydrolysis sensitive to mutations of Asp21 and His84 and insensitive to K(+) ions. We suggest that Asp21 and His84 provide a network of interactions that stabilize the positions of the γ-phosphate and the nucleophilic water, respectively, and thus play an indirect catalytic role in the GTPase mechanism on the ribosome.

  2. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    -tRNA, which suggested an important role of Lys-89 and Asn-90 in tRNA binding. Furthermore, our results indicate helix B to be an important target site for nucleotide exchange factor EF-Ts. Also the mutants His-66 to Ala and His-118 to either Ala or Glu were characterized in an in vitro translation assay...

  3. Tu nos aposte protege

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Britta Olrik

    2007-01-01

    Aspirationen af p, t og k i dansk er stedmoderligt behandlet af den gren af den historiske sprogforskning der bygger på skriftligt kildemateriale. Skrivemåden tu nos aposte protege for tu nos ab hoste protege 'bekyt du os mod fjenden' i en tilskrift fra anden halvdel af 1300-tallet i...

  4. GTPase domains of ras p21 oncogene protein and elongation factor Tu: analysis of three-dimensional structures, sequence families, and functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, A; Kjeldgaard, M; Pai, E F; Sander, C

    1991-06-15

    GTPase domains are functional and structural units employed as molecular switches in a variety of important cellular functions, such as growth control, protein biosynthesis, and membrane traffic. Amino acid sequences of more than 100 members of different subfamilies are known, but crystal structures of only mammalian ras p21 and bacterial elongation factor Tu have been determined. After optimal superposition of these remarkably similar structures, careful multiple sequence alignment, and calculation of residue-residue interactions, we analyzed the two subfamilies in terms of structural conservation, sequence conservation, and residue contact strength. There are three main results. (i) A structure-based alignment of p21 and elongation factor Tu. (ii) The definition of a common conserved structural core that may be useful as the basis of model building by homology of the three-dimensional structure of any GTPase domain. (iii) Identification of sequence regions, other than the effector loop and the nucleotide binding site, that may be involved in the functional cycle: they are loop L4, known to change conformation after GTP hydrolysis; helix alpha 2, especially Arg-73 and Met-67 in ras p21; loops L8 and L10, including ras p21 Arg-123, Lys-147, and Leu-120; and residues located spatially near the N and C termini. These regions are candidate sites for interaction either with the GTP/GDP exchange factor, with a GTPase-affected function, or with a molecule delivered to a destination site with the aid of the GTPase domain.

  5. Investigation of functional aspects of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli using a protein engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    importance for the factor to function properly. In this study, two lysines at positions 4 and 9 were mutated separately to alanine or glutamate. The resulting four point mutants were expressed and purified using the pGEX system. The untagged products were characterized with regard to guanine......The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structural......-nucleotide interaction, intrinsic GTPase activity, and binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA). The results show that Lys9 is especially strongly involved in the association with guanine nucleotides and the binding of aa-tRNA. Also Lys4 plays a role in the association of GDP and GTP and is also of some importance in aa...

  6. A clinical study on the efficacy of natural therapeutic factors in Băile Tuşnad for the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypotonic carbonated mineral waters in Băile Tușnad are used for their peripheral and cerebral vasodilator effects in the prophylaxis, therapy and rehabilitation of cardiovascular patients. Objectives. The aim of the clinical study was to assess the efficacy of natural therapeutic factors in Băile Tușnad for continuing the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients in a spa and climatic resort for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The study included 30 patients with a history of stroke, aged between 56 and 89 years, with a mean age of 69 years, at the Facility Treatment of the Tușnad Spa Complex SA, in the period April-December 2014. The clinical study was a prospective longitudinal analysis. Of all 30 patients, 50% had ischemic stroke, 43% transient cerebral ischemic attack, and 7% hemorrhagic stroke. Hemiparesis was the most frequent clinical sign, followed by coordination, balance and gait disorders. Patients attended rehabilitation treatment consisting of kinesiotherapy, carbonated mineral water baths for 15 minutes, aerotherapy for 30 minutes daily, massotherapy, performed daily for 16 days. Each patient was clinically assessed before and after treatment based on the TINETTI Balance Scale, the 10-m walk test, the Motor Assessment Scale, the BARTHEL Index, adverse reactions. Results. At the end of treatment, an improvement in the walking speed, a statistically significant improvement in the quality of gait were observed, p < 0.05. Statistically significant results p<0.05 were also obtained for balance. On the Motor Assessment Scale, by comparing the means before and after treatment with the paired T test, a statistically significant value p<0.05 was obtained. When evaluating the patients’ performance for 10 activities of daily living depending on the need for external assistance, using the Barthel Index, the value of p <0.05 was

  7. The Pride of Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The Tu ethnic group, with a population of 191,624, live mainly in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County of Qinghai Province. The Tu people, who subsist on agriculture, believe in Lamaism. Tu women are quite fond of their traditional dress with the rainbow-colored sleeves. The black stands for the earth; green, the seedlings; yellow, the mature wheat; blue, the waters and red, the Sun.

  8. Tu proyecto de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    - Párrafo Inicial - Conociendo a Liliana N. - La intervención de la psicóloga Adriana - Tu proyecto de vida - Referencias - Notas de enseñanza o Resumen o Objetivos o Temas relacionados o Plan de aplicación para el aprendizaje o Análisis o Epílogo

  9. Tu proyecto de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    - Párrafo Inicial - Conociendo a Liliana N. - La intervención de la psicóloga Adriana - Tu proyecto de vida - Referencias - Notas de enseñanza o Resumen o Objetivos o Temas relacionados o Plan de aplicación para el aprendizaje o Análisis o Epílogo

  10. Description of a Novel Adhesin of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Noelia Viale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP by host cells are fibronectin (FN dependent. In several species of mycobacteria, a specific family of proteins allows the attachment and internalization of these bacteria by epithelial cells through interaction with FN. Thus, the identification of adhesion molecules is essential to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize FN binding cell wall proteins of MAP. We searched for conserved adhesins within a large panel of surface immunogenic proteins of MAP and investigated a possible interaction with FN. For this purpose, a cell wall protein fraction was obtained and resolved by 2D electrophoresis. The immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and a homology search was performed. We selected elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu as candidate for further studies. We demonstrated the FN-binding capability of EF-Tu using a ligand blot assay and also confirmed the interaction with FN in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The dissociation constant of EF-Tu was determined by surface plasmon resonance and displayed values within the μM range. These data support the hypothesis that this protein could be involved in the interaction of MAP with epithelial cells through FN binding.

  11. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in search of a role for the N-terminal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Laurberg, M

    1998-01-01

    -tRNA. The enzymatic characterization, comprising GDP and GTP temperature stability assays and measurement of nucleotide dissociation and association rate constants, GTPase activity and aminoacyl-tRNA binding, shows that position 2 is not involved in aminoacyl-tRNA binding, while position 7 is necessary to accomplish......, thus binding the N-terminus tightly to domain 2. We propose that this interaction is needed for aminoacyl-tRNA binding, and also for completing the structural rearrangement, which takes place when the factor switches from its GDP to its GTP form. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Aug...

  12. Core TuLiP

    OpenAIRE

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We present a lookup and inference algorithm which we prove to be correct and complete w.r.t. the declarative semantics. CoreTuLiP enjoys uniform syntax and the well-established semantics and is express...

  13. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the γ-TuRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Reschen

    2012-03-01

    Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear. In Drosophila cells, Dgp71WD plays a major part in targeting γ-tubulin to spindles, but not centrosomes, while in Xenopus egg extracts, Nedd1 acts as a more general microtubule (MT organiser that can function independently of γ-tubulin. The interpretation of these studies, however, is complicated by the fact that some residual Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is likely present in the cells/extracts analysed. Here we generate a Dgp71WD null mutant lacking all but the last 12 nucleotides of coding sequence. The complete loss of Dgp71WD has no quantifiable effect on γ-tubulin or Centrosomin recruitment to the centrosome in larval brain cells. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to spindle MTs, however, is severely impaired, and spindle MT density is reduced in a manner that is indistinguishable from cells lacking Augmin or γ-TuRC function. In contrast, the absence of Dgp71WD leads to defects in the assembly of the acentrosomal female Meiosis I spindle that are more severe than those seen in Augmin or γ-TuRC mutants, indicating that Dgp71WD has additional functions that are independent of these complexes in oocytes. Moreover, the localisation of bicoid RNA during oogenesis, which requires γ-TuRC function, is unperturbed in Dgp71WD120 mutants. Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle.

  14. The Dress of Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Women of the Tu ethnicity, who live on the highlands in northwest China, wear bright and colorful dresses. The married women favor shirts with sleeves decorated in a rainbow of colored flowers: yellow, green, blue, red, purple, black

  15. Relative gene expression of bile salt hydrolase and surface proteins in two putative indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum strains under in vitro gut conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duary, Raj Kumar; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2012-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria must overcome the toxicity of bile salts secreted in the gut and adhere to the epithelial cells to enable their better colonization with extended transit time. Expression of bile salt hydrolase and other proteins on the surface of probiotic bacteria can help in better survivability and optimal functionality in the gut. Two putative Lactobacillus plantarum isolates i.e., Lp9 and Lp91 along with standard strain CSCC5276 were used. A battery of six housekeeping genes viz. gapB, dnaG, gyrA, ldhD, rpoD and 16S rRNA were evaluated by using geNorm 3.4 excel based application for normalizing the expression of bile salt hydrolase (bsh), mucus-binding protein (mub), mucus adhesion promoting protein (mapA), and elongation factor thermo unstable (EF-Tu) in Lp9 and Lp91. The maximal level of relative bsh gene expression was recorded in Lp91 with 2.89 ± 0.14, 4.57 ± 0.37 and 6.38 ± 0.19 fold increase at 2% bile salt concentration after 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. Similarly, mub and mapA genes were maximally expressed in Lp9 at the level of 20.07 ± 1.28 and 30.92 ± 1.51 fold, when MRS was supplemented with 0.05% mucin and 1% each of bile and pancreatin (pH 6.5). However, in case of EF-Tu, the maximal expression of 42.84 ± 5.64 fold was recorded in Lp91 in the presence of mucin alone (0.05%). Hence, the expression of bsh, mub, mapA and EF-Tu could be considered as prospective biomarkers for screening of novel probiotic lactobacillus strains for optimal functionality in the gut.

  16. Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.

  17. Artemisinin and Chinese medicine as Tu science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jia-Chen

    2017-07-07

    The story of discovery of artemisinin highlights the diversity of scientific values across time and space. Resituating artemisinin research within a broader temporal framework allows us to understand how Chinese drugs like qinghao came to articulate a space for scientific experimentation and innovation through its embodiment of alternating clusters of meanings associated with tu and yang within scientific discourse. Tu science, which was associated with terms like native, Chinese, local, rustic, mass, and crude, articulated a radical vision of science in the service of socialist revolutionary ideals. Yang science, which signified foreign, Western, elite, and professional, tended to bear the hallmarks of professionalism, transnational networks in education and training, and an emphasis on basic or foundational research. With respect to medical research, the case of artemisinin highlights how the constitution of socialist science as an interplay of tu and yang engendered different scientific values and parameters for scientific endeavor. Modern medical research in Maoist China could harness the productive energies of mass participation to technical expertise in its investigations of Chinese drugs, and under the banner of tu science, it became possible and scientifically legitimate to research Chinese drugs in ways that had previously provoked resistance and controversy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exoproteome: determination of the complete repertoire of Type-Three Secretion System effectors and identification of other virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bergh, Philippe; Heller, Manfred; Braga-Lagache, Sophie; Frey, Joachim

    2013-09-27

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, is a major pathogen of fisheries worldwide. Several virulence factors have been described, but the type-three secretion system (T3SS) is recognized as having a major effect on virulence by injecting effectors directly into fish cells. In this study we used high-throughput proteomics to display the differences between in vitro secretome of A. salmonicida wild-type (wt, hypervirulent, JF2267) and T3SS-deficient (isogenic ΔascV, extremely low-virulent, JF2747) strains in exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results confirmed the secretion of effectors AopH, AexT, AopP and AopO via T3SS, and for the first time demonstrated the impact of T3SS in secretion of Ati2, AopN and ExsE that are known as effectors in other pathogens. Translocators, needle subunits, Ati1, and AscX were also secreted in supernatants (SNs) dependent on T3SS. AopH, Ati2, AexT, AopB and AopD were in the top seven most abundant excreted proteins. EF-G, EF-Tu, DnaK, HtpG, PNPase, PepN and MdeA were moderately secreted in wt SNs and predicted to be putative T3 effectors by bioinformatics. Pta and ASA_P5G088 were increased in wt SNs and T3-associated in other bacteria. Ten conserved cytoplasmic proteins were more abundant in wt SNs than in the ΔascV mutant, but without any clear association to a secretion system. T1-secreted proteins were predominantly found in wt SNs: OmpAI, OmpK40, DegQ, insulinase ASA_0716, hypothetical ASA_0852 and ASA_3619. Presence of T3SS components in pellets was clearly decreased by ascV deletion, while no impact was observed on T1- and T2SS. Our results demonstrated that the ΔascV mutant strain excreted well-described (VapA, AerA, AerB, GCAT, Pla1, PlaC, TagA, Ahe2, GbpA and enolase) and yet uncharacterized potential toxins, adhesins and enzymes as much as or even more than the wt strain. Other putative important virulence factors were not detected. We demonstrated the whole in vitro

  19. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies.

  20. Substance P and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Key Regulators of Cutaneous Microbiota Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’Diaye, Awa; Gannesen, Andrei; Borrel, Valérie; Maillot, Olivier; Enault, Jeremy; Racine, Pierre-Jean; Plakunov, Vladimir; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Neurohormones diffuse in sweat and epidermis leading skin bacterial microflora to be largely exposed to these host factors. Bacteria can sense a multitude of neurohormones, but their role in skin homeostasis was only investigated recently. The first study focused on substance P (SP), a neuropeptide produced in abundance by skin nerve terminals. SP is without effect on the growth of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacteria. However, SP is stimulating the virulence of Bacillus and Staphylococci. The action of SP is highly specific with a threshold below the nanomolar level. Mechanisms involved in the response to SP are different between bacteria although they are all leading to increased adhesion and/or virulence. The moonlighting protein EfTu was identified as the SP-binding site in B. cereus and Staphylococci. In skin nerve terminals, SP is co-secreted with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which was shown to modulate the virulence of S. epidermidis. This effect is antagonized by SP. Identification of the CGRP sensor, DnaK, allowed understanding this phenomenon as EfTu and DnaK are apparently exported from the bacterium through a common system before acting as SP and CGRP sensors. Many other neuropeptides are expressed in skin, and their potential effects on skin bacteria remain to be investigated. Integration of these host signals by the cutaneous microbiota now appears as a key parameter in skin homeostasis. PMID:28194136

  1. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  2. MAMPs/PAMPs - elicitors of innate immunity in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs), are recognised by the plant innate immune systems Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). General bacterial elicitors, like lipopolysaccharides (LPS), flagellin (Flg), elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), cold shock protein (CSP), peptidoglycan (PGN) and the enzyme superoxide dismutase...... (SodM) are known to act as MAMPs and induce immune responses in plants or plant cells (Gómez-Gómez and Boller, 2000; Erbs and Newman, 2003; Felix and Boller, 2003; Kunze et al., 2004; Watt et al., 2006, Gust et al., 2007; Erbs et al., unpublished). The corresponding PRRs for some of these bacterial...... elicitors have, in recent years, been identified. Here, the current knowledge regarding bacterial elicitors of innate immunity in plants is presented...

  3. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolsto, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative

  4. Designing of Ground Truth Annotated DBT-TU-JU Breast Thermogram Database towards Early Abnormality Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Majumdar, Gautam; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Datta, Dhritiman; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar

    2017-08-17

    The advancement of research in a specific area of clinical diagnosis crucially depends on the availability and quality of the radiology and other test related databases accompanied by ground truth and additional necessary medical findings. The paper describes the creation of the Department of Biotechnology-Tripura University-Jadavpur University (DBT-TU-JU) breast thermogram database. The objective of creating the DBT-TU-JU database is to provide a breast thermogram database that is annotated with the ground truth images of the suspicious regions. Along with the result of breast thermography, the database comprises of the results of other breast imaging methodologies. A standard breast thermogram acquisition protocol suite comprising of several critical factors has been designed for the collection of breast thermograms. Currently, the DBT-TU-JU database contains 1100 breast thermograms of 100 subjects. Due to the necessity of evaluating any breast abnormality detection system, this study emphasizes the generation of the ground truth images of the hotspot areas, whose presence in a breast thermogram signifies the presence of breast abnormality. With the generated ground truth images, we compared the results of six state-of-the-art image segmentation methods using five supervised evaluation metrics to identify the proficient segmentation methods for hotspot extraction. Based on the evaluation results, the Fractional-Order Darwinian particle swarm optimization, Region growing, Mean shift and Fuzzy c-means clustering are found to be more efficient in comparison to k-means clustering and Threshold based segmentation methods.

  5. TU PATERE LEGEM QUAM IPSE FECISTI

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    In two judgments of February 2009, the ILO Administrative Tribunal (hereafter ILOAT) upheld CERN’s contract policy. In another case having given rise to a recent judgment (3 February 2010), the same problems, in essence, were raised concerning the illegal injustice which could result from the implementation of the policy in question. This time, the Tribunal decided in favour of our colleague, basing itself on the Latin maxim tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti, according to which any authority is bound by its own rules, as long as such rules have not been amended or abrogated. In fact, the Administration had informed the complainant that his application for a long-term contract would be examined for six slots, when in fact it was examined for only one. This judgment represents a victory for the complainant, for the Staff Association and its perseverance, and also for the principle according to which any organisation must keep its word and act in good faith. It shows that, without reversing its jud...

  6. Improved cell-free RNA and protein synthesis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Cell-free RNA and protein synthesis (CFPS is becoming increasingly used for protein production as yields increase and costs decrease. Advances in reconstituted CFPS systems such as the Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE system offer new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating unnatural amino acids. In this study, using firefly luciferase synthesis as a reporter system, we improved PURE system productivity up to 5 fold by adding or adjusting a variety of factors that affect transcription and translation, including Elongation factors (EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G, and EF4, ribosome recycling factor (RRF, release factors (RF1, RF2, RF3, chaperones (GroEL/ES, BSA and tRNAs. The work provides a more efficient defined in vitro transcription and translation system and a deeper understanding of the factors that limit the whole system efficiency.

  7. Proteomic Profiling and Identification of Immunodominant Spore Antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Connolly, Joseph P.; Alefantis, Timothy G.; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A.; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M.; Whittington, Jessica T.; Chafin, Ryan D.; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S.; Mujer, Cesar V.

    2006-01-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development. PMID:16957262

  8. Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Schrader, Jared

    2014-01-01

    describe preparation of QSY9 and Cy5 derivatives of the variant E348C-EF-Tu that are functional in translation elongation. Together with fluorophore derivatives of aa-tRNA and of ribosomal protein L11, located within the GTPase associated center (GAC), these labeled EF-Tus allow development of two new FRET...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_004277.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004277.2 chr22 FITTING THE TERNARY COMPLEX OF EF-Tu/tRNA/GTP AND RIBOSOMAL PROTE...INS INTO A 13 A CRYO-EM MAP OF THE COLI 70S RIBOSOME c1mj1a_ chr22/NP_004277.2/NP_004277.2_holo_161-575.pdb

  10. Tyrosine-610 in the receptor kinase BAK1 does not play a major role in brassinosteroid signaling or innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING ...

  11. College via iTunes U: TU Delft deelt graag kennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.

    2010-01-01

    De TU Delft publiceert lezingen, colleges en informatieve films op iTunes U van Apple. De auteur beschrijft waarom de TU Delft gekozen heeft voor iTunes U en op welke manier het project tot stand is gekomen.

  12. Trust Management in P2P Systems Using Standard TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential sto

  13. Trust Management in P2P Systems Using Standard TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential

  14. Trust Management in P2P systems using Standard TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential

  15. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted in Montevideo to document the status of…

  16. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted…

  17. (Average-) convexity of common pool and oligopoly TU-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, T.S.H.; Meinhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies both the convexity and average-convexity properties for a particular class of cooperative TU-games called common pool games. The common pool situation involves a cost function as well as a (weakly decreasing) average joint production function. Firstly, it is shown that, if the rele

  18. Problem-Centered Design and Personal Teaching Style: An Exploratory Study of Youguang Tu's Course on Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongde

    2016-01-01

    Youguang Tu is a contemporary Chinese philosopher of education. His course on philosophy of education had a significant impact on his students. This exploratory study examines how Tu designed and taught this course. Ultimately, there are two reasons why Tu's course had such a significant influence on his students. The first is that Tu used…

  19. The GTP binding motif: variations on a theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldgaard, M; Nyborg, J; Clark, B F

    1996-10-01

    GTP binding proteins (G-proteins) have wide-ranging functions in biology, being involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, protein synthesis, and protein targeting. Common to their functioning is that they are active in the GTP-bound form and inactive in the GDP-bound form. The protein synthesis elongation factor EF-Tu was the first G-protein whose nucleotide binding domain was solved structurally by X-ray crystallography to yield a structural definition of the GDP-bound form, but a still increasing number of new structures of G-proteins are appearing in the literature, in both GDP and GTP bound forms. A common structural core for nucleotide binding is present in all these structures, and this core has long been known to include common consensus sequence elements involved in binding of the nucleotide. Nevertheless, subtle changes in the common sequences reflect functional differences. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to focus on how these differences are reflected in the structures, and how these structural differences are related to function. The aim of this review is to describe to what extent this structural motif for GDP/GTP binding is common to other known structures of this class of proteins. We first describe the common structural core of the G-proteins. Next, examples are based on information available on the Ras protein superfamily, the targeting protein ARF, elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, and the heterotrimeric G-proteins. Finally, we discuss the important structures of complexes between GTP binding proteins and their substrates that have appeared in the literature recently.

  20. Abre tu nevera! Aplicación para Android

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares Fernandez, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Aquí presento mi PFC Abre tu nevera! Consiste en un recetario paso a paso basado en los productos que tenemos en la despensa. Además cuenta de una gestión de listas de la compra. En el código fuente podremos encontrar una carpeta con el código fuente del proyecto Android y la app lista para instalar.

  1. Transgenic Brassica rapa plants over-expressing eIF(iso)4E variants show broad-spectrum Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, Jeena; Yang, Hee-Bum; Dosun, Kim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-08-01

    The protein-protein interaction between VPg (viral protein genome-linked) of potyviruses and eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) or eIF(iso)4E of their host plants is a critical step in determining viral virulence. In this study, we evaluated the approach of engineering broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is one of the most important potyviruses, by a systematic knowledge-based approach to interrupt the interaction between TuMV VPg and B. rapa eIF(iso)4E. The seven amino acids in the cap-binding pocket of eIF(iso)4E were selected on the basis of other previous results and comparison of protein models of cap-binding pockets, and mutated. Yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that W95L, K150L and W95L/K150E amino acid mutations of B. rapa eIF(iso)4E interrupted its interaction with TuMV VPg. All eIF(iso)4E mutants were able to complement an eIF4E-knockout yeast strain, indicating that the mutated eIF(iso)4E proteins retained their function as a translational initiation factor. To determine whether these mutations could confer resistance, eIF(iso)4E W95L, W95L/K150E and eIF(iso)4E wild-type were over-expressed in a susceptible Chinese cabbage cultivar. Evaluation of the TuMV resistance of T1 and T2 transformants demonstrated that the over-expression of the eIF(iso)4E mutant forms can confer resistance to multiple TuMV strains. These data demonstrate the utility of knowledge-based approaches for the engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  2. Dengue — Quo tu et quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Vasilakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are by far the most important arboviral pathogens in the tropics around the world, putting at risk of infection nearly a third of the global human population. DENV are members of the genus Flavivirus in the Family Flaviviridae and comprise four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV-1-4. Although they share almost identical epidemiological features, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed valuable insights into the origins, epidemiology and the forces that shape DENV evolution in nature. In this review, we examine the current status of DENV evolution, including but not limited to rates of evolution, selection pressures, population sizes and evolutionary constraints, and we discuss how these factors influence transmission, pathogenesis and emergence.

  3. The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehlman, Timothy D.

    The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self

  4. The Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, S.; Johnson, R. M.; Meymaris, K. K.; Ward, D. L.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; Lagrave, M.; Henderson, S.; Ostrosky, J.; Martinez, M.

    2007-12-01

    Over 22 centuries ago Erathostenes devised a method to determine the Earth radius. Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo is a joint venture lead by Windows to the Universe/Ventanas al Universo in the United States of America, EducaRed in Chile and RedEscolar in Mexico seeking to partner teams of students, teachers and parents from the three countries in a collaborative effort to determine the Earth circumference by sharing the results of their measurements, and exchanging cultural information. Data are collected from September 29 through October 7, 2007. A report of the whole experience will be presented.

  5. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-13, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-13 version 2 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30. April 2014. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  6. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-10, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar; Haunstrup, Brian

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-10 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30 April 2011. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  7. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables TU 2006-12, version 2 : Documentation note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-12 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 3o April 2013. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  8. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-12, version 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-12 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 31. December 2012. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  9. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables TU 2006-11, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-11 version 2 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30. April 2012. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  10. The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables TU 2006-11, version 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar

    This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-11 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 31 December 2011. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...

  11. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-10-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1TU8B-2AAWC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n>1TU8B SIKSQ---FQFGQ > GGG--- re... C 2AAWC KNFKKEKDTPFEQ ...>HHHHHH > ATOM 2082 CA LYS C 46 3.335 27.932 37.753 1.00 ...bChain> 1TU8B LLATR----GNGRN >HGGG ----GGG ...tryIDChain> LLKKNHTNNNNDKY >HHHH

  13. Test facility development for testing of micro-thrusters at TU-Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.; Janssens, S.; Valente, F.; Perez-Grande, D.; Koopmans, R.

    2010-01-01

    The development of highly integrated and compact micro-satellites and the need for a higher precision of positioning and attitude control in space missions has stimulated the development of micro-propulsion systems. At TU-Delft, investigations are focusing on non-chemical, thermal propulsion. TU-Del

  14. Physical Characterization of the Binary Asteroid 66146 (1998 Tu3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thien-Tin; Hicks, M.; Mayes, D.; Barajas, T.; Garcia, K.

    2011-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 66146 (1998 TU3) was discovered on 1998 October 13 by the LINEAR NEO survey (MPEC 1998-U03). We obtained five nights of Bessel BVRI observations (2010 Aug 6,7,10,12,13 UT) and one night of Bessel R (August 8 PST) at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) 0.6-m telescope near Wrightwood, California. These observations were obtained as part of our ongoing survey at TMO of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), planetary radar targets, and low delta-V near-Earth asteroids (NEOs). The object's rotationally averaged colors (B-R=1.238+/-0.011 mag; V-R=0.440+/-0.008 mag; R-I=0.275+/-0.010 mag) were found most compatible with an Sk-type spectral classification (Bus Taxonomy)/S-type (Tholen Taxonomy). This association was obtained through a comparison of our colors with the 1341 asteroid spectra in the SMASS II database (Bus & Binzel 2002). Our classification differs significantly from the Q-type taxonomy reported by Whitely (2002). Assuming a solar phase parameter g=0.15 we performed a period search using standard Fourier techniques. We found a best-fit rotational period Psyn=2.378+/-0.001 hr, in excellent agreement with the 2.3779+/-0.0004 period determined by Richards et al. (2007). The dispersion in the phased single period lightcurve strongly suggests that 1998 TU3 is be a binary system, with variations in observed flux caused by an unresolved, tidally locked secondary companion. Fitting a 2-period model as described by Pravec et al. (2000), we found that our photometry agrees well with a binary model (P1=2.378+/-0.01 hr, P2=28.28+/-0.05 hr). We have three additional nights scheduled for this object at TMO (Oct 8, 9, 10 2010 UT), extending our solar phase coverage and allowing us to refine our rotational models. 1998 TU3 will experience an exceptional apparition in 2012. This object may be a good candidate for shape/pole modeling via lightcurve inversion, especially if photometry can be obtained from both northern and southern hemispheres. We

  15. Warriors for Civilisation: Naguib Mahfouz, Andrei Tarkovsky, Tu Weiming and their Western Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Keir, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis covers the decline and fall of the civilisation narrative in 20th Century Western humanities before exploring the work of three non-Western figures - Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz, Russian film director Andrei Tarkovsky and Chinese philosopher Tu Weiming - who defend the concept of civilisation in their work. The views of Mahfouz, Tarkovsky and Tu can be viewed as consistent with each other and with those of contemporary Western intellectuals including John Armstrong, Martha Nu...

  16. A mechanism-based potent sirtuin inhibitor containing Nε-thiocarbamoyl-lysine (TuAcK)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we have identified Nε-thiocarbamoyl-lysine (TuAcK) as a general sirtuin inhibitory warhead which was shown to be able to confer potent sirtuin inhibition. This inhibition was also shown to be mechanism-based in that the TuAck residue was able to be processed by a sirtuin enzyme with the formation of a stalled S-alkylamidate intermediate.

  17. An Exploration of Grid Computing to be Utilized in Teaching and Research at TU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiz University (TU has a hundreds of computing resources on different campuses for use in areas from offices work to general access student labs. However, these resources are not used to their full potential. Grid computing is a technology that is capable to unify these resources and utilize them in very significant way. The difficulties of funding a complete grid computing environment and also, the difficulties of grid tools makes teachers and researchers in TU unable to involve in teaching and research in grid computing or in distributed computing. These problems raised up our awareness to mitigate this problem by build a simple environment for Grid computing from resources are available in TU and the built environment we can use it for teaching and research. The objective of this paper is to build, implement and testing a grid computing environment (Globus Toolkit. To achieving this objective we built the hardware and software parts, and configured several basic grid services commands line and web portal. The test result for basic grid services have been indicated that our proposed grid computing model is promising and can use in teaching and research in TU. The paper takes a look at how grid computing is realizing this aim and have created unbelievable opportunities for students, teachers and researchers at TU in addition the result of this paper will make TU a pilot to the other universities in whole Yemen in field of Grid and distributing computing.

  18. The multi-component Tu hierarchy of soliton equations and its multi-component integrable couplings system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Tie-Cheng; Wang Hong; Zhang Yu-Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new simple loop algebra GM is constructed, which is devoted to the establishing of an isospectral problem. By making use of the Tu scheme, the multi-component Tu hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, an expanding loop algebra FM of the loop algebra GM is presented. Based on the FM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Tu hierarchy has been worked out. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.

  19. Identification and characterization of Tu88, an antigenic gene from Theileria uilenbergi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yizhu; Wang, Yuefeng; Li, Youquan; Gou, Huitian; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Zhijie

    2015-06-01

    Theileria uilenbergi is a pathogen that causes ovine theileriosis. Prevention and control of theileriosis relies on its diagnosis at early stages of occurrence and requires understanding of proteins with antigenic properties from the pathogen. Despite its prevalence in China, only a few molecules with antigenic properties have been characterized from T. uilenbergi. In this study, we identified a cDNA named Tu88 by immunoscreening a T. uilenbergi merozoite cDNA library with T. uilenbergi-positive sera from infected sheep. Recombinant Tu88 (rTu88) expressed in bacteria reacted strongly with the positive sera of T. uilenbergi in western blot analysis indicating its potential as an antigen. Southern blot analysis showed that it is a single copy gene. Protein localization by immunostaining blood smears from an infected sheep demonstrated the presence of native Tu88 in merozoites. These findings suggest that Tu88 is a potential candidate antigen for the development of a sero-diagnostic tool.

  20. Calibration Methods for Air Coupled Antennas - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecos, Vânia; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the comparison of different methods for calibrating air coupled antennas: Coring, Surface Reflection Method (SRM) and Common Mid-Point (CMP) through the analysis of GPR data collected in a test site with different pavement solutions. Research activities have been carried out during a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in December 2015. The use of GPR in transport infrastructures represents one of the most significant advances for obtaining continuous data along the road, with the advantage of operation at traffic speed and being a non-destructive technique. Its main application has been the evaluation of layer thickness. For the determination of layer thickness, it is necessary to know the velocity of the signal, which depends on the dielectric constant of the material, and the two-way travel time of the reflected signal that is recorded by the GPR system. The calculation of the dielectric value of the materials can be done using different approaches such as: using fixed values based on experience, laboratory determination of dielectric values, applying the SRM, performing back calculation from ground truth references such as cores and test pits, or using the CMP method. The problem with using ground truth is that it is time consuming, labour intensive and intrusive to traffic, in addition, a drill core is not necessarily representative of the whole surveyed area. Regarding the surface reflection technique, one of the problems is that it only measures the dielectric value from the layer surface and not from the whole layer. Recent works already started to address some of these challenges proposing new approaches for GPR layer thickness measurements using multiple antennas to calculate the average dielectric value of the asphalt layer, taking advantage of significant hardware improvements in GPR

  1. 小猪和小虎——SUZUKI TU250 Volty VS Kawasaki Estrella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜启弘; 徐天翔

    2005-01-01

    在日本250毫升复古车中.四大厂家各自推出了自己的代表车型。雅马哈的SRV250.本田的GB250.铃木TU250 Volty、川崎Estrella。其中,GB250大获成功,SRV250则表现平平,TU250 Volty和Estrella则紧紧咬住GB250.在日本国内和国外市场上均取得不错的销量。本期试车我们就将对铃木TU250和川崎的Estrella进行对比测试。

  2. [Analysis on intestinal disorders in Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxiustion) found from Dunhuang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin; Shang, Haixia; Wu, Huangan

    2016-05-01

    Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxibustion), excavated from Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang, is one of the earliest existing monographs on moxibustion. The medical masters from different schools have focused on this book because it is different from the existing ancient medical works and have not been collected in the medical works of different dynasties. In this study, the literature of Jiujing Tu on five acupoints (Dachangshu, Pangguangshu, Daxiaochangshu, Nieshu and Cigong) relevant with intestinal disorders is collected. It is intended to discuss and analyze the acupoint location, main intestinal disorder, moxibustion characters, recognition on the literature of different dynasties and modern clinical applications. It is believed that the thought of strong moxibustion in the treatment of intestinal disorders advocated in Jiujing Tu has profound impact on the medical development in later generations. It deserves us to have a further digging, collection and promotion of this thought in the modern time.

  3. MAMP (Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern triggered immunity in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Anne eNewman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms that are under constant attack from microbes. They rely on both preformed defenses, and their innate immune system to ward of the microbial pathogens. Preformed defences include for example the cell wall and cuticle, which act as physical barriers to microbial colonization. The plant immune system is composed of surveillance systems that perceive several general microbe elicitors, which allow plants to switch from growth and development into a defense mode, rejecting most potentially harmful microbes. The elicitors are essential structures for pathogen survival and are conserved among pathogens. The conserved microbe-specific molecules, referred to as microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs, are recognized by the plant innate immune systems pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. General elicitors like flagellin (Flg, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu, peptidoglycan (PGN, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, Ax21 (Activator of XA21-mediated immunity in rice, fungal chitin and β-glucans from oomycetes are recognized by plant surface localized PRRs. Several of the MAMPs and their corresponding PRRs have, in recent years, been identified. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding important MAMPs from bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, their structure, the plant PRRs that recognizes them, and how they induce MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI in plants.

  4. The NLR protein, NLRX1, and its partner, TUFM, reduce type I interferon, and enhance autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wen, Haitao; Ting, Jenny P Y

    2013-03-01

    The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) proteins serve as regulators of inflammatory signaling pathways. NLRX1, a mitochondria-localized NLR protein, has been previously shown to negatively regulate inflammatory cytokine production activated via the MAVS-DDX58 (RIG-I) pathway. The literature also indicates that DDX58 has a negative impact upon autophagy. Consistent with the inhibitory role of NLRX1 on DDX58, our recent study indicates a role of NLRX1 in augmenting virus-induced autophagy. This effect is through its interaction with another mitochondrial protein TUFM (Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial, also known as EF-TuMT, COXPD4, and P43). TUFM also reduces DDX58-activated cytokines but augments autophagy. Additionally it interacts with ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 to form a molecular complex that modulates autophagy. The work shows that both NLRX1 and TUFM work in concert to reduce cytokine response and augment autophagy.

  5. Electromagnetic simulators for Ground Penetrating Radar applications developed in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Warren, Craig; Antonijevic, Sinisa; Doric, Vicko; Poljak, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Founded in 1971, COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) is the first and widest European framework for the transnational coordination of research activities. It operates through Actions, science and technology networks with a duration of four years. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (4 April 2013 - 3 October 2017) is to exchange and increase knowledge and experience on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe a wider use of this technique. Research activities carried out in TU1208 include all aspects of the GPR technology and methodology: design, realization and testing of radar systems and antennas; development and testing of surveying procedures for the monitoring and inspection of structures; integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing approaches; advancement of electromagnetic-modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for radargram analysis and interpretation. GPR radargrams often have no resemblance to the subsurface or structures over which the profiles were recorded. Various factors, including the innate design of the survey equipment and the complexity of electromagnetic propagation in composite scenarios, can disguise complex structures recorded on reflection profiles. Electromagnetic simulators can help to understand how target structures get translated into radargrams. They can show the limitations of GPR technique, highlight its capabilities, and support the user in understanding where and in what environment GPR can be effectively used. Furthermore, electromagnetic modelling can aid the choice of the most proper GPR equipment for a survey, facilitate the interpretation of complex datasets and be used for the design of new antennas. Electromagnetic simulators can be employed to produce synthetic radargrams with the purposes of testing new data-processing, imaging and inversion algorithms, or assess

  6. A Practical Adaptive TuCM Scheme for Rayleigh Flat Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍守豪; 宋文涛

    2004-01-01

    A practical adaptive turbo coded modulation (TuCM) scheme was proposed and its adaptive method was described. With some hardware considerations, a suboptimal optimization algorithm that the number of fading regions is variable was put forward. Furthermore, the cutoff fade depth of power adaptation was modified to reduce the interruption probability. The results show that the proposed adaptive TuCM comes within 3 dB of Rayleigh fading channel capacity, and exhibits about 3 dB power gain relative to the conventional adaptive trellis-coded modulation (TCM), and is easy to realize by hardware.

  7. 甲醛交联法研究高温条件下大肠杆菌体内小分子热休克蛋白IbpB的客户蛋白%Research on the client proteins of small heat shock protein IbpB in Escherichia coli cells under a high temperature by formaldehyde cross-linking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小东; 胡蕊; 胡秋梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究高温条件下小分子热休克蛋白IbpB在大肠杆菌体内的客户蛋白以及在此温度下IbpB对其客户蛋白的作用。方法构建表达IbpB蛋白的重组质粒pBAD-ibpB,pBAD质粒为对照,转化到BW25113-ΔibpB菌株。转化pBAD-ibpB质粒的BW25113-ΔibpB菌株在45℃热处理之后加入甲醛进行交联,亲和层析法对交联产物进行纯化,质谱法对捕获的客户蛋白进行鉴定,过氧化氢酶活性测定和蛋白热聚集体分离的方法检测IbpB对其客户蛋白的作用。结果质谱鉴定结果表明IbpB在高温条件下互相作用的客户蛋白主要是过氧化氢酶KatG、色氨酸降解酶TnaA和延伸因子EF-Tu;在ibpB敲除株中回补IbpB可以减少过氧化氢酶在高温条件下的活性丧失,可以阻止TnaA和EF-Tu在高温条件下发生的热聚集。结论 KatG、TnaA和EF-Tu是IbpB在高温条件下相互作用的主要客户蛋白,IbpB在高温条件下对上述客户蛋白具有明显的保护作用。%Objective To investigate the client proteins of small heat shock protein IbpB in Escherichia coli cells under a high temperature and the effect of IbpB on its client proteins at this temperature.Methods A recombinant vec-tor pBAD-ibpaB was constructed which could express IbpB protein, while the vector pBAD was used as a control.Both vectors were transfected into Escherichia coli BW25113-ΔibpB cell and then heated at 45℃ before formaldehyde cross-linking.The resultant products were purified by affinity chromatography, and the client proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry.Finally, the effects of IbpB on these client proteins under a high temperature were determined by catalase activity assay and protein thermal aggregation isolation.Results According to mass spectrometry, the client proteins interacting with IbpB under a high temperature included catalase KatG, tryptophanase TnaA and elongation factor EF-Tu.The addition of IbpB in

  8. "V tu ossen mõ ne nabljudali tshissel..." : [luuletused] / Svetlana Blomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blomberg, Svetlana

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: "V tu ossen mõ ne nabljudali tshissel..." ; "Tshto delat mne, zalozhnitse zimõ..." ; "Zlaja tshornaja burja na mir naletela..." ; Stirka na beregu zaliva ; Mozhno s proshlõm sporit i srazhatsja ; Mezhdu listjev opavshih kashtan otõskat..."

  9. Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartvelt, M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential

  10. An efficient algorithm for nucleolus and prekernel computation in some classes of TU-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Kern, W.; Kuipers, J.

    1998-01-01

    We consider classes of TU-games. We show that we can efficiently compute an allocation in the intersection of the prekernel and the least core of the game if we can efficiently compute the minimum excess for any given allocation. In the case where the prekernel of the game contains exactly one core

  11. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellogín Kouki, A.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Lin, J.J.P.; Said, A.; Samar, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Vuurens, J.B.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Trac

  12. RESULTS OF AIRPLANE TU-204-300 OPERATED BY "VLADIVOSTOK AVIA" COMPANY FUEL FLOW MONITIRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Maslennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results obtained from continuous monitoring of fuel flow on the airplanes Tu-204-300, operated by the aircompany "Vladivostok Avia". The reasons for the change in the cost of each copy of airplane and changes in fuel characteristics due to pilots manner of flying.

  13. XIA AND THE TU STATE IN THE ORACLE INSCRIPTIONS: A CONSIDERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuHouxuan

    1995-01-01

    In recent years,the studies on the Xia culture entered a new stage~2.In thepresent article,the writer investigates the identification of the Xia peoplewith the Tu state based on the archaeological evidence,the ancient recordsand the oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty.

  14. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr

  15. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr

  16. Comparison of Plasma Tu-M2-PK and CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Heegaard, Niels H H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-01-01

    because of suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Of these, 51 patients had their conditions diagnosed as PDAC, whereas this diagnosis was ruled out in 52 after 12 months of follow-up. The performance of Tu-M2-PK was compared with that of CA19-9 using cutoff values 15 and 37 U/mL, respectively. RESULTS...

  17. α1-Tubulin FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and conidiation in Fusarium asiaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang; Zheng, Jingwu; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium asiaticum contains two homologous genes FaTUA1 and FaTUA2 encoding α-tubulins. In this study, we found that FaTUA2 was dispensable for vegetative growth and sporulation in F. asiaticum. The deletion of FaTUA1 however led to dramatically reduced mycelial growth, twisted hyphae and abnormal nuclei in apical cells of hyphae. The FaTUA1 deletion mutant (ΔFaTuA1-5) also showed a significant decrease in conidiation, and produced abnormal conidia. Pathogenicity assays showed that ΔFaTuA1-5 exhibited decreased virulence on wheat head. Unexpectedly, the deletion of FaTUA1 led to resistance to high temperatures. In addition, ΔFaTuA2 showed increased sensitivity to carbendazim. Furthermore, increased FaTUA2 expression in ΔFaTuA1-5 partially restored the defects of the mutant in mycelial growth, conidial production and virulence, vice versa, increased FaTUA1 expression in the FaTUA2 deletion mutant also partially relieved the defect of the mutant in the delay of conidial germination. Taken together, these results indicate that FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and development, and the functions of FaTuA1 and FaTuA2 are partially interchangeable in F. asiaticum.

  18. Phenotypic Suppression of Streptomycin Resistance by Mutations in Multiple Components of the Translation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennifer F.; Lee, Hannah J.; Jaspers, Joshua B.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial ribosome and its associated translation factors are frequent targets of antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance mutations have been found in a number of these components. Such mutations can potentially interact with one another in unpredictable ways, including the phenotypic suppression of one mutation by another. These phenotypic interactions can provide evidence of long-range functional interactions throughout the ribosome and its functional complexes and potentially give insights into antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this study, we used genetics and experimental evolution of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus to examine the ability of mutations in various components of the protein synthesis apparatus to suppress the streptomycin resistance phenotypes of mutations in ribosomal protein S12, specifically those located distant from the streptomycin binding site. With genetic selections and strain constructions, we identified suppressor mutations in EF-Tu or in ribosomal protein L11. Using experimental evolution, we identified amino acid substitutions in EF-Tu or in ribosomal proteins S4, S5, L14, or L19, some of which were found to also relieve streptomycin resistance. The wide dispersal of these mutations is consistent with long-range functional interactions among components of the translational machinery and indicates that streptomycin resistance can result from the modulation of long-range conformational signals. IMPORTANCE The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus has become a model system for high-resolution structural studies of macromolecular complexes, such as the ribosome, while its natural competence for transformation facilitates genetic approaches. Genetic studies of T. thermophilus ribosomes can take advantage of existing high-resolution crystallographic information to allow a structural interpretation of phenotypic interactions among mutations. Using a combination of genetic selections, strain constructions

  19. Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2014-01-01

    .... Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation...

  20. Identification and purification of human erythroid progenitor cells by monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor (TU 67).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F; Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Oster, W; Wernet, P; Mertelsmann, R

    1988-04-01

    Anti-TU 67 is a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the transferrin receptor. With respect to hematopoietic cells TU 67 is expressed by human multipotent colony-forming cells (CFU-Mix), erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) and a fraction of granulocyte/monocyte colony forming cells, but is not expressed by mature hematopoietic cells including erythrocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, and peripheral blood myeloid cells. The TU 67-positive fraction of normal bone marrow, separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or immune rosettes, contained 87% of the erythroid progenitor cells. Erythroid progenitor cells were enriched up to 50-fold by using a combination of monoclonal antibodies to deplete mature hematopoietic cells, followed by positive selection of BFU-E and CFU-E by TU 67 antibody.

  1. 土族民间信仰的民族心理学解析%Tu Folk Beliefs of the National Psychology Analytical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王默

    2011-01-01

    Tu folk circulates with many unique folk beliefs,the folk beliefs are minority is an important part of traditional culture.Including fertility belief,reproductive worship,home most widely and typical worship god.This paper tries to ethnic psychology,reading from the perspective of representative of folk beliefs of tu folk beliefs,to explore the psychological factors produced.%土族民间存在着很多独具特色的民间信仰,这些民间信仰是土族传统文化的重要组成部分。其中丰产信仰、生殖崇拜、家神崇拜最为广泛和典型。本文试从民族心理学的角度入手,解读其中具有代表性的民间信仰,以探讨土族民间信仰产生的心理因素。

  2. Genetic polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-Ⅱ of Chinese Tu ethnic minority group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Chen; Yajun Deng; Yonghui Dang; BO Zhang; Haofang Mu; Xiaoguang Yu; Lin Li; Chunxia Yan; Teng Chen

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the two hypervariable segments HVS-Ⅰ and HVS-Ⅱ of 108 Chinese Tu ethnic minority group samples for forensic and population genetics purposes.Comparing with Anderson sequence,79 polymorphic loci in HVS-Ⅰ and 40 in HVS-Ⅱ were found in Chi-nese Tu ethnic minority group mtDNA sequences,and 90 and 64 haplotypes were then defined.Haplotype diversity and the mean pair-wise differences were 0.9903:±0.0013 and 5.7785 in HVS-Ⅰ,and 0.9777±0.0013 and 3.5819 in HVS-Ⅱ,respectively.By analyzing the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 1,6180 to 1,6193 in HVS-Ⅰ,we defined some new types of sequence variations.We also compared the relationship between Tu population and other populations using mtDNA HVS-Ⅰ sequences.According to Rst genetic distances,the phylogenetic tree showed that the Tu population,the Xi'an Han population,the Chinese Korean,and the Mongol ethnic group were in a clade.This indicated a close genetic relationship between them.There were far relations between the Tu population and other Chinese southern Han populations,Siberian,European,African,and other foreign populations.The results suggest that Tu population has a multi-origin and has also merged with other local populations.

  3. Genes involved in translation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the analysis of genes involved in translation of the complete genomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae. In both genomes 31 ORFs encoding large ribosomal subunit proteins and 19 ORFs encoding small ribosomal subunit proteins were found. Ten ribosomal protein gene clusters encoding 42 ribosomal proteins were found in M. synoviae, while 8 clusters encoding 39 ribosomal proteins were found in both M. hyopneumoniae strains. The L33 gene of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 presented two copies in different locations. The genes encoding initiation factors (IF-1, IF-2 and IF-3, elongation factors (EF-G, EF-Tu, EF-Ts and EF-P, and the genes encoding the ribosome recycling factor (frr and one polypeptide release factor (prfA were present in the genomes of M. hyopneumoniae and M. synoviae. Nineteen aminoacyl-tRNA synthases had been previously identified in both mycoplasmas. In the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, J and 7448, only one set of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNAs had been identified. Two sets of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and three sets of 5S rRNA genes had been identified in the M. synoviae genome.

  4. Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car

    OpenAIRE

    Hartvelt, M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Find out how Forze has been developing hydrogen powered racecars since 2007.

  5. Töötu laevamehhaanik õppis seitsme kuuga kokaks / Agne Narusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Narusk, Agne, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Töötu Jevgeni Solovjov õppis OÜ-s Isabella kokaks, ettevõte on üks 54 koolitajast, kellelt Tallinna tööhõiveamet teenust ostab. 2004. aastaks oli Tallinna tööhõiveametil tööotsijate koolitamiseks 7 mln krooni, millest jätkus pooleks aastaks. Lisa: Tööandjad saavad küsitluslehed

  6. Research data from hydrology disciplines are safely stored and published in 3TU.Datacentrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinčič, Alenka; Rombouts, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    Good management of research data from different science disciplines such as hydrology, geodesy and climate research, is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in forecasting and predictions. These research data can be well-managed and safely stored in 3TU.Datacentrum and thus become available for future use by the scientific community. 3TU.Datacentrum (datacentrum.3tu.nl) is a portal for science- and technology research data in the Netherlands. It provides long-term archive and permanent access to research data, it provides tools for citation of research datasets and thus enables linking, sharing and reuse of research data. Versatility of disciplines and thus versatility of the data producers' needs is a challenge of the data center. 3TU.Datacentrum offers solutions - as standardized as possible yet different where required. Standardized solution is the data model: datasets, instruments, locations and time frames are all objects on their own, with own metadata and interconnected through rdf relationships. These relations are also used to generate ORE Resource Maps. The file format NetCDF, which is primarily used for sets of multidimensional arrays with metadata included, enables interoperability. For simple datasets a Fedora repository is used where datasets of any format are allowed including that of a specific instrument. Alongside the NetCDF an xml version (ncml) is stored that can be converted to other formats. For complex datasets an OPeNDAP framework is used, which allows querying within and across datasets. Some examples from hydrological research are presented. 1 - For a complex collection of simple datasets consisting of ongoing hydrological measurements from several project partners, using several instruments, on several locations, and over a long period of time, there was a need for central storage in order to share the data and enable easy combination of data sets. The measurements are not repeatable and are also valuable for multidisciplinary research

  7. The computer science institute building of TU Brunswick University. Construction of an energy-efficient university building; Das Informatikzentrum der TU Braunschweig. Realisierung eines energieeffizienten Institutsgebaeudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozynski, M.; Gerder, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2003-07-01

    Saving of resources will be a key issue in future building construction. A new building projected on the campus of Brunswick University will have a power supply and ventilation concept that ensures low energy consumption. The project is carried out with funds provided by the Federal Minister of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in the context of the SolarBau funding concept. Construction of the building will be followed by an extensive monitoring programme that is to ensure its perfect function. [German] Eine wesentliche Zielsetzung zukuenftigen Bauens ist der sparsame Umgang mit Ressourcen. Im Rahmen eines integralen Planungsprozesses konnte fuer den Neubau des Informatikzentrums der TU Braunschweig ein Energie- und Lueftungskonzept realisiert werden, dass auf einen niedrigen Energieverbrauch zielt. Das Projekt wird im Rahmen des Foerderkonzeptes SolarBau durch das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) gefoerdert. Durch das anschliessende umfangreiche Monitoringprogramm wird derzeit die Funktionsfaehigkeit dieses Konzeptes ueberprueft. (orig.)

  8. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas; Rohrer, Sabrina; Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynthesis interacting with elongation factor EF-Tu. Genome Mining revealed 32 gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites in the genome of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, indicating an enormous biosynthetic potential of this strain. The structural diversity of secondary metabolisms predicted for S. collinus Tü 365 includes PKS, NRPS, PKS-NRPS hybrids, a lanthipeptide, terpenes and siderophores. While some of these gene clusters were found to contain genes related to known secondary metabolites, which also could be detected in HPLC-MS analyses, most of the uncharacterized gene clusters are not expressed under standard laboratory conditions. With this study we aimed to characterize the genome information of S. collinus Tü 365 to make use of gene clusters, which previously have not been described for this strain. We were able to connect the gene clusters of a lanthipeptide, a carotenoid, five terpenoid compounds, an ectoine, a siderophore and a spore pigment-associated gene cluster to their respective biosynthesis products.

  9. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan eGreeff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with 1 leucine rich repeat (LRR domains, 2 LysM domains (LYM and 3 the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L domain. These proteins recognize distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu. Upon binding of their cognate ligands, the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern triggered immunity (PTI. RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function.

  10. A LysM receptor-like kinase plays a critical role in chitin signaling and fungal resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinrong; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Neece, David; Ramonell, Katrina M; Clough, Steve; Kim, Sung-Yong; Stacey, Minviluz G; Stacey, Gary

    2008-02-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, is found in fungal cell walls but not in plants. Plant cells can perceive chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) leading to gene induction and defense responses. We identified a LysM receptor-like protein (LysM RLK1) required for chitin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutation in this gene blocked the induction of almost all chitooligosaccharide-responsive genes and led to more susceptibility to fungal pathogens but had no effect on infection by a bacterial pathogen. Additionally, exogenously applied chitooligosaccharides enhanced resistance against both fungal and bacterial pathogens in the wild-type plants but not in the mutant. Together, our data indicate that LysM RLK1 is essential for chitin signaling in plants (likely as part of the receptor complex) and is involved in chitin-mediated plant innate immunity. The LysM RLK1-mediated chitin signaling pathway is unique, but it may share a conserved downstream pathway with the FLS2/flagellin- and EFR/EF-Tu-mediated signaling pathways. Additionally, our work suggests a possible evolutionary relationship between the chitin and Nod factor perception mechanisms due to the similarities between their potential receptors and between the signal molecules perceived by them.

  11. Affinity labelling of Escherichia coli ribosomes with a benzylidene derivative of AUGU6 within initiation and pretranslocational complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkina, G T; Veniaminova, A G; Vladimirov, S N; Karpova, G G; Yamkovoy, V I; Berzin, V A; Gren, E J; Cielens, I E

    1986-07-01

    Affinity labelling of E. coli ribosomes with the 2',3'-O-[4-(N-2-chloroethyl)-N-methylamino]benzylidene derivative of AUGU6 was studied within the initiation complex (complex I) obtained by using fMet-tRNAMetf and initiation factors and within the pretranslocational complex (complex II) obtained by treatment of complex I with the ternary complex Phe-tRNAPhe.GTP.EF-Tu. Both proteins and rRNA of 30 S as well as 50 S subunits were found to be labelled. Sets of proteins labelled within complexes I and II differ considerably. Within complex II, proteins S13 and L10 were labelled preferentially. On the other hand, within complex I, multiple modification is observed (proteins S4, S12, S13, S14, S15, S18, S19, S20/L26 were found to be alkylated) despite the single fixation of a template in the ribosome by interaction of the AUG codon with fMet-tRNAMetf.

  12. Comparison of Escherichia coli tRNAPhe in the free state, in the ternary complex and in the ribosomal A and P sites by chemical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A; Wagner, R

    1983-01-01

    with elongation factor EF-Tu and GTP and in the ribosomal A and P sites were compared. A special procedure was devised to monitor, exclusively, tRNA molecules in the aminoacylated state. In the free tRNA, the most reactive bases are confined to the A73-C-C-A sequence of the aminoacyl stem, the anticodon loop......tRNAPheE.coli was modified at accessible guanosine, cytidine, and adenosine residues using the chemical modification method described by Peattie and Gilbert [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 77, 4679-4689 (1980)]. Modification characteristics of the tRNA in the free state, in the ternary complex......, the D-loop and the extra loop and the results correlate well with the three-dimensional structure of tRNAPheyeast determined by X-ray studies. The pattern of reactivity was not affected either by charging the tRNA with phenylalanine or by labelling the 3' terminus with pCp. In the ternary complex...

  13. Comparison of antigenic proteins from Lactococcus garvieae KG- and KG+ strains that are recognized by olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gee-Wook; Nho, Seong-Won; Park, Seong-Bin; Jang, Ho-Bin; Cha, In-Seok; Ha, Mi-Ae; Kim, Young-Rim; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Joh, Seong-Joon; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2009-10-20

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important etiological agent of lactococcosis in various fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, proteomic and immunoproteomic analyses were employed to compare the antigenic profiles of strains KG9408, MS93003, and NSS9310 strains of L. garvieae. Proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed differences in five protein spots among the different L. garvieae strains. In immunoproteomic analysis, there was a significant difference in the 2-DE immunoblot profiles of the L. garvieae strains using sera collected from fish surviving infection with either L. garvieae strains KG9408 or NSS9310. These sera reacted with 8 and 7 unique antigenic protein spots, respectively. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase were among the specific antigens recognized by the anti-NSS9310 serum. In addition, the anti-NSS9310 and anti-KG9408 olive flounder sera reacted with 25 common antigenic protein spots of all the L. garvieae strains, which included elongation factor (EF)-Tu, arginine deiminase (AD), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphomannomutase (PMM), L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 6-phosphofructokinase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (UDP-galactose). Based on the present results, the 8 antigens recognized by the anti-KG9408 serum and the 25 common antigens recognized by both sera may serve as potential markers for developing an effective vaccine against this bacterium.

  14. Expressed proteins of Herbaspirillum seropedicae in maize (DKB240) roots-bacteria interaction revealed using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Cibele Santos; Amaral, Fernanda Plucani; Bueno, Jessica Cavalheiro Ferreira; Scariot, Mirella Christine; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2014-11-01

    Several molecular tools have been used to clarify the basis of plant-bacteria interaction; however, the mechanism behind the association is still unclear. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the root proteome of Zea mays (cv. DKB240) inoculated with Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1 grown in vitro and harvested 7 days after inoculation. Eighteen differentially accumulated proteins were observed in root samples, ten of which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprint. Among the identified proteins, we observed three proteins present exclusively in inoculated root samples and six upregulated proteins and one downregulated protein relative to control. Differentially expressed maize proteins were identified as hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_483204, hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_269466, and tubulin beta-7 chain. The following were identified as H. seropedicae proteins: peroxiredoxin protein, EF-Tu elongation factor protein, cation transport ATPase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, dinitrogenase reductase, and type III secretion ATP synthase. Our results presented the first evidence of type III secretion ATP synthase expression during H. seropedicae-maize root interaction.

  15. Identification of Molecular Markers Linked to TuMV Resistant Gene in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jinping; WANG Chao; LIU Ying

    2008-01-01

    A total of 144 F2 individuals were obtained from the crossing between 1047 (susceptible) and A21 (resistant).Two RAPD markers were screened out in 200 random primers using BSA(Bulked Segregant Analysis). Two RAPD markers, designated as AG13/2000 and U16/660,were 7.7 cM and 8.38 cM apart from the TuMV resistant gene,respectively. The two RAPD fragments were converted to SCAR markers.SCAR markers were confined in germplasm.

  16. Jornada "Cómo crear tu propia asesoría fiscal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Delgado García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Los Estudios de Derecho y Ciencia Política de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya organizaron el día 23 de septiembre de 2015 la jornada «Cómo crear
    tu propia asesoría fiscal», bajo la dirección de Ana María Delgado García (Directora del Máster Universitario de Fiscalidad de la UOC y Rafael Oliver Cuello (Abogado, asesor fiscal y profesor consultor de Fiscalidad de la UOC.

  17. Opšte vibracije na sedištu pilota kod dva tipa helikoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Dejan; Basarić Gradimir; Jovelić Stojan

    2002-01-01

    U ovom radu opisano je merenje opštih vibracija na sedištu pilota kod dva tipa helikoptera (po jedna letelica) sa turbomlaznim motorima, kao i trećinsko-oktavna analiza ubrzanja opštih vibracija u sve tri ose. Iz dobijenih rezultata sledi da su nivoi ubrzanja kod prvog tipa helikoptera najveći u trećinsko-oktavnom opsegu sa centralnom frekvencijom od 16 Hz. Maksimalne vrednosti ubrzanja opštih vertikalnih vibracija izmerene su za režime lebdenja (0,977 m/s2) i horizontalnog leta pri brzini od...

  18. Ciuda tu corazón, es para toda la vida -Para Disfrutar la Música Clasica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cuida tu corazón, es para toda la vida. Importantelibro de información sobre prevenciónde de las enfermedades cardiovasculares,dirigido a la comunidad en general.Hace parte de la colección de libros sobre prevención primaria: “Cuidatu corazón, vive mejor” que desde hace varios años viene publicandoel profesor, doctor Fernando Manzur Jattin, desde su grupo de investigación:“Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas”, perteneciente a laFacultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena y Categoriza...

  19. Transportvaneundersøgelsen - Variabeldeklaration : TU 2006-09, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar

    , eller anden årsag. Undervejs omtales en række vigtige detaljer ved spørgeskemaet, men dette notat har ikke til formål at give en udtømmende beskrivelse af hvilke spørgsmål, der er stillet til hvem og hvornår. Her kan det være til stor nytte at besøge testspørgeskemaet på http://tu2010.dk/dev/starttest.php...

  20. Tööotsija töötuks tunnistamise ning töötu abiraha määramise ja maksmise ajutise juhendi kinnitamise kohta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1991-01-01

    Kehtib 1. aprillist 1991. Lisatud ajutine juhend: töö vahendamine tööotsijale, töötule, töötu abiraha määramine ja maksmine Lisatud: töötu abiraha arvutamine. Muudatus: RT I 1992 nr. 27 art. 362

  1. Diasystème et spécification de traits en tu'un savi (mixtecan otomangue oriental)

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Jean,

    2010-01-01

    This contribution aims to focus on various descriptions and theories of the segmental inventory and distributional constraints of the phonology of Tu'un Savi (Mixtec). The Oto-Manguean languages are reputed to be among the most complex of Meso-America due to the intricacy of their surface forms. Mixtec (known as Tu'un Savi or Ñuu Savi by its speakers) is part of the Mixtecan sub-family, which includes Trique, Cuicatec and probably also Amuzgo (Longacre, 1957, 1961; Longacre & Millon, 1961), b...

  2. DNA Barcoding for Identification of "Candidatus Phytoplasmas" Using a Fragment of the Elongation Factor Tu Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta

    2012-01-01

    /Principal Findings We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420–444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX). Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed...... by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification....

  3. DNA Barcoding for Identification of "Candidatus Phytoplasmas" Using a Fragment of the Elongation Factor Tu Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta;

    2012-01-01

    barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied...

  4. The "Da Ming Hunyi Tu": Repurposing a Ming Map in Sino-African Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Akin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, an exhibition at South Africa’s parliament included a reproduction of the Da Ming Hunyi Tu (Amalgamated map of the Great Ming, citing it as the earliest world map to depict the entire African continent. As part of its broader efforts to shape a narrative of long-standing and peaceful international relations with Africa, the People’s Republic of China formally presented a replica of this map as a gift to the South African government in conjunction with the exhibition. In official statements and popular media coverage alike, the map was described as evidence of a distinctly Chinese approach to global relations, based on benevolence and mutual respect. In particular, the map was ahistorically intertwined with the legacy of Zheng He’s diplomatic expeditions, which reached the East African coast in the early 1400s. To the cartographic historian, however, the depiction of Africa in the Da Ming Hunyi Tu is clearly derived from non-Chinese sources that predate Zheng He’s expeditions. This article examines the ways in which the map has been divorced from its original context to suit modern needs, exemplifying the deployment of cartography to deflect anxieties about the nature of Chinese economic influence in South Africa.

  5. H1 - antihistamīna preparātu aprite aptiekās

    OpenAIRE

    Palamarčuka, Nadežda

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, kādi H1-antihistamīna preparāti ir vislabāk pazīstami un tiek visvairāk pirkti aptiekās. Pētījumā tika aptaujāti 100 pacienti un analizēti lieltirgotavas MagnumMedical H1-antihistamīna preparātu tirdzniecības apjomi. Iegūtie rezultāti liecina, ka vislielākais H1-antihistamīna preparātu patēriņš ir pirmās paaudzes preparātiem Tavegyl (klemastīns) un Suprastin (hloropiramīns), jo to iegādei nav nepieciešamas receptes, tie ir salīdzinoši lēti un ir bijuši p...

  6. TuBaFrost 5: multifunctional central database application for a European tumor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, M; Teodorovic, I; Morente, M M; Jaminé, D; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Dinjens, W N M; Oosterhuis, J W; Lam, K H; Oomen, M H A; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; van de Vijver, M; van Boven, H; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; Lopez-Guerrero, J A; Llombart Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; van Veen, E-B; van Damme, B; Riegman, P H J

    2006-12-01

    Developing a tissue bank database has become more than just logically arranging data in tables combined with a search engine. Current demand for high quality samples and data, and the ever-changing legal and ethical regulations mean that the application must reflect TuBaFrost rules and protocols for the collection, exchange and use of tissue. To ensure continuation and extension of the TuBaFrost European tissue bank, the custodianship of the samples, and hence the decision over whether to issue samples to requestors, remains with the local collecting centre. The database application described in this article has been developed to facilitate this open structure virtual tissue bank model serving a large group. It encompasses many key tasks, without the requirement for personnel, hence minimising operational costs. The Internet-accessible database application enables search, selection and request submission for requestors, whereas collectors can upload and edit their collection. Communication between requestor and involved collectors is started with automatically generated e-mails.

  7. “MONTEVIDEO, TU CASA”: ELEMENTOS PARA UNA LECTURA DEL CUERPO EN EL ESPACIO PÚBLICO MODERNO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Seré Quintero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El eslogan “Montevideo, tu casa” utilizado por la Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo (Uruguay entre 1991 y 2006, funciona como punto de partida para el análisis de las formas modernas que toma el espacio público urbano. La ciudad, escenario de la modernidad, da cuenta de la indistinción que se establecerá entre lo público y lo privado a partir de la emergencia de lo social, la consolidación del Estado-nación y la configuración de la economía política como parámetro de lectura de la realidad. Con ello, la política se verá reducida a la gestión y administración de las necesidades de la población, y la vida en términos biológicos tendrá allí un lugar central, factor clave para la organización de un espacio público que se presenta como una extensión del ámbito doméstico. El proceso de modernización de la ciudad de Montevideo es tomado en este artículo para dar cuenta de los efectos de una política contemporánea que se rige por la primacía de lo económico y donde parecen reducirse las distinciones entre el espacio público y el doméstico a cuestiones de tamaño o escala, teniendo como correlato una biologización de la vida pública y por tanto de la política.

  8. Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2014-11-20

    RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL) of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity.

  9. Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Roy Choudhury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs, only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity.

  10. 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award Honors Prof.TU You-you for the Discovery of Artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award honors a scientist who discovered artemisinin and its utility for treating malaria.Prof.TU You-you (China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,Beijing) transformed an ancient Chinese healing method into the most powerful antimalarial medicine currently available that has saved millions of lives across the globe,especially in the developing world.

  11. Modeling the mechanisms of biological GTP hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Alexandra T.P.; Szeler, Klaudia; Vavitsas, Konstantinos;

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP are currently in the spotlight, due to their molecular switch mechanism that controls many cellular processes. One of the best-known classes of these enzymes are small GTPases such as members of the Ras superfamily, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the γ-phosphate bond...... in GTP. In addition, the availability of an increasing number of crystal structures of translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and EF-G have made it possible to probe the molecular details of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome. However, despite a wealth of biochemical, structural and computational data, the way...... on the ribosome and in small GTPases....

  12. A guidelines handbook for GPR surveys in tunnels: a COST Action TU1208 contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Alani, Amir M.; Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    A significant open issue concerning the reliability of geophysical methods and in particular of ground penetrating radar (GPR), both in research and professional context, is a general lack of international standards. This is a major problem to be faced, in order to gain scientific strictness for the GPR practices, and to easily extend to the international community the results achieved within the area of single virtuous countries. Producing international guidelines can represent an important step forward, in this sense. In the memorandum of understanding of the COST Action TU1208 is clearly stated that one of the main purposes of the Action is the "development of innovative protocols and guidelines which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European Standards, for an effective GPR application in CE tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols". Of course this is not a simple task to be accomplished. Firstly, survey procedures are highly dependent on the objective of the survey itself. On the basis of the objective of each geophysical test, the GPR system, the antenna configuration, and even the processing procedures may change. Besides, these procedures are also influenced by the environmental conditions in which the tests are performed. This affects several aspects spanning from hardware to software, but including, for instance, also safety issues. Due to these reasons, one of the main goal of the COST Action TU1208 is the development of several guidelines related to the main applications of GPR in the field of civil engineering. In this work, the structure of a guidelines handbook for GPR activities in tunnels is outlined. In the first sections, the principal references in the field are provided, and the most common GPR equipment and complementary technologies are described. Subsequently, the survey methodologies are explained. Particular attention is paid to the preliminary activities to be carried

  13. Preventive Effect of TU-100 on a Type-2 Model of Colitis in Mice: Possible Involvement of Enhancing Adrenomedullin in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kaneko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, have histopathologically and immunologically different characteristics. We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100, ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM enhancement. Our current aims were to examine whether TU-100 ameliorates a type-2 model colitis that histologically resembles UC and identify the active ingredients. Methods. TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN- induced type-2 model colitis. The morbidity was evaluated by body weight loss and the macroscopic score of colonic lesions. ADM was quantified using an EIA kit. Results. TU-100 prevented weight loss and colon ulceration. ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was increased by TU-100 addition. Screening to identify active ingredients showed that [6]-shogaol and hydroxy α-sanshool enhanced ADM production. Conclusions. TU-100 exerted a protective effect in OXN-induced type-2 model colitis, indicating that TU-100 may be a beneficial agent for treatment of UC.

  14. 绵羊肺炎支原体免疫蛋白质组学的初步研究%Preliminary study on immunoproteomics of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许健; 储岳峰; 高鹏程; 赵萍; 贺英; 剡根强; 逯忠新

    2012-01-01

    The proteins of MoGH3-3 strain of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae(Mo) were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE),then subjected to immunoblotting with antiserum of Mo.The screened major immunoreactive proteins were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS)and analyzed with bioinformatics methods. Three major immnunoreactive protein plots were screened with two of them identified as the elongation factor Tu(EF-Tu) and the rest one as the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha subunit(PDHA). The results showed that EF-Tu and PDHA are the major immnunogenic proteins of Mo. This study provided antigen candidates for the development of novel vaccines against disease caused by Mo.%利用双向电泳及免疫印迹方法对绵羊肺炎支原体MoGH3-3分离株的抗原蛋白进行筛选,并采用基质辅助激光解吸离子化飞行时间质谱对其进行初步鉴定。结果,共筛选到MoGH3-3株3个主要抗原蛋白点,其中2个被鉴定为延伸因子(elongation factor Tu,EF-Tu),1个为丙酮酸脱氢酶E1-a亚单位(pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha subunit,PDHA)。结果表明,EF-Tu及PDHA是绵羊肺炎支原体主要的抗原蛋白,这为下一步绵羊支原体肺炎基因工程疫苗的研制提供了靶标。

  15. 土家族初中生性知识、性态度问卷的编制及特点研究%The Development of the Questionnaire and Characteristic of Tu Jia Nationality Juniors' Knowledge of Sex and Attitude of Sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛缨; 赵耀

    2012-01-01

    Objective Based on interview, searching of references, counseling of experts, the Questionnaire of Tu Jia Nationality Juniors' Knowledge of Sex and Attitude of Sex was constructed. Methods Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of data from 790 Tu Jia nationality juniors showed that the Questionnaire of Tu Jia nationality juniors' Knowledge of Sex had 21 items, including four dimensions : physiological development, reproductive mystery, health care, venereal disease prevention; and the Questionnaire of Tu Jia nationality juniors' Attitude of Sex had 30 items, consisting of six dimensions: sex education attitude , sexual nature attitude, sexual morality attitude, sex description attitude , love attitude, unmarried sex attitude. Results The overall condition of knowledge of sex in all kinds of Tu Jia nationality juniors is good There are significant differences in sexual attitude among Tu Jia nationality juniors with various grades, residences, parents' educations. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the questionnaire are statistically reasonable.%目的 通过访谈、文献查阅、专家咨询等方式,编制了土家族初中生性知识、性态度问卷.方法 经过790名土家族初中生被试评定,对数据进行探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析显示,土家族初中生性知识问卷由21个项目组成,包括:生理发育、生殖奥秘、卫生保健、性病防治等4个因素;性态度问卷由30个项目组成,包括:性教育态度、性本质态度、性道德态度、性描写态度、谈恋爱态度、未婚性行为态度等6个因素.结果 土家族初中生各类群体对性知识了解总体情况较好,不同年级、居住地和父母文化程度的土家族初中生的性态度情况存在差异.结论问卷的信度与效度达到统计标准水平.

  16. Requirement of the RNA-binding protein SmpB during intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Frantz, Renate; Teubner, Lisa; Wendt, Heiko; Linne, Uwe; Wingerath, Jessica; Wirth, Thomas; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial trans-translation is the main quality control mechanism employed to relieve stalled ribosomes. Trans-translation is mediated by the small protein B (SmpB) and transfer-mRNA (tmRNA) ribonucleoprotein complex, which interacts with translational complexes stalled at the 3' end of non-stop mRNAs to release the stalled ribosomes thereby targeting the nascent polypeptides and truncated mRNAs for degradation. The trans-translation system exists with a few exceptions in all bacteria. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of SmpB to the growth and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, a human intracellular food-borne pathogen that colonizes host tissues to cause severe invasive infections. A smpB knockout significantly decreased the intracellular growth rate of L. monocytogenes during infection of murine macrophages. In addition, the mutant strain was attenuated for virulence when examined with the Galleria mellonella larvae killing assay and the organ colonisation model of mice following infection. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts of ΔsmpB deletion mutant revealed elevated protein levels of several proteins involved in ribosome assembly and interaction with tRNA substrates. These included the elongation factor Tu [EF-Tu] which promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis as well as the CysK which is known to interact with bacterial toxins that cleave tRNA substrates. The data presented here shed light on the role of SmpB and trans-translation during intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L. [TU Delft (Netherlands). Reactor Inst. Delft; Neeft, E.A.C.; Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Nieuwdorp (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    awarded research proposals available at www.covra.nl/downloads/o pera. Building up competences and knowledge on radioactive waste management and geological disposal is an important goal of OPERA. To this end OPERA collaborates with TU Delft to develop an academic curriculum for the chair Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the Master of Science Engineering. Furthermore, the results obtained in OPERA will be presented at a Summer School which is planned to be organized at the end of the Program. TU Delft educates young specialists, bachelor and master students, by research projects on geological disposal at the new actinide laboratory (U and Th). For such purpose the knowledge transfer from other OPERA partners is also foreseen, including students internships and visits of the research facilities. Reactor Institute Delft (RID) is part of the Applied Sciences faculty of TU Delft and houses the Radiation Science and Technology (RST) department. RID operates the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR), a 2 MW pool- type research reactor in an academic setting. The reactor is used as a source of neutrons and positrons for research purposes, including those of OPERA. It also provides neutrons to a variety of facilities for radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. OPERA is financed by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the public limited liability company Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland (EPZ) and coordinated by COVRA.

  18. Development of SAP-DoA techniques for GPR data processing within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the use of Sub-Array Processing (SAP) and Direction of Arrival (DoA) approaches for the processing of Ground-Penetrating Radar data, with the purpose of locating metal scatterers embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. Research activities have been carried out during two Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in May 2015 and January 2016. In applications involving smart antennas and in the presence of several transmitters operating simultaneously, it is important for a receiving array to be able to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the incoming signals, in order to decipher how many emitters are present and predict their positions. A number of methods have been devised for DoA estimation: the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT) are amongst the most popular ones [1]. In the scenario considered by us, the electromagnetic sources are the currents induced on metal elements embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. GPR radargrams are processed, to estimate the DoAs of the electric field back-scattered by the sought targets. In order to work in near-field conditions, a sub-array processing (SAP) approach is adopted: the radargram is partitioned in sub-radargrams composed of few A-scans each, the dominant DoA is predicted for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. This pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is processed by applying the statistical procedure described in [2]. We tested our approach on synthetic GPR radargrams, obtained by using the freeware simulator gprMax implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method [3]. In particular, we worked with

  19. La ciudad-mito y lo grotesco en los hermanos González Tuñón

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La poética de los hermanos González Tuñón, iniciada al calor de las vanguardias porteñas, es estudiada atendiendo a la mítica de lo urbano, lo que permite a su vez analizar el empleo de la estética grotesca como modo de subrayar una cultura híbrid

  20. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6 plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties.

  1. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES(ASODN) ON HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER CELL LINE PaTu8988s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of different concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) on human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s. Method: Human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s in exponential growth stage was used to study the effect of different drug concentrations on the cell line in the presence of different concentrations (0 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 10 μg/m, 200 μg/ml) of ASODN and sense oligodeoxynucleotides (SODN). Cell counts and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolzyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were carried out. Results: The inhibitory rate on the cell line PaTu8988s was 98.73%,95.76%,69.49%,33.05% and 0 for ASODM concentrations of 200 μg/ml,100 μg/ml,50 μg/ml,25 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml at 48 hours. Conclusions: K-ras complementary ASODN can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s by 30.05% to 98.73%. This is likely to contribute to the specificity of the K-ras mRNA complementary capped ASODN sequential codon. Non-specific effect and side effect of ASOND were observed for instance, the greater the concentration is, the earlier the peak of inhibitory rate is reached. In concentration of 25 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml ASODN showed a dose-effect correlation

  2. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  3. TU Comae Berenices : Blazhko RR Lyrae Star in a Potential Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    de Ponthiere, Pierre; Menzies, Kenneth; Sabo, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a photometry campaign of TU Com performed over a five-year time span. The analysis showed that the possible Blazhko period of 75 days published by the General Catalogue of Variable Stars is not correct. We identified two Blazhko periods of 43.6 and 45.5 days. This finding is based on measurement of 124 light maxima. A spectral analysis of the complete light curve confirmed these two periods. Besides the Blazhko amplitude and phase modulations, another long term periodic phase variation has been identified. This long term periodic variation affects the times of maximum light only and can be attributed to a light-travel time effect due to orbital motion of a binary system. The orbital parameters have been estimated by a nonlinear least-square fit applied to the set of (O-C) values. The Levenberg-Marquart algorithm has been used to perform the nonlinear least-square fit. The tentative orbital parameters include an orbital period of 1676 days, a minimal semi-major axis of 1.55 AU and a s...

  4. TU-100 (Daikenchuto) and ginger ameliorate anti-CD3 antibody induced T cell-mediated murine enteritis: microbe-independent effects involving Akt and NF-κB suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Kono, Toru; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Musch, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ free (GF) mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.

  5. Leaf Proteome Analysis Reveals Prospective Drought and Heat Stress Response Mechanisms in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat are among the major abiotic stresses that affect soybean crops worldwide. During the current investigation, the effect of drought, heat, and drought plus heat stresses was compared in the leaves of two soybean varieties, Surge and Davison, combining 2D-DIGE proteomic data with physiology and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated how 25 differentially expressed photosynthesis-related proteins affect RuBisCO regulation, electron transport, Calvin cycle, and carbon fixation during drought and heat stress. We also observed higher abundance of heat stress-induced EF-Tu protein in Surge. It is possible that EF-Tu might have activated heat tolerance mechanisms in the soybean. Higher level expressions of heat shock-related protein seem to be regulating the heat tolerance mechanisms. This study identifies the differential expression of various abiotic stress-responsive proteins that regulate various molecular processes and signaling cascades. One inevitable outcome from the biochemical and proteomics assays of this study is that increase of ROS levels during drought stress does not show significant changes at the phenotypic level in Davison and this seems to be due to a higher amount of carbonic anhydrase accumulation in the cell which aids the cell to become more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2.

  6. Functional consequences of T-stem mutations in E. coli tRNA Thr UGU in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saks, Margaret E; Sanderson, Lee E; Choi, Daniel S;

    2011-01-01

    unable to support growth of E. coli or are less effective than the wild-type sequence. Since the inviable T-stem sequences are often present in other E. coli tRNAs, it appears that T-stem sequences in each tRNA body have evolved to optimize function in a different way. Although mutations of tRNAThr can...... to mutations in three T-stem base pairs in a quantitatively identical manner. However, tRNAThr differs from other tRNAs by also using its rare A52–C62 pair as a negative specificity determinant. Using a plasmid-based tRNA gene replacement strategy, we show that many of the tRNAThrUGU T-stem changes are either......The binding affinities between Escherichia coli EF-Tu and 34 single and double base-pair changes in the T stem of E. coli tRNAThrUGU were compared with similar data obtained previously for several aa-tRNAs binding to Thermus thermophilus EF-Tu. With a single exception, the two proteins bound...

  7. Presence and diversity of Streptomyces in Dendroctonus and sympatric bark beetle galleries across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Adams, Aaron S; Raffa, Kenneth; Hofstetter, Richard W; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-05-01

    Recent studies have revealed several examples of intimate associations between insects and Actinobacteria, including the Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and the Spruce Beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis. Here, we surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria co-occurring with 10 species of Dendroctonus bark beetles across the United States, using both phylogenetic and community ecology approaches. From these 10 species, and 19 other scolytine beetles that occur in the same trees, we obtained 154 Streptomyces-like isolates and generated 16S sequences from 134 of those. Confirmed 16S sequences of Streptomyces were binned into 36 distinct strains using a threshold of 0.2% sequence divergence. The 16S rDNA phylogeny of all isolates does not correlate with the distribution of strains among beetle species, localities, or parts of the beetles or their galleries. However, we identified three Streptomyces strains occurring repeatedly on Dendroctonus beetles and in their galleries. Identity of these isolates was corroborated using a house-keeping gene sequence (efTu). These strains are not confined to a certain species of beetle, locality, or part of the beetle or their galleries. However, their role as residents in the woodboring insect niche is supported by the repeated association of their 16S and efTu from across the continent, and also having been reported in studies of other subcortical insects.

  8. Differentiation between MAMP Triggered Defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Vetter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A first line of defense against pathogen attack for both plants and animals involves the detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, followed by the induction of a complex immune response. Plants, like animals, encode several receptors that recognize different MAMPs. While these receptors are thought to function largely redundantly, the physiological responses to different MAMPs can differ in detail. Responses to MAMP exposure evolve quantitatively in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, perhaps in response to environment specific differences in microbial threat. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which the detection of two canonical MAMPs were evolving redundantly or distinctly within natural populations. Our results reveal negligible correlation in plant growth responses between the bacterial MAMPs EF-Tu and flagellin. Further investigation of the genetic bases of differences in seedling growth inhibition and validation of 11 candidate genes reveal substantial differences in the genetic loci that underlie variation in response to these two MAMPs. Our results indicate that natural variation in MAMP recognition is largely MAMP-specific, indicating an ability to differentially tailor responses to EF-Tu and flagellin in A. thaliana populations.

  9. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  10. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  11. Genetic dissection of the resistance to nine anthracnose races in the common bean differential cultivars MDRK and TU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to nine races of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose, was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the cross between the anthracnose differential bean cultivars TU (resistant to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449) and MDRK (resistant to races, 449, and 1545). Molecular marker analyses were carried out in the F(2) individuals in order to map and characterize the anthracnose resistance genes or gene clusters present in these two differential cultivars. The results of the combined segregation indicate that at least three independent loci conferring resistance to anthracnose are present in TU. One of them, corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-5, is located in linkage group B7, and is formed by a cluster of different genes conferring specific resistance to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449. Evidence of intra-cluster recombination between these specific resistance genes was found. The second locus present in TU confers specific resistance to races 31 and 102, and the third locus confers specific resistance to race 102, the location of these two loci remains unknown. The resistance to race 1545 present in MDRK is due to two independent dominant genes. The results of the combined segregation of two F(4) families showing monogenic segregation for resistance to race 1545 indicates that one of these two genes is linked to marker OF10(530), located in linkage group B1, and corresponds to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-1. The second gene conferring resistance to race 1545 in MDRK is linked to marker Pv-ctt001, located in linkage group B4, and corresponds to the Co-3/Co-9 cluster. The resistance to race 449 present in MDRK is conferred by a single gene, located in linkage group B4, probably included in the same Co-3/Co-9 cluster.

  12. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  13. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  14. High contrast imaging of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins via temporally unmixed Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (tuMSOT)

    CERN Document Server

    Stiel, Andre C; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel; Westmeyer, Gil G

    2014-01-01

    Photocontrol of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) was used to program optoacoustic signal time courses that were temporally unmixed to increase the proteins contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) in optoacoustic imaging. In this way, two variants of the RSFP Dronpa with very similar optoacoustic spectra could be readily discriminated in the presence of highly absorbing blood. Addition of temporal unmixing to multispectral optoacoustic tomography (tuMSOT) in conjunction with synthetic or genetically controlled photochromic contrast agents and customized photoswitching schedules can increase the performance of multiplexed and high contrast molecular optoacoustic imaging.

  15. Control de criaderos de Aedes aegypticon el programa Recicla por tu bienestar en Mérida, México

    OpenAIRE

    Mario A. Barrera-Pérez; Norma Pavía-Ruz; Jorge Eduardo Mendoza-Mézquita; Nerio Torres-Arcila; Ramón Hernández-Hernández; Francisco Castro-Gamboa; Eduardo Geded-Moreno; Azael Cohuo-Rodríguez; Anuar Medina-Barreiro; Edgar Koyoc-Cardeña; Héctor Gómez-Dantés; Axel Kroeger; Gonzalo Vázquez-Prokopec; Pablo Manrique-Saide

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la importancia de los criaderos de Ae. aegypti en Mérida; evaluar el impacto del programa Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB) sobre la presencia/abundancia de éstos y la percepción de los habitantes. Material y métodos. S e calculó la importancia de los criaderos por su productividad pupal. Se realizaron muestreos pre y post RxB en colonias para cuantificar el total de recipientes/criaderos. Se aplicó una encuesta a participantes sobre la percepción sobre RxB en colonias sel...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis sigma28 recognizes the fliC promoter of Escherichia coli and responds to heat shock in chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Li, Maixiang; Zhang, You-Xun

    2004-01-01

    The rpsD gene of Chlamydia trachomatis encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma28, which bears strong homology to many bacterial sigma factors, including Escherichia coli sigma8 and Bacillus subtilis sigmaB and sigmaD. Recently, a sigma28 promoter was identified upstream of the late-cycle-expressed gene hctB, which encodes the Chlamydia-histone-like protein 2 (Yu & Tan, 2003). In this study it is shown that the product of chlamydial rpsD is an E. coli sigma28 homologue. It was found that recombinant chlamydial sigma8, in combination with E. coli core RNA polymerase, initiates transcription in vitro from the E. coli sigma28-dependent promoter of fliC. It was also demonstrated that the recombinant chlamydial sigma28 does not recognize major sigma factor sigma70-consensus-like sequences in vitro. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, two rpsD transcripts were detected with 5' ends located 18 (transcript I) and 54 bp (transcript II) upstream of the translational initiation codon at 16 and 30 h post-infection. When the temperature of cultures infected with C. trachomatis was shifted from 35 to 42 degrees C, the rpsD transcript I increased dramatically. The levels of chlamydial sigma28, relative to EF-Tu, were greater throughout the exponential growth phase of the reticulate body, but lower late in the developmental cycle. These data support the hypothesis that sigma28 plays a role in the regulatory network that allows chlamydiae to survive changes in its environment, enabling it to complete its unique developmental cycle.

  17. Identification, genotypic relation, and clinical features of colistin-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter genomic species 13BJ/14TU from bloodstreams of patients in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Shin, Jong Hee; Park, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Colistin resistance remains rare among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species. We noted the emergence of colistin-resistant bloodstream isolates of the Acinetobacter genomic species (GS) 13BJ/14TU from patients at a university hospital between 2003 and 2011. We report here, for the first time, the microbiological and molecular characteristics of these isolates, with clinical features of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU bacteremia. All 11 available patient isolates were correctly identified as Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU using partial rpoB gene sequencing but were misidentified using the phenotypic methods Vitek 2 (mostly as Acinetobacter baumannii), MicroScan (mostly as A. baumannii/Acinetobacter haemolyticus), and the API 20 NE system (all as A. haemolyticus). Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, including carbapenems, but all were resistant to colistin, for which it is unknown whether the resistance is acquired or intrinsic. However, the fact that none of the patients had a history of colistin therapy strongly suggests that Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU is innately resistant to colistin. The phylogenetic tree of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that all 11 isolates formed a separate cluster from other Acinetobacter species and yielded five sequence types. However, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 11 distinct patterns, suggesting that the bacteremia had occurred sporadically. Four patients showed persistent bacteremia (6 to 17 days), and all 11 patients had excellent outcomes with cleared bacteremia, suggesting that patients with Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU-associated bacteremia show a favorable outcome. These results emphasize the importance of precise species identification, especially regarding colistin resistance in Acinetobacter species. In addition, MLST offers another approach to the identification of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU, whereas PFGE is useful for genotyping for this species.

  18. Nondestructive tests for railway monitoring. European Experience in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontul, Simona; Solla, Mercedes; Loizos, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The railway monitoring is an important issue for a proper maintenance planning. With the increase in loads and travel speed, it is important to be able to diagnose the track defects and to plan the proper maintenance without interfering with the users. Traditionally, the maintenance actions are planned based on the geometric level parameters assessed without contact with the line, at traffic speed, by dedicated inspection vehicles. Nevertheless, the geometric condition of the line does not provide information on the defects causes. In order to complements the information on the causes, geophysics measurements can be performed in a nondestructive way. Among these later methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. A resume of the European experience in COST Action TU1208 of the application of GPR for railway monitoring and the measurement interpretation is presented in this paper. Also complementary nondestructive tests and other geophysical methods are referred, together with case studies of their application. The main troubleshooting and the needs for data analysis

  19. A gripping tale of ribosomal frameshifting: extragenic suppressors of frameshift mutations spotlight P-site realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John F; Björk, Glenn R

    2009-03-01

    Mutants of translation components which compensate for both -1 and +1 frameshift mutations showed the first evidence for framing malleability. Those compensatory mutants isolated in bacteria and yeast with altered tRNA or protein factors are reviewed here and are considered to primarily cause altered P-site realignment and not altered translocation. Though the first sequenced tRNA mutant which suppressed a +1 frameshift mutation had an extra base in its anticodon loop and led to a textbook "yardstick" model in which the number of anticodon bases determines codon size, this model has long been discounted, although not by all. Accordingly, the reviewed data suggest that reading frame maintenance and translocation are two distinct features of the ribosome. None of the -1 tRNA suppressors have anticodon loops with fewer than the standard seven nucleotides. Many of the tRNA mutants potentially affect tRNA bending and/or stability and can be used for functional assays, and one has the conserved C74 of the 3' CCA substituted. The effect of tRNA modification deficiencies on framing has been particularly informative. The properties of some mutants suggest the use of alternative tRNA anticodon loop stack conformations by individual tRNAs in one translation cycle. The mutant proteins range from defective release factors with delayed decoding of A-site stop codons facilitating P-site frameshifting to altered EF-Tu/EF1alpha to mutant ribosomal large- and small-subunit proteins L9 and S9. Their study is revealing how mRNA slippage is restrained except where it is programmed to occur and be utilized.

  20. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence: Implication for skin homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa eNdiaye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2 production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  1. The Dynamic Atmospheres of Mira Stars: Comparing the CODEX Models to PTI Time Series Observations of TU Andromedae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, M.; Verhoelst, T.; Degroote, P.; Acke, B.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-08-01

    We present our already-published evaluation of the effectiveness of the CODEX models, released in 2011, in representing the atmospheres of M-type Mira variables. We present a high-precision interferometric K-band time series of TU And, consisting of 50 nights that cover eight consecutive pulsation cycles. At each phase, the flux at 2.2μm was obtained, along with the spectral shape and visibility points in five channels across the K band. We show a comparison between these data and the dynamical self-excited CODEX model which gives the closest match in stellar parameters yet available. Both the spectrum and the visibilities are consistently reproduced around visual minimum phases. Near the maximum phases, however, the current models predict a photosphere that is too hot and compact, surrounded by an extended atmosphere that lacks H2O opacity, compared to the observations. A better coverage in the model parameter space is needed to make firm conclusions as to the cause of the discrepancies. In the case of TU And, the discrepancy might be lifted by adopting a lower value of the mixing length parameter combined with an increased stellar mass and/or a decreased metallicity.

  2. Vysílač sériových dat ve formátu RS-232

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je navržení vysílače sériových dat formátu RS-232 ve vývojovém prostředí Xilinx ISE WebPACK s možností nastavit detaily formátu vysílaných dat vstupními signály. Dále je nutné prozkoumat požadavky navrženého vysílače na spotřebu strukturních prvků v různých cílových obvodech PLD a na závěr provést ověření funkčnosti návrhu pomocí vývojového kitu. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to create an RS-232 transmitter in the Xilinx ISE WebPACK development system with th...

  3. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 4 - Combined use of GPR and other NDT methods & GPR applications in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 4 "Different applications of GPR and other NDT technologies in civil engineering" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action TU1208, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. WG4 deals with the use of GPR outside from the civil engineering area, namely in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics, agriculture and management of water resources, investigation of polluted industrial sites, non-destructive testing of living tree trunks, planetary exploration, demining, localization of people buried under avalanches and debris, and more. Furthermore, this WG studies the integration of GPR with other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods. The most relevant achievements stemming from WG4 will be presented during the 2017 EGU GA. These are: (i) The collection of thorough information on the state-of-the-art, ongoing studies, problems and future research needs on the topics of interest for this WG; (ii) The performance of a plethora of interesting case studies in important sites all over Europe, including well-known historical places such as Stonehenge (United Kingdom), Carnuntum (Austria), the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland), the Tholos Tomb of Acharnon (Athens, Greece), the Łazienki Royal Palace (Warsaw, Poland), and more; (iii) WG4 contributed to the TU1208 Education Pack, an open educational package conceived to teach GPR in University

  4. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  5. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the sensitivity of GPR electromagnetic waves to moisture variation in wood material in relation with the direction of fibers and polarization of Electromagnetic field. The relations between relative permittivity and moisture content and the amplitude attenuation with distance was a target study using the direct waves in Wide Angle Radar Reflection (WARR) configuration. Comparison of results measured with reflected waves and direct waves was of main importance since they have different behavior in relation with moisture variation, due to different path of propagation. This research activity has been carried out during one Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November-December 2015. In context of durability evaluation of construction materials, several studies have been carried out by the I2M team, University of Bordeaux, using direct and reflected waves for the evaluation of water content on concrete and wood materials [1-3]. As related to the wood material there is one study carried out using the reflected waves on wood for different humidity and different wood samples, in all the direction of polarization using GPR technique ground coupled antenna at 1.5 GHz [3]. This work continued with different moisture content in order to study the behavior of direct waves as function of moisture. Results taken from those measurements are compared with them from Fixed Offset (reflected method) with one antenna (1.5GHz or 2.6GHz), realized from the previous studies from the I2M and already published [1-3]. The results taken from this work from the reflected waves, show that the effect of wood anisotropy is significant on the variation of relative permittivity with moisture content on wood sample and that is in good agreement with the previous results [3-6]. As related to the direct waves, a small

  6. Assessment of waterfront location in hardened concrete by GPR within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Klysz, Gilles; Balayssac, Jean Paul; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of the capability of Ground-Penetrating radar (GPR) technique for evaluating how the water penetrates into concrete samples by means of the assessment of the waterfront advance. Research activities have been carried out during a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November 2015. The evaluation of water penetrability is crucial in most building materials, such us concrete, since, water and aggressive chemical agents dissolved therein contribute to the deterioration of the material. A number of techniques have been developed to measure their advance in concrete. Although the most common method for measuring water content is the gravimetric method by observing the change in mass, this method has a large number of disadvantages. In this context, non-destructive techniques as GPR play an interesting role. In particular, the application of GPR in the building materials area is providing very promising and interesting results regarding the building materials characterization and especially concrete deterioration evaluation [1-3]. In addition, recent experimental studies highlight the strong relation between wave propagation parameters (velocity and energy level) and water content advance [4-5]. Water content has a decisive influence on dielectric properties and those might be assessed by the study of the wave properties that are derived by using GPR. Therefore, the waterfront advance will result in a change on wave parameters. In line with this, this research is focused on the development of specific processing algorithms necessary to understand how the water penetrates and how the wave parameters will be affected regarding the location of the antenna in reference to the water absorption direction. For this purpose, concrete samples were manufactured, which after curing (90 days) and oven

  7. Proteomic profiling of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81: identification of conserved and specific responses to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Batista, Jesiane Stefânia da Silva; Schiavon, Aline Luiza; Andrade, Diva Souza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2012-05-30

    Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 (= SEMIA 4080) has been used in commercial inoculants for application to common-bean crops in Brazil since 1998, due to its high efficiency in fixing nitrogen, competitiveness against indigenous rhizobial populations and capacity to adapt to stressful tropical conditions, representing a key alternative to application of N-fertilizers. The objective of our study was to obtain an overview of adaptive responses to heat stress of strain PRF 81, by analyzing differentially expressed proteins when the bacterium is grown at 28°C and 35°C. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) revealed up-regulation of fifty-nine spots that were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with the functional COG categories of metabolism, cellular processes and signaling, information storage and processing. Among the up-regulated proteins, we found some related to conserved heat responses, such as molecular chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and other related proteins, such as translation factors EF-Tu, EF-G, EF-Ts and IF2. Interestingly, several oxidative stress-responsive proteins were also up-regulated, and these results reveal the diversity of adaptation mechanisms presented by this thermotolerant strain, suggesting a cross-talk between heat and oxidative stresses. Our data provide valuable protein-expression information relevant to the ongoing genome sequencing of strain PRF 81, and contributes to our still-poor knowledge of the molecular determinants of the thermotolerance exhibited by R. tropici species.

  8. Effects of a skin neuropeptide (substance p on cutaneous microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Mijouin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP, a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10(-6 M and this effect was rapid (<5 min. Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose® were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism.

  9. Identification of salivary mucin MUC7 binding proteins from Streptococcus gordonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton David J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary mucin MUC7 (previously known as MG2 can adhere to various strains of streptococci that are primary colonizers and predominant microorganisms of the oral cavity. Although there is a growing interest in interaction between oral pathogens and salivary mucins, studies reporting the specific binding sites on the bacteria are rather limited. Identification and characterization of the specific interacting proteins on the bacterial cell surface, termed adhesins, are crucial to further understand host-pathogen interactions. Results We demonstrate here, using purified MUC7 to overlay blots of SDS-extracts of Streptococcus gordonii cell surface proteins, 4 MUC7-binding bands, with apparent molecular masses of 62, 78, 84 and 133 kDa from the Streptococcus gordonii strain, PK488. Putative adhesins were identified by in-gel digestion and subsequent nanoLC-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of resultant peptides. The 62 kDa and 84 kDa bands were identified as elongation factor (EF Tu and EF-G respectively. The 78 kDa band was a hppA gene product; the 74 kDa oligopeptide-binding lipoprotein. The 133 kDa band contained two proteins; alpha enolase and DNA-directed RNA polymerase, beta' subunit. Some of these proteins, for example alpha enolase are expected to be intracellular, however, flow cytometric analysis confirmed its location on the bacterial surface. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that S. gordonii expressed a number of putative MUC7 recognizing proteins and these contribute to MUC7 mucin binding of this streptococcal strain.

  10. Keeleuuendus ja tõlkimine Noor-Eesti kultuurilise utoopia raames : Villem Ridala tõlgitud "Süütu" näitel / Daniele Monticelli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Monticelli, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Keeleuuenduse ja tõlketegevuse mõningastest olulistest seostest Noor-Eesti liikumisega alanud kultuurilise revolutsiooni kontekstis. Lähema lingvistilise vaatluse alla võetakse Gabriele D'Annunzio "L'Innocente" ("Süütu") Villem Ridala tõlkes. Järgneb: Keel ja Kirjandus, 2006, nr. 6, lk. 477-490

  11. Institute of place making: A project by the chair of Landscape Architecture at the TU Delft. Oerol 2013: Sense of place

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouderoijen, M.T.; Piccinini, D.

    2013-01-01

    This booklet shows the results of a project developed by TU Delft in a Master elective course offered by the chair of Landscape Architecture: Landscape Architecture ON site, being part of Oerol Festival 2013. The aim of the project was to express the landscape of Terschelling into a temporarily proj

  12. El uso de drogas en acuacultura: ¿te dispones a aplicar una droga y/o químico en tu sistema de cultivo?

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    El uso de drogas en acuacultura: ¿te dispones a aplicar una droga y/o químico en tu sistema de cultivo?. La aplicación de drogas no reguladas o no aprobadas para su uso en acuacultura representa un riesgo humano potencial.

  13. :Examination of Sulfate production by CB05TU, RACM2 & RACM2 with SCI initiated SO2,oxidation in the Northern Hemisphere"

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employ the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to examine tropospheric sulfateproduction in the northern hemisphere using the Carbon Bond 2005 chemical mechanism withupdated toluene chemistry (CB05TU) and the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism(RACM2) without and with ...

  14. 地球信息图谱与数字地球%On Geo-informatic TuPu and Digital Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖克; 秦建新; 张青年

    2001-01-01

    Digital Earth can be understood as digitized reoresentation and the recognition for real earth and related, geo-phenomena. Digital Earth consists of spatial information with different levels and application models with different objectives. It includes the establishment of base and thematic digital maps with global, national, regional and urban scales, and satellite image data with different resolution and various geo-informations such as population, economy, society and their application systems.   Geo-informatic TuPu, as graphic representation of spatio-temporal change of geo-information, is an effective tool for the application of Digital Earth. “Tu”, in Chinese word, includes graphics, maps and images. The Chinese word “Pu” means the well-regulated sequence arrangement of the congener things, such as spectrum, chromatogram. “TuPu” involves the characteristics of “Tu” and “Pu” at the same time.   Geo-information TuPu can not only reflect spatial distribution characteristics of geo-phenomena and regional differences between them, but also reveal the deeper level rules related to the cause of formation, the process of evolution and morphology. Having the aid of computer visualization and Virtual Reality technology, TuPu can dynamically and muti-dimensionally reveal the spatial-temporal distribution and evolvement laws of all kinds of geo-phenomena.   In this paper, the technological system of Digital Earth and its significance, and the concept of Geo-informatic TuPu are discussed firstly, then, the model of Geo-informatic TuPu transmission is presented. On the basis of the above-mentioned researches, the relationship between Digital Earth and Geo-informatic TuPu is discussed. It reaches to the conclusion that the development of Digital Earth will provide with abundant information resources and strong technological support for Geo-informatic TuPu researches, and the enforcement of Digital Earth strategy will supply Geo-informatic Tu

  15. Mutational analysis of Glu272 in elongation factor 1A of E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous work (Mansilla et al. (1997) Protein Eng. 10, 927-934) we showed that Arg7 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu (EF1A) plays an essential role in aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding. Substitution of Arg7 by Ala or Glu lost this activity. We proposed that Arg7 forms a salt bridge...

  16. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imel, E.A.; Peacock, M.; Pitukcheewanont, P.; Heller, H.J.; Ward, L.M.; Shulman, D.; Kassem, M.; Rackoff, P.; Zimering, M.; Dalkin, A.; Drobny, E.; Colussi, G.; Shaker, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hui, S.L.; Econs, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tu

  17. Mutational analysis of Glu272 in elongation factor 1A of E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous work (Mansilla et al. (1997) Protein Eng. 10, 927-934) we showed that Arg7 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu (EF1A) plays an essential role in aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding. Substitution of Arg7 by Ala or Glu lost this activity. We proposed that Arg7 forms a salt bridge ...

  18. Two-way WKB Approximation Applied to GPR - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopovich, Igor; Popov, Alexei; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    account. In this work we study bistatic EM pulse probing of a horizontally layered medium in a 2D case. Coupled WKB equations set describing both forward and backward waves are derived and solved analytically. The comparison of our semi-analytical solutions with numerical calculations by gprMax software [4] demonstrates a good agreement, being hundreds of times faster than the letter. Our numerical results explain the protracted return pulses in the low-frequency GPR data. As an example, we discuss the experimental data obtained during the GPR mission in search of a big fragment of Chelyabinsk meteorite under a thick silt layer at the bottom of Chebarcul' Lake [5]. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) facilitating this work by a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) within the framework of the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). References 1. H. Bremmer "Propagation of electromagnetic waves", in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. Berlin-Goettingen-Heidelberg: Springer, 1958, pp. 423-639 2. L.M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Stratified Media (in Russian). Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, 1957. 3. V.A.Vinogradov, V.V. Kopeikin, A.V. Popov, "An Approximate Solution of 1D Inverse Problem", in Proc. 10th Internat. Conf. on GPR, 21-24 June, 2004, Delft, The Netherlands 4. A. Giannopoulos, "Modelling ground penetrating radar by GprMax", Construction and Building Materials, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 755-762, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.06.007 5. V. V. Kopeikin , V. D. Kuznetsov, P. A. Morozov, A. V. Popov et al., "Ground penetrating radar investigation of the supposed fall site of a fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite in Lake Chebarkul'", Geochemistry International, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 575-582, 2013, doi: 10.1134/S0016702913070112

  19. TU-100 (Daikenchuto and ginger ameliorate anti-CD3 antibody induced T cell-mediated murine enteritis: microbe-independent effects involving Akt and NF-κB suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Ueno

    Full Text Available The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100 has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF and germ free (GF mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.

  20. Mutation of the conserved Gly83 and Gly94 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu. Indication of structural pivots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgård, I V; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Wiborg, O

    1995-01-01

    in aminoacyl-tRNA affinity, an increase in intrinsic GTP hydrolysis, different behaviours in effector stimulation of the intrinsic GTPase activity, and that they are completely unable to sustain poly(Phe) synthesis in an in-vitro poly(U)-directed system. Our results indicates that particularly Gly83...

  1. 3TU.Datacentrum serves data-curation needs of geodesy, hydrology, and climate science in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princic, A.; Rombouts, J. P.; de Smaele, M. M. P.

    2012-04-01

    3TU.Datacentrum (datacentrum.3tu.nl) is a portal for science- and technology research data in the Netherlands. It serves data-curation needs of scientists in different disciplines of engineering and science varying from hydrology, water management, electron microscopy, to remote sensing. This data center provides long-term archive and permanent access to research data, it enables sharing and reuse of research data, and provides tools for citation of research datasets. The versatility of disciplines and versatility of needs is a challenge of the data center. The solutions offered differ in the functionality offered to the user. For a complex collection of simple datasets consisting of ongoing hydrological measurements from several project partners, using several instruments, on several locations, over a long period of time, there was a need for central storage in order to share the data and enable easy combination of data sets. The measurements are not repeatable and are also valuable for multidisciplinary research, which justified investment in the preservation and 'publishing' of the data. For a simple collection of complex datasets consisting of measurements of the meteorological radar, obtaining high resolution temporal and spatial precipitation data including those non-detectable by standard meteorological radar like drizzle, there was a need to store the data due to volume. These data come from a single instrument and from a single organization. Sharing with other scientists was difficult, which justified investment in the preservation and 'publishing' of the data. 3TU.Datacentrum offered solutions for both cases. Standardized solution to both collections is the data model: datasets, instruments, locations and time frames are all objects on their own, with own metadata and interconnected through rdf relationships. These relations are exploited in the user interface for navigation and inclusion, e.g. of instrument and location metadata in the display of

  2. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 2 - GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Derobert, Xavier; Fontul, Simona; Govedarica, Miro; Gregoire, Colette; Loizos, Andreas; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Plati, Christina; Ristic, Aleksandar; Tosti, Fabio; Van Geem, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 2 "GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The principal goal of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG2 include: 1. The state of the art on the use of GPR in civil engineering was composed and open issues were identified. The few existing international/national guidelines/protocols for GPR inspection in civil engineering were reviewed and discussed. Academic end-users, private companies and stakeholders presented their point of view and needs. 2. Guidelines for investigating flexible pavement by using GPR were prepared, with particular regard to layer-thickness assessment, moisture-content sensing, pavement-damage detection and classification, and other main GPR-based investigations in pavement engineering. 3. Guidelines for GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids were prepared, with a main focus on urban areas. 4. Guidelines for GPR assessment of concrete structures, with particular regard to inspections in bridges and tunnels, were prepared. 5. A report was composed, including a series of practical suggestions and very useful information to guide GPR users during building inspection. 6. WG2 Members carried out a plethora of case studies where GPR was used to survey roads, highways, airport runways, car

  3. The dynamic atmospheres of Mira stars: comparing the CODEX models to PTI time series of TU Andromedae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, M.; Verhoelst, T.; Degroote, P.; Acke, B.; van Winckel, H.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Our comprehension of stellar evolution on the AGB still faces many difficulties. To improve on this, a quantified understanding of large-amplitude pulsator atmospheres and interpretation in terms of their fundamental stellar parameters are essential. Aims: We wish to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently released CODEX dynamical model atmospheres in representing M-type Mira variables through a confrontation with the time-resolved spectro-photometric and interferometric PTI data set of TU And. Methods: We calibrated the interferometric K-band time series to high precision. This results in 50 nights of observations, covering 8 subsequent pulsation cycles. At each phase, the flux at 2.2 μm is obtained, along with the spectral shape and visibility points in 5 channels across the K-band. We compared the data set to the relevant dynamical, self-excited CODEX models. Results: Both spectrum and visibilities are consistently reproduced at visual minimum phases. Near maximum, our observations show that the current models predict a photosphere that is too compact and hot, and we find that the extended atmosphere lacks H2O opacity. Since coverage in model parameter space is currently poor, more models are needed to make firm conclusions on the cause of the discrepancies. We argue that for TU And, the discrepancy could be lifted by adopting a lower value of the mixing length parameter combined with an increase in the stellar mass and/or a decrease in metallicity, but this requires the release of an extended model grid. Figure 4 and Table 1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. tu ša šarri. La « loi du roi »dans la Babylonie achéménide et séleucide dātu ša šarri, The “Law of the King” in Achaemenid and Seleucid Babylonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Démare-Lafont

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine le champ sémantique de l’expression dātu ša šarri, « loi du roi », formée sur un terme d’origine vieux-perse (data. La dizaine d’occurrences d’époques achéménide et séleucide montre que la « loi du roi »désigne un mode d’élaboration de la norme issu de la pratique judiciaire du souverain, progressivement compilée pour former un corps de règles invoquées dans les contrats. Ce procédé de création de la loi et de fabrication des recueils législatifs rappelle celui du rescrit romain.This article investigates the meaning of the formula dātu ša šarri, “law of the king”, using the akkadian dātu based on the old Persian word dāta. The ten Achaemenid and Seleucid occurrences of this formula suggest a process of creation of legal rules comparable to the Roman rescript: the legal standard dātu ša šarri derives from the judicial practice of the king, whose decisions were progressively compiled in order to create a body of regulations which were invoked in contracts.

  5. tmRNA-mediated trans-translation as the major ribosome rescue system in a bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyouta eHimeno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tmRNA (transfer messenger RNA; also known as 10Sa RNA or SsrA RNA is a small RNA molecule that is conserved among bacteria. It has structural and functional similarities to tRNA: it has an upper half of the tRNA-like structure, its 5’ end is processed by RNase P, it has typical tRNA-specific base modifications, it is aminoacylated with alanine, it binds to EF-Tu after aminoacylation and it enters the ribosome with EF-Tu and GTP. However, tmRNA lacks an anticodon, and instead it has a coding sequence for a short peptide called tag-peptide. An elaborate interplay of actions of tmRNA as both tRNA and mRNA with the help of a tmRNA-binding protein, SmpB, facilitates trans-translation, which produces a single polypeptide from two mRNA molecules. Initially alanyl-tmRNA in complex with EF-Tu and SmpB enters the vacant A-site of the stalled ribosome like aminoacyl-tRNA but without a codon-anticodon interaction, and subsequently truncated mRNA is replaced with the tag-encoding region of tmRNA. During these processes, not only tmRNA but also SmpB structurally and functionally mimics both tRNA and mRNA. Thus trans-translation rescues the stalled ribosome, thereby allowing recycling of the ribosome. Since the tag-peptide serves as a target of AAA+ proteases, the trans-translation products are preferentially degraded so that they do not accumulate in the cell. Although alternative rescue systems have recently been revealed, trans-translation is the only system that universally exists in bacteria. Furthermore, it is unique in that it employs a small RNA and that it prevents accumulation of nonfunctional proteins from truncated mRNA in the cell. It might play the major role in rescuing the stalled translation in the bacterial cell.

  6. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  7. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 3 - Electromagnetic modelling, inversion, imaging and data-processing techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sesnic, Silvestar; Randazzo, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien; Benedetto, Francesco; Economou, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 3 "Electromagnetic methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. Among the most interesting achievements of WG3, we wish to mention the following ones: (i) A new open-source version of the finite-difference time-domain simulator gprMax was developed and released. The new gprMax is written in Python and includes many advanced features such as anisotropic and dispersive-material modelling, building of realistic heterogeneous objects with rough surfaces, built-in libraries of antenna models, optimisation of parameters based on Taguchi's method - and more. (ii) A new freeware CAD was developed and released, for the construction of two-dimensional gprMax models. This tool also includes scripts easing the execution of gprMax on multi-core machines or network of computers and scripts for a basic plotting of gprMax results. (iii) A series of interesting freeware codes were developed will be released by the end of the Action, implementing differential and integral forward-scattering methods, for the solution of simple electromagnetic problems by buried objects. (iv) An open database of synthetic and experimental GPR radargrams was created, in cooperation with WG2. The idea behind this initiative is to give researchers the

  8. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 1 - Design and realisation of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment for civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Persico, Raffaele; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 1 "Novel Ground Penetrating Radar instrumentation" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.cost.eu, www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the Action, which started in April 2013 and is ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG1 include: 1. The state of the art on GPR systems and antennas was composed; merits and limits of current GPR systems in civil engineering applications were highlighted and open issues were identified. 2. The Action investigated the new challenge of inferring mechanical (strength and deformation) properties of flexible pavement from electromagnetic data. A semi-empirical method was developed by an Italian research team and tested over an Italian test site: a good agreement was found between the values measured by using a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and the values estimated by using the proposed semi-empirical method, thereby showing great promises for large-scale mechanical inspections of pavements using GPR. Subsequently, the method was tested on a real scale, on an Italian road in the countryside: again, a good agreement between LFWD and GPR data was achieved. As a third step, the method was tested at larger scale, over three different road sections within the districts of Madrid and Guadalajara, in Spain: GPR surveys were carried out at the speed of traffic for a total of 39 kilometers, approximately; results were collected by using different GPR antennas

  9. Incidence and remission of parasomnias among adolescent children in the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Furet O; Goodwin JL; Quan SF

    2011-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal assessments of parasomnias in the adolescent population are scarce. This analysis aims to identify the incidence and remission of parasomnias in the adolescent age group.Methods: The TuCASA study is a prospective cohort study that initially enrolled children between the ages of 6 and 11 years (Time 1) and subsequently re-studied them approximately 5 years later (Time 2). At both time points parents were asked to complete a comprehensive sleep habits questionnaire desi...

  10. Praćenje ostataka sulfonilurea u zemljištu u realnim uslovima primenom visoko-pritisne tečne hromatografije

    OpenAIRE

    Grahovac, Nada

    2016-01-01

    U okviru doktorske disertacije razvijena je brza i selektivna metoda zaodređivanje i praćenje ostataka herbicida na bazi sulfonilurea (nikosulfuron,oksasulfuron, tribenuron metil, tritosulfuron, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron iprosulfuron) u zemljištu primenom visoko pritisne tečne hromatografije saUV detektor sa nizom fotoosetljivih dioda (HPLC-UV-DAD). Razdvajanjesulfonilurea je izvedeno uz primenu Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 kolone. U ciljudefinisanja odgovarajućih uslova analize, ispitan je ...

  11. A great honor and a huge challenge for China: You-you TU getting the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Xue; Guo, Jun-Chao

    2016-05-01

    Public excitement over the award of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the Chinese medical scientist You-you TU for the discovery of a herbal anti-malarial, may mislead the Chinese people into believing that traditional Chinese herbal medi-cine can be used to cure all disease without any ad-verse effects. The aim of this paper is to explain the advantages and disadvantages of herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) objectively.

  12. "Toi qui, de façon générale..." : propositions relatives et "tu" générique en samba leko

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Gwenaëlle

    2004-01-01

    A partir de récits techniques en samba leko, je cherche ici à rendre compte de constructions originales qui associent un "tu" ou un "nous" au personnage central de l'activité décrite. Sur le plan syntaxique, il s'agit d'énoncés complexes qui comportent une proposition principale, une proposition relative et un topique.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TU UMa light curves and maxima, CL Aur minima (Liska+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, J.; Skarka, M.; Mikulasek, Z.; Zejda, M.; Chrastina, M.

    2016-02-01

    Differential photometry for RR Lyrae star TU UMa in the 1st and 2nd file. The measurements were obtained using 24-inch and 1-inch telescopes, respectively. The observations were performed at the Masaryk University Observatory in Brno (3 nights, 24-inch), and at the private observatory in Brno (16 nights, 1-inch) in the Czech Republic from December 2013 to June 2014. Observing equipments consisted of 24-inch Newtonian telescope (600/2780mm, diameter/focal length) and a Moravian Instruments CCD camera G2-4000 with Stromgren photometric filters vby, and of 1-inch refractor (a photographic lens Sonnar 4/135mm, lens focal ratio/focal length) and ATIK 16IC CCD camera with green photometric filter with similar throughput as the Johnson V filter. Exposures were v - 60s, b - 30s, y - 30s, green - 30s. For the small aperture telescope, five frames were combined to a single image to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution of a such combined frame is about 170s. CCD images were calibrated in a standard way (dark frame and flat field corrections). The C-Munipack software (Motl 2009) was used for this processing as well as for differential photometry. The comparison star BD+30 2165 was the same for both instruments, but the control stars were BD+30 2164 (for the 24-inch telescope) and HD 99593 (for the 1-inch telescope). The 3rd file contains maxima timings of TU UMa adopted from the GEOS RR Lyr database, from the latest publications, together with maxima timings determined in our study. Times of maxima were calculated from our observations, sky-surveys data (Hipparcos, NSVS, Pi of the Sky, SuperWASP), photographic measurements (project DASCH), and from several published datasets, in which the maxima were omitted or badly determined - Boenigk (1958AcA.....8...13B), Liakos, Niarchos (2011IBVS.6099....1L, 2011IBVS.5990....1L), Liu, Janes (1989ApJS...69..593L), Preston et al. (1961ApJ...133..484P). The 4th file contains minima timings of eclipsing binary CL Aur

  14. I Passiuna tu Christù - Rito e teatro di una cantica popolare della Grecìa Salentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Questo articolo si basa sugli esiti di una ricerca di campo condotta nei paesi della Grecìa Salentina,una zona del basso Salento, dove si riscontra una peculiare modalità di esecuzione della cantica popolare grìca conosciuta come I Passiuna tu Christù (La Passione di Cristo. Attorno alla metà degli anni ´90 del ´900 la tradizione della cantica è stata oggetto di un prezioso recupero, fondato sulla memoria e disponibilità di alcuni anziani cantori, che l’ha riportata in vita dopo anni di silenzio. Lo studio si è quindi focalizzato sull'esecuzione di Zollino, uno dei comuni grecanico-salentini, dove opera l'associazione culturale "Bottega del Teatro" che per prima ha promosso il recupero di cui si è detto. Protagonista e interprete raffinato della versione zollinese è l'anziano cantore Antimo Pellegrino, la cui voce si fa teatro attraverso un uso sapiente del corpo fatto di gesti stilizzati, regolati da codici che consentono di comprendere il divenire performativo, ossia il testo in grìco, anche a chi non intende tale idioma. Abstract – EN This article is based on the results of a field research conducted in the countries of the Grecìa Salentina, an area of Salento, where there is a particular execution method of the folksong known as I Passiuna tu Christù (The Passion of the Christ. Around the mid-90s of the 20th century the tradition of this folksong has been the subject of a careful recovery, based on memory and availability of some older singers, who brought it back to life after years of silence. The study then focused on the Zollino’s execution, one of the grecanico-salentino’s common, in which works the cultural association "Bottega del Teatro", the first promoter of this recovery. The old singer Antimo Pellegrino is the player and interpreter of the Zollino’s refined version, whose voice becomes theater through a wise use of body made of stylized gestures, regulated by codes that allow you to

  15. GPR applications in civil engineering collaborating with a Company and preparation of material for the educational package to teach in Universities. STSM, COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossa, Viviana; Assunção, Sonia; Pérez, Vega

    2017-04-01

    The STSM, Short-Term Missions, was carried out with the support of Murphy Survey company from Dublin - Ireland, was proposed for to Develop a module "GPR Applications in Archaeology" of the educational pack defined in the different meetings of the Cost Action TU 1208. The employ of GPR is mainly determined by the limits and uncertainties associated to this technique that affects to the measurements and the results. Private companies and end-users are highly interested in known the limits associated to particular cases and the advantages of the methodology compared to other studies. During this STSM, we plan to prepare a field survey, analyzing the possible problems and defining the objectives, and to acquire data to assess the structure. This data will be analyzed and processed in order to determine the limits of the technique in the particular case. The results will be compared to other surveys, in order to determine some clear restrictions that the company need to take into account in further works. Aknowledgments: This work has been partially funded by the EU COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", and it is a contribution to the working group 2.2 tasks in the COST Action TU1208.

  16. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Mahdi; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Mahboudi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    Diazinon (DZ) is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells) after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, expression of 15 genes associated with cell death/apoptosis in various phenomena was examined after 24 hours of contact with DZ and NPs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared to the individual cases, the group receiving the combination of MgO and Se NPs showed more beneficial effects in reducing the toxicity of DZ. Cotreatment of PaTu cell lines with MgO and Se NPs counteracts the toxicity of DZ on insulin-producing cells.

  17. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Mahdi; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Mahboudi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZ) is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells) after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, expression of 15 genes associated with cell death/apoptosis in various phenomena was examined after 24 hours of contact with DZ and NPs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared to the individual cases, the group receiving the combination of MgO and Se NPs showed more beneficial effects in reducing the toxicity of DZ. Cotreatment of PaTu cell lines with MgO and Se NPs counteracts the toxicity of DZ on insulin-producing cells. PMID:27920530

  18. Burtnieku novada nekroģeogrāfija. Atvērto kapsētu veidošanas prakse

    OpenAIRE

    Seļicka, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Maģistra darba „Burtnieku novada nekroģeogrāfija. Atvērto kapsētu veidošanas prakse” mērķis ir izvērtēt Burtnieku novada aktīvo kapsētu veidošanas praksi nekroģeogrāfijas koncepciju un pieeju kontekstā. Pētījuma teorētiskajā daļā tiek apskatīts nekroģeogrāfijas koncepts, dažādās kapsētas jēdziena uztveres un duālismi tajā. Darbā analizēti piecu Burtnieku novada kapsētu telpiskie elementi, to struktūras veidošanās, tiesiskais regulējums, iesaistīto personu un apkārtējās teritorijas konteksts k...

  19. Pilnīgi un daļēji ar stronciju aizvietotu peroksiapatītu sintēze un to analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Valkovska, Valda

    2016-01-01

    Pilnīgi un daļēji ar stronciju aizvietotu peroksiapatītu sintēze un to analīze. Valkovska V., darba vadītāja docente, Dr. chem. Osīte A. Bakalaura darbs, 42 lappuses, 19 attēli, 4 tabulas, 46 literatūras avoti, 5 pielikumi. Latviešu valodā. Darbā ir apkopota informācija par hidroksilapatītu un peroksiapatītu uzbūvi, īpašībām, izmantošanu, iegūšanu un analīzes metodēm. Salīdzinātas atšķirīgu sintēžu priekšrocības un trūkumi. Eksperimentālajā daļā veiktas pilnīgi un daļēji ar stronciju aizvieto...

  20. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher's attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with Kd 56±7.3nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  1. Incidence and Remission of Parasomnias among Adolescent Children in the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furet, Oscar; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal assessments of parasomnias in the adolescent population are scarce. This analysis aims to identify the incidence and remission of parasomnias in the adolescent age group. METHODS: The TuCASA study is a prospective cohort study that initially enrolled children between the ages of 6 and 11 years (Time 1) and subsequently restudied them approximately 5 years later (Time 2). At both time points parents were asked to complete a comprehensive sleep habits questionnaire designed to assess the severity of sleep-related symptoms that included questions about enuresis (EN), sleep terrors (TR), sleep walking (SW) and sleep talking (ST). RESULTS: There were 350 children participating at Time 1 who were studied as adolescents at time 2. The mean interval between measurements was (4.6 years). The incidence of EN, TR, ST, and SW in these 10-18 year old children was 0.3%, 0.6%, 6.0% and 1.1% respectively. Remission rates were 70.8%, 100%, 64.8% and 50.0% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rates of EN, TR, and SW were relatively low moving from childhood to adolescence while remission rates were high across all parasomnias.

  2. Control de criaderos de Aedes aegypti con el programa Recicla por tu bienestar en Mérida, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barrera Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la importancia de los criaderos de Ae. aegypti en Mérida; evaluar el impacto del programa Recicla or tu bienestar (RxB sobre la presencia/abundancia de éstos y la percepción de los habitantes. Material y métodos. Se calculó la importancia de los criaderos por su productividad pupal. Se realizaron muestreos pre y post RxB en colonias para cuantificar el total de recipientes/criaderos. Se aplicó una encuesta a participantes sobre la percepción sobre RxB en colonias seleccionadas. Resultados. Los botes, cubetas y diversos objetos chicos fueron los criaderos más importantes. RxB tuvo un impacto significativo en la reducción del número de recipientes (IRR=0.74, en los recipientes positivos (IRR=0.33 y en la positividad de las viviendas para Ae. aegypti (OR=0.41. Todos los entrevistados opinaron que RxB es necesario la gran mayoría piensa que es útil. Conclusiones. RxB debe ser considerada una buena práctica para el control del vector del dengue.

  3. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  4. The dynamic atmospheres of Mira stars: comparing the CODEX models to PTI time series of TU And

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, M; Degroote, P; Acke, B; van Winckel, H

    2012-01-01

    Our comprehension of stellar evolution on the AGB still faces many difficulties. To improve on this, a quantified understanding of large-amplitude pulsator atmospheres and interpretation in terms of their fundamental stellar parameters are essential. We wish to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently released CODEX dynamical model atmospheres in representing M-type Mira variables through a confrontation with the time-resolved spectro-photometric and interferometric PTI data set of TU And. We calibrated the interferometric K-band time series to high precision. This results in 50 nights of observations, covering 8 subsequent pulsation cycles. At each phase, the flux at 2.2$\\mu$m is obtained, along with the spectral shape and visibility points in 5 channels across the K-band. We compared the data set to the relevant dynamical, self-excited CODEX models. Both spectrum and visibilities are consistently reproduced at visual minimum phases. Near maximum, our observations show that the current models predict a pho...

  5. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) cleaves amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye-Eun; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Shin, Bae Hyun; Lee, Yong Jae; Song, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Seon; Baek, In-Sun; Bae, Jeomil; Kim, Hannah; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jung, Yong-Keun; Song, Woo Keun; Han, Pyung-Lim; Park, Woo Jin

    2010-12-20

    The nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12)-His-His-Gln(15), near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw)/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  6. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV cleaves amyloid-β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Eun Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12-His-His-Gln(15, near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  7. First intercomparison among laboratories involved in COST Action-TU1301 "NORM4Building": Determination of natural radionuclides in ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, Gerti; Trinidad, José Antonio; Gascó, Catalina; Mantovani, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    This work describes the outcomes of the COST Action-TU1301 "NORM4Building" intercomparison on the determination of natural radioactivity in ceramics. Twenty-two laboratories involved in the intercomparison are evaluated for their performance using robust statistics. The reference values of (226)Ra ((214)Bi and (214)Pb) are determined to be 122 ± 11 Bq kg(-1) and 124 ± 14 Bq kg(-1), respectively and in secular equilibrium in the uranium chain while the reference values of (232)Th ((228)Ac) is determined to be 61 ± 6 Bq kg(-1) and that of (40)K was determined to be 955 ± 40 Bq kg(-1). Although the aim of the exercise was to determine the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and evaluation of the "Activity Concentration Index", laboratories were asked to report complete characterization of natural radionuclides. The results of this exercise pointed out a good performance among laboratories since the percentage of the acceptable results were above 90% for the radionuclides of interest. Based on these results, considering the systematic rejection of the results reported from a few laboratories we emphasize the need for quality control procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of GPR in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Schettini, Giuseppe; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a safe, non-destructive and non-invasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for advanced inspection of composite structures and for diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. GPR can also be successfully employed in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics. In many Countries, where the archeological patrimony is an outstanding value (as Egypt, Israel, Greece, Central and South America), GPR is usually employed both as a diagnostic tool for the preventive detection of archeological structures and as the most advanced instrument able to prospect geometry and shape of underground valuable sites. However many uncertainties persist, because of several difficulties and ambiguities due to the complexity of the image processing in heterogeneous environment. It is possible to identify three main areas, in GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions, archeological sites are often located in impervious and critical environments; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. It is also important to further investigate and promote a combined use of GPR with other non-invasive advanced techniques, typically used in the archeological investigation. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by a research team of "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE

  9. Development of Molecular Markers Linked to a Novel QTL for TuMV-C4 Resistance in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis%一个新的白菜苗期TuMV-C4抗性主效QTL定位及连锁分子标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田希辉; 于拴仓; 苏同兵; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 张德双; 赵岫云; 汪维红

    2014-01-01

    为寻找与TuMV抗性基因紧密连锁的分子标记,选用高抗病毒病大白菜自交系91-112和高感病毒病自交系T12-19以及由二者为双亲构建的包含100个株系的DH群体为材料,通过SSR和InDel标记的遗传分析,在A09上定位了一个新的与大白菜苗期TuMV-C4抗性相关的主效QTL位点BrTuA09。在此基础上,针对该QTL位点所在的标记区间,根据作图群体双亲的重测序结果,设计合成27对引物,其中11个InDel在双亲间具有多态性,且条带单一、扩增稳定;连锁分析发现,11个InDel标记均被定位在A09连锁群上BrTuA09的置信区间。利用BC1群体进行标记验证发现,这些标记对高抗单株选择的准确率均达到78%以上,可应用于分子标记辅助选择,为大白菜TuMV抗病分子育种奠定了良好的基础。%Our research constructed a molecular genetic map with a line 91-112 ( highly resistant to TuMV-C4),a highly susceptible line T12-19 and the DH population derived from microspore culture of F1(91-112 × T12-19). A total of 45 markers were mapped to the A09 chromosome,and a new QTL-BrTuA09 controlling TuMV-C4 re-sistance was identified. On this basis,27 pairs of primers were designed by screening the InDel loci on A09 chromo-some of Chinese cabbage based on genome re-sequencing. The results showed that distinct PCR amplification prod-ucts were obtained from the InDel markers. Among these markers,11 InDel were polymorphic on the tested parent materials,and mapped to the A09 chromosome. By linkage analysis,these markers were tightly linked to the QTL-BrtuA09 . The studies showed that these markers can be applied in marker-assisted selection in Chinese cabbage hy-brid breeding programs and improve the resistance to TuMV-C4 .

  10. Biological Characteristics of CD133+CD44+ Cancer Stem Cells Sorting from Laryngeal Carcinoma Cell Line TU177%喉癌TU177细胞系中CD133+CD44+肿瘤干细胞分选及特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊岭; 高伟; 王珏; 付荣; 陈波; 李伟艳; 温树信; 王斌全

    2016-01-01

    Objective :Magnetic activated cell sorting was used to separate CD133+CD44+ cancer cells from laryngeal car-cinoma TU177 cell line. Analysis the biological characteristics of these subpopulations .Methods :TU177 cells were subjected to magnetic activated cell sorting to obtain CD133+CD44+、CD133+CD44-、CD133-CD44+、CD133-CD44-cells. Evaluate the efficiency of magnetic separation by flow cytometry . Test cell proliferation,migration,invasion,adhesion,colony forming ability of the cells.Results: CD133+CD44+ cells show higher proliferation,migration,invasion,adhesion,clone ability than other group(P<0.0001).Conclusions:TU177 cells can be serparated by Magnetic activated cell sorting effectively. CD133 is more powerful than CD44.Our study may provide evidence for target treatment of laryngeal cancer.%目的:免疫磁珠分选喉癌TU177细胞系中的CD133+CD44+细胞,探讨CD133+CD44+细胞作为肿瘤干细胞的生物学特性。方法:培养喉癌TU177细胞,采用免疫磁珠分选技术分选CD133+CD44+、CD133+CD44-、CD133-CD44+、CD133-CD44-细胞,流式检测分选效率,检测各组细胞的增殖、侵袭、迁移、粘附、克隆形成能力。结果:CD133+CD44+细胞的增殖、迁移、侵袭、粘附、克隆能力均明显高于其他组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001)。结论:免疫磁珠技术能有效进行TU177细胞系的分选,CD133+CD44+细胞亚群具有强增殖、侵袭、迁移、粘附、克隆形成能力,具有肿瘤干细胞特征,CD133作为干细胞标志物,其干细胞特性强于CD44,可为喉癌的进一步靶向治疗提供依据。

  11. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  12. ¿Arqui tec tu ra para quién? ¿Arquitectura para qué?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vera Guardia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este dis cur so el au tor pre sen ta una vi sión crítica, filosófica, ética y epistémica de la Arquitec - tura entendida como una disciplina cientí fica y hu - manís tica. En tal sentido Arquitectura es sinónimo de: i representación sim bólica, conceptual y estéti - ca de la rea li dad, ii de sa rro llo de las ba ses ma te ria - les de la vida en su con di ción de há bi tat, y iii com - pro mi so éti co con la de fen sa y pro tec ción de las in - teracciones bióticas y ecológicas entre la naturaleza y el pro gre so hu ma no. ¿Pa ra quién y para qué?, son dos “pre gun tas para pen sar”, acer ca de los fi nes y los me dios que con vier ten a la Arqui tec tu ra en un sa ber in ter pre tar y cons truir el há bi tat de la vida hu - mana desde la perspectiva histó rica, social, am - bien tal, eco nó mi ca y po lí ti ca en la que los se res hu - manos se desenvuelven.

  13. The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases BAK1/SERK3 and BKK1/SERK4 are required for innate immunity to hemibiotrophic and biotrophic pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roux, Milena Edna; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Albrecht, Catherine;

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) constitutes an important layer of innate immunity in plants. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) are the PRRs...... and BKK1 cooperate genetically to achieve full signaling capability in response to elf18 and flg22 and to the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BAK1 and BKK1 contribute to disease resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae...... and the obligate biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Our work reveals that the establishment of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) relies on the rapid ligand-induced recruitment of multiple SERKs within PRR complexes and provides insight into the early PTI signaling events underlying this important...

  14. Compositions and methods for making selenocysteine containing polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soll, Dieter; Aldag, Caroline; Hohn, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec and methods of using them for recombinant expression of proteins engineered to include one or more selenocysteine residues are disclosed. The non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec can be used for recombinant manufacture of selenocysteine containing polypeptides encoded by mRNA without the requirement of an SECIS element. In some embodiments, selenocysteine containing polypeptides are manufactured by co-expressing a non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec a recombinant expression system, such as E. coli, with SerRS, EF-Tu, SelA, or PSTK and SepSecS, and an mRNA with at least one codon that recognizes the anticodon of the non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec.

  15. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  16. TU-B-16A-01: To Which Journal Should I Submit My Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mills, M [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Klein, E [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Pawlicki, T [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Research papers authored by Medical Physicists address a large spectrum of oncologic, imaging, or basic research problems; exploit a wide range of physical and engineering methodologies; and often describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary research team. Given the large number (about 100) competing journals accepting medical physics articles, it may not be clear to an individual author which journal is the best venue for disseminating their work to the scientific community. Relevant factors usually include the Journal’s audience and scientific impact, but also such factors as perceived acceptance rate, interest in their topic, and quality of service. The purpose of this symposium is to provide the medical physics community with an overview of scope, review processes, and article guidelines for the following journals: Medical Physics, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Physics, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, and Practical Radiation Oncology. The senior editors for each journal will provide details as to the journals review process, for example: single blind versus double blind reviews; the hierarchy of the review process in terms of editorial board structure; the reality of acceptance, in terms of acceptance rate; and the types of research the journal prefers to publish. The goal is to provide for authors guidance before they begin to write their papers, not only for proper formatting, but also that the readership is appropriate for the particular paper, hopefully increasing the likelihood of publication. Learning Objectives: To review each Journal’s submission and review process Guidance as to how to increase chances of acceptance To help decipher which journal is appropriate for a given work.

  17. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2015-01-01

    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  18. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2014-01-01

    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Newly Generated Dentate Granule Cells Using TU Tagging Reveals Pattern Shifts in Gene Expression during Circuit Integration1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Christina; Shen, Rongkun; Goodman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite representing only a small fraction of hippocampal granule cells, adult-generated newborn granule cells have been implicated in learning and memory (Aimone et al., 2011). Newborn granule cells undergo functional maturation and circuit integration over a period of weeks. However, it is difficult to assess the accompanying gene expression profiles in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution using traditional methods. Here we used a novel method [“thiouracil (TU) tagging”] to map the profiles of nascent mRNAs in mouse immature newborn granule cells compared with mature granule cells. We targeted a nonmammalian uracil salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, to newborn neurons and mature granule cells using retroviral and lentiviral constructs, respectively. Subsequent injection of 4-TU tagged nascent RNAs for analysis by RNA sequencing. Several hundred genes were significantly enhanced in the retroviral dataset compared with the lentiviral dataset. We compared a selection of the enriched genes with steady-state levels of mRNAs using quantitative PCR. Ontology analysis revealed distinct patterns of nascent mRNA expression, with newly generated immature neurons showing enhanced expression for genes involved in synaptic function, and neural differentiation and development, as well as genes not previously associated with granule cell maturation. Surprisingly, the nascent mRNAs enriched in mature cells were related to energy homeostasis and metabolism, presumably indicative of the increased energy demands of synaptic transmission and their complex dendritic architecture. The high spatial and temporal resolution of our modified TU-tagging method provides a foundation for comparison with steady-state RNA analyses by traditional transcriptomic approaches in defining the functional roles of newborn neurons. PMID:27011954

  20. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-03: Enhancing the Tumor Specific Radiosensitization Using Molecular Targeted Gold Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diagaradjane, P [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Deorukhkar, A; Sankaranarayanapillai, M; Singh, P [The UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Manohar, N; Tailor, R; Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Goodrich, G [Nanospectra Biosciences Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnan, S [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticle (GNP) mediated radiosensitization has gained significant attention in recent years. However, the widely used passive targeting strategy requires high concentration of GNPs to induce the desired therapeutic effect, thus dampening the enthusiasm for clinical translation. The purpose of this study is to utilize a molecular targeting strategy to minimize the concentration of GNPs injected while simultaneously enhancing the tumor specific radiosensitization for an improved therapeutic outcome. Methods: Cetuximab (antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in tumors) conjugated gold nanorods (cGNRs) was used for the tumor targeting. The binding affinity, internalization, and in vitro radiosensitization were evaluated using dark field microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and clonogenic cell survival assay, respectively. In vivo biodistribution in tumor (HCT116-colorectal cancer cells) bearing mice were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In vivo radiosensitization potential was tested using 250-kVp x-rays and clinically relevant 6-MV radiation beams. Results: cGNRs displayed excellent cell-surface binding and internalization (∼31,000 vs 12,000/cell) when compared to unconjugated GNRs (pGNRs). In vitro, the dose enhancement factor at 10% survival (DEF10) was estimated as 1.06 and 1.17, respectively for both 250-kVp and 6-MV beams. In vivo biodistribution analysis revealed enhanced uptake of cGNRs in tumor (1.3 µg/g of tumor tissue), which is ∼1000-fold less than the reported values using passive targeting strategy. Nonetheless, significant radiosensitization was observed in vivo with cGNRs when compared to pGNRs, when irradiated with 250-kVp (tumor volume doubling time 35 days vs 25 days; p=0.002) and 6 MV (17 days vs 13 days; p=0.0052) beams. Conclusion: The enhanced radiosensitization effect observed with very low intratumoral concentrations of gold and megavoltage x

  1. 菌株Tu 49 代谢产物的分离及抗菌素活性的初步研究%The Isolation of the Strain Tu49 and the Study on the Activity of Its Antibiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迪力夏提·托呼提; 阿不都克里木·热依木

    2001-01-01

    从吐鲁番葡萄沟、苏公塔、五道林、交角沟等郊区采集的52种土样中筛选到一株能产有抗菌素活性的好气菌Tu49,革兰氏阳性,类群为黄色类群。所产生的抗菌素,对不同的微生物有明显的抑制作用。最适生长温度为30℃~32℃,最适pH为6.8~7.5,气生菌丝和孢子丝为无色,基丝体为黄色,产黄色可溶性色素。%We isolated aerial strain Tu 49 from 52 samples of soil in 5 outskirts of Turpan city, its colony was golden and Gram positives(G+).The antibiosis from strain Tu49 inhibited different microorganisms, The optimum growth temperature was 30~32℃ and pH was 6.8~7.5;aerial hypha and spore hypha was colourless, my cellium was yellow. Which can produce soluble figment.

  2. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou.

  3. The Comparative Study between“Ni/Nin”in Chinese and“Tu/Vous”in French Based on“Power and Solidarity”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悦

    2012-01-01

      The selection of the second person pronouns embodies the power and solidarity relations in social communication. The paper studies“Ni/Nin”in Chinese and“Tu/Vous”in French from sociolinguistic, cultural and pragmatic perspectives by basing on“Power and Solidarity”. Through the comparative study of this two pairs, not only can we observe the historical process of personal pronouns, and analyze the similarities and dissimilarities of the two languages which hide behind Chinese and French cultural backgrounds, but also may further understand their pragmatic principles in various context.

  4. OANA MĂTU, INMA PASTOR, Gender and Poverty in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGEL BELZUNEGUI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an analysis of the data retrieved from the Survey onIncome and Living Conditions. A gender-based poverty study was carried out, startingfrom the evolution of global taxes, together with factors that can explain thedifferences between the poverty variable affecting men and the poverty variableaffecting women in Spain. Considering these data, it was deemed necessary toexamine the concept of feminisation of poverty and its empirical basis. We concludethat, although slightly higher poverty levels can be noted in the case of women,compared with men, in accordance with the quantitative data, this difference is notsufficiently significant to indicate that we are dealing with a feminisation of poverty –understood as a process in which differences between poverty among women andpoverty among men increase incrementally. Based on our study, we consider that thesimple presence of a poverty differentiation between men and women is not sufficientto conclude that poverty is undergoing a process of feminization.

  5. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-1: Therapy: Deformable Image Registration, Contour Propagation, and Dose Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan: Introduction (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  6. TU-D-201-00: Use of End-Of-Life Brachytherapy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  7. TU-D-201-03: Proposed Solutions to End-Of-Life Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouhib, Z. [Lynn Regional Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  8. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-4: Philips Pinnacle3 clinical solutions for adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzdusek, K.

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  9. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-5: ABAS - Atlas Based Auto Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellenberg, D.

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  10. TU-G-BRD-04: A Round Robin Dosimetry Intercomparison of Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Calibration Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzymala, R [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Alvarez, P [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bednarz, G [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bourland, J [Wake Forest University, Winston-salem, NC (United States); DeWerd, L [University of Wisconsin, Madison/ADCL, Madison, WI (United States); Ma, L [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Meltsner, S [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Neyman, G [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Beachwood, OH (United States); Novotny, J [Hospital Na Homolce, Prague (Czech Republic); Petti, P [Washington Hospital, Fremont, CA (United States); Rivard, M [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Shiu, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goetsch, S [Dade Moeller Health Group, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this multi-institutional study was to compare two new gamma stereotactic radiosurgery (GSRS) dosimetry protocols to existing calibration methods. The ultimate goal was to guide AAPM Task Group 178 in recommending a standard GSRS dosimetry protocol. Methods: Nine centers (ten GSRS units) participated in the study. Each institution made eight sets of dose rate measurements: six with two different ionization chambers in three different 160mm-diameter spherical phantoms (ABS plastic, Solid Water and liquid water), and two using the same ionization chambers with a custom in-air positioning jig. Absolute dose rates were calculated using a newly proposed formalism by the IAEA working group for small and non-standard radiation fields and with a new air-kerma based protocol. The new IAEA protocol requires an in-water ionization chamber calibration and uses previously reported Monte-Carlo generated factors to account for the material composition of the phantom, the type of ionization chamber, and the unique GSRS beam configuration. Results obtained with the new dose calibration protocols were compared to dose rates determined by the AAPM TG-21 and TG-51 protocols, with TG-21 considered as the standard. Results: Averaged over all institutions, ionization chambers and phantoms, the mean dose rate determined with the new IAEA protocol relative to that determined with TG-21 in the ABS phantom was 1.000 with a standard deviation of 0.008. For TG-51, the average ratio was 0.991 with a standard deviation of 0.013, and for the new in-air formalism it was 1.008 with a standard deviation of 0.012. Conclusion: Average results with both of the new protocols agreed with TG-21 to within one standard deviation. TG-51, which does not take into account the unique GSRS beam configuration or phantom material, was not expected to perform as well as the new protocols. The new IAEA protocol showed remarkably good agreement with TG-21. Conflict of Interests: Paula Petti

  11. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, P [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ohri, N [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Joiner, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Kong, F [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Jackson, A [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  12. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives

  13. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Seibert, J; Boone, J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R{sup 2} values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  14. TU-EF-204-02: Hiigh Quality and Sub-MSv Cerebral CT Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Niu, Kai; Wu, Yijing; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CT Perfusion (CTP) imaging is of great importance in acute ischemic stroke management due to its potential to detect hypoperfused yet salvageable tissue and distinguish it from definitely unsalvageable tissue. However, current CTP imaging suffers from poor image quality and high radiation dose (up to 5 mSv). The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that technical innovations such as Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) have the potential to address these challenges and achieve high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging. Methods: (1) A spatial-temporal 4D cascaded system model was developed to indentify the bottlenecks in the current CTP technology; (2) A task-based framework was developed to optimize the CTP system parameters; (3) Guided by (1) and (2), PICCS was customized for the reconstruction of CTP source images. Digital anthropomorphic perfusion phantoms, animal studies, and preliminary human subject studies were used to validate and evaluate the potentials of using these innovations to advance the CTP technology. Results: The 4D cascaded model was validated in both phantom and canine stroke models. Based upon this cascaded model, it has been discovered that, as long as the spatial resolution and noise properties of the 4D source CT images are given, the 3D MTF and NPS of the final CTP maps can be analytically derived for a given set of processing methods and parameters. The cascaded model analysis also identified that the most critical technical factor in CTP is how to acquire and reconstruct high quality source images; it has very little to do with the denoising techniques often used after parametric perfusion calculations. This explained why PICCS resulted in a five-fold dose reduction or substantial improvement in image quality. Conclusion: Technical innovations generated promising results towards achieving high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging for reliable and safe assessment of acute ischemic strokes. K. Li, K. Niu, Y. Wu: Nothing to

  15. TU-AB-204-04: Advances in CBCT for Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, J. [University of California Davis School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  16. TU-AB-204-03: Advances in CBCT for Orhtopaedics and Bone Health Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbijewski, W. [Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  17. TU-AB-204-02: Advances in C-Arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrig, R. [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  18. TU-AB-204-00: Advances in Cone-Beam CT and Emerging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  19. TU-AB-204-01: Advances in C-Arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  20. Identification of probiotics strain Tu-569 from rabbit cecum and property analysis of its extracellular antibacterial product%兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株鉴定与其胞外产抑菌物性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玉龙; 尚伟; 姜军坡; 王世英; 朱宝成

    2012-01-01

    目的 对兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株进行菌落形态和菌体形态观察、生理生化特性测定及16S rDNA序列系统发育分析以确定其种属.方法 以大肠埃希菌为指示菌,通过琼脂打孔扩散法分析Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物性质,初步评价该抗菌物活性.结果 Tu-569菌株为Bacillus velezensis; Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物为分子量3.5~8.0kD的多肽,可被饱和度60%的硫酸铵盐析;该抗菌肽热稳定性较好,但可被蛋白酶降解;采用正丁醇萃取该抗菌肽不会降低其活性;其活性可被Mn2+离子增强,但在强酸(pH 3)强碱(pH11)环境中会大幅度降低;当存在表面活性剂和β-巯基乙醇时,抗菌肽抑菌活性完全丧失.每1mg粗蛋白中含有的抗菌肽抑制大肠埃希菌的能力相当于2μg硫酸庆大霉素、10μg硫酸链霉素或50μg土霉素.结论 该抗菌肽性质稳定,具有较高的抗菌活性,在畜牧业、养殖业、食品等领域中有一定的应用价值.%Objective Works were done to identify probiotic strain Tu-569 and to analyze properties of its extracellular antibacterial product. Methods Identification was carried out by observations for colony morphology and cell shape, determinations of physiological, biochemical characteristics and sequence analysis. Properties analysis for extracellular antibacterial product were done with various treatments, such as salting out with ammonium sulfate, extraction with different organic solvent, heating, different pH environment, proteases, ions, protein protective and denaturant agents. The activity of antibacterial product was evaluated by agar diffusion assay with Escherichia coli as indicator bacteria. Results Strain Tu-569 was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The extracellular antibacterial product was polypeptide with molecular weight between 3.5kD to 8.0kD. The majority antibacterial polypeptide was salted out by 60% ammonium sulfate. The antibacterial polypeptide showed a good stability

  1. PID参数继电反馈整定法的改进%Improvement of relay feedback tuing method of PID parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the relay feedback tuing method of PID parameters is improved.An integrator is set between the relay and controlled object. High frequency signal is weaken, the proportion of the fundamental wave in the harmonic wave is increased and the accuracy of describing function is improved.On this occasion,new tuing equations is presented. Practical emulation proves that the tuning method after improvement can get better performance than Astrom method and PM method.%提出了一种改进的继电整定法,在继电环节和被控对象之间设置一个积分器。促进了高频信号的衰减。使谐波中的基波成分所占比例得到提高,改善了描述函数的精度,并在此情况下推导出了新的整定公式。通过仿真证明。利用改进后的方法进行PID参数整定比传统的Astrom法和PM法性能更加优越。

  2. Raúl Gonzalez Tuñón desencuadernado. Políticas de la literatura, entre el libro y las publicaciones periódicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Rogers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: el artículo revisa algunos supuestos sobre la producción literaria de Raúl González Tuñón en las décadas de 1920 y 1930 a partir de dos desplazamientos. En primer lugar, explora las políticas de la literatura que permitirían pensar, de manera menos esquemática que con la habitual categoría de “literatura política” con que se suelen abordar sus textos de la década del treinta, las apuestas y limitaciones de una escritura que desde su inicio se propuso como transformadora. En segundo lugar, el artículo pone el foco en la primera circulación de los textos, muchas veces en diarios y revistas, contextos formativos de una literatura que en gran medida surgió en sus páginas. Desencuadernar a Tuñón implica atender a la materialidad de sus escritos y explorar más allá de la tradicional figura del autor de libros, para indagar políticas de la escritura que articularon campos y prácticas, y experimentaron no sólo con nuevas formas estéticas sino también con diversos modos de circulación pública de las letras.

  3. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  4. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  5. Electromagnetic modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for GPR: ongoing activities in Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 3 (WG3) 'EM methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. WG3 is structured in four Projects. Project 3.1 deals with 'Electromagnetic modelling for GPR applications.' Project 3.2 is concerned with 'Inversion and imaging techniques for GPR applications.' The topic of Project 3.3 is the 'Development of intrinsic models for describing near-field antenna effects, including antenna-medium coupling, for improved radar data processing using full-wave inversion.' Project 3.4 focuses on 'Advanced GPR data-processing algorithms.' Electromagnetic modeling tools that are being developed and improved include the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique and the spectral domain Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA). One of the well-known freeware and versatile FDTD simulators is GprMax that enables an improved realistic representation of the soil/material hosting the sought structures and of the GPR antennas. Here, input/output tools are being developed to ease the definition of scenarios and the visualisation of numerical results. The CWA expresses the field scattered by subsurface two-dimensional targets with arbitrary cross-section as a sum of cylindrical waves. In this way, the interaction is taken into account of multiple scattered fields within the medium hosting the sought targets. Recently, the method has been extended to deal with through-the-wall scenarios. One of the

  6. Solid Phase Extraction of Bryophyte Lipids / Briofītu lipīdu cietfāzes ekstrakcijas frakcionēšana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavina Laura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pētījuma ietvaros izstrādāta vienkārša, ātra un viegli atkārtojama analītiska metode briofītu lipīdu frakcionēšanai. Lipīdu frakcijas frakcionēšanai izmantoja cietfāzes ekstrakciju ar silikagēlu un ar NH2 grupām modificētu silikagēlu, iegūtās vielu grupas kvantificēja kā to trimetilsilil atvasinājumus, izmantojot gāzes hromatogrāfiju-masas spektrometriju. Frakcionēšanu veica, izmantojot eluentu polaritātes gradienta principu (eluenti: heksāns, heksāns/hloroforms 5:1, hloroforms, kā pēdējo eluentu ar NH2 grupām modificēta silikagēla gadījumā izmantojot skābes (etiķskābes šķīdumu. Izpētes objekti bija divi Latvijā plaši izplatīti sūnaugi (Polytrichum commune, Dicranum polysetum, kuru sastāvā identificēja vairāk nekā 45 dažādus savienojumus, daudzi no kuriem ir ar augstu bioloģisko aktivitāti. Sūnaugu sastāvā identificēja sterolus, tokoferolus, taukskābes un citi savienojumus. Izmantotā frakcionēšanas shēma pavēra iespējas identificēt daudzus savienojumus, kuri kopējā ekstrakta hromatogrammā nebija uzrādīti, piemēram, alkānu rindas savienojumi, vairāki steroli. Līdz ar to sūnaugu lipīdu cietfāzes frakcionēšanas metode ļāva noteikt vielu klātbūtni, kuras atrodas mikrodaudzumos, bet kuras varēja ļaut izsekot brīofītu pārvērtībām bioģeoķīmiskos procesos. Ieteiktā frakcionēšanas metode ļāva arī identificēt vairākas vielu grupas, kuras varētu būt perspektīvas kā jaunas bioloģiski aktīvas vielas, kā arī palīdzēja labāk izprast briofītu metabolismu, piemēram starpsugu atšķirības un sastāva sezonālās mainības raksturu.

  7. Construye tu Música

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras, Antonio de

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available En el Sistema Educativo actual la composición musical está contemplada en el tramo final de los estudios de Conservatorio, tras muchos años de adiestramiento técnico-instrumental y teórico. Por otra parte, si visitamos un Aula de Educación Plástica de un Instituto, podemos ver a los alumnos de Secundaria expresándose, canalizando su creatividad a través de colores, formas y volúmenes, sin prejuicios, con un mínimo y, en la mayoría de los casos, muy simple bagaje de conocimientos técnicos previos. Está claro que se trata de dos artes completamente diferentes, también es bien sabido y repetido hasta la saciedad el carácter abstracto de la música. Pero así y todo ¿Será posible arbitrar un modo de acercarse a la música desde dentro, desde la práctica de la composición musical de una forma directa y simple, sin necesidad de una formación musical de nivel superior, de forma parecida a como se plantea la actividad creativa en la educación plástica? ¿Será posible complementar dicha práctica con la subsiguiente interpretación de las composiciones y la crítica de las producciones ajenas del mismo nivel? Las preguntas no son, por supuesto, nuevas: ya los grandes pedagogos musicales del primer cuarto de siglo las plantearon y resolvieron cada uno a su modo. La siguiente comunicación pretende dar a conocer los resultados de una investigación en el Aula de música, realizada por el autor durante los cuatro últimos años, que parte de una propuesta original en este sentido.

  8. TuGen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse

    An implementation of Mann's method of generating synthetic turbulence is described. A brief introduction to the method is given prior to some details on the implementation. Several tests to verify the implementation follows and finally the use of the program is described....

  9. Hypusine-containing protein eIF5A promotes translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Preeti; Eyler, Daniel E; Green, Rachel; Dever, Thomas E

    2009-05-07

    Translation elongation factors facilitate protein synthesis by the ribosome. Previous studies identified two universally conserved translation elongation factors, EF-Tu in bacteria (known as eEF1A in eukaryotes) and EF-G (eEF2), which deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome and promote ribosomal translocation, respectively. The factor eIF5A (encoded by HYP2 and ANB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the sole protein in eukaryotes and archaea to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine), was originally identified based on its ability to stimulate the yield (endpoint) of methionyl-puromycin synthesis-a model assay for first peptide bond synthesis thought to report on certain aspects of translation initiation. Hypusine is required for eIF5A to associate with ribosomes and to stimulate methionyl-puromycin synthesis. Because eIF5A did not stimulate earlier steps of translation initiation, and depletion of eIF5A in yeast only modestly impaired protein synthesis, it was proposed that eIF5A function was limited to stimulating synthesis of the first peptide bond or that eIF5A functioned on only a subset of cellular messenger RNAs. However, the precise cellular role of eIF5A is unknown, and the protein has also been linked to mRNA decay, including the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, and to nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here we use molecular genetic and biochemical studies to show that eIF5A promotes translation elongation. Depletion or inactivation of eIF5A in the yeast S. cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of polysomes and an increase in ribosomal transit times. Addition of recombinant eIF5A from yeast, but not a derivative lacking hypusine, enhanced the rate of tripeptide synthesis in vitro. Moreover, inactivation of eIF5A mimicked the effects of the eEF2 inhibitor sordarin, indicating that eIF5A might function together with eEF2 to promote ribosomal translocation. Because eIF5A is a structural homologue of the bacterial

  10. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiri M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mahdi Shiri,1,2,* Mona Navaei-Nigjeh,1,3,* Maryam Baeeri,1 Mahban Rahimifard,1 Hossein Mahboudi,4 Ahmad Reza Shahverdi,5 Abbas Kebriaeezadeh,1 Mohammad Abdollahi1,6,7 1Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, Artesh University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Research Center, 6Toxicology Interest Group, USERN, 7Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Diazinon (DZ is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double

  11. 《冥途飞脚》中的“义理与情”%The Rationalist and Emotion in Ming Tu Fei Jiao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎慧

    2012-01-01

    Chikamatsu is Japan Edo Genroku period famous writer of doll and kabuki. Jing Yuan Xi He, Song Wei Ba Jiao and Chikamatsu are called Japan Genroku period of three literary giants. The work of Chika- matsu 《Ming Tu Fei Jiao》in Japan staged a number of the most popular work. In《Ming Tu Fei Jiao》, Zbong BingWei and Mei Chuan are in order to defend their love but to resist the morality of Edo Feudal.At the same time , they defend the credit which is set up by the Edo business community too.It is a expression that damage society common practice and business credit mood. The content of 《Ming Tu Fei Jiao》 show off the Japan Cul- ture "The Rationalist And Emotion". It is a new way for the friend exchange of Japan and China If we do un- derstand the The Rationalist And Emotion.%近松门左卫门是日本江户元禄时期有名的人形净琉璃和歌舞伎的剧作家,他与井原西鹤、松尾芭蕉一起被称为日本元禄时期的三大文学巨匠。近松门左卫门的作品《冥途飞脚》如今在日本是上演次数多、很受欢迎的作品。《冥途飞脚》中贫苦纯情的忠兵卫与梅川为了成就自己的爱情而抵抗江户封建社会道德,同时也抵抗了江户商业社会所建立起的信用组织,形成了破坏社会风气、破坏商业信用风气的一个实证。作品所表现的这种内容正是日本文化中“义理与情”矛盾与冲突的真实表现。

  12. COST Action TU1206 "SUB-URBAN - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes; Lawrence, David; van der Meulen, Michiel; Mielby, Susie; Hay, David; Scanlon, Ray; Campenhout, Ignace; Taugs, Renate; Eriksson, Ingelov

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urbanisation is the focus of SUB-URBAN, a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities. This aims to transform relationships between experts who develop urban subsurface geoscience knowledge - principally national Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs), and those who can most benefit from it - urban decision makers, planners, practitioners and the wider research community. Under COST's Transport and Urban Development Domain, SUB-URBAN has established a network of GSOs and other researchers in over 20 countries, to draw together and evaluate collective urban geoscience research in 3D/4D characterisation, prediction and visualisation. Knowledge exchange between researchers and City-partners within 'SUB-URBAN' is already facilitating new city-scale subsurface projects, and is developing a tool-box of good-practice guidance, decision-support tools, and cost-effective methodologies that are appropriate to local needs and circumstances. These are intended to act as catalysts in the transformation of relationships between geoscientists and urban decision-makers more generally. As a result, the importance of the urban sub-surface in the sustainable development of our cities will be better appreciated, and the conflicting demands currently placed on it will be acknowledged, and resolved appropriately. Existing city-scale 3D/4D model exemplars are being developed by partners in the UK (Glasgow, London), Germany (Hamburg) and France (Paris). These draw on extensive ground investigation (10s-100s of thousands of boreholes) and other data. Model linkage enables prediction of groundwater, heat, SuDS, and engineering properties. Combined subsurface and above-ground (CityGML, BIMs) models are in preparation. These models will provide valuable tools for more holistic urban planning; identifying subsurface opportunities and saving costs by reducing uncertainty in

  13. Gigantes digitales. Quijote en 17000 tuits de Diego Buendía y Escribe tu propio Quijote de Belén Gache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Corral Cañas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To incorporate Don Quixote into the virtual environment offers many possibilities, from the literal adaptation into an electronic format, such as rewriting it on Twitter, to the allusion to the book in an avant-garde creation. Thus, among the various ways of tackling Don Quixote in Twitter, the project El Quijote en 17000 tuits by Diego Buendía, who makes a fragmented transcript in 17000 sections or tweets, stands out. Furthermore, Escribe tu propio Quijote by Belén Gache honors Cervantes’ novel with a simple interactive game that invites the reader to rethink the authorship issue within and outside the work. These two creations, born from the junction of the famous novel by Cervantes and the particularities of the new ecosystem, recover the quixotic nature to integrate it, from very different paths, into the digital universe.

  14. 碳含量对TU5JP4灰铸铁冷激凸轮轴铸造弯曲变形和气孔的影响%Effect of Carbon Content on Bending Deformation and Porosity of TU5JP4 Chilled Grey Cast Iron Camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 张昊

    2012-01-01

    本文采用生产现场的大量数据,统计分析了碳含量对TU5JP4灰铸铁冷激凸轮轴弯曲变形和气孔的影响.统计数据表明,碳含量从3.4%~3.6%提高到3.6%~3.7%之间,可以较明显地降低凸轮轴的过度弯曲变形(跳动超过1mm)和气孔缺陷.用户机械加工的统计数据表明,碳含量提高后,因皮下气孔导致的废品率下降约30%.%The production data on spot have been used for statistical analysis of effect of the carbon content on bending deformation and blowhole defect of TU5JP4 chilled cast iron camshaft. It showed that increasing carbon content of the camshaft from 3.4%~3.6% to 3.6%~3.7%, has significantly reduced the bending deformation of the camshaft (radial runout more than lmm) and porosity defect. The statistics of the user showed that as the carbon content increased, the waste rate caused due to the blowhole defect decreased by about 30%.

  15. Optimization of liquid state fermentation conditions for cellulase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Tu-115 with filter paper enzyme as index%以滤纸酶活力为指标优化解淀粉芽孢杆菌Tu-115菌株产纤维素酶液体发酵条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜军坡; 朱宝成; 王世英

    2014-01-01

    以滤纸酶活力为指标对解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)Tu-115菌株产纤维素酶液体发酵条件进行优化.通过单因素和正交试验相结合的方法,考察培养基中碳源、氮源、起始pH值、装瓶量、温度、接种量、发酵时间等发酵条件对产酶能力的影响.结果表明,当培养条件为葡萄糖4%、黄豆饼粉3%、培养基起始pH值4.0、接种量4%、装瓶量50 ml/250 ml,37℃发酵72 h时,发酵液中滤纸酶活力达到最高值,为3 309.90 U/ml,比优化前提高了125倍.优化后,Tu-115菌株产滤纸酶能力大大提高,达到了预期目的.

  16. Analysis of host-inducing proteome changes in bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 grown in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Bin; Sun, Zhongke; Bo, Xin; Yuan, Xitong; He, Xiang; Zhao, Hongqing; Du, Xinying; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Leili; Wang, Yufei; Wei, Kaihua; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xuemin; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Zeng, Ming

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of Bifidobacterium longum to the intestinal tract, we utilized a new model for rabbit intestinal culture of B. longum and reported the changes in proteomic profiles after incubation in the in vivo environment. By 2D-PAGE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses, proteomic profiles of B. longum strain NCC2705 grown in the in vivo and in vitro environments were compared. Confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, which exhibited at least a 3-fold change or greater, 19 up-regulated proteins, 14 down-regulated proteins, and 4 proteins with mobility changes were identified during intestinal growth. These identified proteins include key stress proteins, metabolism-related proteins, and proteins related to translation. Our results indicate that some useful proteins are expressed at higher levels in cells during intestinal growth. These proteins reflected the adaptation of B. longum NCC2705 to the intestine, such as EF-Tu which contributes to the retention or attachment as a Bifidobacterium adhesin-like factor, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) which might play an important role in the molecular mechanisms for the initial interaction of probiotic with the intestinal environment, and stress proteins which defend B. longum against the action of bile salts and other harmful ingredients of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The most striking fact of our observation was that four proteins GlnA1, PurC, LuxS, and Pgk exhibit clear post-translational modification. Western blot (WB) analysis and Pro-Q Diamond staining revealed that substances of the GIT trigger Pgk and LuxS phosphorylation at Ser/Thr residues for bacteria grown in vivo. These proteins were identified for the first time as bifidobacterial phosphoproteins. Our data suggest that the phosphorylated autoinducer-2 production

  17. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  18. Divdaivu Ginka (Ginkgo Biloba) farmakoloģiskās īpašības un tā preparātu aprite SIA "Gulbju aptiekā"

    OpenAIRE

    Indriča, Alīna

    2014-01-01

    Divdaivu ginks (Ginkgo biloba) ir viens no vecākajiem kokiem pasaulē. Ķīnas tradicionālajā medicīnā ginka lapas un sēklas izmanto jau vismaz 5000 gadus. Standartizēts Ginkgo biloba ekstrakts satur – 24% flavonglikozīdu un 6% terpēnlaktonu. Šī darba mērķis ir veikt apkopoto datu analīzi par Ginkgo biloba preparātu apriti „Gulbju aptiekā” – Gulbenē, 2013. gada laikā, kā arī noskaidrot cilvēku informētību par Ginkgo biloba preparātu lietošanu. Darbā tika izvirzīti 4 uzdevumi: Noskaidrot, k...

  19. EFECTO DEL PROGRAMA “MUÉVETE POR TU SALUD” SOBRE LA COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL, PRESIÓN ARTERIAL, CALIDAD DE SUEÑO Y ESTRÉS ACADÉMICO EN ESTUDIANTES RESIDENTES DE UNA UNIVERSIDAD PRIVADA CONFESIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Arias, Saulo; Universidad Peruana Unión Filial Tarapoto; Pérez Rivera, Jessica; Castro Rodríguez, Elda

    2016-01-01

    universitaria como parte del cumplimiento de la reforma pro salud. Objetivo: Determinar laeficiencia del programa “Muévete por tu salud” en la composición corporal, presión arterial,calidad de sueño y estrés académico en los estudiantes residentes UPeU sede Tarapoto.Método: Se desarrolló el programa de actividad física denominado “Muévete por tu salud”con 79 estudiantes (F59 – M20) entre las edades de 16 y 19 años que residen en el campusuniversitario. Las variables consideradas fueron: Compo...

  20. Study on need and importance of Information Literacy in Nepal: Special emphasis to students of MLisc, TU, Central Department of Library and Information Science and professionals of Kathmandu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Saroja

    2005-01-01

    The present study is a study on "Need and importance of information literacy in Nepal: special emphasis to students of MLISc, Central Department of Library and Information Science, TU and professional librarians of Kathmandu". In the present context where emphasis is given more on getting the accurate information at the needed time. The professionals working as the information providers should be literate. Librarians are the primary information providers so professional librarians and student...

  1. 《古今图书集成》医学思想研究%Study on Medical Thoughts inGu Jin Tu Shu Ji Cheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威; 阎卫红; 余丞浩; 于峥

    2016-01-01

    Gu Jin Tu Shu Ji Cheng is a large-scale reference book in the Qing Dynasty, which is known as the ancient "Encyclopedia of China". Its content of traditional Chinese medicine is rich. Gu Jin Tu Shu Ji Cheng Yi Bu Quan Lu quoted over 120 ancient medical books covering principles of medical science, the four methods of diagnosis, clinical departments, and medical records. Other compilations and scriptures also include large amounts of medical content. The books are widely cited and precious. The contents of this book are selected finely, incorporate things of diverse nature, include large numbers of classics, and conduct clarification, with a purpose to search and retrieve; the contents also pay attention to the clinical practice, pay equal attention to the four methods of diagnosis, refer to syndrome differentiation and treatment, and include methodology and discussion, with unique views and clear logic, which can help readers’ learning.%《古今图书集成》系清代大型类书,被誉为古代“中国百科全书”,书中医学内容丰富。其中,《古今图书集成·医部全录》征引历代重要医籍120余种,涵盖医理、四诊、临床各科、医药纪事等;其他汇编、典部也有大量与医学相关的内容,征引广泛,弥足珍贵。书中对收录医学内容挑选精细,兼收并蓄,经典赅备,分门别类,便于检索阅读;重视临床实用,四诊并重,证治相参,方论俱备,观点独到,条理清晰,便于读者学习。

  2. Numerical modelling of GPR ground-matching enhancement by a chirped multilayer structure - output of cooperation within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Hovik V.; Knyazyan, Tamara M.; Hovhannisyan, Tamara. T.; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    As is well know, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an electromagnetic technique for the detection and imaging of buried objects, with resolution ranging from centimeters to few meters [1, 2]. Though this technique is mature enough and different types of GPR devices are already in use, some problems are still waiting for their solution [3]. One of them is to achieve a better matching of transmitting GPR antenna to the ground, that will increase the signal penetration depth and the signal/noise ratio at the receiving end. In the current work, a full-wave electromagnetic modelling of the interaction of a plane wave with a chirped multilayered structure on the ground is performed, via numerical simulation. The method of single expression is used, which is a suitable technique for multi-boundary problems solution [4, 5]. The considered multilayer consists of two different dielectric slabs of low and high permittivity, where the highest value of permittivity doesn't exceed the permittivity of the ground. The losses in the ground are suitably taken into account. Two types of multilayers are analysed. Numerical results are obtained for the reflectance from the structure, as well as for the distributions of electric field components and power flow density in both the considered structures and the ground. The obtained results indicate that, for a better matching with the ground, the layer closer to the ground should be the high-permittivity one. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). Part of this work was developed during the Short-Term Scientific Mission COST-STSM-TU1208-25016, carried out by Prof. Baghdasaryan in the National Institute of Telecommunications in Warsaw, Poland. References [1] H. M. Jol. Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Applications. Elsevier, 2009. 509 pp. [2] R. Persico. Introduction to

  3. Pilsētu ilgtspējīgas attīstības plānošanas un pārvaldīšanas aspekti mūsdienās

    OpenAIRE

    Grizāns, J; Vanags, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zinātniskā raksta mērķis ir pilsētu ilgtspējīgas attīstības plānošanas un pārvaldīšanas aspektu izpēte mūsdienu urbanizācijas un globalizācijas procesu apstākļos. Nospraustā pētījuma mērķa sasniegšanai ir izmantotas šādas pētnieciskās izziņas metodes: pilsētu attīstību regulējošo normatīvo dokumentu un konceptuālo pamatnostādņu analīze, ekspertu vērtējumu izpēte, kā arī monogrāfiskās un loģiskās pieejas metodes. Pētījuma rezultātā ir izstrādāti konceptuālie priekšlikumi pilsētu sociāli ekonom...

  4. Presentation of the new Department of Drilling, Special Deep Drilling Equipment and Mining Machinery of the Institute of Drilling and Fluid Mining of TU Bergakademie Freiberg University; Vorstellung des neuen Lehrstuhls fuer Bohrtechnik, Spezialtiefbauausruestungen und Bergbaumaschinen am Institut fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau der TU Bergakademie Freiberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M.; Ksienzyk, F. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The paper presents the new Department of Drilling, Special Deep Drilling Equipment and Mining Machinery of the Institute of Drilling and Fluid Mining of TU Bergakademie Freiberg University. The new combination of drilling technology and mechanical engineering reflects the rapid technological development of deep drilling during the past two decades. Teaching subjects and research activities are described. Although trends are positive, there are still not enough students of drilling and fluid mining. If the rapidly increasing demand for engineers specializing in drilling technology and petroleum and natural gas production is to be met on a medium-term basis, joint efforts of industry and universities will be necessary as discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  5. La satisfacción de residentes con su colonia y el programa gubernamental Tu Casa en el estado de Zacatecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ibarra Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El grado de satisfacción residencial, considerado como un indicador de nivel de vida, tiene como uno de sus componentes la satisfacción con la colonia de los individuos. En este artículo estimamos una serie de modelos para analizar el grado de satisfacción con la colonia de una muestra de hogares en el estado de Zacatecas. Las estimaciones nos permiten determinar si el programa federal de vivienda Tu Casa en ese estado, operado de 2004 a 2009, tuvo alguna influencia en el grado de satisfacción con la colonia, de acuerdo con la percepción de los residentes entrevistados. Encontramos evidencia de que el referido programa causó un efecto significativo en el grado de satisfacción del grupo de familias beneficiarias. Además de ese resultado, la estimación por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios muestra que el acceso vial, la contaminación ambiental, la percepción del valor de la casa y el tiempo de vivir en la vivienda influyen de forma significativa en el grado de satisfacción con la colonia. En los modelos estimados por probit y logit encontramos evidencia de que la seguridad pública y la posesión del inmueble también influyen en tal satisfacción.

  6. CERN Library | Sandrine Saison-Marsollier, Corinne Pralavorio and Michel Spiro present "Si tu devais me dessiner l’Univers…" | 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2015-01-01

    Sandrine Saison-Marsollier, Corinne Pralavorio and Michel Spiro present Si tu devais me dessiner l’Univers… Thursday, 10 December 2015 at 3.30 p.m. at the Library, Building 52-1-052 Tea and coffee will be served at 3 p.m. In 2014, CERN launched an art competition for local primary schools. Children were asked to come up with questions about the universe, matter and working as a researcher. The initiative was so successful that it has been turned into a book that teachers can explore with their pupils, discussing the questions and discovering the answers together. The book is laid out in double-page spreads, with the child’s illustration on one page and the question and its answer opposite. The answers take the form of a short text written by Michel Spiro, the competition’s scientific advisor, together with a cultural quotation whose purpose is to highlight the close association between science, literature and philosophy. The questions include: What was there...

  7. Las revistas de tu casa: una provocación para innovar en la difusión académica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andión Gamboa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde principios del siglo pasado, las universidades latinoamericanas han mostrado una vocación “extensionista”, es decir, un afán de difusión de la cultura científica y humanística más allá de los confines de las comunidades académicas. Las revistas y los libros han sido tradicionalmente la principal vía que las universidades han utilizado para difundir su producción cultural entre sus comunidades y la sociedad en general. La Galaxia de Gutenberg es sumamente extensa y, aún hoy, las universidades no han terminado de cruzarla. Las revistas universitarias son más que un medio de difusión, de hecho son proyectos académicos, la mayoría de ellos, que aglutinan grupos de interés integrados por afinidad ideológica, política, social o cultural. Para propiciar la discusión, se elaboró un video documental titulado “Las revistas de tu casa” que aborda la problemática actual de las revistas en la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM, en su conjunto, y dentro del cambio de paradigma tecnológico.

  8. Incidence and remission of parasomnias among adolescent children in the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furet O

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Longitudinal assessments of parasomnias in the adolescent population are scarce. This analysis aims to identify the incidence and remission of parasomnias in the adolescent age group.Methods: The TuCASA study is a prospective cohort study that initially enrolled children between the ages of 6 and 11 years (Time 1 and subsequently re-studied them approximately 5 years later (Time 2. At both time points parents were asked to complete a comprehensive sleep habits questionnaire designed to assess the severity of sleep-related symptoms that included questions about enuresis (EN, sleep terrors (TR, sleep walking (SW and sleep talking (ST.Results: There were 350 children participating at Time 1 who were studied as adolescents at time 2. The mean interval between measurements was (4.6 years. The incidence of EN, TR, ST, and SW in these 10-18 year old children was 0.3%, 0.6%, 6.0% and 1.1% respectively. Remission rates were 70.8%, 100%, 64.8% and 50.0% respectively.Conclusions: The incidence rates of EN, TR, and SW were relatively low moving from childhood to adolescence while remission rates were high across all parasomnias.

  9. Tu Amigo Pepe: Evaluation of a Multi-media Marketing Campaign that Targets Young Latino Immigrant MSM with HIV Testing Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Montaño, Daniel; Stern, Joshua; Aguirre, Joel; Martinez, Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis in the United States. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot of the Tu Amigo Pepe, a multimedia HIV testing campaign aimed at Latino MSM in Seattle, WA particularly targeting immigrants who may not identify as gay, ages 18-30 years old. The 16-week campaign included Spanish-language radio public service announcements (PSAs), a Web site, social media outreach, a reminder system using mobile technology, print materials and a toll-free hotline. In developing the PSAs, the Integrated Behavioral Model was used as a framework to reframe negative attitudes, beliefs and norms towards HIV testing with positive ones as well as to promote self-efficacy towards HIV testing. The campaign had a significant and immediate impact on attitudes, beliefs, norms and self-efficacy towards HIV testing as well as on actual behavior, with HIV testing rates increasing over time.

  10. Tu e o de quem?" Tecendo os os com Bakhtin, Vigotski e Paulo Freire / Who do you think you are?" Commenting the wires with Bakhtin, Vigotski and Freire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Manoel de Jesus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este artigo analisa o enunciado "Tu é o de quem?", apontando para a responsabilidade que um filho da roça tem como partícipe do sustento da família e como essa realidade imediata constitui fios que enredam sua existência. Adota as contribuições de Bakhtin, Freire e Vigotski, evidenciando o processo de humanização como resultado das interações verbais e sociais que os indivíduos estabelecem em determinadas condições que caracterizam o espaço e o tempo em queestão inseridos e inserindo-se num processo ininterrupto. ABSTRACT:This article aims at analyzing the statement addressed to a farm child "Who do you think you are?" pointing to the fact that these children are responsible for their family income and as thisimmediate reality is intertwined by wires which build up their existence. This text is based on Bakhtin, Vygotsky and Freire, showing the process of humanization as a result of social and verbalinteractions which individuals establish under certain conditions in order to characterize the space and time in which they are inserted and inserting themselves into a never-ending process.

  11. Oleanolic Acid Induces Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells to Neurons: An Involvement of Transcription Factor Nkx-2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Ning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs harbor the potential to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes under normal conditions and/or in response to tissue damage. NSCs open a new way of treatment of the injured central nervous system and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus far, few drugs have been developed for controlling NSC functions. Here, the effect as well as mechanism of oleanolic acid (OA, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, on NSC function was investigated. We found OA significantly inhibited neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner and achieved a maximum effect at 10 nM. OA also reduced 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation into NSCs, which was indicative of inhibited NSC proliferation. Western blotting analysis revealed the protein levels of neuron-specific marker tubulin-βIII (TuJ1 and Mash1 were increased whilst the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP decreased. Immunofluorescence analysis showed OA significantly elevated the percentage of TuJ1-positive cells and reduced GFAP-positive cells. Using DNA microarray analysis, 183 genes were differentially regulated by OA. Through transcription factor binding site analyses of the upstream regulatory sequences of these genes, 87 genes were predicted to share a common motif for Nkx-2.5 binding. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA methodology was used to silence Nkx-2.5 expression and found silence of Nkx-2.5 alone did not change the expression of TuJ-1 and the percentage of TuJ-1-positive cells. But in combination of OA treatment and silence of Nkx-2.5, most effects of OA on NSCs were abolished. These results indicated that OA is an effective inducer for NSCs differentiation into neurons at least partially by Nkx-2.5-dependent mechanism.

  12. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  13. Demographics, treatment and outcomes of atrial fibrillation in a developing country: the population-based TuRkish Atrial Fibrillation (TRAF) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Bünyamin; Ata, Naim; Oto, Emre; Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Aytemir, Kudret; Evranos, Banu; Koselerli, Rasim; Ertugay, Emre; Burkan, Abdulkadir; Ertugay, Emrah; Gale, Christ P; Camm, A John; Oto, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common in developed countries, there is limited information regarding its demographics, co-morbidities, treatments and outcomes in the developing countries. We present the profile of the TuRkish Atrial Fibrillation (TRAF) cohort which provides real-life data about prevalence, incidence, co-morbidities, treatment, healthcare utilization and outcomes associated with AF. The TRAF cohort was extracted from MEDULA, a health insurance database linking hospitals, general practitioners, pharmacies and outpatient clinics for almost 100% of the inhabitants of the country. The cohort includes 507 136 individuals with AF between 2008 and 2012 aged >18 years who survived the first 30 days following diagnosis. Of 507 136 subjects, there were 423 109 (83.4%) with non-valvular AF and 84 027 (16.6%) with valvular AF. The prevalence was 0.80% in non-valvular AF and 0.28% in valvular AF; in 2012 the incidence of non-valvular AF (0.17%) was higher than valvular AF (0.04%). All-cause mortality was 19.19% (97 368) and 11.47% (58 161) at 1-year after diagnosis of AF. There were 35 707 (7.04%) ischaemic stroke/TIA/thromboembolism at baseline and 34 871 (6.87%) during follow-up; 11 472 (2.26%) major haemorrhages at baseline and 10 183 (2.01%) during follow-up, and 44 116 (8.69%) hospitalizations during the follow-up. The TRAF cohort is the first population-based, whole-country cohort of AF epidemiology, quality of care and outcomes. It provides a unique opportunity to study the patterns, causes and impact of treatments on the incidence and outcomes of AF in a developing country.

  14. Tu Salud ¡Sí Cuenta! Your Health Matters! A Community-wide Campaign in a Hispanic Border Community in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Natalia I; Lee, MinJae; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Reininger, Belinda M

    2017-08-14

    To evaluate a community-wide campaign, Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! (TSSC), in improving eating behaviors and anthropometric outcomes in Hispanic border communities. A quasi-experimental study with matched intervention and comparison communities. Cross-sectional assessments with randomly sampled adults, examined by actual exposure and site (unexposed intervention, exposed intervention, and unexposed comparison). Predominately Mexican Americans located in Brownsville, TX (intervention) and Laredo, TX (control). The TSSC campaign included television and radio segments, community health worker discussions, and newsletters delivered in Brownsville from 2005 to 2010. Healthy and unhealthy eating indices and average hip and waist circumferences. Univariable and multivariable regression models. The sample (n = 799; 400 comparison and 399 intervention) was 98% of Mexican origin; 54% had completed grade 9 or higher. Exposure to any TSSC component was associated with a lower rate of unhealthy food consumption. Compared with the unexposed intervention group, the exposed intervention for the newsletter had a higher rate of healthy eating (adjusted rate ratio = 1.18; P < .01). Compared with the unexposed intervention, the exposed intervention for the community health worker discussion had a smaller hip circumference (adjusted mean difference = -5.77 cm; P < .05) and a smaller waist circumference (adjusted mean difference = -5.25 cm; P < .05). This study provides evidence for the use of community-wide campaigns for nutrition and obesity-related outcomes in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Talking about the scene of diet and cooking based on Pao Chu Tu(kitchen picture) of Han dynasty%从汉画像石庖厨图谈汉代饮食烹饪状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金萍

    2009-01-01

    汉画像石庖厨图以生动写真的画面,再现了汉代饮食烹饪状况.山东诸城等地庖厨图,描绘了占代庞大忙碌的烹饪场面,包括宰杀、汲水、蒸煮、炙烤、酿酒等各种厨事活动,展示了汉代先进烹饪厨具如釜、甑、鼎、烤炉等,以及汉人繁复的烹饪技术如蒸、煮、炮、炙等,反映了汉代丰富的食物种类.汉画像石庖厨图为我们研究汉代饮食生活提供了珍贵的资料.%The Pao Chu Tu(kitchen picture)of Han dynasty stone relief reconstructed the state of dietary cooking of Han dynasty with vivid and authentic picture.The Pao Chu Tu(kitchen picture)of Shandong Zhucheng city depicted ancient enormous and busy cooking scene which involved all kinds of cooking activities such as butcher,bailing,stewing,roast and brewing wine etc,displaying the advanced kitchen ware e.g.kettle,caldron,tripod,oven and complex cooking technology of Han Chinese people such as steaming,boiling,stirring baking and roast erc,reflecting rich dietary categories of Han dynasty.The Pao Chu Tu (kitchen picture)of Han dynasty stone relief provide us precious datas for the purpose of the study of dictary living of Han dynasty.

  16. « El rastro de tu sangre en la nieve » : ¿ cuento de hadas sombrío o canción kitsch ?

    OpenAIRE

    Maryse Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo propone una lectura del cuento « El rastro de tu sangre en la nieve » de Gabriel García Márquez (Doce cuentos peregrinos, 1992), observando las relaciones que el mismo establece con distintas formas de la cultura popular. Considerando el contexto del llamado « realismo mágico », donde evoluciona habitualmente la producción de García Márquez, se estudian, en este relato, las múltiples relaciones inter-textuales con distintos tópicos populares, desde el cuento de hadas o de horror...

  17. Ogļhidrātu satura izvērtējums etiķskābes baktēriju fermentēšanas kultūršķidrumā

    OpenAIRE

    Beikmanis, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Darba teorētiskajā daļā tika apskatīta literatūra par iespējamo ogļhidrātu saturu fermentēšanas kultūršķidrumā un tā analīzes metodes. Praktiskajā daļā tika noteikts kvantitatīvs un kvalitatīvs kultūršķidrumu sastāvs izmantojot Lufa-Šorla metodi un augstefektīvo šķidrumu hromatogrāfiju.

  18. Romanian Association of Balneology Conference – 2015, 28 – 31 May, Băile Tuşnad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Constantin

    2015-05-01

    PERIODONTITIS TREATMENT 17.\tDr. Tatar Daniela Monica, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Dr. Ungur Rodica - INFLUENCE OF NATURAL FACTORS ON BRONCHIAL ASTHMA 18.\tIspas Alexandra, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD ON THE REHABILITATION OF POST-STROKE PATIENTS 19.\tMaria Daniela Crăciun - IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN CLIMAX WITH KINETOTHERAPY AND NATURAL FACTORS IN VATRA DORNEI RESORT 20.\tDenisa Muresan, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTIVENESS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD FOR THE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE 21.\tGabriel Ranghiuc, Roxana Hodorogea, Asist.Dr.BioIng. Cătălina LUCA - STUDIUL TULBURĂRILOR MUSCULO-SCHELETALE UTILIZÂND ELECTROGONIOMETRIA ŞI ELECTROMIOGRAFIA 22.\tMonica Delia POP, Letitia Mihaela Morar - How do we protect ourselves of MALPRACTICE? MEDICAL MALPRACTICE - ACTUALITY, PERSPECTIVES AND SIGNIFICANTLY JURISPRUDENCE 23.\tOctavian D Olariu, Claudia Dascal, Ionut Cadar - REHABILITATION “KEY POINTS” IN ZONE V FLEXOR TENDONS INJURIES 24.\tSuceveanu Mihaela, Pop Dana, Suceveanu Paul, Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana, Zdrenghea Dumitru, Hâncu Nicolae - EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation IN CARDIOVASCULAR Diseases, COVASNA 25.\tCadar D Ionut, Dogaru B Gabriela - THE PHYSICAL THERAPY ROLE IN FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AFTER TOTAL SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY 26.\tDr. Glogojeanu Remus Relu, Dr. Bucur Ileana, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Kt. Glogojeanu Olivia Daniela - THE SIGNIFICANT RISKS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE AERONAUTICAL PERSONNEL. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT 27.\tTatiana Bihari, Denes Marton, Doina Moldovan - SILICONE IMPLANT ARTHROPLASTY OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT (PIPJ OF FINGER V OF THE RIGHT HAND – A THERAPEUTIC VARIANT IN POSTTRAUMATIC ARTHROSIS 28.\tPop Daniela Dogaru Gabriela, Stanescu Ioana, Pop Ioana - ROLE OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION TREATMENT IN POST

  19. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-2: Deformable Image Registration, Contour Propagation, and Dose Mapping inMIM Maestro - MIM Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J. [MIM Software, Inc. (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  20. TU-D-201-01: Definition and Purpose of End-Of-Life for Brachytherapy Devices and Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melhus, C. [Tufts Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  1. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-3: Under the hood of Deformable Image Registration: Similarity Functions and Regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadir, T.

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  2. “Local” Reconstruction of Knowledge in the Process of Cross-Cultural Science Communication---A Case Study on the Compilation of HunGai Tong Xian Tu Shuo and Tongwen Suanzhi%跨文化科学传播中知识的“地方性”再建构--以《浑盖通宪图说》与《同文算指》的编译为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱东; 宋芝业

    2015-01-01

    科学知识的“地方性”不仅指知识产生、形成以及辩护的“地方性”,还应包括科学知识在跨文化传播中所渗透的诸如社会、文化等因素的“地方性”。李之藻所处的社会文化传统,所持的文化立场以及其自身的知识储备与科学素养都影响到其对《浑盖通宪图说》与《同文算指》的选构与编译。因此,科学的跨文化传播是一个知识在“地方性”因素参与下的再建构过程。这一再建构过程说明“中心—边缘”式科学传播模式是有失偏颇的,同时还反映出儒家文化在学习与接受异质文化中呈现出的某些特性。%The“locality”of scientific knowledge refers not only to the production ,formation ,transfer ,and defense of knowledge , but also the“local” factors that scientific knowledge are penetrated in cross‐cultural communication such as society ,culture etc .. By analyzing that Li Zhizao’s cultural traditions ,cultural position and reserves of know ledge and scientific literacy have an effect on the selection and compilation of HunGai Tong Xian Tu Shuo and Tongwensuanzhi ,this paper reveals the“local”factors of so‐ciety and culture penetrate the process of compiling HunGai Tong Xian Tu Shuo and Tongwensuanzhi ,and elucidates the cross‐cultural communication of scientific knowledge is also a process of reconstruction of local factors participating .This process could prove that the“centre‐edge” model of science communication is biased and this also reflects the characteristic of Confucian culture in the learning w estern culture .

  3. TU-CD-BRB-05: Radiation Damage Signature of White Matter Fiber Bundles Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, T; Chapman, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Tsien, C [Washington University at St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated and scalable approach and identify temporal, spatial and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage of white matter (WM) fibers following partial brain irradiation. Methods: An automated and scalable approach was developed to extract DTI features of 22 major WM fibers from 33 patients with low-grade/benign tumors treated by radiation therapy (RT). DTI scans of the patients were performed pre-RT, 3- and 6-week during RT, and 1, 6 and 18 months after RT. The automated tractography analysis was applied to 198 datasets as: (1) intra-subject registration of longitudinal DTI, (2) spatial normalization of individual-patient DTI to the Johns Hopkins WM Atlas, (3) automatic fiber tracking regulated by the WM Atlas, and (4) segmentation of WM into 22 major tract profiles. Longitudinal percentage changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD/AD/RD) of each tract from pre-RT were quantified and correlated to 95%, 90% and 80% percentiles of doses and mean doses received by the tract. Heatmaps were used to identify clusters of significant correlation and reveal temporal, spatial and dosimetric signatures of WM damage. A multivariate linear regression was further carried out to determine influence of clinical factors. Results: Of 22 tracts, AD/MD changes in 12 tracts had significant correlation with doses, especially at 6 and 18 months post-RT, indicating progressive radiation damage after RT. Most interestingly, the DTI-index changes in the elongated tracts were associated with received maximum doses, suggesting a serial-structure behavior; while short association fibers were affected by mean doses, indicating a parallel-structure response. Conclusion: Using an automated DTI-tractography analysis of whole brain WM fibers, we reveal complex radiation damage patterns of WM fibers. Damage in WM fibers that play an important role in the neural network could be associated with late neurocognitive function declines

  4. TU-CD-207-04: Radiation Exposure Comparisons of CESM with 2D FFDM and 3D Tomosynthesis Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J; Boltz, T; Pavlicek, W [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While mammography is considered the standard for front-line breast cancer screening, image sensitivity and specificity can be affected by factors like dense breast tissue. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) shows promising initial results for dense breasts but comes at the cost of increased dose compared with full-field-digital-mammography (FFDM). The goal of this study is to quantitatively assess the dose increase of CESM in comparison with 2D-FFDM and 3D-Tomo at varying breast thickness. Methods: The experiments were conducted on a Hologic-Selenia-Dimensions system that performed 2D-FFDM, 3D-Tomo and CESM (high and low energies) on regular (50/50) and dense (70/30) breast tissue-mimicking phantoms. Both the phantoms had 6, 1-cm thick slabs (total thickness 6cm), compressed at 20-lbs using an 18×24 paddle. A single exposure was performed for each of the 3 mammo techniques with the following settings: AEC-Auto; Focal Spot-Large; kVp-Auto; mAs- Auto, Target/Filter combination-Auto; AEC Sensor/Exposure compensation Step-2/0. Average glandular dose (AGD) in mGy was obtained and compared as a function of breast thickness (1 – 6 cm) for both the phantom types. Results: The study shows that dose from the total CESM from 50/50 phantom at a breast thickness of a) 4.5 cm was 37.5% higher than 2D-FFDM and 30% higher than 3D-Tomo, b) 6 cm was 36.2% higher than 2D-FFDM and 41% higher than 3D-Tomo. For a dense breast tissue of 70/30 phantom, it was found that CESM dose at a breast thickness of: a) 4.5 cm was 33.3% higher than 2D-FFDM and 28.8% higher than 3D-Tomo, b) 6 cm was 35.4% higher than 2D-FFDM and 48.0% higher than 3D-Tomo. The overall CESM dose for the dense breast phantom was 12.5% higher at 4.5cm and 35% higher at 6 cm compared to the 50/50 phantom. Conclusion: This quantitative comparison study showed that CESM technique has an increased radiation dose compared to conventional 2D-FFDM and 3D-Tomo.

  5. TU-CD-BRA-12: Coupling PET Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Variational Method with Multiple Regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L; Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new variational method which couples image restoration with tumor segmentation for PET images using multiple regularizations. Methods: Partial volume effect (PVE) is a major degrading factor impacting tumor segmentation accuracy in PET imaging. The existing segmentation methods usually need to take prior calibrations to compensate PVE and they are highly system-dependent. Taking into account that image restoration and segmentation can promote each other and they are tightly coupled, we proposed a variational method to solve the two problems together. Our method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind deconvolution and Mumford-Shah (MS) segmentation. The TV norm was used on edges to protect the edge information, and the L{sub 2} norm was used to avoid staircase effect in the no-edge area. The blur kernel was constrained to the Gaussian model parameterized by its variance and we assumed that the variances in the X-Y and Z directions are different. The energy functional was iteratively optimized by an alternate minimization algorithm. Segmentation performance was tested on eleven patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and evaluated by Dice similarity index (DSI) and classification error (CE). For comparison, seven other widely used methods were also tested and evaluated. Results: The combination of TV and L{sub 2} regularizations effectively improved the segmentation accuracy. The average DSI increased by around 0.1 than using either the TV or the L{sub 2} norm. The proposed method was obviously superior to other tested methods. It has an average DSI and CE of 0.80 and 0.41, while the FCM method — the second best one — has only an average DSI and CE of 0.66 and 0.64. Conclusion: Coupling image restoration and segmentation can handle PVE and thus improves tumor segmentation accuracy in PET. Alternate use of TV and L2 regularizations can further improve the performance of the algorithm. This work was supported in part by National Natural

  6. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Replacement Computational Phantoms to Estimate Dose in Out-Of-Field Organs and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, K [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Tannous, J; Nabha, R; Feghali, J; Ayoub, Z; Jalbout, W; Youssef, B [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Taddei, P [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues at risk for radiogenic cancer for children receiving photon radiotherapy for localized brain tumors (LBTs) by supplementing their missing body anatomies with those of replacement computational phantoms. Applied beyond the extent of the RT Images collected by computed tomography simulation, these phantoms included RT Image and RT Structure Set objects that encompassed sufficient extents and contours for dosimetric calculations. Method: Nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low-grade LBTs, were randomly selected for this study under Institutional-Review-Board protocol. Because the extents of their RT Images were cranial only, they were matched for size and sex with patients from a previous study with larger extents and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the patients’ data and those of the replacement computational phantoms using commercial software. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically-commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with an analytical model. Results: Averaged over all nine children and normalized for a therapeutic dose of 54 Gy prescribed to the PTV, where the PTV is the GTV, the highest mean organ doses were 3.27, 2.41, 1.07, 1.02, 0.24, and 0.24 Gy in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs, respectively. The mean organ doses ranged by a factor of 3 between the smallest and largest children. Conclusion: For children receiving photon radiotherapy for LBTs, we found their doses in organs at risk for second cancer to be non-negligible, especially in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs. This study demonstrated the feasibility for patient dosimetry studies to augment missing patient anatomy by applying size- and sex-matched replacement

  7. Professional Development of College and University English Teachers in Chang-Ji-Tu Area%长吉图区域高校外语教师专业发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹

    2014-01-01

    调查长吉图区域高校外语教师专业发展状况,对调查结果进行分析,并提出外语教师专业发展途径,以期为外语教师的专业发展提供有益的借鉴,从而提高外语教师素质,提升高校教学质量,发挥高校的优势,促进长吉图开发开放先导区建设。%This study investigates foreign language teachers' professional development in Chang-Ji-Tu area, ana-lyses the results objectively. Based on the results, constructive suggestions are made on how to enhance English teachers' professional development, aiming to improve foreign language teachers' qualities and teaching quality of colleges and universities, promote the economic construction of Chang-Ji-Tu area.

  8. Identities ofJiao, Tu and Cao from Shuihudi Bamboo Slips%从睡虎地秦简看“校、徒、操”的身份

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝卫敏

    2012-01-01

    Jiao [校] ,tu [徒] and cao [操] recorded in "Jing Nei Pian" [境内篇] in ShangJun Shu [商君书] are associated with the ranking system advocated by Shang Yang and their identities are controversial among scholars. By referring to Qin dynasty bamboo slips discovered at Shuihudi, Hubei province, this article points out thatjiao, tu and cao belong to a lower class in the army; instead of being handymen or sappers, they are minor officials in the army descending in rank and are not part of Shang Yang' s ranking system.%“校、徒、操”见于《商君书·境内篇》,关涉商鞅爵制等级问题,学界对其身份争议较大。本文结合睡虎地秦墓竹简的相关材料,认为“校、徒、操”尽管在军中地位较低,但并非军中杂役、苦力或工程兵,而是由高到低排列的军中小吏,且并不在商鞅爵制等级范围之内。

  9. Marijas Montesori pedagoģisko principu izmantošana sajūtu attīstībai trīs līdz četrus gadus veciem bērniem

    OpenAIRE

    Dzērve, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Tēma: Marijas Montesori pedagoģisko principu izmantošana sajūtu attīstībai trīs līdz četrus gadus veciem bērniem Kvalifikācijas darba autore: Vita Dzērve Kvalifikācijas darba vadītāja: lekt.,mag. paed., I. Šūmane Kvalifikācijas darba apjoms: 57 lpp.,16 attēli, 1 pielikums, 19 izmantoti literatūras avoti Pētījuma mērķis: izpētīt un praksē aprobēt M. Montesori pedagoģiskos principus trīs līdz četrus gadus veciem bērniem sajūtu attīstības veicināšanai. Darba pirmajā daļā ...

  10. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  11. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  12. Design and testing of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications: ongoing activities in Working Group 1 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Manacorda, Guido; Persico, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 1 'Novel GPR instrumentation' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Action focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. It includes three Projects. Project 1.1 is focused on the 'Design, realisation and optimisation of innovative GPR equipment for the monitoring of critical transport infrastructures and buildings, and for the sensing of underground utilities and voids.' Project 1.2 is concerned with the 'Development and definition of advanced testing, calibration and stability procedures and protocols, for GPR equipment.' Project 1.3 deals with the 'Design, modelling and optimisation of GPR antennas.' During the first year of the Action, WG1 Members coordinated between themselves to address the state of the art and open problems in the scientific fields identified by the above-mentioned Projects [1, 2]. In carrying our this work, the WG1 strongly benefited from the participation of IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi, one of the biggest GPR manufacturers, as well as from the contribution of external experts as David J. Daniels and Erica Utsi, sharing with the Action Members their wide experience on GPR technology and methodology (First General Meeting, July 2013). The synergy with WG2 and WG4 of the Action was useful for a deep understanding of the problems, merits and limits of available GPR equipment, as well as to discuss how to quantify the reliability of GPR results. An

  13. Caracterização da imunogenicidade das proteínas recombinantes Virb9, Virb10 e fator termo instável de Elongação de Peptídeos de Anaplasma marginale em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Canevari Castelão

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as limitações dos atuais métodos de controle contra a anaplasmose bovina, o desenvolvimento de uma vacina efetiva se faz necessário. A partir do advento da análise genômica e proteômica, novas proteínas de membrana de Anaplasma marginale foram identificadas como possíveis candidatas a componentes de uma vacina, tais como, VirB9,VirB10 e Fator Termo Instavél de Elongação de Peptídeos (EF-Tu. Embora estas proteínas ainda não estejam bem caracterizadas na membrana de A. marginale, a produção destas na forma recombinante (rVirB 9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tutem sido realizada, mas as mesmas ainda não foram exploradas em formulações vacinais. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se ouso de rVirB9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tu emulsionadas em adjuvante Montanide em camundongos. Nas condições testadas, verificou-se a indução de forte resposta imune humoral com a produção de IgG1 e IgG2a, sendo que as proporções dos níveis de produção destas subclasses indicam predomínio de IgG1. Entretanto, esplenócitos de animais, que foram injetados com rVirB9 ou rVirB10, produziram interferon-gama acima do limite de detecção do ensaio após estimulação in vitro, sinalizando assim resposta celular específica. Assim, novas avaliações serão realizadas com a finalidade de modular o perfil de resposta imune obtido em bovinos e avaliar a proteção contra A. marginale.

  14. Izlaganje na javni uvid podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu u funkciji uspostave jedinstvenog registra zemljišta i prava na zemljištu u Brčko distriktu BiH : Public presentation of data on real-estate and determination of rights in function of the establishment of a single registry of real-estate and real rights to real-estate in the Brcko district of B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Latifović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zakon o registru zemljišta i prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta Bosne i Hercegovine je propisao uspostavu jedinstvene evidencije nekretnina i stvarnih prava na nekretninama u Brčko distriktu Bosne i Hercegovine. Poslovi uspostave jedinstvene evidencije, u segmentu izlaganja na javni uvid podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava, su povjereni Vijeću za izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta Bosne i Hercegovine. Autor se, u ovom radu, uz nezaobilazan kraći prikaz historijata javnih evidencija na nekretninama u Bosni i Hercegovini, bavi organizacijom, nadležnostima i načinom rada Vijeća za izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta BIH. Nakon što bude uspješno okončan projekat izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu u Brčko distriktu BiH, svi geodetsko – katastarski podaci o nepokretnostima kao i podaci o njihovom pravnom statusu će biti vođeni u Registru zemljišta i prava na zemljištu Osnovnog suda Brčko distrikta BiH. : The Law of Land Registry and Rights over Land of the Brčko District of B&H stipulated the establishment of a single registry of real-estate and real rights to real-estate in the Brčko District of B&H. Activities of the establishment of a single registry, in the segment of public presentation of data on real-estate and determination of rights, were entrusted to the Council for Presentation of Data on Real-estate and Establishment of Rights to Land of the Brčko District of B&H. In this paper, the author presents the inevitable short overview of the history of real-estate registries in Bosnia and Herzegovina and he also deals with organization, competencies and manner of work of the Council for Presentation of Data on Real-estate and Establishment of Rights to Land of the Brčko District of B&H. After a successful completion of the project of presentation of data on real-estate and

  15. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale medi

  16. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale medi

  17. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale

  18. Should Degree Programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics be Dedicated or Integrated? : Reflections and Recommendations after more than 40 Years of Medical Informatics Education at TU Braunschweig, including 10 Years of B.Sc. and 15 Years of M.Sc. Integrated Degree Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Zeisberg, Ute

    2017-07-01

    Education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) has been established in many countries throughout the world. For degree programs in BMHI we can distinguish between those that are completely stand-alone or dedicated to the discipline vs. those that are integrated within another program. After running integrated degree medical informatics programs at TU Braunschweig for 10 years at the B.Sc. and for 15 years at the M.Sc level, we (1) report about this educational approach, (2) analyze recommendations on, implementations of, and experiences with degree educational programs in BMHI worldwide, (3) summarize our lessons learned with the integrated approach at TU Braunschweig, and (4) suggest an answer to the question, whether degree programs in biomedical and health informatics should be dedicated or integrated. According to our experience at TU Braunschweig and based on our analysis of publications, there is a clear dominance of dedicated degree programs in BMHI. The specialization in medical informatics within a computer science program, as offered at TU Braunschweig, may be a good way of implementing an integrated, informatics-based approach to medical informatics, in particular if a dual degree option can be chosen. The option of curricula leading to double degrees, i.e. in this case to two separate degrees in computer science and in medical informatics might, however, be a better solution.

  19. Ar fotosintēzi saistīto parametru sezonālās izmaiņas dažādām boreonemorālo briofītu sugām atkarībā no ūdens satura

    OpenAIRE

    Gaile, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Darbā aprakstītas ar fotosintēzi saistīto parametru izmaiņas dažādām briofītu sugām boreonemorālajos biotopos saistībā ar ūdens saturu. Mērķis bija noteikt fotosintēzes pigmentu koncentrāciju sezonālās izmaiņas dažādām briofītu sugām no atšķirīgiem biotopiem un meklēt to saistību ar augšanas substrātu, funkcionālo piederību, ūdens saturu, kā arī, fotosintēzes fotoķīmisko reakciju intensitāti, ko raksturo hlorofila fluorescences rādītāji. Kopā ievāca 25 briofītu sugu 26 paraugus no pieciem daž...

  20. The Ever Flowing River Witness the History---TU Fu’ s Poetry and his poetic life%不废江河万古流--杜甫的诗歌与诗性人生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国庚

    2015-01-01

    唐代由盛及衰的离乱之世恰是中国诗坛群星璀璨的繁华时代。其中成就最为卓著、最具代表性的诗人,是“诗圣”杜甫。杜甫诗歌沉郁顿挫、兼容并蓄,其恒久魅力在于强烈的思想穿透力、人格亲和力以及诗中蕴藉的忧国忧民、悲天悯人的情怀和执著弘毅、挫而不折的品质。杜甫用一生的坚守和求索,筑起中国文学史上的一座圣殿,获得了崇高的历史地位。1200多年来,杜甫的诗风与人品,相映生辉,相得益彰,一直被知识阶层当作情感凭藉和行为楷模。%The periods of historic transformation in Tang dynasty shifting from prosperity to ruin happened to be the prosperous times of the famous and numerous composers of Chinese poetry.And among them the most distinguished and representative poet was Master Poet,Tu Fu.Tu Fu’ s poems were depressed,sonorous,and inclusive,and the e-ternal charm lied in his strong mental penetrating power and his character of affinity as well as his serious concern for his country,his people and his personality of perseverance embodied in his poems.With perseverant exploration throughout his life,he built up a great temple in the history of Chinese literature and achieved a lofty historical posi-tion.As Tu Fu’ s poetic style and moral quality complemented each other so much that he has long been taken as both emotional solace and role model for over 1 200 years.

  1. Induction of Neuronal Differentiation of Rat Muscle-Derived Stem Cells in Vitro Using Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Ethosuximide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Seon Kwon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF can induce neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we investigated the neural differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs following treatment with bFGF and ethosuximide, a small molecule used as an anticonvulsant in humans. Stem cells isolated from rat skeletal muscle (rMDSCs were pre-induced by culturing with 25 ng/mL bFGF for 24 h and then were transferred to a medium supplemented with or without 4 mM ethosuximide. Neuronal differentiation was assessed by immunocytochemical and western blotting analyses of marker expression. Immunocytochemistry of rMDSCs treated with bFGF and ethosuximide identified abundant cells expressing neuronal markers (TuJ1, neuron-specific class III β-tubulin; NeuN, neuronal nuclear antigen; and NF-MH; neurofilament M and H. Olig2 (oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2-positive cells were also observed, indicating the presence of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. These findings were substantiated by western blotting analysis of marker proteins. In particular, the expression of NeuN and TuJ1 was significantly higher in rMDSCs treated with ethosuximide and bFGF than in cells stimulated with bFGF alone (NeuN, p < 0.05 and TuJ1, p < 0.001. Expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was not detected in this study. Collectively, the results showed that treatment with bFGF and ethosuximide induced effective transdifferentiation of rMDSCs into cells with a neural-like phenotype. Notably, rMDSCs treated with a combination of bFGF plus ethosuximide showed enhanced differentiation compared with cells treated with bFGF alone, implying that ethosuximide may stimulate neuronal differentiation.

  2. Starppersonu komunikācijas veida saistība ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitūze, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot vai pusaudžu komunikācija ir saistīta ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu. Pētījuma mērķa sasniegšanai tika izmantota Rozenberga pašvērtējuma skala, (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, 1965), UCLA vientulības skala, (The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1996). Komunikācijas izpētei tika izmantota Interpersonālās komunikācijas skala, (Interpersonal Communication Inventory, Millard & Bienvenu, 1971 Interpersonal Communicat...

  3. Review: Hu Houxuan, "Xia and the Tu State in the Oracle Inscriptions: A Consideration" Gudai Chengbang Shi Yanjiu (Studies on Ancient City States) Renmin Press, 1989, Pp. 340-353.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RiZhi

    1995-01-01

    This article verified that the Tu state mentioned in the oracle inscriptions was the Xia people after the Xia Dynasty had been conquered by Tang, the first king of the Shang Dynasty m c.a. 16th century B.C. The state of Xia, which originated from Yu, was entitled "Xia Hou"; its king was hence called "Xia Hou Di" (Emperor of Xia Hou), e.g."Xia Hou Di Qi". The Xia people, together with the Yin (Shang) people, and the Zhou people, were the so-called "people of San Dai" (Three Dynasties). As mentioned in "Lunyu, Bayi", they founded the states, with the Xia people being associated with the pine, the Yin people with the cypress, and the Zhou people with the chestnut.

  4. Starppersonu komunikācijas veida saistība ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitūze, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot vai pusaudžu komunikācija ir saistīta ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu. Pētījuma mērķa sasniegšanai tika izmantota Rozenberga pašvērtējuma skala, (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, 1965), UCLA vientulības skala, (The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1996). Komunikācijas izpētei tika izmantota Interpersonālās komunikācijas skala, (Interpersonal Communication Inventory, Millard & Bienvenu, 1971 Interpersonal Communicat...

  5. Gallija-68 [68Ga] un fluora-18 [18F] izotopu iegūšana un izmantošana radiofarmaceitisko preparātu sintēzē

    OpenAIRE

    Mamis, Edgars

    2017-01-01

    Gallija-68 [68Ga] un fluora-18 [18F] izotopu iegūšana un izmantošana radiofarmaceitisko preparātu sintēzē. Mamis E., zinātniskais vadītājs Prof. Dr.h.c. Chem Andris Actiņš, zinātniskie konsultanti Mg. Chem Jāzeps Malnačs un Mg. Med. Phys., Dipl. Ing., Mg. Sc. Ing Linda Meistere. Maģistra darbs, 54 lappuses, 28 attēli, 12 tabulas, 20 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. Darbā ir apkopota literatūra par radionuklīdu iegūšanas procesiem kodolreakcijas ceļā, izmantojot daļiņu paātrinātāju – ciklo...

  6. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs as building blocks for translation. Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival. In addition, aaRSs in higher species have evolved important non-translational functions. These translational and non-translational functions of aaRS are attractive for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The interplay between amino acids, tRNA, ATP, EF-Tu and non-canonical binding partners, had shaped each family with distinct pattern of key sites for regulation, with characters varying among species across the path of evolution. These sporadic variations in the aaRSs offer great opportunity to target these essential enzymes for therapy. Up to this day, growing numbers of aaRS inhibitors have been discovered and developed. Here, we summarize the latest developments and structural studies of aaRS inhibitors, and classify them with distinct binding modes into five categories.

  7. The naringenin-induced exoproteome of Rhizobium etli CE3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Niurka; Taboada, Hermenegildo; Dunn, Michael F; Vargas, María Del Carmen; Buchs, Natasha; Heller, Manfred; Encarnación, Sergio

    2017-03-02

    Flavonoids excreted by legume roots induce the expression of symbiotically essential nodulation (nod) genes in rhizobia, as well as that of specific protein export systems. In the bean microsymbiont Rhizobium etli CE3, nod genes are induced by the flavonoid naringenin. In this study, we identified 693 proteins in the exoproteome of strain CE3 grown in minimal medium with or without naringenin, with 101 and 100 exoproteins being exclusive to these conditions, respectively. Four hundred ninety-two (71%) of the extracellular proteins were found in both cultures. Of the total exoproteins identified, nearly 35% were also present in the intracellular proteome of R. etli bacteroids, 27% had N-terminal signal sequences and a significant number had previously demonstrated or possible novel roles in symbiosis, including bacterial cell surface modification, adhesins, proteins classified as MAMPs (microbe-associated molecular patterns), such as flagellin and EF-Tu, and several normally cytoplasmic proteins as Ndk and glycolytic enzymes, which are known to have extracellular "moonlighting" roles in bacteria that interact with eukaryotic cells. It is noteworthy that the transmembrane ß (1,2) glucan biosynthesis protein NdvB, an essential symbiotic protein in rhizobia, was found in the R. etli naringenin-induced exoproteome. In addition, potential binding sites for two nod-gene transcriptional regulators (NodD) occurred somewhat more frequently in the promoters of genes encoding naringenin-induced exoproteins in comparison to those ofexoproteins found in the control condition.

  8. Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Stransfeld, Lena; Asai, Shuta; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Jones, Jonathan Dg; Shirasu, Ken; Menke, Frank; Jones, Alexandra; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-04-10

    The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex with the receptor kinases EFR and FLS2, which are the PRRs for bacterial EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively. The plasma-membrane-associated kinase BIK1, which is a direct substrate of the PRR complex, directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon PAMP perception. BIK1 phosphorylates different residues than calcium-dependent protein kinases, and both PAMP-induced BIK1 activation and BIK1-mediated phosphorylation of RBOHD are calcium independent. Importantly, phosphorylation of these residues is critical for the PAMP-induced ROS burst and antibacterial immunity. Our study reveals a rapid regulatory mechanism of a plant RBOH, which occurs in parallel with and is essential for its paradigmatic calcium-based regulation.

  9. Experimental Vaccine Induces Th1-driven Immune Responses and Resistance to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingru; Hammer, Laura A.; Liu, Wensheng; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Zielke, Ryszard A.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.; Jerse, Ann E.; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Russell, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Female mice were immunized intravaginally with gonococcal outer membrane vesicles (OMV) plus microencapsulated IL-12, and challenged using an established model of genital infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Whereas sham-immunized and control animals cleared the infection in 10–13 days, those immunized with OMV plus IL-12 cleared infection with homologous gonococcal strains in 6–9 days. Significant protection was also seen after challenge with antigenically distinct strains of N. gonorrhoeae, and protective anamnestic immunity persisted for at least 6 months after immunization. Serum and vaginal IgG and IgA antibodies were generated against antigens expressed by homologous and heterologous strains. Iliac lymph node CD4+ T cells secreted IFNγ, but not IL-4, in response to immunization, and produced IL-17 in response to challenge regardless of immunization. Antigens recognized by immunized mouse serum included several shared between gonococcal strains, including two identified by immunoproteomics approaches as EF-Tu and PotF3. Experiments with immunodeficient mice showed that protective immunity depended upon IFNγ and B cells, presumably to generate antibodies. The results demonstrated that immunity to gonococcal infection can be induced by immunization with a non-living gonococcal antigen, and suggest that efforts to develop a human vaccine should focus on strategies to generate Th1-driven immune responses in the genital tract. PMID:28272393

  10. Spatial Distribution and Ribosome-Binding Dynamics of EF-P in Live Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sonisilpa; Choi, Heejun; Ge, Xueliang; Sanyal, Suparna; Weisshaar, James C

    2017-06-06

    In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P. Fast imaging at 2 ms/frame helps to distinguish ribosome-bound (slowly diffusing) EF-P from free (rapidly diffusing) EF-P. Wild-type EF-P exhibits a three-peaked axial spatial distribution similar to that of ribosomes, indicating substantial binding. The mutant EF-P(K34A) exhibits a homogeneous distribution, indicating little or no binding. Some 30% of EF-P copies are bound to ribosomes at a given time. Two-state modeling and copy number estimates indicate that EF-P binds to 70S ribosomes during 25 to 100% of translation cycles. The timescale of the typical diffusive search by free EF-P for a ribosome-binding site is τfree ≈ 16 ms. The typical residence time of an EF-P on the ribosome is very short, τbound ≈ 7 ms. Evidently, EF-P binds to ribosomes during many or most elongation cycles, much more often than the frequency of Pro-Pro motifs. Emptying of the E site during part of the cycle is consistent with recent in vitro experiments indicating dissociation of the deacylated tRNA upon translocation.IMPORTANCE Ribosomes translate the codon sequence within mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain, which in turn ultimately folds into functional protein. At each codon, bacterial ribosomes are assisted by two well-known elongation factors: EF-Tu, which aids binding of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, and EF-G, which promotes

  11. Group Character Traits of Tu Jia Ethnic Minority under the Theory of“the Grand Five Character Traits”:From the Perspective of Folk Song of Tujia Nationality in Chongqing%“大五人格”理论下的土家族群体人格特征--重庆土家族民歌视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭福荣; 刘李慧子; 刘萍

    2014-01-01

    Special humane environment, ethnic minority group history and cultural tradition have cultivated the unique character traits of Tu Jia Ethnic Minority Group. Folk songs, featuring productive activities, male-female interactions, marital and funeral traditions and cultural communications all reflect those character traits. A case study of Tu Jia Ethnic Minority Group in Chongqing under the Theory of“the Grand Five Character Traits”reveals that the character traits of Tu Jia Ethnic Minority Group are exocentric, people-friendly, responsible, open-minded and squeamish.%特定人文环境、民族历史和文化传统形成了土家族独特的群体人格特征,重庆土家族在生产劳动、男女交往、婚丧习俗和文化交流等方面的民歌都透射出独特的群体人格。根据重庆土家族民歌的个案,运用人格心理学的“大五人格”理论,土家族群体人格特征具体表现为较高的外倾性、宜人性、尽责性、开放性及神经质等。

  12. „My tu nie mówimy, ino godumy i jesteśmy z tego dumni”. O tym, dlaczego gwary wielkopolskie przetrwały (na przykładzie języka mieszkańców wsi powiatu międzychodzkiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Cemborowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On why have the dialects of the Province of Greater Poland survived (an example, the language of Międzychodzki district inhabitants The aim of this article is to respond to the question: Why have the dialects of the Province of Greater Poland survived while the dialects from other parts of Poland are in decline? The analytical material relates to the statements of the users of this dialect who live in the western parts of Greater Poland (Międzychodzki district. It was collected during fieldwork in the villages of the Międzychodzki district between 2012 and 2015. The research methodology was based on autobiographical interviews, questionnaires and participant observations. Three important factors which contributed to the survival of the dialects of Greater Poland are: the history of this region, the identity of its people and the fashion for dialect use among the younger generation of Greater Poland’s inhabitants.   „My tu nie mówimy, ino godumy i jesteśmy z tego dumni”. O tym, dlaczego gwary wielkopolskie przetrwały (na przykładzie języka mieszkańców wsi powiatu międzychodzkiego Celem artykułu jest odpowiedź na pytanie, dlaczego gwary wielkopolskie przetrwały, podczas gdy w innych regionach Polski zauważalna jest tendencja do ich zaniku. Materiałem wykorzystanym w analizie są wypowiedzi mieszkańców wsi powiatu międzychodzkiego, którzy posługują się gwarą. Materiał został zebrany podczas badań terenowych w latach 2012–2015 za pomocą takich metod, jak wywiad autobiograficzny, ankiety i obserwacja uczestnicząca. Trzema istotnymi czynnikami, które wpłynęły na to, że gwary przetrwały w języku respondentów, są: historia, identyfikacja i narastająca wśród młodego pokolenia moda na mówienie gwarą.

  13. Využití singulárních funkcí k výpočtu průhybu nosníku.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiala, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Účelem práce je porovnání dvou metod výpočtu ohybové čáry nosníku, řešení diferenciální rovnice ohybové čáry a metody založené na singulárních funkcích. Nosník je zatěžovám v pružné oblasti různými typy zatížení. Singulární funkce umožní stanovit jednotný postup řešení, nezávislý na kombinaci aplikovaného zatížení a je pro velmi výhodný pro další počítačové zpracování. The aim of this work is to compare two methods of calculation deflection curve of the beam, by means of the solution of di...

  14. Biscuits with No Added Sugar Containing Stevia, Coffee Fibre and Fructooligosaccharides Modifies α-Glucosidase Activity and the Release of GLP-1 from HuTu-80 Cells and Serotonin from Caco-2 Cells after In Vitro Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Somoza, Veronika; del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly (p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones. PMID:28677657

  15. Man of Good Metaphor is Good at Tao:The Art of Impartment of Master Tu Youguang's Academic Ideas%善喻者善道--涂又光先生学术思想的传达艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈运超

    2015-01-01

    The art of imparting the academic ideas is necessary for a scholar qualified.Every master from the academia must have his extraordinary art of impartment.Tu Youguang is such a master unique for his metaphors.He is good at giving explicit instruction of his educational ideas through metaphors of prickles,rumination,grafting,magneto electricity,fellow students and fellow countrymen,mansion, train of pearls,dinner,nuclear reactor,cloth and clothe,and car,etc.,which are vivid,humorous and easy to accept.%学术传达素养是学者必备的基本素质。但凡学术大师必有极具个性的表达艺术,而比喻以生动、易记而成为最常用、也是最生动的表达方式之一。为学必为道,且善喻者善道。涂又光先生即是如此。他曾使用过泡菜喻、反刍喻、嫁接喻、磁电喻、同学与同乡喻、楼喻、珍珠链喻、餐喻、核反应堆喻、布料与成衣喻、车喻等,来进行自己的学术传达。

  16. Los narûs (kudurrus babilónicos del Bronce Final y el Hierro = The Babylonian narû (kudurrētu in Late Bronze and Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arroyo Cuadra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Los narû babilónicos, conocidos tradicionalmente con el nombre de kudurrētu (en singular kudurru, fueron unos monumentos de piedra que incluían representaciones divinas encarnadas generalmente por sus emblemas y escenas con figuras antropomorfas, junto a un texto administrativo sobre transacciones  de tierras. Estos narû vieron la luz con la Dinastía Casita de Babilonia y dejaron de utilizarse en el período Neo-babilónico (ca. 1400-650 a.C.. La gran mayoría de los ejemplares se ha descubierto en Susa en contextos arqueológicos descontextualizados, pero los ejemplares hallados in situ nos hablan de que su dispersión geográfica original hay que situarla en el territorio de la Baja Mesopotamia. Hemos emprendido una investigación orientada a estudiar el corpus de estos monumentos integrado hasta el momento por 178 ejemplares, adoptando una postura interdisciplinar que incluye el análisis de la información que transmiten sus textos, iconografía, materialidad y contexto arqueológico. Por ello, a lo largo del presente artículo se intentará definir el criterio de adscripción de los ejemplares conocidos a dicho corpus según sus propias inscripciones y los estudios previos de  otros autores. A continuación, se hablará de las circunstancias que pudieron motivar su aparición y de los eventos histórico-políticos que pudieron influir en su evolución, así como del ámbito geográfico en que estuvieron vigentes. Después, se analizará el contenido de sus inscripciones y la simbología de su iconografía para, aportar, finalmente, un estudio comparativo entre textos y símbolos, quedando todo ello plasmado en un apartado final de conclusiones.Babylonian narû, traditionally named kudurrētu, were stone monuments with divine representations (generally through its divine emblems and figurative scenes with anthropomorphic figures, together with an administrative text about a land grant. These narû originated in Kassite Babylon and

  17. La dissimilació del jo vs tu en la poesia de Maria-Mercè Marçal. Anàlisi comparativa entre les sextines de Terra de Mai i Sang presa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Font Espriu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La construcció d’un espai propi de la dona dins de la poesia, dita, amorosa, no només implica una ordenació nova del jo i del tu sinó que implica, de forma inexorable, la recreació del llenguatge poètic. Maria-Mercè Marçal usa el símbol del mirall per expressar l‘equivalència física dels cossos amants/amats i per extremar la fusió tant física com amorosa que es convertirà en l’acció transformadora i afirmativa de la identitat. La reciprocitat entre el jo poètic i la seva altra es va teixint amb l’ús d’imatges com l’aigua, la sang, la suor, etc., les quals han rebut, tradicionalment, un caràcter abjecte, i Marçal les situa en un primer pla, mostrant la seva expressivitat germinal i pregona. En un segon moment, la separació i la nostàlgia bolquen el poema cap a un jo poètic mutilat, que cerca un cos absent i l’espai de plenitud d’un jo que es troba irreparablement ferit. Hi ha tota una destil·lació d’un món poètic nou, que culmina l’assoliment d’un espai literari femení i lèsbic, creador de nous àmbits per a l’expressió del desig, definitivament conquerits per Marçal i lliurats a la poesia catalana.

  18. Chair in open-cast and international mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University; Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudeshki, H.; Hardebusch, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2002-12-05

    The range of activities of the Chair in Open-cast and International Mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University currently comprises the field of teaching and further scientific training, research and development as well as transfer of knowledge and technology. In addition to these legally sanctioned activities PR work concerning the necessity for the mining of mineral raw materials and the associated training of mining engineers plays a central role. In accordance with the fundamental idea that a prerequisite for good training in the field of engineering science is a close link between university and industry the contents of the courses are always adapted to the state of the art in the mining industry and the main areas of research based on practical requirements. In accordance with this process current aspects of the safeguarding of raw materials, sustenance and management of knowledge in the mining industry are integrated in these courses. The current research work is interdisciplinary and deals with quality management, deposit protection, recultivation and rehabilitation as well as reduction of emissions. (orig.) [German] Das Aufgabenspektrum des Lehrstuhls fuer Tagebau und Internationalen Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal umfasst die Gebiete Lehre und wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Wissens- und Technologietransfer. Ueber diese gesetzlich verankerten Aufgaben hinaus nimmt die PR-Arbeit ueber die Notwendigkeit bergmaennischer Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe und der damit einhergehenden Ausbildung von Bergbauingenieuren eine zentrale Stellung ein. Dem Leitgedanken folgend, dass eine gute Ausbildung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Bereich eine enge Verbindung zwischen Hochschule und Industrie voraussetzt, werden die Lehrinhalte stets dem Stand der Technik im Bergbau angepasst und die Forschungsschwerpunkte praxisbezogen abgeleitet. Diesem Prozess folgend wurden aktuell Aspekte der

  19. Tu Salud, ¡Si Cuenta!: Exposure to a community-wide campaign and its associations with physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among individuals of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Lee, MinJae; Gowen, Rose Z; Barroso, Cristina S; Gay, Jennifer L; Saldana, Mayra Vanessa

    2015-10-01

    Mexican Americans along the US-Mexico border have been found to be disproportionately affected by chronic diseases particularly related to lack of physical activity and healthful food choices. A community-wide campaign (CWC) is an evidence-based strategy to address these behaviors but with few examples of implementation in Mexican descent populations facing profound health disparities. We examined exposure to a CWC, titled Tu Salud ¡Sí Cuenta!, and its association with meeting the recommended minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity weekly and consuming more portions of fruits and vegetables daily. A cross-sectional sample of 1438 Mexican descent participants was drawn from a city-wide, randomly-selected cohort interviewed between the years 2008 and 2012. Multivariable comparisons of participants exposed and not exposed to the CWC and meeting physical activity guidelines or their fruit and vegetable consumptions using mixed effects models were conducted. The community-wide campaign components included different forms of mass media and individually-focused components such as community health worker (CHW) home visits. After adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational attainment, language preference, health insurance, and diabetes diagnosis, the strongest association was found between meeting physical activity guidelines and exposure to both CHW discussions and radio messages (adjusted OR = 3.83; 95% CI = [1.28, 6.21]; p = 0.0099). Participants who reported exposure to both radio and TV messages consumed more portions of fruits and vegetables than those who reported no exposure (adjusted RR = 1.30; 95% CI = [1.02, 1.66]; p = 0.0338). This study provides insights into the implementation and behavioral outcomes associated with exposure to a community-wide campaign, a potential model for addressing lifestyle modifications in populations affected by health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TU-D-201-02: Physicist’s Responsibility On “End-Of-Life for Brachytherapy Devices and Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, W. [Wheeling Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue.

  1. TU-F-BRE-09: Towards the Establishment of Dosimetric References in Small Fields Using the New Concept of Dose-Area Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufreneix, S; Bordy, J; Delaunay, F; Delaunay, F; Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Le Roy, M; Ostrowsky, A; Rapp, B; Sommier, L [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To establish dosimetric references of absorbed dose in water in radiation fields smaller than 2 cm used in radiotherapy thanks to a new methodology based on the use of dosimeters larger than the field size. Methods: A new graphite calorimeter was constructed with a large sensitive volume (diameter of the core: 30 mm). This primary dosimeter was fully characterized and compared to previous LNE-LNHB graphite calorimeters in a 60Co large field. A specially designed graphite parallel-plate ionization chamber with a 30 mm collecting electrode was also assembled and tested. Measurements were then conducted in two 6 MV small circular fields of 2 cm and 1 cm diameter respectively, using the new concept of dose-area product instead of punctual dose commonly used in radiotherapy. Results: The dose rate established in a large 60Co field with the new calorimeter is in agreement within 0.4% with previous calorimeters. The ionization chamber shows good characteristics except for a 0.06% drift per hour in water. The ratio of calorimetric against ionometric measurements in the 2 cm diameter field is 1.1% higher than the one in the 1 cm diameter field (with respectively 0.30% and 1.03% type A uncertainty for each field). Conclusion: Results presented here highlight the possibility of measuring dose-area products in small fields with a graphite calorimeter and a parallel-plate ionization chamber. Measurements in a 0.75 cm diameter field are already underway to confirm the trend observed in the 2 cm and 1 cm diameter fields. The last step to establish precise dosimetric references in small fields is to calculate correction factors thanks to Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. TU-EF-204-09: A Preliminary Method of Risk-Informed Optimization of Tube Current Modulation for Dose Reduction in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y; Liu, B; Kalra, M; Caracappa, P [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Liu, T; Li, X [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: X-rays from CT scans can increase cancer risk to patients. Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer Incidence for adult patients has been investigated and shown to decrease as patient age. However, a new risk model shows an increasing risk trend for several radiosensitive organs for middle age patients. This study investigates the feasibility of a general method for optimizing tube current modulation (TCM) functions to minimize risk by reducing radiation dose to radiosensitive organs of patients. Methods: Organ-based TCM has been investigated in literature for eye lens dose and breast dose. Adopting the concept in organ-based TCM, this study seeks to find an optimized tube current for minimal total risk to breasts and lungs by reducing dose to these organs. The contributions of each CT view to organ dose are determined through simulations of CT scan view-by-view using a GPU-based fast Monte Carlo code, ARCHER. A Linear Programming problem is established for tube current optimization, with Monte Carlo results as weighting factors at each view. A pre-determined dose is used as upper dose boundary, and tube current of each view is optimized to minimize the total risk. Results: An optimized tube current is found to minimize the total risk of lungs and breasts: compared to fixed current, the risk is reduced by 13%, with breast dose reduced by 38% and lung dose reduced by 7%. The average tube current is maintained during optimization to maintain image quality. In addition, dose to other organs in chest region is slightly affected, with relative change in dose smaller than 10%. Conclusion: Optimized tube current plans can be generated to minimize cancer risk to lungs and breasts while maintaining image quality. In the future, various risk models and greater number of projections per rotation will be simulated on phantoms of different gender and age. National Institutes of Health R01EB015478.

  3. TU-CD-BRB-07: Identification of Associations Between Radiologist-Annotated Imaging Features and Genomic Alterations in Breast Invasive Carcinoma, a TCGA Phenotype Research Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A; Net, J [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Brandt, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Huang, E [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Freymann, J; Kirby, J [Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Burnside, E [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Morris, E; Sutton, E [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bonaccio, E [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Giger, M; Jaffe, C [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Ganott, M; Zuley, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center - Magee Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Le-Petross, H [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dogan, B [UT MDACC, Houston, TX (United States); Whitman, G [UTMDACC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine associations between radiologist-annotated MRI features and genomic measurements in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: 98 TCGA patients with BRCA were assessed by a panel of radiologists (TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group) based on a variety of mass and non-mass features according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Batch corrected gene expression data was obtained from the TCGA Data Portal. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess correlations between categorical image features and tumor-derived genomic features (such as gene pathway activity, copy number and mutation characteristics). Image-derived features were also correlated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status. Multiple hypothesis correction was done using Benjamini-Hochberg FDR. Associations at an FDR of 0.1 were selected for interpretation. Results: ER status was associated with rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. PR status was associated with internal enhancement. Several components of the PI3K/Akt pathway were associated with rim enhancement as well as heterogeneity. In addition, several components of cell cycle regulation and cell division were associated with imaging characteristics.TP53 and GATA3 mutations were associated with lesion size. MRI features associated with TP53 mutation status were rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. Rim enhancement was associated with activity of RB1, PIK3R1, MAP3K1, AKT1,PI3K, and PIK3CA. Margin status was associated with HIF1A/ARNT, Ras/ GTP/PI3K, KRAS, and GADD45A. Axillary lymphadenopathy was associated with RB1 and BCL2L1. Peritumoral edema was associated with Aurora A/GADD45A, BCL2L1, CCNE1, and FOXA1. Heterogeneous internal nonmass enhancement was associated with EGFR, PI3K, AKT1, HF/MET, and EGFR/Erbb4/neuregulin 1. Diffuse nonmass enhancement was associated with HGF/MET/MUC20/SHIP

  4. TU-C-BRE-04: 3D Gel Dosimetry Using ViewRay On-Board MR Scanner: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Du, D; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Wooten, H; Xiao, Z; Yang, D; Hu, Y; Li, H [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: MR based 3D gel has been proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry. However, access to MR scanner has been one of the limiting factors for its wide acceptance. Recent commercialization of an on-board MR-IGRT device (ViewRay) may render the availability issue less of a concern. This work reports our attempts to simulate MR based dose measurement accuracy on ViewRay using three different gels. Methods: A spherical BANG gel dosimeter was purchased from MGS Research. Cylindrical MAGIC gel and Fricke gel were fabricated in-house according to published recipes. After irradiation, BANG and MAGIC were imaged using a dual-echo spin echo sequence for T2 measurement on a Philips 1.5T MR scanner, while Fricke gel was imaged using multiple spin echo sequences. Difference between MR measured and TPS calculated dose was defined as noise. The noise power spectrum was calculated and then simulated for the 0.35 T magnetic field associated with ViewRay. The estimated noise was then added to TG-119 test cases to simulate measured dose distributions. Simulated measurements were evaluated against TPS calculated doses using gamma analysis. Results: Given same gel, sequence and coil setup, with a FOV of 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 3×3×3 mm3, and scanning time of 30 minutes, the simulated measured dose distribution using BANG would have a gamma passing rate greater than 90% (3%/3mm and absolute). With a FOV 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 4×4×5 mm3, and scanning time of 45 minutes, the simulated measuremened dose distribution would have a gamma passing rate greater than 97%. MAGIC exhibited similar performance while Fricke gel was inferior due to much higher noise. Conclusions: The simulation results demonstrated that it may be feasible to use MAGIC and BANG gels for 3D dose verification using ViewRay low-field on-board MRI scanner.

  5. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-02: Risk Assessment of Scattered Neutrons for a Fetus From Proton Therapy of a Brain Tumor During Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, C [Massachusetts General Hospotal and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Moteabbed, M; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospotal and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the scattered neutron dose and the resulting risk for a fetus from proton therapy for brain tumors during pregnancy. Methods: Using the Monte Carlo platform TOPAS, the ICRP reference parameters based anthropomorphic pregnancy phantoms for three stages (3-, 6-, 9-month) were applied to evaluate the scattered neutron dose and dose equivalent. To calculate the dose equivalent, organ specific linear energy transfer (LET) based quality factor was used. Treatment plans from both passive scattering (PS) and pencil beam scanning (PBS) methods were considered in this study. Results: For pencil beam scanning, the neutron dose equivalent in the soft tissue of the fetus increases from 1.53x10−{sup 3} to 2.84x10−{sup 3} mSv per treatment Gy with increasing stage of gestation. This is due to scattered neutrons from the patient as the main contaminant source in PBS and a decrease in distance between the soft tissue of the fetus and GTV with increasing stage of gestation. For passive scattering, neutron dose equivalent to the soft tissue of the fetus shows a decrease from 0.17 to 0.13 mSv per treatment Gy in different stages, while the dose to the brain shows little difference around 0.18 mSv per treatment Gy because scattered neutrons from the treatment head contribute predominantly in passive scattering. Conclusion: The results show that the neutron dose to the fetus assuming a prescribed dose of 52.2 Gy is negligible for PBS, and is comparable to the scattered dose (0–10 mSv) from a head and neck CT scan for PS. It can be concluded that the dose to fetus is far lower than the thresholds of malformation, SMR and lethal death. The excess relative risk of childhood cancer induction would be increased by 0.48 and 0.103 using the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers and Japanese atomic model, respectively. Changran Geng is supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11475087)

  6. Stratification and Alienation of Chinese Scientists---An Analysis on Tu Youyou's Nobel Prize%中国科学家的分层及异化现象--以屠呦呦获奖为观照点的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱振华; 崔馨

    2015-01-01

    Stratification in the scientific community is a social phenomenon.It is closely related to the recognition and evalua-tion system of the scientific community, or to the level of scientific reward obtained by scientists.Tu Youyou has no doctoral degree, no overseas background and is not a member of the Chinese Academy.But she made the original scientific work of the first level in the world through long-term research work in China.Then she won the Nobel Prize and got the international rec-ognized.This is called a“civilian” scientist victory.“However, whether“Tu” phenomenon is universal in China?How does a scientist“stand out” from the bottom of the Pyramid to the top in the scientific community?It has important significance to the scientists especially young scholars in China.In the era of big science, the scientists'hierarchical level in the scientific community is directly related with sufficient and effective resources, which is the important or even decisive factor that deter-mines whether the scientists can contribute to the scientific career.%科学共同体中的分层与科学家获得的认可与评价体系是紧密相关的,或者说取决于科学家获得的科学奖励的层次。屠呦呦作为一个没有博士学位,也没有海外留学背景,头上更没有中国两院院士的桂冠的“三无”科学家,却通过长期默默无闻的科研工作,在中国本土做出了具有世界一流水平的原创性工作,并得到国际学界认可。这人被称为“一个‘庶民’科学家的胜利。”[1]然而,“屠呦呦现象”是否具有普遍性?这对中国千千万万的科学家尤其是青年学者来讲,如何“冒尖”,从金字塔的底端上升到顶端具有重要的意义。因为在大科学时代,他们在科学界的分层等级直接关系到能否获得足够有效的资源支持,而这又是决定科学家能否将其才智贡献于科学事业的重要甚至是决定性条件。

  7. 西藏西部东嘎1号窟法界语自在曼荼罗图像与文本%On the Iconographies of the Dharma-dhātu-vāgi vara-ma ala from Dung-dkar Cave 1 in Western Tibet and the Corresponding Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞雷

    2013-01-01

    以东嘎1号窟法界语自在曼荼罗壁画为对象,梳理与该曼荼罗相关的藏文文献,并结合该窟法界语自在曼荼罗图像作对比研究,理清11世纪初至12世纪中晚期在西藏西部流行的以四面八臂白色文殊菩萨为主尊的法界语自在曼荼罗图像与所据文本之间的关系。%Focusing on the wall paintings of the Dharma-dhātu-vāgi varama ala in Dung-dkar Cave 1, this study sorts out the Tibetan documents about this kind of mandala and presents a comparison of both the texts and the iconographies, so as to clarify the relationship between the iconographies of Dharma-dhātu-vāgi varama ala dominated by a four-headed eight-armed white Manjusri image, which was popular in western Tibet from the early 11th century to the middle of the 12th century, and the texts they were based on.

  8. Trophic factor induction of human umbilical cord blood cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Kamath, Siddharth; Newcomb, Jennifer; Hudson, Jennifer; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Bickford, Paula; Davis-Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul; Zigova, Tanja; Willing, Alison

    2007-06-01

    The mononuclear fraction of human umbilical cord blood (HUCBmnf) is a mixed cell population that multiple research groups have shown contains cells that can express neural proteins. In these studies, we have examined the ability of the HUCBmnf to express neural antigens after in vitro exposure to defined media supplemented with a cocktail of growth and neurotrophic factors. It is our hypothesis that by treating the HUCBmnf with these developmentally-relevant factors, we can expand the population, enhance the expression of neural antigens and increase cell survival upon transplantation. Prior to growth factor treatment in culture, expression of stem cell antigens is greater in the non-adherent HUCBmnf cells compared to the adherent cells (p vitro (DIV). In HUCBmnf-embryonic mouse striata co-culture, a small number of growth factor treated HUCBmnf cells were able to integrate into the growing neural network and express immature (nestin and TuJ1) and mature (GFAP and MAP2) neural markers. Treated HUCBmnf cells implanted in the subventricular zone predominantly expressed GFAP although some grafted HUCBmnf cells were MAP2 positive. While short-term treatment of HUCBmnf cells with growth and neurotrophic factors enhanced proliferative capacity in vitro and survival of the cells in vivo, the treatment regimen employed was not enough to ensure long-term survival of HUCBmnf-derived neurons necessary for cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Survival analysis and risk factors for death in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment-short course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tuberculosis is a disease with a high case fatality of 4.65%. Objectives : To describe the survival pattern of patients on Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS according to categories, age and sex of patients. Settings : Tuberculosis unit (TU at District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC, Yavatmal, India Design : Retrospective cohort study. Materails and Methods : Data of patients registered for DOTS in the year 2004 were collected from the tuberculosis register. Statistical Analysis : Kaplan Meier plots and log rank tests to assess the survival pattern. Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. Results : A total of 716 patients were registered at the TU. The survival rates by the end of the intensive phase were 96%, 93% and 99% in categories I, II and III of DOTS, respectively. The cumulative survival rates were 93%, 88% and 96% in the three DOTS categories, respectively. There was a significant difference in the survival curves amongst the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 7.26, d.f..= 2, P=0 0.02 and amongst the different age groups [log rank statistic= 8.78, d.f.= 3, P= 0.012. There was no difference in the survival curves of male and female patients (log rank statistic= 0.05, d.f.= 1, P= 0.80 and according to type of disease (log rank statistic= 5.63, d.f.= 2, P= 0.05. On Cox proportional hazard analysis, age groups of 40 to 60 years [adjusted hazard ratio= 7.81 (1.002-60.87] and above 60 years [adjusted hazard ratio= 21.54 (2.57-180.32] were identified as significant risk factors for death. Conclusions : Age above 40 years is a significant risk factor for death in patients of tuberculosis. There was a significant difference in survival curves of the three DOTS categories and age groups.

  10. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  11. Pourquoi viens-tu si Tarde ?

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    J’ai toujours cru, je l’avoue, que le réel était rationnel et que les bons auteurs, en fin de compte, finissaient toujours par triompher. La publication récente des œuvres de Gabriel Tarde, sociologue et métaphysicien, suffit à prouver le contraire. Voilà une tradition scientifique en sociologie disparue aussi sûrement que Jean-Baptiste Lully. Priver les sociologues d’une pareille philosophie, n’est-ce pas aussi grave que d’avoir privé les amateurs d’art de musique baroque ? Qui sait ce que l...

  12. TuLiP : reshaping trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook (TM), "tube" our home videos on You Tube (TM), and exchange our

  13. TuLiP : reshaping trust management

    OpenAIRE

    Czenko, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook (TM), "tube" our home videos on You Tube (TM), and exchange our interests and thoughts on blogs. We podcast, we are Linkedin (TM) to extend our professional network, we share files over P2P networks, and we seek advice on numerous on-line discussion groups. Although in...

  14. TU-AB-BRD-01: Process Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palta, J. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to perform failure modes and effects analysis analysis for a given process Learn what fault trees are all about Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. Dunscombe: Director, TreatSafely, LLC and Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences; Consultant to IAEA and Varian Thomadsen: President, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Palta: Vice President of the Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences.

  15. TU students sweep UAV design competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Brust, S.; Brown, M.; Vos, R.

    2013-01-01

    To design a high-altitude long-endurance UAV to fly a twenty-hour reconnaissance mission at an altitude of 80,000ft, was the assignment for this year’s undergraduate design competition. The competition was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Three students fro

  16. TuLip : reshaping trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, Marcin Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    In today’s highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook™, “tube” our home videos on You Tube™, and exchange our interests and th

  17. Tu-144LL Rollout Ceremony Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A modified Russian Supersonic Passenger Jet is rolled out of its hangar at the Zhukousky Airfield March 17, 1996 to symbolize the start of a joint six-month research program between NASA and U.S. Industry Team and the Russian Aeronautics Establishment

  18. La ayahuasca te da tu arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo del Aguila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Para Paolo del Águila, descendiente del pueblo asháninka, la creatividad es un don de las plantas. Durante su primera experiencia visionaria, la ayahuasca personificada en el cuerpo de anciana le entregó unos pinceles y un estilo propio, liberándolo de las disputas y los convencionalismos que había encontrado en la escuela de arte en Pucallpa. Desde entonces, pintura y vida son indisociables y su objetivo como artista es comunicar al público las experiencias espirituales que le acontecieron en un ámbito normalmente invisible que él se esfuerza por visibilizar.

  19. La grammaire, tu piges ? niveau 2

    CERN Document Server

    Granger, Colin

    1997-01-01

    This French resource is one of a series of stand-alone photocopiable materials designed to supplement any modern-language course. The activities are suitable for individuals, pairs, groups and whole-class language practice.

  20. La grammaire, tu piges ? niveau 1

    CERN Document Server

    Granger, Colin

    1997-01-01

    This French resource is one of a series of stand-alone photocopiable materials designed to supplement any modern-language course. The activities are suitable for individuals, pairs, groups and whole-class language practice.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of Huang Tu Miao coal: TG-FTIR study%应用TG-FTIR技术研究黄土庙煤催化热解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 陈静升; 冯秀燕; 杨斌; 马晓迅

    2013-01-01

    用浸渍法制备过渡金属氧化物担载型催化剂MOx/USY(M=Co、Mo、Co-Mo),用热重红外联用技术考察了MOx/USY催化剂对黄土庙(HTM)煤热解失重特性和热解产物生成规律的影响.热重实验结果表明,MOx/USY催化剂可使HTM煤热解的二次脱气条件更为温和,热解峰温分别提前14、23和9℃.动力学分析结果表明,MOx/USY催化剂可降低HTM煤样热解的活化能.FT-IR研究表明,MOx/USY催化剂可有效改善HTM煤热解产物的组成和分布,CoOx/USY催化剂能显著提高HTM煤热解产物中高热值气体(CO、CH4)和轻质芳烃以及脂肪烃类化合物的含量;MoOx/USY催化剂没有明显改善HTM煤热解产物组成和分布;MoOx-CoOx/USY催化剂可促进CO、CH4、轻质芳烃和脂肪烃类化合物的生成,却使热解产物的生成向高温区移动,说明USY负载的不同过渡金属氧化物对煤样热解行为和热解产物有较大影响.%MOx/USY catalysts ( M = Co, Mo, Co-Mo) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. Catalytic pyrolysis of Huang Tu Miao (HTM) coal was investigated and the pyrolysis products were examined by TG-FTIR technique. TG results indicate that MOx/USY catalysts are effective in lowering degasifiction temperature (14, 23 and 9℃ respectively) in HTM coal pyrolysis. Kinetic calculations show that MOx/USY catalysts are effective in lowing activation energy of pyrolysis. FT-IR analyses show that the MOX/ USY catalysts are effective in manipulating coal pyrolysis products. CoOx/USY catalyst promote the generation of CH4, CO and aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons in HTM coal pyrolysis. MoOx/USY catalyst show little effect in manipulating pyrolysis products. CoOx-MoOx/USY catalyst is a promising catalyst in giving high yield of volatile products, however the pyrolysis temperature moved to high temperature region. These results indicate that different metal oxides incorporated zeolite USY have different impact on manipulating

  2. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  3. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  4. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  5. Polynucleotide phosphorylase has an impact on cell biology of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila eHaddad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polynucleotide phosphorylase, encoded by the pnp gene, is known to degrade mRNA, mediating post-transcriptional regulation and may affect cellular functions. The role of PNPase is pleiotropic. As the two major ribonucleases (RNase E and RNase II of Escherichia coli are absent from Campylobacter genome, this study was focused on PNPase. The effect of PNPase mutation on C. jejuni phenotypes and proteome was investigated. The inactivation of the pnp gene reduced significantly the ability of C. jejuni to adhere and to invade Ht-29 cells. Moreover, the pnp mutant strain exhibited a decrease in C. jejuni swimming ability and chick colonization. To explain effects of PNPase on C. jejuni 81-176 phenotype, the proteome of the pnp mutant and parental strains were compared. Overall, little variation in protein production was observed. Despite the predicted role of PNPase in mRNA regulation, the pnp mutation did not induce profound proteomic changes suggesting that other ribonucleases in C. jejuni might ensure this biological function in the absence of PNPase. Nevertheless, synthesis of proteins which are involved in virulence (LuxS, PEB3, motility (NANA synthetase, stress-response (KatA, DnaK, Hsp90 and translation system (EF-Tu, EF-G were modified in the pnp mutant strain suggesting a more specific role of PNPase in C. jejuni. In conclusion, PNPase deficiency induces limited but important consequences on C. jejuni biology that could explain swimming limitation, chick colonization delay and the decrease of cell adhesion/invasion ability.

  6. LRR conservation mapping to predict functional sites within protein leucine-rich repeat domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helft

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of protein functional sites can be a critical first step for analysis of large or complex proteins. Contemporary methods often require several homologous sequences and/or a known protein structure, but these resources are not available for many proteins. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs are ligand interaction domains found in numerous proteins across all taxonomic kingdoms, including immune system receptors in plants and animals. We devised Repeat Conservation Mapping (RCM, a computational method that predicts functional sites of LRR domains. RCM utilizes two or more homologous sequences and a generic representation of the LRR structure to identify conserved or diversified patches of amino acids on the predicted surface of the LRR. RCM was validated using solved LRR+ligand structures from multiple taxa, identifying ligand interaction sites. RCM was then used for de novo dissection of two plant microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors, EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2. In vivo testing of Arabidopsis thaliana EFR and FLS2 receptors mutagenized at sites identified by RCM demonstrated previously unknown functional sites. The RCM predictions for EFR, FLS2 and a third plant LRR protein, PGIP, compared favorably to predictions from ODA (optimal docking area, Consurf, and PAML (positive selection analyses, but RCM also made valid functional site predictions not available from these other bioinformatic approaches. RCM analyses can be conducted with any LRR-containing proteins at www.plantpath.wisc.edu/RCM, and the approach should be modifiable for use with other types of repeat protein domains.

  7. Post-transcriptional control by bacteriophage T4: mRNA decay and inhibition of translation initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Eric S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over 50 years of biological research with bacteriophage T4 includes notable discoveries in post-transcriptional control, including the genetic code, mRNA, and tRNA; the very foundations of molecular biology. In this review we compile the past 10 - 15 year literature on RNA-protein interactions with T4 and some of its related phages, with particular focus on advances in mRNA decay and processing, and on translational repression. Binding of T4 proteins RegB, RegA, gp32 and gp43 to their cognate target RNAs has been characterized. For several of these, further study is needed for an atomic-level perspective, where resolved structures of RNA-protein complexes are awaiting investigation. Other features of post-transcriptional control are also summarized. These include: RNA structure at translation initiation regions that either inhibit or promote translation initiation; programmed translational bypassing, where T4 orchestrates ribosome bypass of a 50 nucleotide mRNA sequence; phage exclusion systems that involve T4-mediated activation of a latent endoribonuclease (PrrC and cofactor-assisted activation of EF-Tu proteolysis (Gol-Lit; and potentially important findings on ADP-ribosylation (by Alt and Mod enzymes of ribosome-associated proteins that might broadly impact protein synthesis in the infected cell. Many of these problems can continue to be addressed with T4, whereas the growing database of T4-related phage genome sequences provides new resources and potentially new phage-host systems to extend the work into a broader biological, evolutionary context.

  8. Slow peptide bond formation by proline and other N-alkylamino acids in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Watts, Richard E.; Tan, Zhongping; Cornish, Virginia W.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are made from 19 aa and, curiously, one N-alkylamino acid (“imino acid”), proline (Pro). Pro is thought to be incorporated by the translation apparatus at the same rate as the 19 aa, even though the alkyl group in Pro resides directly on the nitrogen nucleophile involved in peptide bond formation. Here, by combining quench-flow kinetics and charging of tRNAs with cognate and noncognate amino acids, we find that Pro incorporates in translation significantly more slowly than Phe or Ala and that other N-alkylamino acids incorporate much more slowly. Our results show that the slowest step in incorporation of N-alkylamino acids is accommodation/peptidyl transfer after GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu. The relative incorporation rates correlate with expectations from organic chemistry, suggesting that amino acid sterics and basicities affect translation rates at the peptidyl transfer step. Cognate isoacceptor tRNAs speed Pro incorporation to rates compatible with in vivo, although still 3–6 times slower than Phe incorporation from Phe-tRNAPhe depending on the Pro codon. Results suggest that Pro is the only N-alkylamino acid in the genetic code because it has a privileged cyclic structure that is more reactive than other N-alkylamino acids. Our data on the variation of the rate of incorporation of Pro from native Pro-tRNAPro isoacceptors at 4 different Pro codons help explain codon bias not accounted for by the “tRNA abundance” hypothesis. PMID:19104062

  9. Accelerated evolution of functional plastid rRNA and elongation factor genes due to reduced protein synthetic load after the loss of photosynthesis in the chlorophyte alga Polytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, D; Gutell, R R; Cannone, J J; Rumpf, R W; Birky, C W

    2001-09-01

    Polytoma obtusum and Polytoma uvella are members of a clade of nonphotosynthetic chlorophyte algae closely related to Chlamydomonas humicola and other photosynthetic members of the Chlamydomonadaceae. Descended from a nonphotosynthetic mutant, these obligate heterotrophs retain a plastid (leucoplast) with a functional protein synthetic system, and a plastid genome (lpDNA) with functional genes encoding proteins required for transcription and translation. Comparative studies of the evolution of genes in chloroplasts and leucoplasts can identify modes of selection acting on the plastid genome. Two plastid genes--rrn16, encoding the plastid small-subunit rRNA, and tufA, encoding elongation factor Tu--retain their functions in protein synthesis after the loss of photosynthesis in two nonphotosynthetic Polytoma clades but show a substantially accelerated rate of base substitution in the P. uvella clade. The accelerated evolution of tufA is due, at least partly, to relaxed codon bias favoring codons that can be read without wobble, mainly in three amino acids. Selection for these codons may be relaxed because leucoplasts are required to synthesize fewer protein molecules per unit time than are chloroplasts (reduced protein synthetic load) and thus require a lower rate of synthesis of elongation factor Tu. Relaxed selection due to a lower protein synthetic load is also a plausible explanation for the accelerated rate of evolution of rrn16, but the available data are insufficient to test the hypothesis for this gene. The tufA and rrn16 genes in Polytoma oviforme, the sole member of a second nonphotosynthetic clade, are also functional but show no sign of relaxed selection.

  10. Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil - ongoing activities in Working Project 2.5 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Slob, Evert

    2015-04-01

    This work will endeavour to review the current status of research activities carried out in Working Project 2.5 'Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil' within the framework of Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). Overall, the Project includes 55 Participants from over 21 countries representing 33 Institutions. By considering the type of Institution, a percentage of 64% (35 units) comes from the academic world, while Research Centres and Companies include, respectively, the 27% (15 units) and 9% (5 units) of Institutions. Geographically speaking, Europe is the continent most represented with 18 out of 21 countries, followed by Africa (2 countries) and Asia (1 country). In more details and according to the Europe sub-regions classification provided by the United Nations, Southern Europe includes 39% of countries, Western Europe 27%, while Northern and Eastern Europe are equally present with 17% of countries each. Relying on the main purpose of Working Project 2.5, namely, the ground-penetrating radar-based evaluation of volumetric water content in structures, substructures , foundations, and soils, four main issues have been overall addressed over the first two years of activities. The first one, has been related to provide a comprehensive state of the art on the topic, due to the wide-ranging applications covered in the main disciplines of civil engineering, differently demanding. In this regard, two main publications reviewing the state of the art have been produced [1,2]. Secondly, discussions among Working Group Chairs and other Working Project Leaders have been undertaken and encouraged to avoid the risk of overlapping amongst similar topics from other Working

  11. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  12. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  13. Negligência da Omissão: de Onde Tu Vens, Pra Onde Tu Vais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Alexandrina Domingues Pereira do Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo discutir a produção científica sobre negligência da omissão de informações, visando apresentar uma agenda de pesquisa referente ao tema a partir das direções indicadas pelo estado da arte das pesquisas sobre o fenômeno. O ensaio objetiva, ainda, apresentar e caracterizar as perspectivas teóricas que prevalecem nessa produção. Por meio da revisão das produções acadêmicas nacional e internacional, publicadas entre 1988 e 2014, foram selecionados todos os artigos encontrados, sendo estes, no total, 19 trabalhos. Identificou-se, portanto, que os estudos sobre o fenômeno da negligência da omissão são ainda seminais e a literatura carece de pesquisas adicionais para melhor entendimento do fenômeno. Por meio do método da leitura científica, todos os 19 artigos encontrados foram analisados e, ao final, propõe-se uma agenda de pesquisa sobre o tema da negligência da omissão, composta a partir dos gaps identificados nos estudos que trataram dessa temática.

  14. Co mbi nation of renal artery cold perfusion with laparoscopic partial nephrecto my for co mplex renal tu mor:our i nitial experience%肾动脉低温灌注联合腹腔镜肾部分切除术处理复杂肾肿瘤的初步经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 刘新; 郑涛; 史涛坪; 瓦斯里江·瓦哈甫; 俞鸿凯; 宋鹏; 张旭

    2014-01-01

    目的:介绍肾动脉低温灌注联合腹腔肾部分切除术处理复杂肾肿瘤的初步经验.方法:2013年3月起,共收治复杂肾肿瘤患者14例,在肾动脉低温灌注下,7例采用腹腔镜经腹膜后入路行肾部分切术,7例采用 da Vi nci Si 机器人经腹腔入路实施手术.所有术后均由同一术者完成.结果:14例患者中12例成功实施了肾动脉低温灌下的肾部分切除术,术中4例出现了动脉阻断不全,2例术中改为肾根治性切除术,无一例改为开放手术.12例肾部分切除术的患者术后出现轻度肾功能下降.结论:对于复杂肾脏肿瘤,肾动脉低温灌注联合腹腔镜肾部分切除术具有可行性和安全性,可有效减少根治性肾切除的发生和热缺血对肾脏的损害.%To introduce our initial experience in using renal artery cold perfusi on in laparoscopic partial nephrecto my for complex renal tu mor .Methods :From March 201 3 ,1 4 patients with complex renal tu mor under went partial nephrecto my combined with renal artery col d perfusi on .The operati ons were carried out by the sa me surgeon using laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach (n =7 )and robotic transperitoneal approach (n =7 ).Results :Partial ne-phrecto my was successfull y perfor med on 1 2 patients .incomplete arterial bl ock occurred in 4 patients ,and 2 patients under went conversi on to radical nephrecto my .There was no conversi on to open surgery in all cases .Additi onall y ,a mil d renal dysfuncti on was i dentified in the 1 2 patients who under went partial nephrecto my .Conclusions :Co mbina-ti on of renal artery cold perfusi on with laparoscopic partial nephrecto my is feasi ble and safe for complex renal tu mor . It can reduce the inci dence of radical nephrecto my ,as well as the da mage of war mische mia to renal functi on .

  15. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup: Differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchado Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs, larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU. TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. Conclusion We

  16. 广西土司制度的历史渊源与改土归流开始的时间问题辨析%On Historical Origination of Tusi System and Beginning - Time of Gai Tu Gui Liu in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝武

    2012-01-01

    广西土司制度最终确立于元代。从历史发展的观点来看,广西土司制度产生的源头大体可以追溯到秦汉王朝的“羁縻之治”时代,唐宋羁縻州县制度是广西土司制度的前身,元明广西土司制度由唐宋羁縻州县制度发展与演变而来,两者之间是“源”与“流”的关系。从严格意义上说,广西改土归流开始的时间是在明朝统一广西之初,具体表现为明初在统一广西的过程中实施对钦州七峒长官司的改流,由此揭开了王朝中央在广西民族地区实施改土归流的序幕。历史渊源与改土归流开始的时间问题由此成为土司制度研究中的重要课题。%Tusi ( local tribe chief) system in Guangxi was formally established in Yuan dynasty. Viewed historically, The system can be originated from Ji Mi policy (a mollification policy for mi-norities or frontier regions in ancient China) in QinHan dynasty, while Ji Mi administration system ( a system similar to Jimi Policy) in Tang - Song dynasty is the predecessors of Tusi system inGuangxi, and Tusi system in Yuan- Ming dynasty is the development and evolution of Ji Mi policy in Tang - Song dynasty. Practice of Gai Tu Gui Liu ( Practice of changing local tribe administrationto flexible administration) in Qidong area, Qinzhou, happened during the unification of Guangxi in early Ming dynasty and started the whole reform practiced by central government in minority regionsin Guangxi. Therefore, the historical origination and the beginning - time of Gai Tu Gui Liu are import issues in the study of Tusi system.

  17. Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-kwong Kwok

    2004-01-01

    Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...

  18. Infantile encephalopathy and defective mitochondrial DNA translation in patients with mutations of mitochondrial elongation factors EFG1 and EFTu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Lucia; Tiranti, Valeria; Marsano, Rene Massimiliano; Malfatti, Edoardo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Donnini, Claudia; Mereghetti, Paolo; De Gioia, Luca; Burlina, Alberto; Castellan, Claudio; Comi, Giacomo P; Savasta, Salvatore; Ferrero, Iliana; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein translation is a complex process performed within mitochondria by an apparatus composed of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA-encoded proteins. Although the latter by far outnumber the former, the vast majority of mitochondrial translation defects in humans have been associated with mutations in RNA-encoding mtDNA genes, whereas mutations in protein-encoding nuclear genes have been identified in a handful of cases. Genetic investigation involving patients with defective mitochondrial translation led us to the discovery of novel mutations in the mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EFG1) in one affected baby and, for the first time, in the mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EFTu) in another one. Both patients were affected by severe lactic acidosis and rapidly progressive, fatal encephalopathy. The EFG1-mutant patient had early-onset Leigh syndrome, whereas the EFTu-mutant patient had severe infantile macrocystic leukodystrophy with micropolygyria. Structural modeling enabled us to make predictions about the effects of the mutations at the molecular level. Yeast and mammalian cell systems proved the pathogenic role of the mutant alleles by functional complementation in vivo. Nuclear-gene abnormalities causing mitochondrial translation defects represent a new, potentially broad field of mitochondrial medicine. Investigation of these defects is important to expand the molecular characterization of mitochondrial disorders and also may contribute to the elucidation of the complex control mechanisms, which regulate this fundamental pathway of mtDNA homeostasis.

  19. Infantile Encephalopathy and Defective Mitochondrial DNA Translation in Patients with Mutations of Mitochondrial Elongation Factors EFG1 and EFTu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Lucia; Tiranti, Valeria; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Malfatti, Edoardo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Donnini, Claudia; Mereghetti, Paolo; De Gioia, Luca; Burlina, Alberto; Castellan, Claudio; Comi, Giacomo P.; Savasta, Salvatore; Ferrero, Iliana; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein translation is a complex process performed within mitochondria by an apparatus composed of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA–encoded proteins. Although the latter by far outnumber the former, the vast majority of mitochondrial translation defects in humans have been associated with mutations in RNA-encoding mtDNA genes, whereas mutations in protein-encoding nuclear genes have been identified in a handful of cases. Genetic investigation involving patients with defective mitochondrial translation led us to the discovery of novel mutations in the mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EFG1) in one affected baby and, for the first time, in the mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EFTu) in another one. Both patients were affected by severe lactic acidosis and rapidly progressive, fatal encephalopathy. The EFG1-mutant patient had early-onset Leigh syndrome, whereas the EFTu-mutant patient had severe infantile macrocystic leukodystrophy with micropolygyria. Structural modeling enabled us to make predictions about the effects of the mutations at the molecular level. Yeast and mammalian cell systems proved the pathogenic role of the mutant alleles by functional complementation in vivo. Nuclear-gene abnormalities causing mitochondrial translation defects represent a new, potentially broad field of mitochondrial medicine. Investigation of these defects is important to expand the molecular characterization of mitochondrial disorders and also may contribute to the elucidation of the complex control mechanisms, which regulate this fundamental pathway of mtDNA homeostasis. PMID:17160893

  20. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  1. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  2. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. "Disfagia post-ictus: Guía rápida para tu día a día. " A propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Olmo García, Beatriz del

    2016-01-01

    La disfagia es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes tras un Ictus, esta patología presenta una alta prevalencia en nuestra sociedad, con un previsible aumento en los próximos años debido, entre otros factores, al envejecimiento de la población. La disfagia ensombrece el pronóstico y empeora la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Entre las diferentes medidas de tratamiento de la disfagia, se encuentran las modificaciones de la dieta, en textura, viscosidad y volumen, así como medidas rehab...

  5. Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 underlies the developmental abnormalities caused by three distinct viral silencing suppressors in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Jay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, micro (miRNAs and trans-acting (ta-siRNAs synthesized directly or indirectly through the DICER-LIKE-1 (DCL1 ribonuclease have roles in patterning and hormonal responses, while DCL2,3,4-dependent small-interfering (siRNAs are mainly involved in silencing of transposable elements and antiviral defense. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs produced by phytoviruses to counter plant defense may perturb plant developmental programs because of the collision of their inhibitory effects with the regulatory action of endogenous miRNAs and ta-siRNAs. This could explain the similar developmental aberrations displayed by Arabidopsis miRNA/ta-siRNA pathway mutants, including dcl1, and by some VSR-expressing plants. Nonetheless, the molecular bases for these morphological aberrations have remained mysterious, and their contribution to viral disease symptoms/virulence unexplored. The extent of VSR inhibitory actions to other types of endogenous small RNAs remains also unclear. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing constitutively HcPro, P19 and P15, three unrelated VSRs. We show that VSR expression has comparable, yet modest effects on known miRNA and ta-siRNA target RNA levels, similar to those observed using an hypomorphic dcl1 mutation. However, by combining results of transcriptome studies with deep-sequencing data from immuno-precipitated small RNAs, additional, novel endogenous targets of miRNA and ta-siRNA were identified, unraveling an unsuspected complexity in the origin and scope-of-action of these molecules. Other stringent analyses pinpointed misregulation of the miR167 target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 (ARF8 as a major cause for the developmental aberrations exhibited by VSR transgenic plants, but also for the phenotypes induced during normal viral infection caused by the HcPro-encoding Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV. Neither RNA silencing, its suppression by VSRs, nor the virulence/accumulation of Tu

  6. Výchova ke zdraví v učebnicích 1. stupně ZŠ: výsledky analýzy didaktického aparátu učebnic prvouky/přírodovědy/Health education in primary school textbooks – results of a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Hrozová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cílem empirické studie je prezentace výsledků obsahové analýzy didaktického aparátu učebnic a cvičebnic školního vzdělávacího předmětu prvouka/přírodověda určených pro žáky 1. stupně základních škol z hlediska jejich zaměření na výchovu ke zdraví. V první části studie prezentujeme teoretický základ našeho výzkumu, který spočíval ve vymezení analytických kategorií vyplývajících z holistického pojetí zdraví. V druhé části představujeme cíle a metody výzkumu, výzkumný vzorek sestávající z pěti současných ucelených učebnicových řad učebnic prvouky/ přírodovědy (38 učebnic/cvičebnic; 3136 zkoumaných jednotek, tedy otázek, námětů a úkolů zařazených do učebnic platných pro 1. stupeň základního vzdělávání. Třetí část je věnována výsledkům analýzy, která poukázala na významné rozdíly v prezentaci učiva v oblasti výchova ke zdraví. Z výsledků vyplývá nereflektování holistického pojetí zdraví v jeho plném rozsahu, majoritní zastoupení biologického kontextu zdraví ve zkoumaných učebnicích. Holistické pojetí zdraví nejvíce reflektují učebnice druhých ročníků. Dále poukazujeme na významné rozdíly ve strukturaci učiva v rámci jednotlivých učebnicových řad (absence tematiky zdraví ve většině zkoumaných učebnic 4. ročníků a nestabilitu v distribuci tematických celků zkoumaného vzorku učebnic. V závěru studie (čtvrtá a pátá část jsou diskutovány výsledky, možnosti a limity studie a představujeme eventuality navazujícího výzkumného šetření.

  7. 中国诺贝尔奖获得者心理资本与创新绩效关系--屠呦呦个案剖析%Relationship between Psychological Capital and Innovation Performance of Chinese Nobel Laureate---Based on the study of Tu Youyou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼平; 李林英

    2016-01-01

    以中国诺贝尔获得者屠呦呦为研究对象,运用扎根理论对官方新闻和专访资料进行深入分析。研究发现,屠呦呦的心理资本包括6个维度:专注、韧性、希望、智慧、责任感、幸福感,这6个维度均与创新绩效呈正相关关系,且其对创新绩效具有积极意义。同时,社会支持系统变量在心理资本与创新绩效的关系中起中介作用。因此应重视个体专注、责任感等积极特征的培养。%Taking Tu Youyou of Nobel Laureate as a case and using the grounded theory to analyze in official news and in‐terview data deeply .We found her psychological capital contains the following six dimensions :concentration ,resilience , hope ,wisdom ,sense of responsibility ,well‐being and six dimensions of psychological capital reflect positive effects on the innovation performance .Besides ,the variables of Social support system had mediating effect on relationship betw een Psy‐chological Capital and Innovation Performance .We suggest that our government should pay more attention to cultivate the positive trait of concentration and sense of responsibility on adolescent students and researchers should combine quantita‐tive with qualitative in the further research .

  8. 论元南戏中的“贪淫破家”悲剧——《小孙屠》解读%Tragedy of Adultery in Southern Ancient Chinese Opera of Yuan Dynasty——A Study on Xiao Sun Tu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传寅

    2001-01-01

    元南戏《小孙屠》是以从良妓女贪淫破家的故事为主要表现对象的悲剧性作品,旨在劝诫世人:妓女性淫,不可娶以为妇。但剧作的意义不仅在此,她揭示了妓女制度对“良人女”心灵的扭曲与毒害,把奸情与官府的昏庸腐败联系起来,概括了丰富的社会生活内容,提升了剧作的思想意义和认识价值。剧中有清官出现,但她与旨在颂扬清官断案的公案剧和清官戏有所不同。《小孙屠》观察生活的视角和评价生活的尺度具有东方特色,反映了东方劳动群众的婚姻家庭观念和社会理想。%Xiao Sun Tu, Southern ancient Chinese opera of Yuan Dynasty, warns people that whores are lewd and are not suitable to become wives by telling us a story of how a married woman ruins her family by unchaste conduct. The play suggests ancient prostitute system distort and poison “gentlewoman's soul”, mirrors the harsh reality and the corruption of officials of Yuan Dynasty. The play contains rich portraits and description of ancient society, which highlight the ideal value.

  9. The Enlightenment of Tu Youyou’s Winning:To Explore the Rule of Tradi-tional Chinese Medicine Treatment and Develop Efficient Drugs%屠呦呦获奖的启示:探索中药治病规律并研发高效药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹

    2016-01-01

    屠呦呦获诺贝尔奖激发了人们对中药现代化的热情。文中论述了青蒿素的性质及古人对青蒿治疟记载的矛盾性;复方中药材在水煎提取过程中发生了复杂的化学反应;人体内部的微生物环境及生化反应促进或增强中药成分的疗效;太空育种、遗传工程也能增加药用植物有效成分。不断探索中药治病规律并研发高效药物,是中药现代化的精髓。%Tu Youyou’s winning the Nobel prize inspires the passion of people to modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper explains the properties of artemisinin and the contradictions about Artemisia treatment against malaria in ancient documents; Complex chemical reactions occurred during the extraction of compound Chinese medicinal herbs in hot water; The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine ingredient is promoted or enhanced for microbiological environment in human internal body and biochemical reaction; Space breeding and genetic engineering can also increase the effective ingredient of pharmaceutical plant. It is the essence of modernization of traditional Chinese medicine to explore the rule of traditional Chinese medicine treatment and develop efficient drugs constantly as a conclusion.

  10. Re: Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-week Cumulative Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bakırcıoğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency syndrome may associate with erectile dysfunction, increased abdominal fat and reduced muscle mass. Low serum testosterone is also related with anemia, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In this study, the authors investigated if testosterone undecanoate (TU reduces anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism A total of 58 participants with a total testosterone level of less than 2.35 ng/ml received an injection of 1.000 mg TU 6 times; at initial visit, 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. They observed that total testosterone and free testosterone levels were restored by TU. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased while anemia and total cholesterol levels significantly reduced. Although there are some limitations of this study e.g. it is not a randomized controlled and a long-term study, TU treatment in hypogonadal men decreased the prevalence of anemia, improved lipid profiles and lowered the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Hydrophobic environment is a key factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Pathak, Manish C; Saraboji, Kadhirvel; Ortlund, Eric A; Gaucher, Eric A

    2013-04-01

    The stability of thermophilic proteins has been viewed from different perspectives and there is yet no unified principle to understand this stability. It would be valuable to reveal the most important interactions for designing thermostable proteins for such applications as industrial protein engineering. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the importance of various interactions by computing different parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, inter-residue interactions, ion-pairs and hydrogen bonds. The importance of each interaction has been determined by its predicted relative contribution in thermophiles versus the same contribution in mesophilic homologues based on a dataset of 373 protein families. We predict that hydrophobic environment is the major factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins and found that 80% of thermophilic proteins analyzed showed higher hydrophobicity than their mesophilic counterparts. Ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy are also important and favored in 68%, 50%, and 62% of thermophilic proteins, respectively. Interestingly, thermophilic proteins with decreased hydrophobic environments display a greater number of hydrogen bonds and/or ion pairs. The systematic elimination of mesophilic proteins based on surrounding hydrophobicity, interaction energy, and ion pairs/hydrogen bonds, led to correctly identifying 95% of the thermophilic proteins in our analyses. Our analysis was also applied to another, more refined set of 102 thermophilic-mesophilic pairs, which again identified hydrophobicity as a dominant property in 71% of the thermophilic proteins. Further, the notion of surrounding hydrophobicity, which characterizes the hydrophobic behavior of residues in a protein environment, has been applied to the three-dimensional structures of elongation factor-Tu proteins and we found that the thermophilic proteins are enriched with a hydrophobic environment. The results obtained in this work highlight the

  12. Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature on Chemical, Structural, Optical, and Photoelectrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Chemically Deposited from the Pb(OAc)2-NaOH-TU-TEA Aqueous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-González, O. A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; García-Valenzuela, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique using a Pb(CH3COO)2-NaOH-(NH2)2CS-N(CH2CH2OH)3 definite aqueous system. The chemical and structural characteristics, as well as the variation of the optical and photoelectrical properties, were studied as functions of reaction time and temperature. For this purpose, the following characterization techniques were employed: x-ray diffraction analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometry, and dark and light current measurements. Based on the results, it was observed that increase in the reaction temperature increased the deposition rate of the PbS thin film (associated with the cubic crystalline structure); increase of this parameter from 40°C to 70°C (with reaction time of 60 min) led to an increase of the thickness from ˜129 nm to ˜459 nm and the crystallite size (D) from 15.3 nm to 20.2 nm; on the other hand, increase in temperature decreased the energy bandgap (E g) from 1.66 eV to 0.51 eV and the relative photosensitivity factor (S ph) from 0.468 to 0.032. A similar effect was obtained with increase of the reaction time for given temperature.

  13. Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature on Chemical, Structural, Optical, and Photoelectrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Chemically Deposited from the Pb(OAc)2-NaOH-TU-TEA Aqueous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-González, O. A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; García-Valenzuela, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique using a Pb(CH3COO)2-NaOH-(NH2)2CS-N(CH2CH2OH)3 definite aqueous system. The chemical and structural characteristics, as well as the variation of the optical and photoelectrical properties, were studied as functions of reaction time and temperature. For this purpose, the following characterization techniques were employed: x-ray diffraction analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometry, and dark and light current measurements. Based on the results, it was observed that increase in the reaction temperature increased the deposition rate of the PbS thin film (associated with the cubic crystalline structure); increase of this parameter from 40°C to 70°C (with reaction time of 60 min) led to an increase of the thickness from ˜129 nm to ˜459 nm and the crystallite size ( D) from 15.3 nm to 20.2 nm; on the other hand, increase in temperature decreased the energy bandgap ( E g) from 1.66 eV to 0.51 eV and the relative photosensitivity factor ( S ph) from 0.468 to 0.032. A similar effect was obtained with increase of the reaction time for given temperature.

  14. The effectiveness of extended care model on treatment compliance and quality of life in patients with tu-berculosis%延续护理模式在肺结核患者康复中的应用与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗惠倩; 徐艳芳; 杨连芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价延续护理模式(ECM)对改善肺结核(TB)患者的依从性及生活质量的效果。方法选择2012年3月至2013年3月在我院接诊的TB患者468例,234例接受抗结核治疗并进行ECM干预,作为试验组;另234例按常规抗结核进行治疗,作为对照组。对两组患者的依从性、生活质量和预后满意度分别进行调查。结果试验组患者依从性总分以及康复训练、生活作息、复诊随访3个单项依从性高于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组TH、RP、MH、VT、RE和SF这6项评分高于对照组(P<0.05);试验组的生活质量总分为(604.6±128.4)分,高于对照组(516.9±118.9)分(P<0.05)。试验组满意度达到89.7%。结论通过ECM能够提高TB患者疾病相关知识,使日常生活行为更加规范,提高治疗依从性、生活质量及满意度,值得在临床推广应用。%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of extended care model(ECM) on treatment compliance and quality of life in patients with tuberculosis. Methods Totally 468 patients with tuberculosis were divided into two groups. ECM was applied in the experimental group in addition to routine anti-tuberculosis treatment. The outcomes were evaluated using patient compliance,quality of life and patient satisfaction with prognosis. Results The patient compliance score(t=5.057,P=0.002) and factor scores in rehabilitation(t=4.332,P=0.014),lifestyle(t=5.747,P=0.019) and referral follow-up(t=3.403,P=0.023) in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The factor scores in total health(TH),role physical(RP),mental health(MH),vitality(VT),role emo-tional(RE) and social function(SF) in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05). The total score of quality of life in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (604.6 points versus 516 points,t=2.691,P=0.041). The

  15. TU-F-BRE-03: Application of a Novel Mass-Density Compensation Optimization Method to Improve the Response of a Liquid-Filled Ionization Chamber in Nonstandard Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Y [CHUM - Notre Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Bouchard, H [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the response of the microLion detector (PTW 31018) in small field conditions by optimizing the density of the detector's non-sensitive components using a novel method based on the detector's dose response function. Methods: The central values h(0,0) of the perturbation functions for the microLion detector and a volume of water equivalent to its sensitive volume were calculated using the Monte Carlo user code egs-chamber by scoring the dose absorbed by a 6 MV photon pencil beam incident on their centroids. Values of h(0,0) were plotted as a function of the density of the microLion's graphite electrode with the detector placed in the axial orientation. The optimized density was found by finding the minimal value of h(0,0). Results: A density of 1.37 g/cm3 was found to minimize the perturbation function of the microLion detector. The modified microLion's response was then evaluated in small square fields with sides in the range of 5 – 40 mm and found to be consistent with highly watere-quivalent detectors such as a scintillating detector (Exradin W1) and a generic alanine detector in both axial and radial orientations. Conclusion: This work illustrates a novel method which can used to optimize the design of radiation detectors in small fields. This method should also work with other optimization parameters (e.g. thickness of electrode). Density-compensated detectors have the potential to eliminate the need to evaluate nonstandard field correction factors as described by the IAEA-AAPM formalism (Alfonso et al.) and simplify future dosimetry protocols for SRS/SBRT modalities. Finally, we also expect an improvement in the response of density-compensated detectors for composite IMRT fields.

  16. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  17. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  18. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...

  19. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  20. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peng Xue,1 Ziyu Wu,2 Kunpeng Wang,1 Chuanquan Tu,1 Xiangbo Wang1 1Department of Urology, First People’s Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, 2Department of Urology, No 2 Hospital of Huaian, Huaian, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP and to identify those factors associated with delirium.Methods: From July 2010 to February 2015, 358 patients, aged ≥65 years and undergoing TURP were prospectively enrolled. Personal, medical and cognitive data, laboratory assessments, pain intensity, preoperative medications, and details of hemodynamic control were collected as predictors of delirium. POD was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method.Results: In the present study, POD occurred in 28 out of 358 cases (7.8% after TURP, with duration of 1–4 days. The multivariate analysis showed that old age and visual analog scale pain scores were associated with POD. Marital status, body mass index, education, alcohol consumption, smoking history, preoperative psychotropic medication usage, activities of daily living scores, preoperative Mini-Mental Status Examination score, anesthesia type, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, or hypotensive episodes during surgery did not significantly correlate with the occurrence of POD.Conclusion: Old age and pain intensity after surgery were found as the risk factors for the development of delirium in elderly patients undergoing TURP. These findings might help develop preventive strategies to decrease POD through targeted evaluation. Keywords: elderly, postoperative delirium, risk factors, transurethral resection of prostate

  1. Expression of atrophy-related transcription factors in the process of intrinsic laryngeal muscle atrophy after denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Aki; Nishida, Naoya; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes in the expressions of three atrophy-related transcription factors (FOXO3a, P-FOXO3a, and PGC-1α) in the process of intrinsic laryngeal muscle atrophy after denervation. In total, 51 Wistar rats were used. After transection of the unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve, the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle and the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle were excised and subjected to histological and Western blot studies. Relationships between the expressions of transcription factors during atrophy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles were investigated by comparing the results of the treated side (T) with those of the untreated side (U), and sequential changes in the T/U ratio after denervation were assessed. Loss of wet muscle weight, together with a decrease in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and increase in the number of muscle fibers/mm(2), occurred more quickly in TA muscle than in PCA muscle. Muscle atrophy progressed rapidly between 7 and 28 days after denervation, while expression of FOXO3a was maximal on day 7, in both TA and PCA muscles. By contrast, P-FOXO3a expression decreased gradually after denervation. Expression of PGC-1α increased slowly until day 7, and then it declined. Denervation-induced atrophy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles was closely linked with the expression of FOXO3a and PGC-1α, suggesting that atrophy of these muscles may involve the actions of these transcription factors. In addition, muscle atrophy progressed faster in TA muscle than in PCA muscle, due mainly to differences in muscle fiber composition.

  2. Intra-specific brood parasitism revealed by DNA micro-satellite analyses in a sub-oscine bird, the vermilion flycatcher Parasitismo intraespecífico revelado mediante análisis de microsatélites de ADN en un ave suboscina, el cardenalito o saca tu real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO A RÍOS-CHELÉN

    2008-03-01

    ón extrapareja. En este estudio nos preguntamos si ocurre o no la reproducción extrapareja en el cardenalito o saca tu real (Pyrocephalus rubinus, un suboscino sexualmente dimórfico y socialmente monógamo. Reportamos casos de paternidad extrapareja, maternidad extrapareja y parasitismo intraespecífico, y discutimos nuestros resultados bajo la luz de otros estudios en paserinos

  3. Low-Amplitude Anisotropic Wave Train Events during Passage of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds / Mazas Amplitūdas Anizotropiju Viļņu Parādību Secība Starpplanētu Magnētisko Mākoņu Rašanās Laikā

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R.; Mishra, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    The work presents a continuation in the series related to the long-term space observations made by ground-based neutron monitoring stations. The cosmic ray intensity variation is considered as affected by interplanetary magnetic clouds during low-amplitude anisotropic wave train (LAAWT) events. It was observed that the solar wind velocity is higher than normal (> 300 km/s) while the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength is lower than normal on the arrival of magnetic cloud during LAAWT events. The proton density is found to remain significantly low at high solar-wind velocity, which was expected. The north/south component of interplanetary magnetic field turns southward one day before the arrival of cloud and remains in this direction after that. The cosmic ray intensity is found to increase with the solar wind velocity. It is noteworthy that the cosmic ray intensity significantly increases before and 90 h after the arrival of such a cloud, and decreases gradually after its passage. The north/south component of IMF (Bz) is found to significantly correlate with latitude angle (Ө) and disturbance storm time index Dst, whereas the geomagnetic activity index (Ap) significantly anti-correlates with these parameters, decreasing with (Ө) and Dst increasing on the arrival of interplanetary magnetic cloud during LAAWT events. Raksts ir turpinājums darbu sērijai par dažādām parādībām kosmosā, kas balstītas uz novērojumiem un datiem, iegūtiem dažādos laika periodos pasaules neitronu monitoringa stacijās (Deep River, Tokija, Maskava, u.c.). Rakstā apskatītās kosmisko staru intensitātes izmaiņas tiek pamatotas ar starpplanētu magnētisko mākoņu parādīšanos. Tiek parādītas saules vēja, magnētiskā lauka spēka, vētru pertubāciju indeksa un citu parametru atkarība no magnētisko mākoņu parādīšanās. Tiek atzīmēts, ka kosmisko staru intensitāte strauji pieaug pirms mākoņu parādīšanās un 90 stundu laikā pēc tiem, un pak

  4. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072177 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072177 J013139G12 At5g13650.1 elongation factor family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00009 elongation... factor Tu GTP binding domain,PF00679 elongation factor G C-terminus, PF03144 elongation factor Tu domain 2 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068544 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068544 J013155A22 At2g31060.1 elongation factor family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00009 elongation... factor Tu GTP binding domain, PF00679 elongation factor G C-terminus, PF03144 elongation factor Tu domain 2 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099035 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099035 J013135J07 At5g13650.2 elongation factor family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00009 elongation... factor Tu GTP binding domain,PF00679 elongation factor G C-terminus, PF03144 elongation factor Tu domain 2 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060415 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060415 001-010-E11 At5g13650.2 elongation factor family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00009 elongation... factor Tu GTP binding domain,PF00679 elongation factor G C-terminus, PF03144 elongation factor Tu domain 2 1e-171 ...

  9. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  10. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  11. Factoring Polynomials and Fibonacci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the factoring of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to factor it. (JN)

  12. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...

  13. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  14. Environmental factors in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  15. Environmental Factors in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas M. Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  16. Tüütu tegelane helvik / Eva Luigas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luigas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Sageli võib aiakeskustes näha taimepotte, kus mullapinda katab kummaline roheline sammal - nagu plaaditaoline, korrapäraselt harunenud leht oleks tihedalt vastu mulda surutud. Tegemist on hariliku helvikuga (Marchantia polymorpha), rahvas nimetab teda ka maksasamblaks. Koduaeda sattudes võib helvik ruttu levima hakata ja siis on temast lahti saada üsna vaevarikas

  17. Tu eres gallo… pero la de los huevos soy yo

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    En Honduras, la industria maquiladora con sus prácticas disciplinarias y modernas, es vista por muchas personas como una fuerza protectora contra la violencia extrema de las maras y de las calles que es el enfoque principal del discurso diario hondureño. Sin embargo, la industria maquiladora, y las políticas militares y neoliberales (implementados por el fmi y el Banco Mundial) de las cuáles se aprovecha directamente, están estrechamente ligados con las prácticas de violencia asociadas al gén...

  18. Tüütu tegelane helvik / Eva Luigas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luigas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Sageli võib aiakeskustes näha taimepotte, kus mullapinda katab kummaline roheline sammal - nagu plaaditaoline, korrapäraselt harunenud leht oleks tihedalt vastu mulda surutud. Tegemist on hariliku helvikuga (Marchantia polymorpha), rahvas nimetab teda ka maksasamblaks. Koduaeda sattudes võib helvik ruttu levima hakata ja siis on temast lahti saada üsna vaevarikas

  19. COST Action TU1002 - Assessing usability of accessibility instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brömmelstroet, M.; Silva, C.; Bertolini, L.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents the results of a number of experiential workshops with local planning practitioners. In these workshops, these practitioners, first experienced and then reflected on the usability of accessibility instruments. These workshops were promoted by developers of accessibility instrumen

  20. ¿Qué tan verde es tu mercado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar R. Olaya-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado de lo verde y lo ecológico es una tendencia indiscutible en nuestro mundo globalizado, que busca de alguna manera resarcir el daño infringido sobre el medio ambiente. Más allá de simple altruismo, la ecología se ha convertido en una moda, de la cual unos y otros toman ventaja a su mejor acomodo, haciendo del mercado de productos y servicios su tribuna; eco-diseño, planes de responsabilidad social y ambiental, campañas por el reciclaje y consumo de productos "más amigables" con el medio ambiente hacen parte del panorama que se intenta describir en esta reseña. Por medio de un estudio de caso, se hará énfasis en cómo la comunicación asume un papel crucial en la verdadera apropiación del concepto de "consumidor verde" y "consumidor responsable", de manera que la propuesta transversal de las tic se convierta en una herramienta no solo tecnológica, sino también de empoderamiento del papel que la sociedad puede representar en el cuidado de los recursos naturales.

  1. Rule based design workshop at the TU Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Palz, Norbert; Josefsson, Kristoffer

    and design concepts to lead into a second workshop further exploring digital design and fabrication tools. The goal is to produce a full-scale prototype to test the ideas, methods and materials. This paper focuses on digital design & fabrication via a pedagogical exploration between academics...

  2. TU-EF-210-02: MRg Hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, R. [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  3. ¡Abre tu cerebro! Descubre la Neurociencia Cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Correa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente Año de la Ciencia, el gobierno español apuesta por la divulgación científica. Numerosas actividades acercarán a todos los públicos los conocimientos sobre el cerebro y la mente humana desde la Neurociencia Cognitiva.

  4. TU-EF-BRA-00: MR Basics I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI (f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  5. Hábeas Corpus (Tendrás tu cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Garzón Garzón

    2014-12-01

    Among the living, fiction and observation; from verbal language, image, provocation in the form of spatial intervention, emerged five microstories, worked simultaneity in a polygonal space, which each viewer agreed, in a single representation that stressed the ephemeral nature such as daily, this exercise which, however, it does matter in this writing

  6. Evaluating Credit Risk Management at Agribank Tu Liem

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Tien

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, bad debts have started to become a huge threat for Vietnamese economic growth. As a result of global economic crisis and unfavorable conditions in Vietnam, the bad debt ratio of the commissioning bank has also become alarming, and the bank has struggled in controlling the credit risk. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of the commissioning bank’s credit risk management based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Moreover, the readers will learn mo...

  7. TU-CD-213-04: Panel Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. [MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    As part of the AAPM’s Scope of Practice, medical physicists are expected to collaborate effectively with practioners and allied health care providers. Interpersonal skills such as communication, negotiation and persuasion are vital for successful collaboration to achieve shared goals. This session will provide some theoretical background of these interpersonal skills as well as specific techniques and practical tools to influence others. Applications of these interpersonal skills for administrative and human resource management purposes vital to medical physicists will be shared. Session attendees will gain knowledge and tools to help them effectively collaborate with administrative and physician leaders in areas such as capital and human resource selection, prioritization, and implementation. Participants will hear methods of how to articulate their goals and to understand the goals of administration, helping ensure alignment of purpose. Session speakers will present one of the topics: equipment selection, budget creation, contracts, and program-related policy development. Specifics may include designing a business case in language that administrators understand, calculating the prioritization of budget requests, and influencing policies for safe and effective care. Human resource topics may include staffing justification, recruitment for fit, employment contracts, and benefits. Speakers will provide examples in both radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging departments and will share experiences and outcomes of their approaches for better results. Learning Objectives: After this course attendees will be better able to Understand the shared goal between administrative and physicist leadership. Articulate the “why” of the technical or human resource need. Utilize communication, negotiation and persuasion tools to improve collaboration.

  8. Videoclips musicales: en un clip, capte tu imagen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernandez Arismendes, Carolina

    2004-01-01

    Descubrir los estereotipos de genero que muestran los videoclips musicales y las alternativas que existen para construir otras maneras de ser mujer y hombre en la sociedad actual es el objetivo de este trabajo...

  9. TU-A-210-01: HIFU Physics and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eames, M. [Focused Ultrasound Foundation (United States)

    2015-06-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has developed rapidly in recent years and is used frequently for clinical treatments in Asia and Europe with increasing clinical use and clinical trial activity in the US, making it an important medical technology with which the medical physics community must become familiar. Akin to medical devices that deliver treatments using ionizing radiation, HIFU relies on emitter geometry to non-invasively form a tight focus that can be used to affect diseased tissue while leaving healthy tissue intact. HIFU is unique in that it does not involve the use of ionizing radiation, it causes thermal necrosis in 100% of the treated tissue volume, and it has an immediate treatment effect. However, because it is an application of ultrasound energy, HIFU interacts strongly with tissue interfaces, which makes treatment planning challenging. In order to appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of HIFU as a thermal therapy, it is important to understand the underlying physics of ultrasound tissue interactions. The first lecture in the session will provide an overview of the physics of ultrasound wave propagation; the mechanism for the accumulation of heat in soft-tissue; image-guidance modalities including temperature monitoring; current clinical applications and commercial devices; active clinical trials; alternate mechanisms of action (future of FUS). The second part of the session will compare HIFU to existing ionization radiation techniques. The difficulties in defining a clear concept of absorbed dose for HIFU will be discussed. Some of the technical challenges that HIFU faces will be described, with an emphasis on how the experience of radiation oncology physicists could benefit the field. Learning Objectives: Describe the basic physics and biology of HIFU, including treatment delivery and image guidance techniques. Summarize existing and emerging clinical applications and manufacturers for HIFU. Understand that thermal ablation with HIFU is likely the first of several applications of the technology Learn about some similarities and differences between HIFU and ionizing radiation in terms of physics and biological effects. Learn about some of the technical challenges HIFU faces that might benefit from the experience of radiation oncology physicists including treatment planning improvements, quality assurance procedures, and treatment risk analysis. David Schlesinger receives research support from Elekta Instruments, AB. Matt Eames is an employee of the Focused Ultrasound Foundation which supports research and clinical trials. Dr. Eames conducts research which is supported by the Focused Ultrasound Foundation.

  10. TU-A-210-00: HIFU Therapies - A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has developed rapidly in recent years and is used frequently for clinical treatments in Asia and Europe with increasing clinical use and clinical trial activity in the US, making it an important medical technology with which the medical physics community must become familiar. Akin to medical devices that deliver treatments using ionizing radiation, HIFU relies on emitter geometry to non-invasively form a tight focus that can be used to affect diseased tissue while leaving healthy tissue intact. HIFU is unique in that it does not involve the use of ionizing radiation, it causes thermal necrosis in 100% of the treated tissue volume, and it has an immediate treatment effect. However, because it is an application of ultrasound energy, HIFU interacts strongly with tissue interfaces, which makes treatment planning challenging. In order to appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of HIFU as a thermal therapy, it is important to understand the underlying physics of ultrasound tissue interactions. The first lecture in the session will provide an overview of the physics of ultrasound wave propagation; the mechanism for the accumulation of heat in soft-tissue; image-guidance modalities including temperature monitoring; current clinical applications and commercial devices; active clinical trials; alternate mechanisms of action (future of FUS). The second part of the session will compare HIFU to existing ionization radiation techniques. The difficulties in defining a clear concept of absorbed dose for HIFU will be discussed. Some of the technical challenges that HIFU faces will be described, with an emphasis on how the experience of radiation oncology physicists could benefit the field. Learning Objectives: Describe the basic physics and biology of HIFU, including treatment delivery and image guidance techniques. Summarize existing and emerging clinical applications and manufacturers for HIFU. Understand that thermal ablation with HIFU is likely the first of several applications of the technology Learn about some similarities and differences between HIFU and ionizing radiation in terms of physics and biological effects. Learn about some of the technical challenges HIFU faces that might benefit from the experience of radiation oncology physicists including treatment planning improvements, quality assurance procedures, and treatment risk analysis. David Schlesinger receives research support from Elekta Instruments, AB. Matt Eames is an employee of the Focused Ultrasound Foundation which supports research and clinical trials. Dr. Eames conducts research which is supported by the Focused Ultrasound Foundation.

  11. Changing culture - the experience of TU Delft Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, M.; Van der Sar, E.

    2004-01-01

    When seeking to introduce change into an organisation, it is usually the organisational structure that is the main focus of attention. A reorganisation, however, does not necessarily resolve underlying cultural problems. It can, in fact, be just these cultural problems that prevent the organisation

  12. TU-F-BRD-01: Biomedical Informatics for Medical Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kalet, I [Kirkland, WA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States); Smith, W [New York Oncology Hematology, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Biomedical informatics encompasses a very large domain of knowledge and applications. This broad and loosely defined field can make it difficult to navigate. Physicists often are called upon to provide informatics services and/or to take part in projects involving principles of the field. The purpose of the presentations in this symposium is to help medical physicists gain some knowledge about the breadth of the field and how, in the current clinical and research environment, they can participate and contribute. Three talks have been designed to give an overview from the perspective of physicists and to provide a more in-depth discussion in two areas. One of the primary purposes, and the main subject of the first talk, is to help physicists achieve a perspective about the range of the topics and concepts that fall under the heading of 'informatics'. The approach is to de-mystify topics and jargon and to help physicists find resources in the field should they need them. The other talks explore two areas of biomedical informatics in more depth. The goal is to highlight two domains of intense current interest--databases and models--in enough depth into current approaches so that an adequate background for independent inquiry is achieved. These two areas will serve as good examples of how physicists, using informatics principles, can contribute to oncology practice and research. Learning Objectives: To understand how the principles of biomedical informatics are used by medical physicists. To put the relevant informatics concepts in perspective with regard to biomedicine in general. To use clinical database design as an example of biomedical informatics. To provide a solid background into the problems and issues of the design and use of data and databases in radiation oncology. To use modeling in the service of decision support systems as an example of modeling methods and data use. To provide a background into how uncertainty in our data and knowledge can be incorporated into modeling methods.

  13. TU(R)NING WEAKNESS TO STRENGTH MECHANOMUTABLE BIOINSPIRED MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    water at nanoporous two-dimensional interfaces resists high- speed flow through cooperativity," Vol.15(6), pp. 3939-44, 2015 • T. Al-Mulla, Z. Qin, M.J...34Biomateriomics," Materials Genome Initiative - Materials By Design Town Hall, Brown University, Providence, RI March 2012 - “From atoms to structures...Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) November 2014 - "Biologically inspired materials & structures for strength and toughness," MIT-CEE Research Speed

  14. Emotions in motion - Tunteet Liikkeessä (TuLi)

    OpenAIRE

    Punkanen, Marko; Saarikallio, Suvi; Luck, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder which impairs a person’s social skills and quality of life, and affects their ability to recognise and express emotions. Here, we describe the first study to investigate how depression affects expression of emotions perceived in music through spontaneous, expressive body movement. Central to this study is the use of a Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) intervention. Specifically, we investigate how depression and possible co-morbid anxiety ...

  15. TU-F-201-03: Applications in Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trichter, S. [New York Weill Cornell Medical Ctr (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  16. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  17. Un chercheur du CERN tué dans un accident

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The accident occured on Sunday between Collonges and Pougnu (Pays de Gex): 4 russians scientists were aboard the vehicle; the driver lost the control of the vehicle and the car made a barrel. (1/4 page)

  18. TU-AB-BRD-04: Development of Quality Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomadsen, B. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to perform failure modes and effects analysis analysis for a given process Learn what fault trees are all about Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. Dunscombe: Director, TreatSafely, LLC and Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences; Consultant to IAEA and Varian Thomadsen: President, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Palta: Vice President of the Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences.

  19. TU-AB-BRD-02: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to perform failure modes and effects analysis analysis for a given process Learn what fault trees are all about Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. Dunscombe: Director, TreatSafely, LLC and Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences; Consultant to IAEA and Varian Thomadsen: President, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Palta: Vice President of the Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences.

  20. TU-CD-BRD-00: Incident Learning / RO-ILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set aside for audience members to contribute to the discussion. Learning Objectives: Learn how to promote the use of an incident learning system in a clinic. Learn how to convert “event reporting” into “incident learning”. See examples of practice changes that have come out of learning systems. Learn how the RO-ILS system can be used as a primary internal learning system. Learn how to create succinct, meaningful reports useful to outside readers. Gary Ezzell chairs the AAPM committee overseeing RO-ILS and has received an honorarium from ASTRO for working on the committee reviewing RO-ILS reports. Derek Brown is a director of http://TreatSafely.org . Brett Miller has previously received travel expenses and an honorarium from Varian. Phillip Beron has nothing to report.

  1. TU-AB-BRD-00: Task Group 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to perform failure modes and effects analysis analysis for a given process Learn what fault trees are all about Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. Dunscombe: Director, TreatSafely, LLC and Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences; Consultant to IAEA and Varian Thomadsen: President, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Palta: Vice President of the Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences.

  2. TU-AB-BRD-03: Fault Tree Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunscombe, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to perform failure modes and effects analysis analysis for a given process Learn what fault trees are all about Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis. Dunscombe: Director, TreatSafely, LLC and Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences; Consultant to IAEA and Varian Thomadsen: President, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Palta: Vice President of the Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences.

  3. TU-EF-207-00: Advances in Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Breast imaging technology is advancing on several fronts. In digital mammography, the major technological trend has been on optimization of approaches for performing combined mammography and tomosynthesis using the same system. In parallel, photon-counting slot-scan mammography is now in clinical use and more efforts are directed towards further development of this approach for spectral imaging. Spectral imaging refers to simultaneous acquisition of two or more energy-windowed images. Depending on the detector and associated electronics, there are a number of ways this can be accomplished. Spectral mammography using photon-counting detectors can suppress electronic noise and importantly, it enables decomposition of the image into various material compositions of interest facilitating quantitative imaging. Spectral imaging can be particularly important in intravenously injected contrast mammography and eventually tomosynthesis. The various approaches and applications of spectral mammography are discussed. Digital breast tomosynthesis relies on the mechanical movement of the x-ray tube to acquire a number of projections in a predefined arc, typically from 9 to 25 projections over a scan angle of +/−7.5 to 25 degrees depending on the particular system. The mechanical x-ray tube motion requires relatively long acquisition time, typically between 3.7 to 25 seconds depending on the system. Moreover, mechanical scanning may have an effect on the spatial resolution due to internal x-ray filament or external mechanical vibrations. New x-ray source arrays have been developed and they are aimed at replacing the scanned x-ray tube for improved acquisition time and potentially for higher spatial resolution. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in a single system places increased demands on certain functional aspects of the detector and overall performance, particularly in the tomosynthesis mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.

  4. Si tu devais me dessiner l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Saison-Marsollier, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel; Goldberg, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Le CERN a lancé en 2014 un concours de dessins dans les classes de primaire des villes des environs : les enfants étaient invités à s’interroger sur l’Univers, la matière et le métier de chercheur. Le succès de l’opération a été tel qu’il a été décidé d’en faire un livre que l’enseignant pourra parcourir en classe avec ses élèves, discuter avec eux des questions et découvrir ensemble les réponses. Le livre est en effet construit ainsi : sur une double page la question que s’est posée l’enfant et le dessin l’illustrant trouvent leur réponse sur la page d’en face, via un court texte écrit par le chercheur référent (Michel Spiro), qu’accompagne une citation tirée du domaine culturel, destinée à montrer les passerelles entre science, littérature et philosophie. Exemples de questions : Qu’y avait-il avant le Big Bang ? Les chercheurs sont-ils des personnes comme les autres ? Pourquoi les lois de la physique ne changent-elles pas ? Peut-on attraper les particules ?...

  5. ¿Qué tan verde es tu mercado?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmar R. Olaya-González; Luz Adriana Gómez-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El mercado de lo verde y lo ecológico es una tendencia indiscutible en nuestro mundo globalizado, que busca de alguna manera resarcir el daño infringido sobre el medio ambiente. Más allá de simple altruismo, la ecología se ha convertido en una moda, de la cual unos y otros toman ventaja a su mejor acomodo, haciendo del mercado de productos y servicios su tribuna; eco-diseño, planes de responsabilidad social y ambiental, campañas por el reciclaje y consumo de productos "más amigables" con el m...

  6. Atomic clock with nuclear transition: current status in TU Wien

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakov, G. A.; Schreitl, M.; Winkler, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Steinhauser, G; Schumm, T.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals transparent in vac...

  7. TU Delft y Educación Abierta

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Anka

    2015-01-01

    Jornada de Educación Abierta celebrada el 12 de marzo de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid en el marco de la Open Education Week promovida por el Consorcio OpenCourseWare 27 sliders / transparencias

  8. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  9. Multilevel Mixture Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)…

  10. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  11. IL-10 and NOS2 modulate antigen-specific reactivity and nerve infiltration by T cells in experimental leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna A Hagge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although immunopathology dictates clinical outcome in leprosy, the dynamics of early and chronic infection are poorly defined. In the tuberculoid region of the spectrum, Mycobacterium leprae growth is restricted yet a severe granulomatous lesion can occur. The evolution and maintenance of chronic inflammatory processes like those observed in the leprosy granuloma involve an ongoing network of communications via cytokines. IL-10 has immunosuppressive properties and IL-10 genetic variants have been associated with leprosy development and reactions.The role of IL-10 in resistance and inflammation in leprosy was investigated using Mycobacterium leprae infection of mice deficient in IL-10 (IL-10-/-, as well as mice deficient in both inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2-/- and IL-10 (10NOS2-/-. Although a lack of IL-10 did not affect M. leprae multiplication in the footpads (FP, inflammation increased from C57Bl/6 (B6EF-Tu. Moreover, fragmented nerves containing CD4+ cells were present in 10NOS2-/- FP.The 10NOS2-/- strain offers insight on the regulation of granuloma formation and maintenance by immune modulators in the resistant forms of leprosy and presents a new model for investigating the pathogenesis of neurological involvement.

  12. IL-10 and NOS2 Modulate Antigen-Specific Reactivity and Nerve Infiltration by T Cells in Experimental Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, Deanna A.; Scollard, David M.; Ray, Nashone A.; Marks, Vilma T.; Deming, Angelina T.; Spencer, John S.; Adams, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although immunopathology dictates clinical outcome in leprosy, the dynamics of early and chronic infection are poorly defined. In the tuberculoid region of the spectrum, Mycobacterium leprae growth is restricted yet a severe granulomatous lesion can occur. The evolution and maintenance of chronic inflammatory processes like those observed in the leprosy granuloma involve an ongoing network of communications via cytokines. IL-10 has immunosuppressive properties and IL-10 genetic variants have been associated with leprosy development and reactions. Methodology/Principal Findings The role of IL-10 in resistance and inflammation in leprosy was investigated using Mycobacterium leprae infection of mice deficient in IL-10 (IL-10−/−), as well as mice deficient in both inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2−/−) and IL-10 (10NOS2−/−). Although a lack of IL-10 did not affect M. leprae multiplication in the footpads (FP), inflammation increased from C57Bl/6 (B6)EF-Tu). Moreover, fragmented nerves containing CD4+ cells were present in 10NOS2−/− FP. Conclusions/Significance The 10NOS2−/− strain offers insight on the regulation of granuloma formation and maintenance by immune modulators in the resistant forms of leprosy and presents a new model for investigating the

  13. Evaluation of the probiotic potential and effect of encapsulation on survival for Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Leblanc, Jean Guy; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-03-01

    Capability to produce antilisterial bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be explored by the food industry as a tool to increase the safety of foods. Furthermore, probiotic activity of bacteriogenic LAB brings extra advantages to these strains, as they can confer health benefits to the consumer. Beneficial effects depend on the ability of the probiotic strains to maintain viability in the food during shelf-life and to survive the natural defenses of the host and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study evaluated the probiotic potential of a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum strain (Lb. plantarum ST16Pa) isolated from papaya fruit and studied the effect of encapsulation in alginate on survival in conditions simulating the human GIT. Good growth of Lb. plantarum ST16Pa was recorded in MRS broth with initial pH values between 5.0 and 9.0 and good capability to survive in pH 4.0, 11.0 and 13.0. Lb. plantarum ST16Pa grew well in the presence of oxbile at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.0%. The level of auto-aggregation was 37%, and various degrees of co-aggregation were observed with different strains of Lb. plantarum, Enterococcus spp., Lb. sakei and Listeria, which are important features for probiotic activity. Growth was affected negatively by several medicaments used for human therapy, mainly anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. Adhesion to Caco-2 cells was within the range reported for other probiotic strains, and PCR analysis indicated that the strain harbored the adhesion genes mapA, mub and EF-Tu. Encapsulation in 2, 3 and 4% alginate protected the cells from exposure to 1 or 2% oxbile added to MRS broth. Studies in a model simulating the transit through the GIT indicated that encapsulated cells were protected from the acidic conditions in the stomach but were less resistant when in conditions simulating the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and first section of the colon. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a

  14. Proteomic differences between tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E.coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Aradská

    Full Text Available Tellurite containing compounds are in use for industrial processes and increasing delivery into the environment generates specific pollution that may well result in contamination and subsequent potential adverse effects on public health. It was the aim of the current study to reveal mechanism of toxicity in tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E. coli at the protein level. In this work an approach using gel-based mass spectrometrical analysis to identify a differential protein profile related to tellurite toxicity was used and the mechanism of ter operon-mediated tellurite resistance was addressed. E. coli BL21 was genetically manipulated for tellurite-resistance by the introduction of the resistance-conferring ter genes on the pLK18 plasmid. Potassium tellurite was added to cultures in order to obtain a final 3.9 micromolar concentration. Proteins from tellurite-sensitive and tellurite-resistant E. coli were run on 2-D gel electrophoresis, spots of interest were picked, in-gel digested and subsequently analysed by nano-LC-MS/MS (ion trap. In addition, Western blotting and measurement of enzymatic activity were performed to verify the expression of certain candidate proteins. Following exposure to tellurite, in contrast to tellurite-resistant bacteria, sensitive cells exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases, catalase and oxidoreductase YqhD. Cysteine desulfurase, known to be related to tellurite toxicity as well as proteins involved in protein folding: GroEL, DnaK and EF-Tu were upregulated in sensitive cells. In resistant bacteria, several isoforms of four essential Ter proteins were observed and following tellurite treatment the abovementioned protein levels did not show any significant proteome changes as compared to the sensitive control. The absence of general defense mechanisms against tellurite toxicity in resistant bacteria thus provides further evidence that the four proteins of the ter operon

  15. Molecular evolution of SRP cycle components: functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, S; Selinger, D; Wise, J A

    1994-06-11

    analogous to the binding site of the guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (GDS) for E. coli EF-Tu. The conservation of this sequence, in combination with the results of earlier genetic and biochemical studies of the SRP cycle, leads us to hypothesize that a component of the Srp68/72p heterodimer serves as the GDS for both Srp54p and SR alpha. Using an iterative alignment procedure, we demonstrate similarity between Srp68p and sequence motifs conserved among GDS proteins for small Ras-related GTPases. The conservation of SRP cycle components in organisms from all three major branches of the phylogenetic tree suggests that this pathway for protein export is of ancient evolutionary origin.

  16. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic due to survival mechanisms that allow them to exist in acid environments and to

  17. 益生菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang在酸胁迫下的蛋白质组学研究%Proteomics Researches on Acid Response of Lactobacillus casei Zhang Grown at Different pH Values Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌日娜; 岳喜庆; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilluscasei Zhang是1株筛选自发酵酸马奶,并具有耐酸等益生特性的益生乳杆菌。该研究利用蛋白质组双向电泳,比较了其在pH值为7.0和5.5的培养液中分别生长至对数生长期中期的蛋白质组表达差异。结果表明,有11个蛋白质点表达发生明显变化,经过基质辅助激光解吸/电离飞行时间质谱鉴定,其中有3个表达增强的蛋白质点分别鉴定为翻译因子(EF-Tu),N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱醛酶(NagA)和小热休克蛋白(sHsp)。酸胁迫可诱导乳酸菌产生复杂的酸应激反应,涉及不同的代谢调控途径。%Lactobacillus casei Zhang, isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been considered as a new probiotic bacterium for its characteristics, especially acid tolerance. Proteomics resear- ches were carried out to identify proteins expression of Lactobacillus casei Zhang grown at different pH values of pH 7.0 and 5.5. Cytosolic proteins of mid-exponential phase were resolved and further analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. As results shown, eleven protein spots were found showing statistically significant differences. Three of total protein spots were identified as EF-Tu, NagA and sHsp using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time- of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) , indicating the complex response of lactic acid bacteria to acid stress.

  18. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  19. Explicit correlation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cole M.; Hirata, So; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the performance of 17 different correlation factors in explicitly correlated second-order many-body perturbation calculations for correlation energies. Highly performing correlation factors are found to have near-universal shape and size in the short range of electron-electron distance (0 1.5 a.u.) is insignificant insofar as the factor becomes near constant, leaving an orbital expansion to describe decoupled electrons. An analysis based on a low-rank Taylor expansion of the correlation factor seems limited, except that a negative second derivative with the value of around -1.3 a.u. correlates with high performance.

  20. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  1. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  2. Overview of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  3. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  4. Factors of schizoid personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Allbutt, J

    1989-02-01

    The increasing use of schizoid personality scales with normals has led to a number of validation studies, but to date there are no published analyses of the factorial structure of these scales. This study presents results of factor analyses of schizoid personality scales in an initial attempt to delineate their factorial structure. Questionnaires were administered to 114 male and female undergraduates and factor analysed using Varimax, Quartimax, and Oblique rotations. A two-factor varimax solution yielded a first factor accounting for 49 per cent of total unrotated variance with high (0.70 to 0.91) loadings from Hallucinatory predisposition, Perceptual aberration, Schizophrenism, STA and STB scales, and was interpreted as reflecting a general factor of schizoid personality disorder. Psychoticism and Social anhedonia loaded on a second factor accounting for 20 per cent of the variance which was uncorrelated (r = 0.09) with factor 1. This factor solution was closely replicated using quartimax and oblimin rotation criteria. It is concluded that Social anhedonia and Psychoticism represent a separate dimension from other scales which reflect the more positive features of schizoid personality.

  5. Factorized Graph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando

    2015-11-19

    Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.

  6. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  7. Environmental factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  8. Environmental factors in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  9. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujovich, Jody Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is a genetic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated Protein C and an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common manifestations, but thrombosis in unusual locations also occurs. The current evidence suggests that the mutation has at most a modest effect on recurrence risk after initial treatment of a first venous thromboembolism. Factor V Leiden is also associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased relative risk for pregnancy loss and possibly other obstetric complications, although the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome is high. The clinical expression of Factor V Leiden is influenced by the number of Factor V Leiden alleles, coexisting genetic and acquired thrombophilic disorders, and circumstantial risk factors. Diagnosis requires the activated Protein C resistance assay (a coagulation screening test) or DNA analysis of the F5 gene, which encodes the Factor V protein. The first acute thrombosis is treated according to standard guidelines. Decisions regarding the optimal duration of anticoagulation are based on an individualized assessment of the risks for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulant-related bleeding. In the absence of a history of thrombosis, long-term anticoagulation is not routinely recommended for asymptomatic Factor V Leiden heterozygotes, although prophylactic anticoagulation may be considered in high-risk clinical settings. In the absence of evidence that early diagnosis reduces morbidity or mortality, decisions regarding testing at-risk family members should be made on an individual basis.

  10. Pre-modern Knowledge System in the Acculturation between Chinese and Western Culture: a Case Study of Sancai yiguan tu (The Map of the Coherence of the World)) Preserved in Library of Congress%中西文化调适中的前近代知识系统——美国国会图书馆藏《三才一贯图》研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳楠

    2012-01-01

    The current study is focused on a hybrid-style 18th-centurty map named Sancai yiguan tu 三才一贯图 (The Map of the Coherence of the World), a drawing composed of over ten separate sub-maps, compiled by Lü Fu lived in mid-Qing Dynasty. The prolegomenon and two major sub-maps (the Sub-map of Earth and Heaven Map and the Star Chart of North and South Hemispheres) are especially indicative of the impact brought by the foreign missionaries and the consequent cultural amalgamation with the intention to conciliate between the traditional knowledge system and the western one. By tracing the sources he used and consulted, we can pinpoint that among an array of works, Ferdinand Verbiest’s maps exerted the greatest influence on the two major sub-maps. Furthermore, by analyzing those choices he made to fulfill his goal to present the inner coherence of the world, the process of how traditional Chinese literati absorbed and transformed western knowledge on their own initiative with great craft can be revealed. Lastly, the concept of Tu 图(graph, chart or map) in the pre-modern Chinese context can be further discussed, by doing so, a new horizon of the studies of traditional cartography can be appreciated by breaking through the disciplinary limitation caused by the division of modern knowledge system.%本文研究的是康熙年间吕抚所绘《三才一贯图》,探讨该图受到西方传教士影响较深的《天地全图》、《南北二极星图》这两幅分图及图序的内容。重点在于梳理两幅分图的知识系统,拟构它们与明末清初时期在华西方传教士所绘诸种地理图与天文图之间的关系,得出结论认为吕抚受南怀仁图的影响最大。此外,结合全图其它表现中国传统知识的内容,讨论中西两种知识体系如何在普通士人中实现榫接和重构。最后,从吕抚这幅图的丰富内容注意到"图"在历史时期的多样性,提出地图史研究应拓宽视野,打破现代学科界限的观点。

  11. Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150 facilitates cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meng Xu, Yuli Jia, Zhikui Liu, Linglong Ding, Run Tian, Hua Gu, Yufeng Wang, Hongyong Zhang, Kangsheng Tu, Qingguang Liu Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Several studies have revealed that the abnormal expression of chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150 (CHAF1A was involved in the development of some types of malignant tumors. However, CHAF1A expression and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remain poorly characterized. In this study, we first investigated CHAF1A expression in six cell lines and 116 pairs of HCC and matched normal tumor-adjacent tissues to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of CHAF1A in HCC. Then, we detected the proliferation and apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, a subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice was performed to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. We found that the expression of CHAF1A was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (P<0.01. Clinical analysis indicated that CHAF1A expression was significantly correlated with the tumor–node–metastasis stage, tumor number, and tumor differentiation in HCC tissues (P<0.05, respectively. We also found that CHAF1A may potentially function as a poor prognostic indicator for 5-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with HCC (P<0.05, respectively. The elevated expression of CHAF1A was also observed in HCC cell lines compared with that in normal LO2 hepatic cell line (P<0.01. HCC cancer cells exhibited inhibition of cell growth, reduction in colony-formation ability, increased cell apoptosis rate, and impaired tumorigenicity in nude mice after CHAF1A knockdown. Collectively, we propose that CHAF1A by potentially mediating cancer cell proliferation plays an important role in promoting the development of HCC and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC. Keywords: CHAF1A, hepatocellular

  12. Two-factor authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Stanislav, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the book, readers will learn about the various technical methods by which two-factor authentication is implemented, security concerns with each type of implementation, and contextual details to frame why and when these technologies should be used. Readers will also be provided with insight about the reasons that two-factor authentication is a critical security control, events in history that have been important to prove why organization and individual would want to use two factor, and core milestones in the progress of growing the market.

  13. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  14. TMDs, universality and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alesio, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    We present a short overview on transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions, giving their partonic interpretation and ways to access them. We then discuss the issue of their universality and its connection to factorization in perturbative QCD.

  15. Factor V Leiden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase your chance of developing abnormal blood clots (thrombophilia), usually in your veins. Most people with factor ... sharp tools. References Bauer KA. Management of inherited thrombophilia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 6, ...

  16. New microbial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  17. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  18. Factor X assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  19. Factor XII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  20. Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ingegnoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy.