Ribosome-induced changes in elongation factor Tu conformation control GTP hydrolysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villa, Elizabeth; Sengupta, Jayati; Trabuco, Leonard G.
2009-01-01
In translation, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) molecules deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome. The GTPase activity of EF-Tu is triggered by ribosome-induced conformational changes of the factor that play a pivotal role in the selection of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNAs. We present a...
One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B
1993-01-01
The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...
One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B
1993-01-01
The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...
Precursor for elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli.
1986-01-01
The tufA gene, one of two genes in Escherichia coli encoding elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), was cloned into a ColE1-derived plasmid downstream of the lac promoter-operator. In cells carrying this plasmid, the synthesis of EF-Tu was increased four- to fivefold upon the addition of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (an inducer of the lac promoter). This condition led to the synthesis of a novel protein, called pTu, which comigrated with EF-Tu on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel b...
Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Tremberger, G.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Holden, T.; Cheung, T.
2013-09-01
A paleo-experimental evolution report on elongation factor EF-Tu structural stability results has provided an opportunity to rewind the tape of life using the ancestral protein sequence reconstruction modeling approach; consistent with the book of life dogma in current biology and being an important component in the astrobiology community. Fractal dimension via the Higuchi fractal method and Shannon entropy of the DNA sequence classification could be used in a diagram that serves as a simple summary. Results from biomedical gene research provide examples on the diagram methodology. Comparisons between biomedical genes such as EEF2 (elongation factor 2 human, mouse, etc), WDR85 in epigenetics, HAR1 in human specificity, DLG1 in cognitive skill, and HLA-C in mosquito bite immunology with EF Tu DNA sequences have accounted for the reported circular dichroism thermo-stability data systematically; the results also infer a relatively less volatility geologic time period from 2 to 3 Gyr from adaptation viewpoint. Comparison to Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and Psychrobacter shows that Thermus thermophilus HB8 EF-Tu calibration sequence could be an outlier, consistent with free energy calculation by NUPACK. Diagram methodology allows computer simulation studies and HAR1 shows about 0.5% probability from chimp to human in terms of diagram location, and SNP simulation results such as amoebic meningoencephalitis NAF1 suggest correlation. Extensions to the studies of the translation and transcription elongation factor sequences in Megavirus Chiliensis, Megavirus Lba and Pandoravirus show that the studied Pandoravirus sequence could be an outlier with the highest fractal dimension and lowest entropy, as compared to chicken as a deviant in the DNMT3A DNA methylation gene sequences from zebrafish to human and to the less than one percent probability in computer simulation using the HAR1 0.5% probability as reference. The diagram methodology would be useful in ancestral gene
Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation
Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067
Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.
Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J
2014-09-16
The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.
Jonák, J
2007-04-15
Prokaryotic elongation factors EF-Tu form a family of homologous, three-domain molecular switches catalyzing the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to ribosomes during the process of mRNA translation. They are GTP-binding proteins, or GTPases. Binding of GTP or GDP regulates their conformation and thus their activity. Because of their particular structure and regulation, various activities (also outside of the translation system) and a relative abundance they represent attractive tools for studies of many basic but still not fully understood mechanisms both of the translation process, the structure-function relationships in EF-Tu molecules themselves and proteins and energy transduction mechanisms in general. The review critically summarizes procedures for the isolation and purification of native and engineered eubacterial elongation factors EF-Tu and their mutants on a large as well as small scale. Current protocols for the purification of both native and polyHis-tagged or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged EF-Tu proteins and their variants using conventional procedures and the Ni-NTA-Agarose or Glutathione Sepharose are presented.
Krab, Ivo Maarten
2001-01-01
This PhD thesis describes several studies into the structure and function of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu). EF-Tu plays a central role in the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as the carrier of "coded building blocks" for protein synthesis, aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA). Without E
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Kjaersgård, I V; Wiborg, O
1995-01-01
All guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins cycle between an inactive, GDP-bound and an active, GTP-bound conformation whereby they function as molecular switches. Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli is used as a model for defining residues important in the switch mechanism. Gly94 and Gly126...... for GDP over GTP. Furthermore the [G94A]EF-Tu mutant possesses an increased GTPase activity. The aminoacyl-tRNA affinity is much reduced for [G94A]EF-Tu, as reflected in an increase of the dissociation rate constant for the ternary complex by a factor of 40. Surprisingly, however, both mutants...... in their GDP forms have a low, but significant affinity for aminoacyl-tRNA, which is not seen for the wild-type elongation factor Tu. The mutants only exhibit minor changes compared to the wild type with respect to in vitro translation of a poly(U) messenger. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb-15...
Reconstitution of Qbeta RNA replicase from a covalently bonded elongation factor Tu-Ts complex
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brown, S; Blumenthal, T
1976-01-01
(C) and Qbeta RNA normally and had approximately the same specific activity as control enzyme. Denatured Qbeta replicase formed with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts was found to renature much more rapidly than untreated enzyme and, in contrast to normal replicase, its renaturation was not inhibited by GDP. The results...... by its ability to replace EF-Tu and EF-Ts in the renaturation of denatured Qbeta replicase. A sample of Qbeta replicase with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts replacing the individual elongation factors was prepared. Although it lacked EF-Tu and EF-Ts activities, it could initiate transcription of both poly...
The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde;
1998-01-01
Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF......-Tu could be involved in the binding of the 3' CCA-Phe end of the aminoacylated tRNA. Therefore, the corresponding residue, Glu259, of Escherichia coli EF-Tu was mutated into alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine and tyrosine, in order to substantiate the crystallographic structural evidence and to obtain...... of interaction with tRNA, while mutation to tyrosine abolished completely the interaction with tRNA. Finally, mutation to glutamine resulted in an elongation factor Tu variant behaving like the wild type. In conclusion, the environment around the site binding the CCA-Phe end of the tRNA is very restricted...
Characterization of Elongation Factor Tu of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuan Zhang, Yue-feng Chu, Ping Zhao, Peng-cheng Gao, Ying He, Nu Wang and Zhong-xin Lu*
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered as an important pathogen of small ruminants, but its antigenic proteins are not well known so far. In this study, we cloned the EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae and analyzed the molecular features of the gene and its coding protein for the first time. The gene was then expressed in E.coli and the antigenicity of the coding protein was evaluated as well. The EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae is 1209 bp in length, encodes 402 amino acids, and shares the highest DNA sequence identity of 87.5% and deduced amino acid sequence identity of 97.8% with those of M. hyopneumoniae, respectively. The recombinant EF-Tu protein can react with the polyclonal antiserum of M. ovipneumoniae and can induce humoral immune responses in mice, which indicated that the EF-Tu may be used as a candidate protein in developing the technologies to control the disease.
Towards an understanding of structure-function relationships of elongation factor Tu
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiborg, O; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde
1994-01-01
In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point-mutated. Prel......In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point...
[Dosimetric evaluation of conformal radiotherapy: conformity factor].
Oozeer, R; Chauvet, B; Garcia, R; Berger, C; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F
2000-01-01
The aim of three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) is to treat the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the prescribed dose while reducing doses to normal tissues and critical structures, in order to increase local control and reduce toxicity. The evaluation tools used for optimizing treatment techniques are three-dimensional visualization of dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probabilities (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). These tools, however, do not fully quantify the conformity of dose distributions to the PTV. Specific tools were introduced to measure this conformity for a given dose level. We have extended those definitions to different dose levels, using a conformity index (CI). CI is based on the relative volumes of PTV and outside the PTV receiving more than a given dose. This parameter has been evaluated by a clinical study including 82 patients treated for lung cancer and 82 patients treated for prostate cancer. The CI was low for lung dosimetric studies (0.35 at the prescribed dose 66 Gy) due to build-up around the GTV and to spinal cord sparing. For prostate dosimetric studies, the CI was higher (0.57 at the prescribed dose 70 Gy). The CI has been used to compare treatment plans for lung 3DCRT (2 vs 3 beams) and prostate 3DCRT (4 vs 7 beams). The variation of CI with dose can be used to optimize dose prescription.
Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde
1996-01-01
were characterized with respect to thermal and chemical stability, GTPase activity, tRNA affinity, and activity in an in vitro translation assay. Most conspicuously tRNA affinities were reduced for all mutants. The results verify our structural analysis of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl...
Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.
1995-01-01
In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and
Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.
1995-01-01
In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and tr
Roles of Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor EF-Tu in Heat Tolerance in Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianming Fu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available EF-Tu proteins of plastids, mitochondria, and the cytosolic counterpart EF-1α in plants, as well as EF-Tu proteins of bacteria, are highly conserved and multifunctional. The functions of EF-Tu include transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during protein biosynthesis; chaperone activity in protecting other proteins from aggregation caused by environmental stresses, facilitating renaturation of proteins when conditions return to normal; displaying a protein disulfide isomerase activity; participating in the degradation of N-terminally blocked proteins by the proteasome; eliciting innate immunity and triggering resistance to pathogenic bacteria in plants; participating in transcription when an E. coli host is infected with phages. EF-Tu genes are upregulated by abiotic stresses in plants, and EF-Tu plays important role in stress responses. Expression of a plant EF-Tu gene confers heat tolerance in E. coli, maize knock-out EF-Tu null mutants are heat susceptible, and over-expression of an EF-Tu gene improves heat tolerance in crop plants. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of EF-Tu proteins in stress responses in plants and progress on application of EF-Tu for developing crop varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.
2015-10-08
Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD^{+} and NADP^{+}. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.
1996-01-01
Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.
1996-01-01
Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination of th...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun
2015-01-01
The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.
Valencia, A; Kjeldgaard, M; Pai, E F; Sander, C
1991-06-15
GTPase domains are functional and structural units employed as molecular switches in a variety of important cellular functions, such as growth control, protein biosynthesis, and membrane traffic. Amino acid sequences of more than 100 members of different subfamilies are known, but crystal structures of only mammalian ras p21 and bacterial elongation factor Tu have been determined. After optimal superposition of these remarkably similar structures, careful multiple sequence alignment, and calculation of residue-residue interactions, we analyzed the two subfamilies in terms of structural conservation, sequence conservation, and residue contact strength. There are three main results. (i) A structure-based alignment of p21 and elongation factor Tu. (ii) The definition of a common conserved structural core that may be useful as the basis of model building by homology of the three-dimensional structure of any GTPase domain. (iii) Identification of sequence regions, other than the effector loop and the nucleotide binding site, that may be involved in the functional cycle: they are loop L4, known to change conformation after GTP hydrolysis; helix alpha 2, especially Arg-73 and Met-67 in ras p21; loops L8 and L10, including ras p21 Arg-123, Lys-147, and Leu-120; and residues located spatially near the N and C termini. These regions are candidate sites for interaction either with the GTP/GDP exchange factor, with a GTPase-affected function, or with a molecule delivered to a destination site with the aid of the GTPase domain.
Protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A (EFs) represent a group of highly conserved and abundant GTPases with an important role in transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during elongation phase of translation. EF-Tu proteins are located in bacteria and, du...
Weijland, A; Parlato, G; Parmeggiani, A
1994-09-06
Substitution Asp138-->Asn changes the substrate specificity of elongation factor (EF) Tu from GTP to XTP [Hwang & Miller (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 13081-13085]. This mutated EF-Tu (EF-Tu D138N) was used to show that 2 XTP molecules are hydrolyzed for each elongation cycle [Weijland & Parmeggiani (1993) Science 259, 1311-1313]. Here we extend the study of the properties of this EF-Tu mutant and its function in the elongation process. In poly(U)-directed poly(phenylalanine) synthesis, the number of peptide chains synthesized using EF-Tu D138N.XTP was 30% higher than with EF-Tu wild type (wt).GTP. However, since in the former case the average peptide chain length was correspondingly reduced, the number of the residues incorporated turned out to be nearly the same in both systems. The K'd values of the XTP and XDP complexes of EF-Tu D138N were similar to those of the GTP and GDP complexes of EF-Tu wt. The extent of leucine misincorporation and the kirromycin effect were also comparable to those in the EF-Tu wt/GTP system. The hydrolysis of two XTP molecules, very likely as part of two EF-Tu D138N.XTP complexes, for each elongation cycle was found to be independent of (i) MgCl2 concentration, (ii) ribosome concentration, and (iii) temperature (5-40 degrees C). With rate-limiting amounts of XTP the K'm of its XTPase activity corresponded to the K'm for XTP of poly(phenylalanine) synthesis (0.3-0.6 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga Makarova
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene for phytoplasma identification is reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420-444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX. Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed that the tuf tree is highly congruent with the 16S rRNA tree and had higher inter- and intra- group sequence divergence. Mean K2P inter-/intra- group divergences of the tuf barcode did not overlap and had approximately one order of magnitude difference for most groups, suggesting the presence of a DNA barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied for identification of phytoplasmas. Our findings suggest that the tuf barcode performs as well or better than a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and thus provides an easy procedure for phytoplasma identification. The obtained sequences were used to create a publicly available reference database that can be used by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification.
Scale Factor Duality for Conformal Cyclic Cosmologies
dS, U Camara; Sotkov, G M
2016-01-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged K\\"ahler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension ...
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
Camara da Silva, U.; Alves Lima, A. L.; Sotkov, G. M.
2016-11-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
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Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)
2016-11-16
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
A neutron scattering study of the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP-valyl-tRNAVal1A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Österberg, R.; Elias, P.; Kjems, Jørgen
1986-01-01
matched by the solvents. The results indicate that EF-Tu undergoes a conformational change and contracts as a result of the complex formation, since the radius of gyration decreases by 15% from 2.82 to 2.39 nm. tRNAVal1A, on the other hand, seems to mainly retain its conformation within the complex, since......The complex formation between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), GTP, and valyl-tRNAVal1A has been investigated in a hepes buffer of "pH" 7.4 and 0.2 M ionic strength using the small-angle neutron scattering method at concentrations of D2O where EF-Tu (42% D2O) and tRNA (71% D2O) are successively...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.
1998-01-01
The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structura...
Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue
2016-01-01
Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.
Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.
1997-01-01
-type factor with regard to the association and dissociation of guanine nucleotides, and the intrinsic GTPase activities are unchanged. Furthermore, the mutants were as efficient as the wild-type factor in carrying out protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of an excess of aminoacyl-tRNA. However...
Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals
Chicherin, Dmitry
2017-01-01
We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an $\\ell-$loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an $(\\ell-1)-$loop integral. We show several examples, in particular the four-dimensional scalar double box.
Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde
1996-01-01
-tRNA, which suggested an important role of Lys-89 and Asn-90 in tRNA binding. Furthermore, our results indicate helix B to be an important target site for nucleotide exchange factor EF-Ts. Also the mutants His-66 to Ala and His-118 to either Ala or Glu were characterized in an in vitro translation assay...
Liu, Wei; Chen, Chunlai; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Knudsen, Charlotte R; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S
2015-10-30
The G-protein EF-Tu, which undergoes a major conformational change when EF-Tu·GTP is converted to EF-Tu·GDP, forms part of an aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) that accelerates the binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide elongation. Such binding, placing a portion of EF-Tu in contact with the GTPase Associated Center (GAC), is followed by GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and results in formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Although tRNA movement through the ribosome during PRE complex formation has been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of EF-Tu interaction with either the ribosome or aa-tRNA. Here we examine these dynamics, utilizing ensemble and single molecule assays employing fluorescent labeled derivatives of EF-Tu, tRNA, and the ribosome to measure changes in either FRET efficiency or fluorescence intensity during PRE complex formation. Our results indicate that ribosome-bound EF-Tu separates from the GAC prior to its full separation from aa-tRNA, and suggest that EF-Tu·GDP dissociates from the ribosome by two different pathways. These pathways correspond to either reversible EF-Tu·GDP dissociation from the ribosome prior to the major conformational change in EF-Tu that follows GTP hydrolysis, or irreversible dissociation after or concomitant with this conformational change.
Movement of elongation factor G between compact and extended conformations.
Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N
2015-01-30
Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pretranslocation ribosomes or with posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Britta Olrik
2007-01-01
Aspirationen af p, t og k i dansk er stedmoderligt behandlet af den gren af den historiske sprogforskning der bygger på skriftligt kildemateriale. Skrivemåden tu nos aposte protege for tu nos ab hoste protege 'bekyt du os mod fjenden' i en tilskrift fra anden halvdel af 1300-tallet i...
Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V
2012-08-10
SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.
1998-01-01
importance for the factor to function properly. In this study, two lysines at positions 4 and 9 were mutated separately to alanine or glutamate. The resulting four point mutants were expressed and purified using the pGEX system. The untagged products were characterized with regard to guanine......The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structural......-nucleotide interaction, intrinsic GTPase activity, and binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA). The results show that Lys9 is especially strongly involved in the association with guanine nucleotides and the binding of aa-tRNA. Also Lys4 plays a role in the association of GDP and GTP and is also of some importance in aa...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Dogaru
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypotonic carbonated mineral waters in Băile Tușnad are used for their peripheral and cerebral vasodilator effects in the prophylaxis, therapy and rehabilitation of cardiovascular patients. Objectives. The aim of the clinical study was to assess the efficacy of natural therapeutic factors in Băile Tușnad for continuing the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients in a spa and climatic resort for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The study included 30 patients with a history of stroke, aged between 56 and 89 years, with a mean age of 69 years, at the Facility Treatment of the Tușnad Spa Complex SA, in the period April-December 2014. The clinical study was a prospective longitudinal analysis. Of all 30 patients, 50% had ischemic stroke, 43% transient cerebral ischemic attack, and 7% hemorrhagic stroke. Hemiparesis was the most frequent clinical sign, followed by coordination, balance and gait disorders. Patients attended rehabilitation treatment consisting of kinesiotherapy, carbonated mineral water baths for 15 minutes, aerotherapy for 30 minutes daily, massotherapy, performed daily for 16 days. Each patient was clinically assessed before and after treatment based on the TINETTI Balance Scale, the 10-m walk test, the Motor Assessment Scale, the BARTHEL Index, adverse reactions. Results. At the end of treatment, an improvement in the walking speed, a statistically significant improvement in the quality of gait were observed, p < 0.05. Statistically significant results p<0.05 were also obtained for balance. On the Motor Assessment Scale, by comparing the means before and after treatment with the paired T test, a statistically significant value p<0.05 was obtained. When evaluating the patients’ performance for 10 activities of daily living depending on the need for external assistance, using the Barthel Index, the value of p <0.05 was
Chloroplast EF-Tu and thermal aggregation of Rubisco activase
Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize. The recombinant precursor of this protein, pre-EF-Tu, has been found to exhibit chaperone activity and protect heat-labile proteins, such as citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, from therma...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
The Tu ethnic group, with a population of 191,624, live mainly in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County of Qinghai Province. The Tu people, who subsist on agriculture, believe in Lamaism. Tu women are quite fond of their traditional dress with the rainbow-colored sleeves. The black stands for the earth; green, the seedlings; yellow, the mature wheat; blue, the waters and red, the Sun.
Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff
2011-01-01
elongation factor, EF-Ts, catalyse the dissociation of GDP from EF-Tu which in turn allows EF-Tu to bind another GTP molecule. The resulting EF-Tu:GTP complex is then cable of forming a ternary complex with a new aa-tRNA which can then associate with the ribosome. During my time as a Ph. D. student I have...... and in manuscript I. G. anatolicus is a hyperthermophilic bacteria isolated from a thermal vent. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts has been determined in complex with E. coli EF-Tu by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts is more similar to the previously determined...... structures of E. coli and bovine mitochondrial EF-Ts rather than EF-Ts from the thermophilic bacteria T. thermophilus. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts in complex with E. coli EF-Tu is presented in chapter 3 and in manuscript II. Mammalian mitochondria contain an independent genome which encodes 13...
Ramiah, K; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T
2007-05-30
Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA by Lactobacillus plantarum 423, grown in the presence of bile, pancreatin and at low pH, was studied by real-time PCR. Mub, MapA and EF-Tu were up-regulated in the presence of mucus, proportional to increasing concentrations. Expression of MapA was up-regulated in the presence of 3.0 g/l bile and 3.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Similar results were recorded in the presence of 10.0 g/l bile and 10.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Expression of Mub was down-regulated in the presence of bile and pancreatin, whilst the expression of EF-Tu and plaA remained unchanged. Expression of Mub and MapA remained unchanged at pH 4.0, whilst expression of EF-Tu and plaA were up-regulated. Expression of MapA was down-regulated in the presence of 1.0 g/l l-cysteine HCl, suggesting that the gene is regulated by transcription attenuation that involves cysteine.
Ramos, Georgina
2012-01-01
- Párrafo Inicial - Conociendo a Liliana N. - La intervención de la psicóloga Adriana - Tu proyecto de vida - Referencias - Notas de enseñanza o Resumen o Objetivos o Temas relacionados o Plan de aplicación para el aprendizaje o Análisis o Epílogo
Ramos, Georgina
2012-01-01
- Párrafo Inicial - Conociendo a Liliana N. - La intervención de la psicóloga Adriana - Tu proyecto de vida - Referencias - Notas de enseñanza o Resumen o Objetivos o Temas relacionados o Plan de aplicación para el aprendizaje o Análisis o Epílogo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flábio R Araújo
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5. Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu. VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS, which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that sera of cattle infected with A. marginale, with homologous or heterologous isolates recognize recombinant VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu. IgG2 from naturally infected cattle also reacts with these proteins. Recognition of epitopes by total IgG and by IgG2 from infected cattle with A. marginale support the inclusion of these proteins in recombinant vaccines against this rickettsia.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Laurberg, M
1998-01-01
-tRNA. The enzymatic characterization, comprising GDP and GTP temperature stability assays and measurement of nucleotide dissociation and association rate constants, GTPase activity and aminoacyl-tRNA binding, shows that position 2 is not involved in aminoacyl-tRNA binding, while position 7 is necessary to accomplish......, thus binding the N-terminus tightly to domain 2. We propose that this interaction is needed for aminoacyl-tRNA binding, and also for completing the structural rearrangement, which takes place when the factor switches from its GDP to its GTP form. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Aug...
Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro
2007-01-01
We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We present a lookup and inference algorithm which we prove to be correct and complete w.r.t. the declarative semantics. CoreTuLiP enjoys uniform syntax and the well-established semantics and is express...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard F. Reschen
2012-03-01
Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear. In Drosophila cells, Dgp71WD plays a major part in targeting γ-tubulin to spindles, but not centrosomes, while in Xenopus egg extracts, Nedd1 acts as a more general microtubule (MT organiser that can function independently of γ-tubulin. The interpretation of these studies, however, is complicated by the fact that some residual Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is likely present in the cells/extracts analysed. Here we generate a Dgp71WD null mutant lacking all but the last 12 nucleotides of coding sequence. The complete loss of Dgp71WD has no quantifiable effect on γ-tubulin or Centrosomin recruitment to the centrosome in larval brain cells. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to spindle MTs, however, is severely impaired, and spindle MT density is reduced in a manner that is indistinguishable from cells lacking Augmin or γ-TuRC function. In contrast, the absence of Dgp71WD leads to defects in the assembly of the acentrosomal female Meiosis I spindle that are more severe than those seen in Augmin or γ-TuRC mutants, indicating that Dgp71WD has additional functions that are independent of these complexes in oocytes. Moreover, the localisation of bicoid RNA during oogenesis, which requires γ-TuRC function, is unperturbed in Dgp71WD120 mutants. Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
Women of the Tu ethnicity, who live on the highlands in northwest China, wear bright and colorful dresses. The married women favor shirts with sleeves decorated in a rainbow of colored flowers: yellow, green, blue, red, purple, black
Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks
Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André
2017-03-01
Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.
Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks
Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André
2017-08-01
Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.
Raha, Paromita; Chattopadhyay, Suranjana; Mukherjee, Srijata; Chattopadhyay, Ruchira; Roy, Koushik; Roy, Siddhartha
2010-11-16
Conformational switching upon core RNA polymerase binding is an integral part of functioning of bacterial sigma factors. Here, we have studied dynamical features of two alternative sigma factors. A study of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrodynamic measurements in Escherichia coli σ(32) suggest a compact shape like those found in complex with anti-sigma factors. On the other hand, the fluorescence anisotropy of probes attached to different regions of the protein and previous hydrogen exchange measurements suggest significant internal flexibility, particularly in the C-terminal half and region 1. In a homologous sigma factor, σ(F) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emission spectra and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the single tryptophan (W112) and probes placed in different regions suggest a compact conformation for a major part of the N-terminal half encompassing region 2 and the flexible C-terminal half. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements suggest significant flexibility in the C-terminal half and region 1, as well. Thus, free alternative sigma factors may be in equilibrium between two conformations: a compact one in which the promoter interacting motifs are trapped in the wrong conformation and another less abundant one with a more open and flexible conformation. Such flexibility may be important for promoter recognition and interaction with many partner proteins.
Factors influencing conformity index in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Brennan, Sinead M
2010-01-01
The radiotherapy conformity index (CI) is a useful tool to quantitatively assess the quality of radiotherapy treatment plans, and represents the relationship between isodose distributions and target volume. A conformity index of unity implies high planning target volume (PTV) coverage and minimal unnecessary irradiation of surrounding tissues. We performed this analysis to describe the CI for lung cancer 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and to identify clinical and technical determinants of CI, as it is not known which factors are associated with good quality 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. Radiotherapy treatment plans from a database of 52 patients with inoperable Stage 1 to 3b lung cancer, on a hypofractionated 3DCRT trial were evaluated. A CI was calculated for all plans using the definition of the ICRU 62:CI = (TV\\/PTV), which is the quotient of the treated volume (TV) and the PTV. Data on patient, tumor, and planning variables, which could influence CI, were recorded and analyzed. Mean CI was 2.01 (range = 1.06-3.8). On univariate analysis, PTV (p = 0.023), number of beams (p = 0.036), medial vs. lateral tumor location (p = 0.016), and increasing tumor stage (p = 0.041) were associated with improved conformity. On multiple regression analysis, factors found to be associated with CI included central vs. peripheral tumor location (p = 0.041) and PTV size (p = 0.058). The term 3DCRT is used routinely in the literature, without any indication of the degree of conformality. We recommend routine reporting of conformity indices. Conformity indices may be affected by both planning variables and tumor factors.
Factors influencing conformity index in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Brennan, Sinead M; Thirion, Pierre; Buckney, Steve; Shea, Carmel O; Armstrong, John
2010-01-01
The radiotherapy conformity index (CI) is a useful tool to quantitatively assess the quality of radiotherapy treatment plans, and represents the relationship between isodose distributions and target volume. A conformity index of unity implies high planning target volume (PTV) coverage and minimal unnecessary irradiation of surrounding tissues. We performed this analysis to describe the CI for lung cancer 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and to identify clinical and technical determinants of CI, as it is not known which factors are associated with good quality 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. Radiotherapy treatment plans from a database of 52 patients with inoperable Stage 1 to 3b lung cancer, on a hypofractionated 3DCRT trial were evaluated. A CI was calculated for all plans using the definition of the ICRU 62:CI = (TV/PTV), which is the quotient of the treated volume (TV) and the PTV. Data on patient, tumor, and planning variables, which could influence CI, were recorded and analyzed. Mean CI was 2.01 (range = 1.06-3.8). On univariate analysis, PTV (p = 0.023), number of beams (p = 0.036), medial vs. lateral tumor location (p = 0.016), and increasing tumor stage (p = 0.041) were associated with improved conformity. On multiple regression analysis, factors found to be associated with CI included central vs. peripheral tumor location (p = 0.041) and PTV size (p = 0.058). The term 3DCRT is used routinely in the literature, without any indication of the degree of conformality. We recommend routine reporting of conformity indices. Conformity indices may be affected by both planning variables and tumor factors.
1985-01-01
Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent blood clotting zymogen that is functionally defective or absent in patients with hemophilia B. A method of immunoaffinity chromatography has been developed for a one-step high yield purification of factor IX directly from plasma. The technique utilizes conformation-specific antibodies that bind solely to the metal-stabilized factor IX conformer, but not to the conformer of factor IX found in the absence of metal ions. Anti-factor IX-Ca(II) antibodies were im...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shatha F. Dallo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A conundrum has long lingered over association of cytosol elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu with bacterial surface. Here we investigated it with Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. The gene for A. baumannii EF-Tu was sequenced, and recombinant EF-Tu was purified for antibody development. EF-Tu on the bacterial surface and the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs was revealed by immune electron microscopy, and its presence in the outer membrane (OM and the OMV subproteomes was verified by Western blotting with the EF-Tu antibodies and confirmed by proteomic analyses. EF-Tu in the OM and the OMV subproteomes bound to fibronectin as detected by Western blot and confirmed by a label-free real-time optical sensor. The sensor that originates from photonic crystal structure in a total-Internal-reflection (PC-TIR configuration was functionalized with fibronectin for characterizing EF-Tu binding. Altogether, with a novel combination of immunological, proteomical, and biophysical assays, these results suggest association of A. baumannii EF-Tu with the bacterial cell surface, OMVs, and fibronectin.
A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.
Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z
2012-08-01
We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.
Sordarin derivatives induce a novel conformation of the yeast ribosome translocation factor eEF2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søe, Rikke; Mosley, R.T.; Justice, M.
2007-01-01
The sordarins are fungal specific inhibitors of the translation factor eEF2, which catalyses the translocation of tRNA and mRNA after peptide bond formation. We have determined the crystal structures of eEF2 in complex with two novel sordarin derivatives. In both structures, the three domains of ......-ray structures of eEF2, EF-G and an EF-G homologue, we suggest that the conformation of EF-G stalled on the 70S ribosome by fusidic acid is similar to that of eEF2 trapped on the 80S ribosome by sordarin....
Sreejith, R K; Yadav, Viveka Nand; Varshney, Nishant K; Berwal, Sunil K; Suresh, C G; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Pal, Jayanta K
2009-12-11
The alpha-subunit of the human eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (heIF2alpha), a GTP binding protein, plays a major role in the initiation of protein synthesis. During various cytoplasmic stresses, eIF2alpha gets phosphorylated by eIF2alpha-specific kinases resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. The cloned and over expressed heIF2alpha, a protein with a single tryptophan (trp) residue was examined for its conformational characteristics using steady-state and time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and hydrophobic dye binding. The steady-state fluorescence spectrum, fluorescence lifetimes (tau(1)=1.13ns and tau(2)=4.74ns) and solute quenching studies revealed the presence of trp conformers in hydrophobic and differential polar environment at any given time. Estimation of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet content showed: (i) more compact structure at pH 2.0, (ii) distorted alpha-helix and rearranged beta-sheet in presence of 4M guanidine hydrochloride and (iii) retention of more than 50% ordered structure at 95 degrees C. Hydrophobic dye binding to the protein with loosened tertiary structure was observed at pH 2.0 indicating the existence of a molten globule-like structure. These observations indicate the inherent structural stability of the protein under various denaturing conditions.
Cloning and Characterization of EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephanie O. Palmer
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We have cloned genes encoding elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expressed and purified the proteins to greater than 95% homogeneity. Sequence analysis indicated that P. aeruginosa EF-Tu and EF-Ts are 84% and 55% identical to E. coli counterparts, respectively. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active when assayed in GDP exchange assays. Kinetic parameters for the interaction of EF-Tu with GDP in the absence of EF-Ts were observed to be = 33 μM, = 0.003 s−1, and the specificity constant was s−1 μM−1. In the presence of EF-Ts, these values were shifted to = 2 μM, = 0.005 s−1, and the specificity constant was s−1 μM−1. The equilibrium dissociation constants governing the binding of EF-Tu to GDP ( were 30–75 nM and to GTP ( were 125–200 nM. EF-Ts stimulated the exchange of GDP by EF-Tu 10-fold. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in forming a ternary complex with GTP and aminoacylated tRNA and was functional in poly(U-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe at the A-site of P. aeruginosa ribosomes. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in poly(U-programmed polyphenylalanine protein synthesis system composed of all P. aeruginosa components.
Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie
2010-01-01
The present study undertakes the first factor analysis of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) conducted since the instrument's development. Confirmatory factor analysis using data from 243 women offered mixed support for the original 84-item CFNI structure and pointed to ways to modify the structure and reduce the length of the…
Drakulic, Srdja; Wang, Liping; Cuéllar, Jorge; Guo, Qing; Velázquez, Gilberto; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Sousa, Rui; Valpuesta, José M
2014-01-01
Mitochondrial RNA polymerases (MtRNAPs) are members of the single-subunit RNAP family, the most well-characterized member being the RNAP from T7 bacteriophage. MtRNAPs are, however, functionally distinct in that they depend on one or more transcription factors to recognize and open the promoter and initiate transcription, while the phage RNAPs are capable of performing these tasks alone. Since the transcriptional mechanisms that are conserved in phage and mitochondrial RNAPs have been so effectively characterized in the phage enzymes, outstanding structure-mechanism questions concern those aspects that are distinct in the MtRNAPs, particularly the role of the mitochondrial transcription factor(s). To address these questions we have used both negative staining and cryo-EM to generate three-dimensional reconstructions of yeast MtRNAP initiation complexes with and without the mitochondrial transcription factor (MTF1), and of the elongation complex. Together with biochemical experiments, these data indicate that MTF1 uses multiple mechanisms to drive promoter opening, and that its interactions with the MtRNAP regulate the conformational changes undergone by the latter enzyme as it traverses the template strand.
Papel de EF-Tu en la interacción de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con los queratinocitos humanos
Martínez Ramos, Inmaculada
2015-01-01
Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un patógeno oportunista que causa una gran variedad de infecciones, entre las que destacan las infecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas y las infecciones de heridas por quemaduras. En un trabajo previo, usamos anticuerpos específicos para detectar la presencia del epítopo de fosforilcolina en la superficie bacteriana asociado al factor de elongación Tu (EF-Tu). Identificamos que el gen eftM (Elongation Factor Tu Modifying enzime) es el...
Sato, Aya; Suematsu, Takuma; Aihara, Koh-Ki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi
2017-03-07
Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) delivers aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to ribosomes in protein synthesis. EF-Tu generally recognizes aminoacyl moieties and acceptor- and T-stems of aa-tRNAs. However, nematode mitochondrial (mt) tRNAs frequently lack all or part of the T-arm that is recognized by canonical EF-Tu. We previously reported that two distinct EF-Tu species, EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2, respectively, recognize mt tRNAs lacking T-arms and D-arms in the mitochondria of the chromadorean nematode Caenorhabditis elegansC. elegans EF-Tu2 specifically recognizes the seryl moiety of serylated D-armless tRNAs. Mitochondria of the enoplean nematode Trichinella possess three structural types of tRNAs: T-armless tRNAs, D-armless tRNAs, and cloverleaf tRNAs with a short T-arm. Trichinella mt EF-Tu1 binds to all three types and EF-Tu2 binds only to D-armless Ser-tRNAs, showing an evolutionary intermediate state from canonical EF-Tu to chromadorean nematode (e.g. C. elegans) EF-Tu species. We report here that two EF-Tu species also participate in Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria. Both D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2 bound to cloverleaf and D-armless tRNAs. D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 has the ability to recognize T-armless tRNAs that do not evidently exist in D. melanogaster mitochondria, but do exist in related arthropod species. In addition, D. melanogaster EF-Tu2 preferentially bound to aa-tRNAs carrying small amino acids, but not to aa-tRNAs carrying bulky amino acids. These results suggest that the Drosophila mt translation system could be another intermediate state between the canonical and nematode mitochondria-type translation systems. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Malosse, Christian; Hountondji, Codjo
2016-08-01
In this report, we have demonstrated that the poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis activity of elongator factor Tu (EF-Tu) from the enacyloxin producing strain Frateuria sp. W-315 is inhibited by the antibiotic similarly to that of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The inhibitory effect of enacyloxin observed in a purified system was the same as that obtained with an S30 extract from E. coli or Frateuria sp. W-315, respectively, suggesting that antibiotic resistance of enacyloxin producing Frateuria sp. W-315 is not due neither to EF-Tu nor to other components of the translation machinery but to a still unknown mechanism. The EF-Tu gene, as PCR amplified from Frateuria W-315 genomic DNA and sequenced represented an ORF of 1191 nucleotides corresponding to 396 amino acids. This protein is larger than the product of tufA from E. coli by only two amino acid residues. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from E. coli with those of Frateuria and Ralstonia solanacearum indicates on average 80% identical amino acid residues and 9.7% conservative replacements between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli, on one hand, and 97% identity and 1.7% conservative replacement between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu Ralstonia solanacearum, on the other hand. These strong primary structure similarities between EF-Tu from different origins are consistent with the fact that this factor is essential for the translation process in all kingdoms of life. Comparison of the effects of antibiotics on EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli revealed that enacyloxin, kirromycin and pulvomycin exert a stronger stimulation of the GDP dissociation rate on EF-Tu Frateuria, while the effects of the antibiotics on the GDP association rate were comparable for the two EF-Tu species. Different mutants of EF-Tu E. coli were constructed with the help of site directed mutagenesis by changing one or several residues of EF-Tu E. coli by the corresponding residues of EF-Tu Frateuria. The single A45K substitution did
Universal geometrical factor of protein conformations as a consequence of energy minimization
Wu, Ming-Chya; Ma, Wen-Jong; Kouza, Maksim; Hu, Chin-Kun; 10.1209/0295-5075/96/68005
2012-01-01
The biological activity and functional specificity of proteins depend on their native three-dimensional structures determined by inter- and intra-molecular interactions. In this paper, we investigate the geometrical factor of protein conformation as a consequence of energy minimization in protein folding. Folding simulations of 10 polypeptides with chain length ranging from 183 to 548 residues manifest that the dimensionless ratio (V/(A)) of the van der Waals volume V to the surface area A and average atomic radius of the folded structures, calculated with atomic radii setting used in SMMP [Eisenmenger F., et. al., Comput. Phys. Commun., 138 (2001) 192], approach 0.49 quickly during the course of energy minimization. A large scale analysis of protein structures show that the ratio for real and well-designed proteins is universal and equal to 0.491\\pm0.005. The fractional composition of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues does not affect the ratio substantially. The ratio also holds for intrinsically disorde...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changsun Eun
Full Text Available Transcription factor IIS (TFIIS is a protein known for catalyzing the cleavage reaction of the 3'-end of backtracked RNA transcript, allowing RNA polymerase II (Pol II to reactivate the transcription process from the arrested state. Recent structural studies have provided a molecular basis of protein-protein interaction between TFIIS and Pol II. However, the detailed dynamic conformational changes of TFIIS upon binding to Pol II and the related thermodynamic information are largely unknown. Here we use computational approaches to investigate the conformational space of TFIIS in the Pol II-bound and Pol II-free (unbound states. Our results reveal two distinct conformations of TFIIS: the closed and the open forms. The closed form is dominant in the Pol II-free (unbound state of TFIIS, whereas the open form is favorable in the Pol II-bound state. Furthermore, we discuss the free energy difference involved in the conformational changes between the two forms in the presence or absence of Pol II. Additionally, our analysis indicates that hydrophobic interactions and the protein-protein interactions between TFIIS and Pol II are crucial for inducing the conformational changes of TFIIS. Our results provide novel insights into the functional interplay between Pol II and TFIIS as well as mechanism of reactivation of Pol II transcription by TFIIS.
Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yan
2007-01-01
A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.
Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation
Dabrowski, Mariusz P; Blaschke, David B
2008-01-01
Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and Einstein relativity. Because of that, in this paper we discuss the rules of conformal transformations for geometric quantities in general relativity. In particular, we discuss the conformal transformations of the matter energy-momentum tensor. We thoroughly discuss the latter and show the subtlety of the conservation law (i.e., the geometrical Bianchi identity) imposed in one of the conformal frames in reference to the other. The subtlety refers to the fact that conformal transformation ``creates'' an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservation law. In an extreme case of the flat original spacetime the matter is ``created'' due to work done by the conformal transformation to bend the spacetime which was originally flat. We also discuss how to construct the conformally invariant gravity which, in the simplest version, is a special case of the Brans-Dicke t...
Bonaventura, Celia; Henkens, Robert; Friedman, Joel; Siburt, Claire J Parker; Kraiter, Daniel; Crumbliss, Alvin L
2011-10-01
The structural basis of the extreme pH dependence of oxygen binding to Root effect Hbs is a long-standing puzzle in the field of protein chemistry. A previously unappreciated role of steric factors in the Root effect was revealed by a comparison of pH effects on oxygenation and oxidation processes in human Hb relative to Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) and Carp (Cyprinodon carpio) Hbs. The Root effect confers five-fold increased pH sensitivity to oxygenation of Spot and Carp Hbs relative to Hb A(0) in the absence of anionic effectors, and even larger relative elevations of pH sensitivity of oxygenation in the presence of 0.2M phosphate. Remarkably, the Root effect was not evident in the oxidation of the Root effect Hbs. This finding rules out pH-dependent alterations in the thermodynamic properties of the heme iron, measured in the anaerobic oxidation reaction, as the basis of the Root effect. The alternative explanation supported by these results is that the elevated pH sensitivity of oxygenation of Root effect Hbs is attributable to globin-dependent steric effects that alter oxygen affinity by constraining conformational fluidity, but which have little influence on electron exchange via the heme edge. This elegant mode of allosteric control can regulate oxygen affinity within a given quaternary state, in addition to modifying the T-R equilibrium. Evolution of Hb sequences that result in proton-linked steric barriers to heme oxygenation could provide a general mechanism to account for the appearance of the Root effect in the structurally diverse Hbs of many species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Artemisinin and Chinese medicine as Tu science.
Fu, Jia-Chen
2017-07-07
The story of discovery of artemisinin highlights the diversity of scientific values across time and space. Resituating artemisinin research within a broader temporal framework allows us to understand how Chinese drugs like qinghao came to articulate a space for scientific experimentation and innovation through its embodiment of alternating clusters of meanings associated with tu and yang within scientific discourse. Tu science, which was associated with terms like native, Chinese, local, rustic, mass, and crude, articulated a radical vision of science in the service of socialist revolutionary ideals. Yang science, which signified foreign, Western, elite, and professional, tended to bear the hallmarks of professionalism, transnational networks in education and training, and an emphasis on basic or foundational research. With respect to medical research, the case of artemisinin highlights how the constitution of socialist science as an interplay of tu and yang engendered different scientific values and parameters for scientific endeavor. Modern medical research in Maoist China could harness the productive energies of mass participation to technical expertise in its investigations of Chinese drugs, and under the banner of tu science, it became possible and scientifically legitimate to research Chinese drugs in ways that had previously provoked resistance and controversy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blumenthal, T; Young, R A; Brown, S
1976-01-01
Qbeta replicase is a complex of four nonidentical subunits readily dissociable into two subcomplexes: 30 S ribosomal protein S1 and the phage-coded polypeptide (Subunits I + II) and protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts (Subunits III + IV). The affinity of the two subcomplexes...... of EF-Tu-Ts from the other enzyme subunits: whereas free EF-Tu-Ts binds GDP independently of salt concentration, this binding by Qbeta replicase is sensitive to high ionic strength and remains so in the presence of Qbeta RNA. Furthermore, RNA does not allow the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu by GTP...... as measured by sensitivity of EF-Ts activity to N-ethylmaleimide....
Pang, Yuan-Ping
2015-02-06
1-4 interaction scaling factors are used in AMBER forcefields to reduce the exaggeration of short-range repulsion caused by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and a nonpolarizable charge model and to obtain better agreements of small-molecule conformational energies with experimental data. However, the effects of these scaling factors on protein secondary structure conformations have not been investigated until now. This article reports the finding that the 1-4 interactions among the protein backbone atoms separated by three consecutive covalent bonds are more repulsive in the α-helix conformation than in two β-strand conformations. Therefore, the 1-4 interaction scaling factors of protein backbone torsions ϕ and ψ control the conformational equilibrium between α-helix and β-strand. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that reducing the ϕ and ψ scaling factors readily converts the α-helix conformation of AcO-(AAQAA)3-NH2 to a β-strand conformation, and the reverse occurs when these scaling factors are increased. These results suggest that the ϕ and ψ scaling factors can be used to generate the α-helix or β-strand conformation in situ and to control the propensities of a forcefield for adopting secondary structure elements.
Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Jiahai; Yang, Yinshan; Huang, Hongda; Shen, Weiqun; Hu, Qi; Wang, Xingsheng; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu
2008-06-01
Leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) is a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that can activate RhoA. The PDZ (PSD-95/Disc-large/ZO-1 homology) domain of LARG interacts with membrane receptors, which can relay extracellular signals to RhoA signal transduction pathways. Until now there is no structural and dynamic information about these interactions. Here we report the NMR structures of the LARG PDZ in the apo form and in complex with the plexin-B1 C-terminal octapeptide. Unobservable resonances of the residues in betaB/betaC and betaE/alphaB loops in apo state were observed in the complex state. A distinct region of the binding groove in the LARG PDZ was found to undergo conformational change compared with other PDZs. Analysis of the (15)N relaxation data using reduced spectral density mapping shows that the apo LARG PDZ (especially its ligand-binding groove) is flexible and exhibits internal motions on both picosecond to nanosecond and microsecond to millisecond timescales. Mutagenesis and thermodynamic studies indicate that the conformation of the betaB/betaC and betaE/alphaB loops affects the PDZ-peptide interaction. It is suggested that the conformational flexibility could facilitate the change of structures upon ligand binding.
Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai
2013-01-01
Although member states are obliged to transpose directives into domestic law in a conformable manner and receive considerable time for their transposition activities, we identify three levels of transposition outcomes for EU directives: conformable, partially conformable and non-conformable....... Compared with existing transposition models, which do not distinguish between different transposition outcomes, we examine the factors influencing each transposition process by means of a competing risk analysis. We find that preference-related factors, in particular the disagreement of a member state...... and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...
Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run
2014-06-01
Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Sfintizky, Andreas; Welzel, Grit; Simeonova, Anna; Sperk, Elena; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Mai, Sabine; Wenz, Frederik
2012-01-01
.... In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT...
Satpati, Priyadarshi; Simonson, Thomas
2012-05-01
Archaeal Initiation Factor 2 is a GTPase involved in protein biosynthesis. In its GTP-bound, "ON" conformation, it binds an initiator tRNA and carries it to the ribosome. In its GDP-bound, "OFF" conformation, it dissociates from tRNA. To understand the specific binding of GTP and GDP and their dependence on the conformational state, molecular dynamics free energy simulations were performed. The ON state specificity was predicted to be weak, with a GTP/GDP binding free energy difference of -1 kcal/mol, favoring GTP. The OFF state specificity is larger, 4 kcal/mol, favoring GDP. The overall effects result from a competition among many interactions in several complexes. To interpret them, we use a simpler, dielectric continuum model. Several effects are robust with respect to the model details. Both nucleotides have a net negative charge, so that removing them from solvent into the binding pocket carries a desolvation penalty, which is large for the ON state, and strongly disfavors GTP binding compared to GDP. Short-range interactions between the additional GTP phosphate group and ionized sidechains in the binding pocket offset most, but not all of the desolvation penalty; more distant groups also contribute significantly, and the switch 1 loop only slightly. The desolvation penalty is lower for the more open, wetter OFF state, and the GTP/GDP difference much smaller. Short-range interactions in the binding pocket and with more distant groups again make a significant contribution. Overall, the simulations help explain how conformational selection is achieved with a single phosphate group. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Banyasz, Akos; Esposito, Luciana; Douki, Thierry; Perron, Marion; Lepori, Clément; Improta, Roberto; Markovitsi, Dimitra
2016-05-12
C5-methylation of cytosines is strongly correlated with UV-induced mutations detected in skin cancers. Mutational hot-spots appearing at TCG sites are due to the formation of pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPDs). The present study, performed for the model DNA duplex (TCGTA)3·(TACGA)3 and the constitutive single strands, examines the factors underlying the effect of C5-methylation on pyrimidine dimerization at TCG sites. This effect is quantified for the first time by quantum yields ϕ. They were determined following irradiation at 255, 267, and 282 nm and subsequent photoproduct analysis using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. C5-methylation leads to an increase of the CPD quantum yield up to 80% with concomitant decrease of that of pyrimidine(6-4) pyrimidone adducts (64PPs) by at least a factor of 3. The obtained ϕ values cannot be explained only by the change of the cytosine absorption spectrum upon C5-methylation. The conformational and electronic factors that may affect the dimerization reaction are discussed in light of results obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and quantum mechanical calculations. Thus, it appears that the presence of an extra methyl on cytosine affects the sugar puckering, thereby enhancing conformations of the TC step that are prone to CPD formation but less favorable to 64PPs. In addition, C5-methylation diminishes the amplitude of conformational motions in duplexes; in the resulting stiffer structure, ππ* excitations may be transferred from initially populated exciton states to reactive pyrimidines giving rise to CPDs.
Fixed point structure of the conformal factor field in quantum gravity
Dietz, Juergen A.; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zoë H.
2016-12-01
The O (∂2) background-independent flow equations for conformally reduced gravity are shown to be equivalent to flow equations naturally adapted to scalar field theory with a wrong-sign kinetic term. This sign change is shown to have a profound effect on the renormalization group properties, broadly resulting in a continuum of fixed points supporting both a discrete and a continuous eigenoperator spectrum, the latter always including relevant directions. The properties at the Gaussian fixed point are understood in particular depth, but also detailed studies of the local potential approximation, and the full O (∂2) approximation are given. These results are related to evidence for asymptotic safety found by other authors.
Desjardins, Geneviève; Okon, Mark; Graves, Barbara J; McIntosh, Lawrence P
2016-07-26
The affinity of the Ets-1 transcription factor for DNA is autoinhibited by an intrinsically disordered serine-rich region (SRR) and a helical inhibitory module (IM) appended to its winged helix-turn-helix ETS domain. Using NMR spectroscopy, we investigated how Ets-1 recognizes specific versus nonspecific DNA, with a focus on the roles of protein dynamics and autoinhibition in these processes. Upon binding either DNA, the two marginally stable N-terminal helices of the IM predominantly unfold, but still sample partially ordered conformations. Also, on the basis of amide chemical shift perturbation mapping, Ets-1 associates with both specific and nonspecific DNA through the same canonical ETS domain interface. These interactions are structurally independent of the SRR, and thus autoinhibition does not impart DNA-binding specificity. However, relative to the pronounced NMR spectroscopic changes in Ets-1 resulting from specific DNA binding, the spectra of the nonspecific DNA complexes showed conformational exchange broadening and lacked several diagnostic amide and indole signals attributable to hydrogen bonding interactions seen in reported X-ray crystallographic structures of this transcription factor with its cognate DNA sequences. Such differences are highlighted by the chemical shift and relaxation properties of several interfacial lysine and arginine side chains. Collectively, these data support a general model in which Ets-1 interacts with nonspecific DNA via dynamic electrostatic interactions, whereas hydrogen bonding drives the formation of well-ordered complexes with specific DNA.
Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff
2011-01-01
proteins and 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mammalian mitochondria have their own specialised translational system for maintaining the synthesis of the 13 proteins. The mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis resembles the prokaryotic system more than the cytosolic system from eukaryotes. Some of the t...... and tRNASerGCU was produced by in vitro transcription. The ternary complex composed of EF-Tu:GDPNP:tRNASerGCU was reconstituted for crystallisation experiments. Unfortunately, we have not succeeding in crystallising neither the free components nor the ternary complex so far. The results of this project...
Tremblay, Michel G; Herdman, Chelsea; Guillou, François; Mishra, Prakash K; Baril, Joëlle; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Moss, Tom
2015-06-26
We previously demonstrated that ESyt2 interacts specifically with the activated FGF receptor and is required for a rapid phase of receptor internalization and for functional signaling via the ERK pathway in early Xenopus embryos. ESyt2 is one of the three-member family of Extended Synaptotagmins that were recently shown to be implicated in the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions and in the Ca(2+) dependent regulation of these junctions. Here we show that ESyt2 is directed to the ER by its putative transmembrane domain, that the ESyts hetero- and homodimerize, and that ESyt2 homodimerization in vivo requires a TM adjacent sequence but not the SMP domain. ESyt2 and ESyt3, but not ESyt1, selectively interact in vivo with activated FGFR1. In the case of ESyt2, this interaction requires a short TM adjacent sequence and is independent of receptor autophosphorylation, but dependent on receptor conformation. The data show that ESyt2 recognizes a site in the upper kinase lobe of FGFR1 that is revealed by displacement of the kinase domain activation loop during receptor activation.
Boh, Boon Kim; Ng, Mei Ying; Leck, Yee Chin; Shaw, Barry; Long, Jed; Sun, Guang Wen; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Searle, Mark S; Layfield, Robert; Hagen, Thilo
2011-10-21
Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is produced by pathogenic intracellular bacteria and injected into the host cells via a type III secretion system. Cif is known to interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the function of cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). Cullin proteins form the scaffold protein of CRLs and are modified with the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8, which exerts important conformational control required for CRL activity. Cif has recently been shown to catalyze the deamidation of Gln40 in Nedd8 to Glu. Here, we addressed how Nedd8 deamidation inhibits CRL activity. Our results indicate that Burkholderia pseudomallei Cif (also known as CHBP) inhibits the deconjugation of Nedd8 in vivo by inhibiting binding of the deneddylating COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex. We provide evidence that the reduced binding of CSN and the inhibition of CRL activity by Cif are due to interference with Nedd8-induced conformational control, which is dependent on the interaction between the Nedd8 hydrophobic patch and the cullin winged-helix B subdomain. Of note, mutation of Gln40 to Glu in ubiquitin, an additional target of Cif, inhibits the interaction between the hydrophobic surface of ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-binding protein p62/SQSTM1, showing conceptually that Cif activity can impair ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like protein non-covalent interactions. Our results also suggest that Cif may exert additional cellular effects by interfering with the association between ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins.
The stringent factor RelA adopts an open conformation on the ribosome to stimulate ppGpp synthesis.
Arenz, Stefan; Abdelshahid, Maha; Sohmen, Daniel; Payoe, Roshani; Starosta, Agata L; Berninghausen, Otto; Hauryliuk, Vasili; Beckmann, Roland; Wilson, Daniel N
2016-07-27
Under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, deacylated tRNAs bound within the ribosomal A-site are recognized by the stringent factor RelA, which converts ATP and GTP/GDP to (p)ppGpp. The signaling molecules (p)ppGpp globally rewire the cellular transcriptional program and general metabolism, leading to stress adaptation. Despite the additional importance of the stringent response for regulation of bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance and persistence, structural insight into how the ribosome and deacylated-tRNA stimulate RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp has been lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of RelA in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome with an average resolution of 3.7 Å and local resolution of 4 to >10 Å for RelA. The structure reveals that RelA adopts a unique 'open' conformation, where the C-terminal domain (CTD) is intertwined around an A/T-like tRNA within the intersubunit cavity of the ribosome and the N-terminal domain (NTD) extends into the solvent. We propose that the open conformation of RelA on the ribosome relieves the autoinhibitory effect of the CTD on the NTD, thus leading to stimulation of (p)ppGpp synthesis by RelA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shagufta H. Khan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A number of proteins with intrinsically disordered (ID regions/domains are reported to be found disproportionately higher in transcription factors. Available evidences suggest that presence of ID region/domain within a transcription factor plays an important role in its biological functions. These ID sequences provide large flexible surfaces that can allow them to make more efficient physical and functional interactions with their target partners. Since transcription factors regulate expression of target genes by interacting with specific coregulatory proteins, these ID regions/domains can be used as a platform for such large macromolecular interactions, and may represent a mechanism for regulation of cellular processes. The precise structural basis for the function of these ID regions/domains of the transcription factors remains to be determined. In the recent years there has been growing evidence suggesting that an induced fit-like process leads to imposition of folded functional structure in these ID domains on which large multiprotein complexes are built. These multiprotein complexes may eventually dictate the final outcome of the gene regulation by the transcription factors.
Shepherd, Stephane M
2015-11-01
This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...
The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus
Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolsto, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Veronique
2008-01-01
Background: Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative
Conformational origin of a difficult coupling in a human growth hormone releasing factor analog.
Deber, C M; Lutek, M K; Heimer, E P; Felix, A M
1989-01-01
During the solid-phase synthesis of the human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog [Ala15, Leu27, Asn28] -GRF(1-32)-OH, incorporation of Boc-Gln16 was determined to be incomplete. While aggregation of growing resin-bound peptide chains with concomitant beta-sheet formation and "precipitation" has been proposed to account in general for such "difficult coupling," no feature of sequence in the Gln16 region of this GRF analog provided an immediate rationale for this result. We now report 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra of a series of resin-bound GRF segments surrounding the Gln16 position (19-32 through 14-32), swelled in dimethylsulfoxide-d6 solutions [GRF(14-32) = Leu14-Ala-Gln-Leu-Ser(Bzl)-Ala-Arg(Tos)-Lys(CIZ)-Leu- Leu-Gln-Asp(OcHex)-Ile-Leu-Asn-Arg(Tos)-Gln-Gln-Gly32-PAM resin]. While relatively sharp spectra are observed for GRF(19-32), components with resonances broadened by an order-of-magnitude appear in spectra of the 18-32 and 17-32 peptide-resin, and the entire spectrum of 16-32 is ill-resolved and highly broadened. Subsequent spectra sharpen again (15-32, 14-32). These combined synthesis/spectroscopic experimental results, in conjunction with predictive analyses using standard Chou-Fasman 2 degrees structure parameters, suggest that the completeness of the Gln16 coupling is hindered by formation of a specific, folded beta-sheet/beta-turn structure in GRF(16-32) (with the turn located at 18-21, "upstream" of the difficult coupling site), and accompanying aggregation of peptide chains. This analysis suggests that awareness of such potential beta-sheet/beta-turn sequences can guide analog choices, and/or facilitate pre-programming of synthesis steps in anticipation of problem couplings.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Varsha Daftardar-Gejji
2001-05-01
Brinkmann [1] has shown that conformally related distinct Ricci flat solutions are -waves. Brinkmann's result has been generalized to include the conformally invariant source terms. It has been shown that [4] if $g_{ik}$ and $\\overline{g}_{ik}$ ($=^{-2}g_{ik}$, : a scalar function), are distinct metrics having the same Einstein tensor, $G_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, then both represent (generalized) $pp$-waves and $_{i}$ is a null convariantly constant vector of $g_{ik}$. Thus $pp$-waves are the only candidates which yield conformally related nontrivial solutions of $G_{ik}=T_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, with $T_{ik}$ being conformally invariant source. In this paper the functional form of the conformal factor for the conformally related $pp$-waves/generalized $pp$-waves has been obtained. It has been shown that the most general $pp$-wave, conformally related to ${\\rm d}s^{2}=-2{\\rm d}u[{\\rm d}v-m{\\rm d}y+H{\\rm d}u]+P^{-2}[{\\rm d}y^{2}+{\\rm d}z^{2}]$, turns out to the $(au+b)^{-2}{\\rm d}s^{2}$, where , are constants. Only in the special case when $m=0$, $H=1$, and $P=P(y,z)$, the conformal factor is $(au+b)^{-2}$ or $(a(u+v)+b)^{-2}$.
Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Majumdar, Gautam; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Datta, Dhritiman; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar
2017-08-17
The advancement of research in a specific area of clinical diagnosis crucially depends on the availability and quality of the radiology and other test related databases accompanied by ground truth and additional necessary medical findings. The paper describes the creation of the Department of Biotechnology-Tripura University-Jadavpur University (DBT-TU-JU) breast thermogram database. The objective of creating the DBT-TU-JU database is to provide a breast thermogram database that is annotated with the ground truth images of the suspicious regions. Along with the result of breast thermography, the database comprises of the results of other breast imaging methodologies. A standard breast thermogram acquisition protocol suite comprising of several critical factors has been designed for the collection of breast thermograms. Currently, the DBT-TU-JU database contains 1100 breast thermograms of 100 subjects. Due to the necessity of evaluating any breast abnormality detection system, this study emphasizes the generation of the ground truth images of the hotspot areas, whose presence in a breast thermogram signifies the presence of breast abnormality. With the generated ground truth images, we compared the results of six state-of-the-art image segmentation methods using five supervised evaluation metrics to identify the proficient segmentation methods for hotspot extraction. Based on the evaluation results, the Fractional-Order Darwinian particle swarm optimization, Region growing, Mean shift and Fuzzy c-means clustering are found to be more efficient in comparison to k-means clustering and Threshold based segmentation methods.
Thiele, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Randolf J; Tam, Frederick W K; Völkel, Dirk; Douillard, Patrice; Schinagl, Alexander; Kühnel, Harald; Smith, Jennifer; McDaid, John P; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Yu, Mei-Ching; Pusey, Charles D; Cook, H Terence; Kovarik, Josef; Magelky, Erica; Bhan, Atul; Rieger, Manfred; Mudde, Geert C; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Jilma, Bernd; Tilg, Herbert; Moschen, Alexander; Terhorst, Cox; Scheiflinger, Friedrich
2015-09-01
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine and counterregulator of glucocorticoids, is a potential therapeutic target. MIF is markedly different from other cytokines because it is constitutively expressed, stored in the cytoplasm, and present in the circulation of healthy subjects. Thus, the concept of targeting MIF for therapeutic intervention is challenging because of the need to neutralize a ubiquitous protein. In this article, we report that MIF occurs in two redox-dependent conformational isoforms. We show that one of the two isoforms of MIF, that is, oxidized MIF (oxMIF), is specifically recognized by three mAbs directed against MIF. Surprisingly, oxMIF is selectively expressed in the plasma and on the cell surface of immune cells of patients with different inflammatory diseases. In patients with acute infections or chronic inflammation, oxMIF expression correlated with inflammatory flare-ups. In addition, anti-oxMIF mAbs alleviated disease severity in mouse models of acute and chronic enterocolitis and improved, in synergy with glucocorticoids, renal function in a rat model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. We conclude that oxMIF represents the disease-related isoform of MIF; oxMIF is therefore a new diagnostic marker for inflammation and a relevant target for anti-inflammatory therapy.
This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farah El-Turk
Full Text Available Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and innate immunity and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The oligomerization of MIF, more specifically trimer formation, is essential for its keto-enol tautomerase activity and probably mediates several of its interactions and biological activities, including its binding to its receptor CD74 and activation of certain signaling pathways. Therefore, understanding the molecular factors governing the oligomerization of MIF and the role of quaternary structure in modulating its structural stability and multifunctional properties is crucial for understanding the function of MIF in health and disease. Herein, we describe highly conserved intersubunit interactions involving the hydrophobic packing of the side chain of Leu46 onto the β-strand β3 of one monomer within a hydrophobic pocket from the adjacent monomer constituted by residues Arg11, Val14, Phe18, Leu19, Val39, His40, Val41, Val42, and Pro43. To elucidate the structural significance of these intersubunit interactions and their relative contribution to MIF's trimerization, structural stability and catalytic activity, we generated three point mutations where Leu46 was replaced by glycine (L46G, alanine (L46A and phenylalanine (L46F, and their structural properties, stability, oligomerization state, and catalytic activity were characterized using a battery of biophysical methods and X-ray crystallography. Our findings provide new insights into the role of the Leu46 hydrophobic pocket in stabilizing the conformational state of MIF in solution. Disrupting the Leu46 hydrophobic interaction perturbs the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein but has no effect on its oligomerization state.
TU PATERE LEGEM QUAM IPSE FECISTI
Association du personnel
2010-01-01
In two judgments of February 2009, the ILO Administrative Tribunal (hereafter ILOAT) upheld CERN’s contract policy. In another case having given rise to a recent judgment (3 February 2010), the same problems, in essence, were raised concerning the illegal injustice which could result from the implementation of the policy in question. This time, the Tribunal decided in favour of our colleague, basing itself on the Latin maxim tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti, according to which any authority is bound by its own rules, as long as such rules have not been amended or abrogated. In fact, the Administration had informed the complainant that his application for a long-term contract would be examined for six slots, when in fact it was examined for only one. This judgment represents a victory for the complainant, for the Staff Association and its perseverance, and also for the principle according to which any organisation must keep its word and act in good faith. It shows that, without reversing its jud...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay Ivantchev
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
De-Hua Wu; Li Liu; Long-Hua Chen
2004-01-01
AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients with HCC received 3D-CRT combined with TACE. A total 63 patients had a Okuda stage Ⅰ lesion and 31 patients had stage Ⅱ. The median tumor size was 10.7 cm (range 3.0-18 cm), and liver cirrhosis was present in all the patients. There were 43 cases of class A and 51 class B. TACE was performed using lipiodol,5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, doxorubicin hydrochloride and mitomycin, followed by gelatin sponge cubes. Fifty-nine patients received TACE only one time, while the others 2 to 3 times. 3D-CRT was started 3-4 wk after TACE. All patients were irradiated with a stereotactic body frame and received 4-8 Gy single high-dose radiation for 8-12 times at the isocenter during a period of 17-26 d (median 22 d).RESULTS: The median follow-up was 37 mo (range 10-48 mo)after diagnosis. The response rate was 90.5%. The overall survival rate at 1-, 2-, and 3- year was 93.6%, 53.8% and 26.0% respectively, with the median survival of 25 mo. On univariate analysis, age (P=0.026), Child-Pugh classification for cirrhosis of liver (P=0.010), Okuda stage (P=0.026),tumor size (P=0.000), tumor type (P=0.029), albuminemia (P=0.035), and radiation dose (P=0.000) proved to be significant factors for survival. On multivariate analysis,age (P=0.024), radiation dose (P=0.001), and tumor size (P=0.000) were the significant factors.CONCLUSION: 3D-CRT combined with TACE is an effective and feasible approach for HCC. Age, radiation dose and tumor size were found to be significant prognostic factors for survival of patients with HCC treated by 3D-CRT combined with TACE. Further study for HCC is needed to improve the treatment efficacy.
College via iTunes U: TU Delft deelt graag kennis
Suijker, P.
2010-01-01
De TU Delft publiceert lezingen, colleges en informatieve films op iTunes U van Apple. De auteur beschrijft waarom de TU Delft gekozen heeft voor iTunes U en op welke manier het project tot stand is gekomen.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frauendiener Jörg
2000-08-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Frauendiener, Jörg
2004-12-01
The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frauendiener Jörg
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Trust Management in P2P Systems Using Standard TuLiP
Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential sto
Trust Management in P2P Systems Using Standard TuLiP
Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential
Trust Management in P2P systems using Standard TuLiP
Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential
Le Grand, Adélaïde; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Marteil, Gaëlle; Duval, Hélène; Sire, Olivier; Le Tilly, Véronique
2015-06-30
Among hormone-inducible transcription factors, estrogen receptors (ERs) play important roles in tissue growth and differentiation, via either direct or indirect binding, in the nucleus, to specific DNA targets called estrogen responsive elements (EREs), or through nongenomic pathways. In humans, two estrogen receptor isoforms (hERs), designated hERα and hERβ, have been identified. These two hERs, encoded by genes located on distinct chromosomes, exhibit divergent tissue-specific functions and different subcellular distributions depending on their binding status, free or complexed to their cognate ligands. Because it is hypothesized that such distinct behaviors may arise from various conformational stabilities and flexibilities, the effect of salt concentration and temperature was studied on the free and estrogen-activated hERα and hERβ. Our results show that the conformational stability of hERβ is weakly modulated by salt concentration as opposed to hERα. In addition, we show that the estrogen-bound hERs exhibit a more constrained structure than the unliganded ones and that their conformational flexibility is more affected by diethylstilbestrol binding than that of estradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, or raloxifen. In line with these results, conformational analysis and computational docking were performed on hERα and hERβ, which confer molecular support of a diethylstilbestrol-induced restrained flexibility as compared to other ligands. We found that Trp383 in hERα and Trp335 in hERβ can closely interact with the NR-box motif of the H12 helix and act as a gatekeeper of the agonist-bound versus antagonist-bound conformations. Altogether, our study contributes to an improved knowledge of the diverse physicochemical properties of full-length hERs, which will help in our understanding of their distinct cellular roles in various cellular contexts.
Hamburger, J B; Chen, E; Narhi, L O; Wu, G M; Brems, D N
1998-09-01
The effect of pH and urea on the conformation of recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (rHuMGDF) was determined by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and equilibrium ultracentrifugation. The conformation of rHuMGDF was dependent on pH and urea concentration. Multiple folding forms were evidenced by multiple pH-induced transitions and urea-induced equilibrium transitions that deviated from a simple two-state process. In neutral to alkaline pH, rHuMGDF exists as a monomer, but an acid-induced conformational state self-associates to form a soluble aggregate. A folding intermediate(s) was observed with a more stable secondary structure than tertiary structure and was dependent on the pH of the urea-induced denaturation. The differences in the stabilities of the folding states were most distinct in the pH range of 4.5 to 6.5. The presence of intermediates in the folding pathway of rHuMGDF are similar to findings of previous studies of related growth factors that share a common three-dimensional structure.
The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay
Weyers, Joseph R.
2009-01-01
Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted in Montevideo to document the status of…
The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay
Weyers, Joseph R.
2009-01-01
Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted…
(Average-) convexity of common pool and oligopoly TU-games
Driessen, T.S.H.; Meinhardt, H.
2000-01-01
The paper studies both the convexity and average-convexity properties for a particular class of cooperative TU-games called common pool games. The common pool situation involves a cost function as well as a (weakly decreasing) average joint production function. Firstly, it is shown that, if the rele
Lei, Hongde
2016-01-01
Youguang Tu is a contemporary Chinese philosopher of education. His course on philosophy of education had a significant impact on his students. This exploratory study examines how Tu designed and taught this course. Ultimately, there are two reasons why Tu's course had such a significant influence on his students. The first is that Tu used…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter;
2003-01-01
gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...
Czerminski, Ryszard; Roitberg, Adrian; Choi, Chyung; Ulitsky, Alexander; Elber, Ron
1991-10-01
Two computational approaches to study plausible conformations of biological molecules and the transitions between them are presented and discussed. The first approach is a new search algorithm which enhances the sampling of alternative conformers using a mean field approximation. It is argued and demonstrated that the mean field approximation has a small effect on the location of the minima. The method is a combination of the LES protocol (Locally Enhanced Sampling) and simulated annealing. The LES method was used in the past to study the diffusion pathways of ligands from buried active sites in myoglobin and leghemoglobin to the exterior of the protein. The present formulation of LES and its implementation in a Molecular Dynamics program is described. An application for side chain placement in a tetrapeptide is presented. The computational effort associated with conformational searches using LES grows only linearly with the number of degrees of freedom, whereas in the exact case the computational effort grows exponentially. Such saving is of course associated with a mean field approximation. The second branch of studies pertains to the calculation of reaction paths in large and flexible biological systems. An extensive mapping of minima and barriers for two different tetrapeptides is calculated from the known minima and barriers of alanine tetrapeptide which we calculated recently.1 The tetrapeptides are useful models for the formation of secondary structure elements since they are the shortest possible polymers of this type which can still form a complete helical turn. The tetrapeptides are isobutyryl-val(χ1=60)-ala-ala and isobutyryl-val(χ1=-60)-ala-ala. Properties of the hundreds of minima and of the hundreds intervening barriers are discussed. Estimates for thermal transition times between the many conformers (and times to explore the complete phase space) are calculated and compared. It is suggested that the most significant effect of the side chain size is
Hu, Xin; Prehna, Gerd; Stebbins, C. Erec
2008-01-01
Yersinia spp, is currently an antibiotic resistance concern and a re-emerging disease. An essential virulence factor YpkA, contains a Ser/Thr kinase domain whose activity modulates pathogenicity. Here we present an approach integrating a machine learning method, homology modeling, and multiple conformational high throughput docking for the discovery of YpkA inhibitors. These first reported inhibitors of YpkA may facilitate studies of pathogenic mechanism of YpkA, and serve as a starting point for development of anti-plague drugs. PMID:17676727
Abre tu nevera! Aplicación para Android
Cañizares Fernandez, Rosa
2014-01-01
Aquí presento mi PFC Abre tu nevera! Consiste en un recetario paso a paso basado en los productos que tenemos en la despensa. Además cuenta de una gestión de listas de la compra. En el código fuente podremos encontrar una carpeta con el código fuente del proyecto Android y la app lista para instalar.
Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim
2015-01-01
The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu·GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25566871
Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim
2015-01-01
The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu.GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation.
João, H C; Csonga, R; Klier, H; Koettnitz, K; Auer, M; Eder, J
1995-11-14
Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) requires posttranslational modification of lysine at position 50 to hypusine for its biological activity. We have expressed an unmodified variant of eIF-5A in Escherichia coli and show that it has structural properties different from those of the native protein in terms of its near- and far-UV circular dichroism spectra and its equilibrium unfolding transition with guanidinium chloride. In contrast to the hypusine-modified protein, which unfolds in a two-state process, the complex unfolding transition of unmodified eIF-5A suggests that this variant occurs in two differently folded conformations, F1 and F2. Both conformations are populated under near-physiological conditions at a ration of 60 to 40, respectively. Equilibrium unfolding consists of parallel events: unfolding of F1 to one or several intermediate states (I), and unfolding of F2 to the unfolded state (U). Although the establishment of each of these individual equilibria is fast, the interconversion is slow at guanidinium chloride concentrations between 0 M and 3 M. Kinetic analysis reveals activation energies of 24.3 kcal mol-1 for the reaction of F1 and F2 and 24.1 kcal mol-1 for the reaction of F2 to F1. Both F1 and F2 possess well-defined secondary and tertiary structure. However, the tertiary structures of the two conformations differ as indicated by their distinct near-UV circular dichroism spectra. These differences may be restricted to the C-terminal part of the protein as 2-dimensional 1H-NMR spectra of unmodified eIF-5A reveal no doubled set of proton resonances for aromatic amino acid and histidine residues, of which almost all are located in the N-terminal region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
On the origin of protein synthesis factors: a gene duplication/fusion model.
Cousineau, B; Leclerc, F; Cedergren, R
1997-12-01
Sequence similarity has given rise to the proposal that IF-2, EF-G, and EF-Tu are related through a common ancestor. We evaluate this proposition and whether the relationship can be extended to other factors of protein synthesis. Analysis of amino acid sequence similarity gives statistical support for an evolutionary affiliation among IF-1, IF-2, IF-3, EF-Tu, EF-Ts, and EF-G and suggests further that this association is a result of gene duplication/fusion events. In support of this mechanism, the three-dimensional structures of IF-3, EF-Tu, and EF-G display a predictable domain structure and overall conformational similarity. The model that we propose consists of three consecutives duplication/fusion events which would have taken place before the divergence of the three superkingdoms: eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. The root of this protein superfamily tree would be an ancestor of the modern IF-1 gene sequence. The repeated fundamental motif of this protein superfamily is a small RNA binding domain composed of two alpha-helices packed along side of an antiparallel beta-sheet.
Murugan, Elavazhagan; Venkatraman, Anandalakshmi; Lei, Zhou; Mouvet, Victoria; Rui Yi Lim, Rayne; Muruganantham, Nandhakumar; Goh, Eunice; Swee Lim Peh, Gary; Beuerman, Roger W; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Mehta, Jodhbir S
2016-03-31
Most stromal corneal dystrophies are associated with aggregation and deposition of the mutated transforming growth factor-β induced protein (TGFβIp). The 4(th)_FAS1 domain of TGFβIp harbors ~80% of the mutations that forms amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic aggregates. To understand the mechanism of aggregation and the differences between the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic phenotypes, we expressed the 4(th)_FAS1 domains of TGFβIp carrying the mutations R555W (non-amyloidogenic) and H572R (amyloidogenic) along with the wild-type (WT). R555W was more susceptible to acidic pH compared to H572R and displayed varying chemical stabilities with decreasing pH. Thermal denaturation studies at acidic pH showed that while WT did not undergo any conformational transition, the mutants exhibited a clear pH-dependent irreversible conversion from αβ conformation to β-sheet oligomers. The β-oligomers of both mutants were stable at physiological temperature and pH. Electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies showed that β-oligomers of H572R were larger compared to R555W. The β-oligomers of both mutants were cytotoxic to primary human corneal stromal fibroblast (pHCSF) cells. The β-oligomers of both mutants exhibit variations in their morphologies, sizes, thermal and chemical stabilities, aggregation patterns and cytotoxicities.
Kim, Jinhee; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, Jeena; Yang, Hee-Bum; Dosun, Kim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl
2014-08-01
The protein-protein interaction between VPg (viral protein genome-linked) of potyviruses and eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) or eIF(iso)4E of their host plants is a critical step in determining viral virulence. In this study, we evaluated the approach of engineering broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is one of the most important potyviruses, by a systematic knowledge-based approach to interrupt the interaction between TuMV VPg and B. rapa eIF(iso)4E. The seven amino acids in the cap-binding pocket of eIF(iso)4E were selected on the basis of other previous results and comparison of protein models of cap-binding pockets, and mutated. Yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that W95L, K150L and W95L/K150E amino acid mutations of B. rapa eIF(iso)4E interrupted its interaction with TuMV VPg. All eIF(iso)4E mutants were able to complement an eIF4E-knockout yeast strain, indicating that the mutated eIF(iso)4E proteins retained their function as a translational initiation factor. To determine whether these mutations could confer resistance, eIF(iso)4E W95L, W95L/K150E and eIF(iso)4E wild-type were over-expressed in a susceptible Chinese cabbage cultivar. Evaluation of the TuMV resistance of T1 and T2 transformants demonstrated that the over-expression of the eIF(iso)4E mutant forms can confer resistance to multiple TuMV strains. These data demonstrate the utility of knowledge-based approaches for the engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikos Vasilakis
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are by far the most important arboviral pathogens in the tropics around the world, putting at risk of infection nearly a third of the global human population. DENV are members of the genus Flavivirus in the Family Flaviviridae and comprise four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV-1-4. Although they share almost identical epidemiological features, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed valuable insights into the origins, epidemiology and the forces that shape DENV evolution in nature. In this review, we examine the current status of DENV evolution, including but not limited to rates of evolution, selection pressures, population sizes and evolutionary constraints, and we discuss how these factors influence transmission, pathogenesis and emergence.
The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications
Riehlman, Timothy D.
The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self
The Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo Project
Hojman, S.; Johnson, R. M.; Meymaris, K. K.; Ward, D. L.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; Lagrave, M.; Henderson, S.; Ostrosky, J.; Martinez, M.
2007-12-01
Over 22 centuries ago Erathostenes devised a method to determine the Earth radius. Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo is a joint venture lead by Windows to the Universe/Ventanas al Universo in the United States of America, EducaRed in Chile and RedEscolar in Mexico seeking to partner teams of students, teachers and parents from the three countries in a collaborative effort to determine the Earth circumference by sharing the results of their measurements, and exchanging cultural information. Data are collected from September 29 through October 7, 2007. A report of the whole experience will be presented.
The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-13, version 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-13 version 2 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30. April 2014. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-10, version 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar; Haunstrup, Brian
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-10 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30 April 2011. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-12 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 3o April 2013. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables : TU 2006-12, version 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-12 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 31. December 2012. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables TU 2006-11, version 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-11 version 2 covering data from the period May 2006 until 30. April 2012. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
The Danish National Travel Survey - declaration of variables TU 2006-11, version 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar
This record documents the reported data in the data set TU 2006-11 version 1 covering data from the period May 2006 until 31 December 2011. Please refer to our website for the most up-to-date documentation of the latest TU data. This record follows, where possible, the data set and is not updated...
Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru
2015-10-01
A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.
Data of evolutionary structure change: 1TU8B-2AAWC [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available n>1TU8B SIKSQ---FQFGQ > GGG--- re... C 2AAWC KNFKKEKDTPFEQ ...>HHHHHH > ATOM 2082 CA LYS C 46 3.335 27.932 37.753 1.00 ...bChain> 1TU8B LLATR----GNGRN >HGGG ----GGG ...tryIDChain> LLKKNHTNNNNDKY >HHHH
Test facility development for testing of micro-thrusters at TU-Delft
Zandbergen, B.T.C.; Janssens, S.; Valente, F.; Perez-Grande, D.; Koopmans, R.
2010-01-01
The development of highly integrated and compact micro-satellites and the need for a higher precision of positioning and attitude control in space missions has stimulated the development of micro-propulsion systems. At TU-Delft, investigations are focusing on non-chemical, thermal propulsion. TU-Del
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helio Macedo Neto
2014-04-01
Full Text Available As the demand for resources in the national capital market grows, there is a stronger necessity by companies to release result prospects in order to keep or attract new investors. The guidance, a publication of future results, appears in this scenario as a response to this trend. In this perspective, the research investigates probable motivating factors in the publication of guidance by Ibovespa companies, while assessing their response to CODIM’s 04/2008 statement. The investigation comprehended factors related to institutional environments (listing segment at BM&FBovespa and listing of actions in foreign stock exchanges and three groups of interest (suppliers, employees and investors. Qualitative in nature, this exploratory research has used the technique of content analysis. After analyzing the reference forms from 62 companies, it was possible to verify the disclosure of guidances, in 2010, of 26 of them, or 41.9% of the Ibovespa index. The results indicate that the factors analyzed were considered motivational in the evidencing of future result perspectives and the guidance publications, as recommended by the Institutional Theory and the Theory of Stakeholders. These results suggest that the surveyed companies provide information on future estimates to maintain or ensure its legitimacy in the market and towards its stakeholders. However, the content analysis showed that the guidance published by the companies do not meet in a satisfactory way the Statement 04/2008.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The conformal geometry of regular hypersurfaces in the conformal space is studied.We classify all the conformal isoparametric hypersurfaces with two distinct conformal principal curvatures in the conformal space up to conformal equivalence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vourtsis, Dionysios J.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Pairas, George [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Bentrop, Detlef [Institute of Physiology II, University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Spyroulias, Georgios A., E-mail: G.A.Spyroulias@upatras.gr [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)
2014-07-18
Highlights: • A polypeptide, N-ALF{sub 233}, was overexpressed in E. coli and successfully isolated. • We produced {sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C labeled protein samples. • Amino acid selective approaches were applied. • We acquired several heteronuclear NMR spectra, to complete the backbone assignment. • Prediction of the secondary structure was performed. - Abstract: NMR-based structural biology urgently needs cost- and time-effective methods to assist both in the process of acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra and their subsequent analysis. Especially for bigger proteins (>20 kDa) selective labeling is a frequently used means of sequence-specific assignment. In this work we present the successful overexpression of a polypeptide of 233 residues, corresponding to the structured part of the N-terminal domain of Anthrax Lethal Factor, using Escherichia coli expression system. The polypeptide was subsequently isolated in pure, soluble form and analyzed structurally by solution NMR spectroscopy. Due to the non-satisfying quality and resolution of the spectra of this 27 kDa protein, an almost complete backbone assignment became feasible only by the combination of uniform and novel amino acid-selective labeling schemes. Moreover, amino acid-type selective triple-resonance NMR experiments proved to be very helpful.
Physical Characterization of the Binary Asteroid 66146 (1998 Tu3)
Truong, Thien-Tin; Hicks, M.; Mayes, D.; Barajas, T.; Garcia, K.
2011-01-01
The near-Earth asteroid 66146 (1998 TU3) was discovered on 1998 October 13 by the LINEAR NEO survey (MPEC 1998-U03). We obtained five nights of Bessel BVRI observations (2010 Aug 6,7,10,12,13 UT) and one night of Bessel R (August 8 PST) at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) 0.6-m telescope near Wrightwood, California. These observations were obtained as part of our ongoing survey at TMO of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), planetary radar targets, and low delta-V near-Earth asteroids (NEOs). The object's rotationally averaged colors (B-R=1.238+/-0.011 mag; V-R=0.440+/-0.008 mag; R-I=0.275+/-0.010 mag) were found most compatible with an Sk-type spectral classification (Bus Taxonomy)/S-type (Tholen Taxonomy). This association was obtained through a comparison of our colors with the 1341 asteroid spectra in the SMASS II database (Bus & Binzel 2002). Our classification differs significantly from the Q-type taxonomy reported by Whitely (2002). Assuming a solar phase parameter g=0.15 we performed a period search using standard Fourier techniques. We found a best-fit rotational period Psyn=2.378+/-0.001 hr, in excellent agreement with the 2.3779+/-0.0004 period determined by Richards et al. (2007). The dispersion in the phased single period lightcurve strongly suggests that 1998 TU3 is be a binary system, with variations in observed flux caused by an unresolved, tidally locked secondary companion. Fitting a 2-period model as described by Pravec et al. (2000), we found that our photometry agrees well with a binary model (P1=2.378+/-0.01 hr, P2=28.28+/-0.05 hr). We have three additional nights scheduled for this object at TMO (Oct 8, 9, 10 2010 UT), extending our solar phase coverage and allowing us to refine our rotational models. 1998 TU3 will experience an exceptional apparition in 2012. This object may be a good candidate for shape/pole modeling via lightcurve inversion, especially if photometry can be obtained from both northern and southern hemispheres. We
Keir, Jonathan
2014-01-01
This thesis covers the decline and fall of the civilisation narrative in 20th Century Western humanities before exploring the work of three non-Western figures - Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz, Russian film director Andrei Tarkovsky and Chinese philosopher Tu Weiming - who defend the concept of civilisation in their work. The views of Mahfouz, Tarkovsky and Tu can be viewed as consistent with each other and with those of contemporary Western intellectuals including John Armstrong, Martha Nu...
A mechanism-based potent sirtuin inhibitor containing Nε-thiocarbamoyl-lysine (TuAcK)
2011-01-01
In the current study, we have identified Nε-thiocarbamoyl-lysine (TuAcK) as a general sirtuin inhibitory warhead which was shown to be able to confer potent sirtuin inhibition. This inhibition was also shown to be mechanism-based in that the TuAck residue was able to be processed by a sirtuin enzyme with the formation of a stalled S-alkylamidate intermediate.
Sreejith, R K; Suresh, C G; Bhosale, Siddharth H; Bhavnani, Varsha; Kumar, Avinash; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Pal, Jayanta K
2012-01-01
In mammalian cells, the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) plays a critical role in the regulation of protein synthesis at the initiation step through phosphorylation of α-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). In this study we have cloned and performed biophysical characterization of the kinase catalytic domain (KD) of rabbit HRI. The KD described here comprises kinase 1, the kinase insertion domain (KI) and kinase 2. We report here the existence of an active and stable monomer of HRI (KD). The HRI (KD) containing three tryptophan residues was examined for its conformational transitions occurring under various denaturing conditions using steady-state and time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and hydrophobic dye binding. The parameter A and phase diagram analysis revealed multi-state unfolding and existence of three stable intermediates during guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl) induced unfolding of HRI (KD). The protein treated with 6 M Gdn-HCl showed collisional and static mechanism of acrylamide quenching and the constants (K(sv) = 3.08 M(-1) and K(s)= 5.62 M(-1)) were resolved using time resolved fluorescence titration. Based on pH, guanidine hydrochloride and temperature mediated transitions, HRI (KD) appears to exemplify a rigid molten globule-like intermediate with compact secondary structure, altered tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic patches at pH 3.0. The results indicate the inherent structural stability of HRI (KD), a member of the class of stress response proteins.
An Exploration of Grid Computing to be Utilized in Teaching and Research at TU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Mohammed
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Taiz University (TU has a hundreds of computing resources on different campuses for use in areas from offices work to general access student labs. However, these resources are not used to their full potential. Grid computing is a technology that is capable to unify these resources and utilize them in very significant way. The difficulties of funding a complete grid computing environment and also, the difficulties of grid tools makes teachers and researchers in TU unable to involve in teaching and research in grid computing or in distributed computing. These problems raised up our awareness to mitigate this problem by build a simple environment for Grid computing from resources are available in TU and the built environment we can use it for teaching and research. The objective of this paper is to build, implement and testing a grid computing environment (Globus Toolkit. To achieving this objective we built the hardware and software parts, and configured several basic grid services commands line and web portal. The test result for basic grid services have been indicated that our proposed grid computing model is promising and can use in teaching and research in TU. The paper takes a look at how grid computing is realizing this aim and have created unbelievable opportunities for students, teachers and researchers at TU in addition the result of this paper will make TU a pilot to the other universities in whole Yemen in field of Grid and distributing computing.
The effect of conformal symmetry on charged wormholes
Kuhfittig, Peter K F
2016-01-01
This paper discusses the effect that conformal symmetry can have on a charged wormhole. The analysis yields a physical interpretation of the conformal factor in terms of the electric charge. The rate of change of the conformal factor determines much of the outcome, which ranges from having no solution to wormholes having either one or two throats.
Viscous conformal gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2017-01-01
We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....
Regular conformal system for Einstein equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Novello, M.
1987-06-21
We give a system of partial differential equations satisfied by a metric g conformal to an Einstein metric and by the conformal factor ..omega.., regular system in the sense that it does not contain negative powers of ..omega... We use the ideas of Friedrich but we obtain here a hyperbolic system in the sense of Leray, by a different method.
Superspace conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Tie-Cheng; Wang Hong; Zhang Yu-Feng
2005-01-01
A new simple loop algebra GM is constructed, which is devoted to the establishing of an isospectral problem. By making use of the Tu scheme, the multi-component Tu hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, an expanding loop algebra FM of the loop algebra GM is presented. Based on the FM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Tu hierarchy has been worked out. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.
Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V
2014-11-10
Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Identification and characterization of Tu88, an antigenic gene from Theileria uilenbergi.
Lu, Yizhu; Wang, Yuefeng; Li, Youquan; Gou, Huitian; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Zhijie
2015-06-01
Theileria uilenbergi is a pathogen that causes ovine theileriosis. Prevention and control of theileriosis relies on its diagnosis at early stages of occurrence and requires understanding of proteins with antigenic properties from the pathogen. Despite its prevalence in China, only a few molecules with antigenic properties have been characterized from T. uilenbergi. In this study, we identified a cDNA named Tu88 by immunoscreening a T. uilenbergi merozoite cDNA library with T. uilenbergi-positive sera from infected sheep. Recombinant Tu88 (rTu88) expressed in bacteria reacted strongly with the positive sera of T. uilenbergi in western blot analysis indicating its potential as an antigen. Southern blot analysis showed that it is a single copy gene. Protein localization by immunostaining blood smears from an infected sheep demonstrated the presence of native Tu88 in merozoites. These findings suggest that Tu88 is a potential candidate antigen for the development of a sero-diagnostic tool.
Calibration Methods for Air Coupled Antennas - COST Action TU1208
Marecos, Vânia; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona; Pajewski, Lara
2016-04-01
This work focuses on the comparison of different methods for calibrating air coupled antennas: Coring, Surface Reflection Method (SRM) and Common Mid-Point (CMP) through the analysis of GPR data collected in a test site with different pavement solutions. Research activities have been carried out during a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in December 2015. The use of GPR in transport infrastructures represents one of the most significant advances for obtaining continuous data along the road, with the advantage of operation at traffic speed and being a non-destructive technique. Its main application has been the evaluation of layer thickness. For the determination of layer thickness, it is necessary to know the velocity of the signal, which depends on the dielectric constant of the material, and the two-way travel time of the reflected signal that is recorded by the GPR system. The calculation of the dielectric value of the materials can be done using different approaches such as: using fixed values based on experience, laboratory determination of dielectric values, applying the SRM, performing back calculation from ground truth references such as cores and test pits, or using the CMP method. The problem with using ground truth is that it is time consuming, labour intensive and intrusive to traffic, in addition, a drill core is not necessarily representative of the whole surveyed area. Regarding the surface reflection technique, one of the problems is that it only measures the dielectric value from the layer surface and not from the whole layer. Recent works already started to address some of these challenges proposing new approaches for GPR layer thickness measurements using multiple antennas to calculate the average dielectric value of the asphalt layer, taking advantage of significant hardware improvements in GPR
Transitive conformal holonomy groups
Alt, Jesse
2011-01-01
For $(M,[g])$ a conformal manifold of signature $(p,q)$ and dimension at least three, the conformal holonomy group $\\mathrm{Hol}(M,[g]) \\subset O(p+1,q+1)$ is an invariant induced by the canonical Cartan geometry of $(M,[g])$. We give a description of all possible connected conformal holonomy groups which act transitively on the M\\"obius sphere $S^{p,q}$, the homogeneous model space for conformal structures of signature $(p,q)$. The main part of this description is a list of all such groups which also act irreducibly on $\\R^{p+1,q+1}$. For the rest, we show that they must be compact and act decomposably on $\\R^{p+1,q+1}$, in particular, by known facts about conformal holonomy the conformal class $[g]$ must contain a metric which is locally isometric to a so-called special Einstein product.
小猪和小虎——SUZUKI TU250 Volty VS Kawasaki Estrella
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜启弘; 徐天翔
2005-01-01
在日本250毫升复古车中．四大厂家各自推出了自己的代表车型。雅马哈的SRV250．本田的GB250．铃木TU250 Volty、川崎Estrella。其中，GB250大获成功，SRV250则表现平平，TU250 Volty和Estrella则紧紧咬住GB250．在日本国内和国外市场上均取得不错的销量。本期试车我们就将对铃木TU250和川崎的Estrella进行对比测试。
[Analysis on intestinal disorders in Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxiustion) found from Dunhuang].
Shi, Yin; Shang, Haixia; Wu, Huangan
2016-05-01
Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxibustion), excavated from Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang, is one of the earliest existing monographs on moxibustion. The medical masters from different schools have focused on this book because it is different from the existing ancient medical works and have not been collected in the medical works of different dynasties. In this study, the literature of Jiujing Tu on five acupoints (Dachangshu, Pangguangshu, Daxiaochangshu, Nieshu and Cigong) relevant with intestinal disorders is collected. It is intended to discuss and analyze the acupoint location, main intestinal disorder, moxibustion characters, recognition on the literature of different dynasties and modern clinical applications. It is believed that the thought of strong moxibustion in the treatment of intestinal disorders advocated in Jiujing Tu has profound impact on the medical development in later generations. It deserves us to have a further digging, collection and promotion of this thought in the modern time.
The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine
Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.
2014-06-01
A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.
Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208
Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio
2016-04-01
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method
Electromagnetic simulators for Ground Penetrating Radar applications developed in COST Action TU1208
Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Warren, Craig; Antonijevic, Sinisa; Doric, Vicko; Poljak, Dragan
2017-04-01
Founded in 1971, COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) is the first and widest European framework for the transnational coordination of research activities. It operates through Actions, science and technology networks with a duration of four years. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (4 April 2013 - 3 October 2017) is to exchange and increase knowledge and experience on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe a wider use of this technique. Research activities carried out in TU1208 include all aspects of the GPR technology and methodology: design, realization and testing of radar systems and antennas; development and testing of surveying procedures for the monitoring and inspection of structures; integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing approaches; advancement of electromagnetic-modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for radargram analysis and interpretation. GPR radargrams often have no resemblance to the subsurface or structures over which the profiles were recorded. Various factors, including the innate design of the survey equipment and the complexity of electromagnetic propagation in composite scenarios, can disguise complex structures recorded on reflection profiles. Electromagnetic simulators can help to understand how target structures get translated into radargrams. They can show the limitations of GPR technique, highlight its capabilities, and support the user in understanding where and in what environment GPR can be effectively used. Furthermore, electromagnetic modelling can aid the choice of the most proper GPR equipment for a survey, facilitate the interpretation of complex datasets and be used for the design of new antennas. Electromagnetic simulators can be employed to produce synthetic radargrams with the purposes of testing new data-processing, imaging and inversion algorithms, or assess
Conformal invariance and particle aspects in general relativity
Salehi, H; Darabi, F
2000-01-01
We study the breakdown of conformal symmetry in a conformally invariantgravitational model. The symmetry breaking is introduced by defining apreferred conformal frame in terms of the large scale characteristics of theuniverse. In this context we show that a local change of the preferredconformal frame results in a Hamilton-Jacobi equation describing a particlewith adjustable mass. In this equation the dynamical characteristics of theparticle substantially depends on the applied conformal factor and localgeometry. Relevant interpretations of the results are also discussed.
A Practical Adaptive TuCM Scheme for Rayleigh Flat Fading Channels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
伍守豪; 宋文涛
2004-01-01
A practical adaptive turbo coded modulation (TuCM) scheme was proposed and its adaptive method was described. With some hardware considerations, a suboptimal optimization algorithm that the number of fading regions is variable was put forward. Furthermore, the cutoff fade depth of power adaptation was modified to reduce the interruption probability. The results show that the proposed adaptive TuCM comes within 3 dB of Rayleigh fading channel capacity, and exhibits about 3 dB power gain relative to the conventional adaptive trellis-coded modulation (TCM), and is easy to realize by hardware.
Conformational stability of calreticulin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.
2005-01-01
The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....
Synthesis and conformational features of sym ,',"-triarylguanidines
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kanniyappan Gopi; Brijesh Rathi; Natesan Thirupathi
2010-03-01
A one pot reaction involving sym ,'-diarylthiourea and the respective arylamine in the presence of aq. KOH in nitrobenzene at ≥ 105°C afforded sym ,',"-triarylguanidine in fair to good yield and the products have been characterized. Sym ,',"-tri(4-tolyl)guanidine possesses (7) anti-anti conformation, sym ,',"-tri(2-tolyl)guanidine (8) and sym ,',"-tris(2,4-xylyl)guanidine (11) each possess anti-anti conformation whereas sym ,',"-tris(2-anisyl)guanidine possesses (9) syn-anti conformation as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The observed conformations appear to result from a subtle balance between steric factor associated with the aryl substituent and multiple electronic factors namely - conjugation/negative hyperconjugation and non-covalent interactions in the crystal lattice.
Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds
Khan, Suhail; Bokhari, Ashfaque H; Khan, Gulzar Ali; Mathematics, Department of; Peshawar, University of; Pakhtoonkhwa, Peshawar Khyber; Pakistan.,; Petroleum, King Fahd University of; Minerals,; 31261, Dhahran; Arabia, Saudi
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper ...
"V tu ossen mõ ne nabljudali tshissel..." : [luuletused] / Svetlana Blomberg
Blomberg, Svetlana
2000-01-01
Sisu: "V tu ossen mõ ne nabljudali tshissel..." ; "Tshto delat mne, zalozhnitse zimõ..." ; "Zlaja tshornaja burja na mir naletela..." ; Stirka na beregu zaliva ; Mozhno s proshlõm sporit i srazhatsja ; Mezhdu listjev opavshih kashtan otõskat..."
Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car
Hartvelt, M.
2014-01-01
‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential
An efficient algorithm for nucleolus and prekernel computation in some classes of TU-games
Faigle, U.; Kern, W.; Kuipers, J.
1998-01-01
We consider classes of TU-games. We show that we can efficiently compute an allocation in the intersection of the prekernel and the least core of the game if we can efficiently compute the minimum excess for any given allocation. In the case where the prekernel of the game contains exactly one core
CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks
Bellogín Kouki, A.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Lin, J.J.P.; Said, A.; Samar, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Vuurens, J.B.P.
2014-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Trac
RESULTS OF AIRPLANE TU-204-300 OPERATED BY "VLADIVOSTOK AVIA" COMPANY FUEL FLOW MONITIRING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. E. Maslennikova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes the results obtained from continuous monitoring of fuel flow on the airplanes Tu-204-300, operated by the aircompany "Vladivostok Avia". The reasons for the change in the cost of each copy of airplane and changes in fuel characteristics due to pilots manner of flying.
XIA AND THE TU STATE IN THE ORACLE INSCRIPTIONS: A CONSIDERATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HuHouxuan
1995-01-01
In recent years,the studies on the Xia culture entered a new stage~2.In thepresent article,the writer investigates the identification of the Xia peoplewith the Tu state based on the archaeological evidence,the ancient recordsand the oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty.
HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.
Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.
2015-01-01
The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr
HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.
Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.
2015-01-01
The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data fr
Comparison of Plasma Tu-M2-PK and CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Heegaard, Niels H H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B
2009-01-01
because of suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Of these, 51 patients had their conditions diagnosed as PDAC, whereas this diagnosis was ruled out in 52 after 12 months of follow-up. The performance of Tu-M2-PK was compared with that of CA19-9 using cutoff values 15 and 37 U/mL, respectively. RESULTS...
The conformal transformation of the night sky
Minguzzi, E.
2016-12-01
We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not use the four dimensionality of spacetime or spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.
Donawa, M E
1996-05-01
The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.
α1-Tubulin FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and conidiation in Fusarium asiaticum.
Hu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang; Zheng, Jingwu; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua
2015-04-01
The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium asiaticum contains two homologous genes FaTUA1 and FaTUA2 encoding α-tubulins. In this study, we found that FaTUA2 was dispensable for vegetative growth and sporulation in F. asiaticum. The deletion of FaTUA1 however led to dramatically reduced mycelial growth, twisted hyphae and abnormal nuclei in apical cells of hyphae. The FaTUA1 deletion mutant (ΔFaTuA1-5) also showed a significant decrease in conidiation, and produced abnormal conidia. Pathogenicity assays showed that ΔFaTuA1-5 exhibited decreased virulence on wheat head. Unexpectedly, the deletion of FaTUA1 led to resistance to high temperatures. In addition, ΔFaTuA2 showed increased sensitivity to carbendazim. Furthermore, increased FaTUA2 expression in ΔFaTuA1-5 partially restored the defects of the mutant in mycelial growth, conidial production and virulence, vice versa, increased FaTUA1 expression in the FaTUA2 deletion mutant also partially relieved the defect of the mutant in the delay of conidial germination. Taken together, these results indicate that FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and development, and the functions of FaTuA1 and FaTuA2 are partially interchangeable in F. asiaticum.
Conformal Gravity rotation curves with a conformal Higgs halo
Horne, Keith
2016-06-01
We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's fourth-order Poisson equation if and only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r) = S0 a/(r + a), decreasing from S0 at r = 0 with radial scalelength a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric gμν, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric tilde{g}_{μ ν }=Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with the conformal factor Ω(r) = S(r)/S0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.
Conformal expansions and renormalons
Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges
2001-01-01
The large-order behaviour of QCD is dominated by renormalons. On the other hand renormalons do not occur in conformal theories, such as the one describing the infrared fixed-point of QCD at small beta_0 (the Banks--Zaks limit). Since the fixed-point has a perturbative realization, all-order perturbative relations exist between the conformal coefficients, which are renormalon-free, and the standard perturbative coefficients, which contain renormalons. Therefore, an explicit cancellation of renormalons should occur in these relations. The absence of renormalons in the conformal limit can thus be seen as a constraint on the structure of the QCD perturbative expansion. We show that the conformal constraint is non-trivial: a generic model for the large-order behaviour violates it. We also analyse a specific example, based on a renormalon-type integral over the two-loop running-coupling, where the required cancellation does occur.
Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?
van Schaik, Carel P
2012-05-22
Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.
Quantum massive conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)
2016-04-15
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)
Delineating the conformal window
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael
2011-01-01
We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....
Faraoni, Valerio
2013-01-01
A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.
Bond, Rod
2005-01-01
Abstract This paper reviews theory and research on the relationship between group size and conformity and presents a meta-analysis of 125 Asch-type conformity studies. It questions the assumption of a single function made in formal models of social influence and proposes instead that the function will vary depending on which social influence process predominates. It is argued that normative influence is lik...
Conformism and Wealth Distribution
Mino, Kazuo; Nakamoto, Yasuhiro
2014-01-01
This paper explores the role of consumption externalities in a neoclassical growth model in which households have heterogeneous preferences. We fi?nd that the degree of conformism in consumption held by each household signifi?cantly affects the speed of convergence of the aggregate economy as well as the patterns of wealth distribution in the steady state equilibrium. In particular, a higher degree of consumption conformism accelerates the convergence speed of the economy towards the steady s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerio Faraoni
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.
Conformal Invariance and Conserved Quantities of General Holonomic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Jian-Le
2008-01-01
Conformal invarianee and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems are studied. A one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and its infinitesimal transformation vector of generators are described.The definition of conformal invariance and determining equation for the system are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry.The necessary and sufficient condition,that conformal invariance of the system would be Lie symmetry,is obtained under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group. The corresponding conserved quantity is derived with the aid of a structure equation.Lastly,an example is given to demonstrate the application of the result.
Conformational sampling techniques.
Hatfield, Marcus P D; Lovas, Sándor
2014-01-01
The potential energy hyper-surface of a protein relates the potential energy of the protein to its conformational space. This surface is useful in determining the native conformation of a protein or in examining a statistical-mechanical ensemble of structures (canonical ensemble). In determining the potential energy hyper-surface of a protein three aspects must be considered; reducing the degrees of freedom, a method to determine the energy of each conformation and a method to sample the conformational space. For reducing the degrees of freedom the choice of solvent, coarse graining, constraining degrees of freedom and periodic boundary conditions are discussed. The use of quantum mechanics versus molecular mechanics and the choice of force fields are also discussed, as well as the sampling of the conformational space through deterministic and heuristic approaches. Deterministic methods include knowledge-based statistical methods, rotamer libraries, homology modeling, the build-up method, self-consistent electrostatic field, deformation methods, tree-based elimination and eigenvector following routines. The heuristic methods include Monte Carlo chain growing, energy minimizations, metropolis monte carlo and molecular dynamics. In addition, various methods to enhance the conformational search including the deformation or smoothing of the surface, scaling of system parameters, and multi copy searching are also discussed.
Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H; Michlewski, Gracjan
2014-01-01
.... Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation...
Herrmann, F; Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Oster, W; Wernet, P; Mertelsmann, R
1988-04-01
Anti-TU 67 is a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the transferrin receptor. With respect to hematopoietic cells TU 67 is expressed by human multipotent colony-forming cells (CFU-Mix), erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) and a fraction of granulocyte/monocyte colony forming cells, but is not expressed by mature hematopoietic cells including erythrocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, and peripheral blood myeloid cells. The TU 67-positive fraction of normal bone marrow, separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or immune rosettes, contained 87% of the erythroid progenitor cells. Erythroid progenitor cells were enriched up to 50-fold by using a combination of monoclonal antibodies to deplete mature hematopoietic cells, followed by positive selection of BFU-E and CFU-E by TU 67 antibody.
A tRNA body with high affinity for EF-Tu hastens ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids.
Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C
2014-05-01
There is evidence that tRNA bodies have evolved to reduce differences between aminoacyl-tRNAs in their affinity to EF-Tu. Here, we study the kinetics of incorporation of L-amino acids (AAs) Phe, Ala allyl-glycine (aG), methyl-serine (mS), and biotinyl-lysine (bK) using a tRNA(Ala)-based body (tRNA(AlaB)) with a high affinity for EF-Tu. Results are compared with previous data on the kinetics of incorporation of the same AAs using a tRNA(PheB) body with a comparatively low affinity for EF-Tu. All incorporations exhibited fast and slow phases, reflecting the equilibrium fraction of AA-tRNA in active ternary complex with EF-Tu:GTP before the incorporation reaction. Increasing the concentration of EF-Tu increased the amplitude of the fast phase and left its rate unaltered. This allowed estimation of the affinity of each AA-tRNA to EF-Tu:GTP during translation, showing about a 10-fold higher EF-Tu affinity for AA-tRNAs formed from the tRNA(AlaB) body than from the tRNA(PheB) body. At ∼1 µM EF-Tu, tRNA(AlaB) conferred considerably faster incorporation kinetics than tRNA(PheB), especially in the case of the bulky bK. In contrast, the swap to the tRNA(AlaB) body did not increase the fast phase fraction of N-methyl-Phe incorporation, suggesting that the slow incorporation of N-methyl-Phe had a different cause than low EF-Tu:GTP affinity. The total time for AA-tRNA release from EF-Tu:GDP, accommodation, and peptidyl transfer on the ribosome was similar for the tRNA(AlaB) and tRNA(PheB) bodies. We conclude that a tRNA body with high EF-Tu affinity can greatly improve incorporation of unnatural AAs in a potentially generalizable manner.
Boundary Conformal Field Theory
Cardy, J L
2004-01-01
Boundary conformal field theory (BCFT) is simply the study of conformal field theory (CFT) in domains with a boundary. It gains its significance because, in some ways, it is mathematically simpler: the algebraic and geometric structures of CFT appear in a more straightforward manner; and because it has important applications: in string theory in the physics of open strings and D-branes, and in condensed matter physics in boundary critical behavior and quantum impurity models. In this article, however, I describe the basic ideas from the point of view of quantum field theory, without regard to particular applications nor to any deeper mathematical formulations.
Ketov, Sergei V
1995-01-01
Conformal field theory is an elegant and powerful theory in the field of high energy physics and statistics. In fact, it can be said to be one of the greatest achievements in the development of this field. Presented in two dimensions, this book is designed for students who already have a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, field theory and general relativity. The main idea used throughout the book is that conformal symmetry causes both classical and quantum integrability. Instead of concentrating on the numerous applications of the theory, the author puts forward a discussion of the general
土族民间信仰的民族心理学解析%Tu Folk Beliefs of the National Psychology Analytical
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王默
2011-01-01
Tu folk circulates with many unique folk beliefs,the folk beliefs are minority is an important part of traditional culture.Including fertility belief,reproductive worship,home most widely and typical worship god.This paper tries to ethnic psychology,reading from the perspective of representative of folk beliefs of tu folk beliefs,to explore the psychological factors produced.%土族民间存在着很多独具特色的民间信仰,这些民间信仰是土族传统文化的重要组成部分。其中丰产信仰、生殖崇拜、家神崇拜最为广泛和典型。本文试从民族心理学的角度入手,解读其中具有代表性的民间信仰,以探讨土族民间信仰产生的心理因素。
Genetic polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-Ⅱ of Chinese Tu ethnic minority group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Chen; Yajun Deng; Yonghui Dang; BO Zhang; Haofang Mu; Xiaoguang Yu; Lin Li; Chunxia Yan; Teng Chen
2008-01-01
We analyzed the two hypervariable segments HVS-Ⅰ and HVS-Ⅱ of 108 Chinese Tu ethnic minority group samples for forensic and population genetics purposes.Comparing with Anderson sequence,79 polymorphic loci in HVS-Ⅰ and 40 in HVS-Ⅱ were found in Chi-nese Tu ethnic minority group mtDNA sequences,and 90 and 64 haplotypes were then defined.Haplotype diversity and the mean pair-wise differences were 0.9903:±0.0013 and 5.7785 in HVS-Ⅰ,and 0.9777±0.0013 and 3.5819 in HVS-Ⅱ,respectively.By analyzing the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 1,6180 to 1,6193 in HVS-Ⅰ,we defined some new types of sequence variations.We also compared the relationship between Tu population and other populations using mtDNA HVS-Ⅰ sequences.According to Rst genetic distances,the phylogenetic tree showed that the Tu population,the Xi'an Han population,the Chinese Korean,and the Mongol ethnic group were in a clade.This indicated a close genetic relationship between them.There were far relations between the Tu population and other Chinese southern Han populations,Siberian,European,African,and other foreign populations.The results suggest that Tu population has a multi-origin and has also merged with other local populations.
Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car
Hartvelt, M.
2014-01-01
‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Find out how Forze has been developing hydrogen powered racecars since 2007.
Töötu laevamehhaanik õppis seitsme kuuga kokaks / Agne Narusk
Narusk, Agne, 1971-
2004-01-01
Töötu Jevgeni Solovjov õppis OÜ-s Isabella kokaks, ettevõte on üks 54 koolitajast, kellelt Tallinna tööhõiveamet teenust ostab. 2004. aastaks oli Tallinna tööhõiveametil tööotsijate koolitamiseks 7 mln krooni, millest jätkus pooleks aastaks. Lisa: Tööandjad saavad küsitluslehed
Conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yuan-Cheng; Xia Li-Li; Wang Xiao-Ming
2009-01-01
This paper studies conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for mechanico-electrical systems are provided. The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry under the infinitesimal singleparameter transformation group. The generalized Hojman conserved quantities from the conformal invariance of the system are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.
Conformational stability of calreticulin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink
2005-01-01
The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C-...
A CONFORMATIONAL ELASTICITY THEORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1998-01-01
A new statistical theory based on the rotational isomeric state model describing the chain conformational free energy has been proposed. This theory can be used to predict different tensions of rubber elongation for chemically different polymers, and the energy term during the elongation of natural rubber coincides with the experimental one.
Chen, Huanyang; Tyc, Tomas
2011-01-01
Conformal invisibility devices are only supposed to work within the validity range of geometrical optics. Here we show by numerical simulations and analytical arguments that for certain quantized frequencies they are nearly perfect even in a regime that clearly violates geometrical optics. The quantization condition follows from the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the stationary Schrodinger equation.
Conformal supermultiplets without superpartners
Jarvis, Peter
2011-01-01
We consider polynomial deformations of Lie superalgebras and their representations. For the class A(n-1,0) ~ sl(n/1), we identify families of superalgebras of quadratic and cubic type, consistent with Jacobi identities. For such deformed superalgebras we point out the possibility of zero step supermultiplets, carried on a single, irreducible representation of the even (Lie) subalgebra. For the conformal group SU(2,2) in 1+3-dimensional spacetime, such irreducible (unitary) representations correspond to standard conformal fields (j_1,j_2;d), where (j_1,j_2) is the spin and d the conformal dimension; in the massless class j_1 j_2=0, and d=j_1+j_2+1. We show that these repesentations are zero step supermultiplets for the superalgebra SU_(2)(2,2/1), the quadratic deformation of conformal supersymmetry SU(2,2/1). We propose to elevate SU_(2)(2,2/1) to a symmetry of the S-matrix. Under this scenario, low-energy standard model matter fields (leptons, quarks, Higgs scalars and gauge fields) descended from such confor...
Pervushin, V
2001-01-01
The inflation-free solution of problems of the modern cosmology (horizon, cosmic initial data, Planck era, arrow of time, singularity,homogeneity, and so on) is considered in the conformal-invariant unified theory given in the space with geometry of similarity where we can measure only the conformal-invariant ratio of all quantities. Conformal General Relativity is defined as the $SU_c(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$-Standard Model where the dimensional parameter in the Higgs potential is replaced by a dilaton scalar field described by the negative Penrose-Chernikov-Tagirov action. Spontaneous SU(2) symmetry breaking is made on the level of the conformal-invariant angle of the dilaton-Higgs mixing, and it allows us to keep the structure of Einstein's theory with the equivalence principle. We show that the lowest order of the linearized equations of motion solves the problems mentioned above and describes the Cold Universe Scenario with the constant temperature T and z-history of all masses with respect to an obser...
Conformational changes in biopolymers
Ivanov, Vassili
2005-12-01
Biopolymer conformational changes are involved in many biological processes. This thesis summarizes some theoretical and experimental approaches which I have taken at UCLA to explore conformational changes in biopolymers. The reversible thermal denaturation of the DNA double helix is, perhaps, the simplest example of biopolymer conformational change. I have developed a statistical mechanics model of DNA melting with reduced degrees of freedom, which allows base stacking interaction to be taken into account and treat base pairing and stacking separately. Unlike previous models, this model describes both the unpairing and unstacking parts of the experimental melting curves and explains the observed temperature dependence of the effective thermodynamic parameters used in models of the nearest neighbor type. I developed a basic kinetic model for irreversible thermal denaturation of F-actin, which incorporates depolymerization of F-actin from the ends and breaking of F-actin fiber in the middle. The model explains the cooperativity of F-actin thermal denaturation observed by D. Pavlov et al. in differential calorimetry measurements. CG-rich DNA sequences form left-handed Z-DNA at high ionic strength or upon binding of polyvalent ions and some proteins. I studied experimentally the B-to-Z transition of the (CG)6 dodecamer. Improvement of the locally linearized model used to interpret the data gives evidence for an intermediate state in the B-to-Z transition of DNA, contrary to previous research on this subject. In the past 15 years it has become possible to study the conformational changes of biomolecules using single-molecule techniques. In collaboration with other lab members I performed a single-molecule experiment, where we monitored the displacement of a micrometer-size bead tethered to a surface by a DNA probe undergoing the conformational change. This technique allows probing of conformational changes with subnanometer accuracy. We applied the method to detect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elholm, M; Dam, I; Jorgensen, C;
2001-01-01
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a key regulator of lipid homeostasis. Numerous fatty acids and eicosanoids serve as ligands and activators for PPARalpha. Here we demonstrate that S-hexadecyl-CoA, a nonhydrolyzable...
Research data from hydrology disciplines are safely stored and published in 3TU.Datacentrum
Prinčič, Alenka; Rombouts, Jeroen
2013-04-01
Good management of research data from different science disciplines such as hydrology, geodesy and climate research, is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in forecasting and predictions. These research data can be well-managed and safely stored in 3TU.Datacentrum and thus become available for future use by the scientific community. 3TU.Datacentrum (datacentrum.3tu.nl) is a portal for science- and technology research data in the Netherlands. It provides long-term archive and permanent access to research data, it provides tools for citation of research datasets and thus enables linking, sharing and reuse of research data. Versatility of disciplines and thus versatility of the data producers' needs is a challenge of the data center. 3TU.Datacentrum offers solutions - as standardized as possible yet different where required. Standardized solution is the data model: datasets, instruments, locations and time frames are all objects on their own, with own metadata and interconnected through rdf relationships. These relations are also used to generate ORE Resource Maps. The file format NetCDF, which is primarily used for sets of multidimensional arrays with metadata included, enables interoperability. For simple datasets a Fedora repository is used where datasets of any format are allowed including that of a specific instrument. Alongside the NetCDF an xml version (ncml) is stored that can be converted to other formats. For complex datasets an OPeNDAP framework is used, which allows querying within and across datasets. Some examples from hydrological research are presented. 1 - For a complex collection of simple datasets consisting of ongoing hydrological measurements from several project partners, using several instruments, on several locations, and over a long period of time, there was a need for central storage in order to share the data and enable easy combination of data sets. The measurements are not repeatable and are also valuable for multidisciplinary research
A Conformal Extension Theorem based on Null Conformal Geodesics
Lübbe, Christian
2008-01-01
In this article we describe the formulation of null geodesics as null conformal geodesics and their description in the tractor formalism. A conformal extension theorem through an isotropic singularity is proven by requiring the boundedness of the tractor curvature and its derivatives to sufficient order along a congruence of null conformal geodesic. This article extends earlier work by Tod and Luebbe.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hille-Betz, Ursula; Soergel, Philipp; Kundu, Sudip; Klapdor, Ruediger; Hillemanns, Peter [Hannover Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hannover (Germany); Vaske, Bernhard [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, Hannover (Germany); Bremer, Michael; Henkenberens, Christoph [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany)
2016-01-15
The purpose of this work was to identify parameters influencing the risk of late radiation side effects, fair or poor cosmetic outcomes (COs) and pain in breast cancer patients after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2013, 159 patients were treated at the Hannover Medical School. Physician-rated toxicity according to the LENT-SOMA criteria, CO and pain were assessed by multivariate analysis. LENT-SOMA grade 1-4 toxicity was observed as follows: fibrosis 10.7 %, telangiectasia 1.2 %, arm oedema 8.8 % and breast oedema 5.0 %. In addition, 15.1 % of patients reported moderate or severe breast pain, and 21.4 % complained about moderate or severe pain in the arm or shoulder. In multivariate analysis, axillary clearing (AC) was significantly associated with lymphoedema of the arm [odds ratio (OR) 4.37, p = 0.011, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.58]. Breast oedema was also highly associated with AC (OR 10.59, p = 0.004, 95 % CI 2.1-53.36), a ptosis grade 2/3 or pseudoptosis and a bra size ≥ cup C (OR 5.34, p = 0.029, 95 % CI 1.2-24.12). A ptosis grade 2/3 or pseudoptosis and a bra size ≥ cup C were the parameters significantly associated with an unfavourable CO (OR 3.19, p = 0.019, 95 % CI 1.2-8.4). Concerning chronic breast pain, we found a trend related to the prescribed radiation dose including boost (OR 1.077, p = 0.060, 95 % CI 0.997-1.164). Chronic shoulder or arm pain was statistically significantly associated with lymphoedema of the arm (OR 3.9, p = 0.027, 95 % CI 1.17-13.5). Chronic arm and breast oedema were significantly influenced by the extent of surgery (AC). Ptotic and large breasts were significantly associated with unfavourable COs and chronic breast oedema. Late toxicities exclusive breast pain were not associated with radiotherapy parameters. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Parameter zu identifizieren, die Spaetschaeden nach Radiotherapie, ein unguenstiges
Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations
EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.
From integrable to conformal theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babelon, O. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)
1990-12-01
Working in the context of Toda field theory, we establish the relationship between their integrability properties and their conformal structure, thereby clarifying the role of the Yang-Baxter equation in conformal field theory. (orig.).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yi
2009-01-01
This paper is devoted to studying the conformal invariance and Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry of a holonomic mechanical system in event space. The definition of the conformal invariance and the corresponding conformal factors of the holonomic system in event space are given. By investigating the relation between the conformal invariance and the Noether symmetry and the Lie symmetry, expressions of conformal factors of the system under these circumstances are obtained, and the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity directly derived from the conformal invariance are given. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.
Chen, Huanyang; Li, Hui
2011-01-01
Plane mirror can make one object into two for observers on the object's side. Yet, there seems no way to achieve the same effect for observers from all directions. In this letter, we will design a new class of gradient index lenses from multivalued optical conformal mapping. We shall call them the conformal lenses. Such lenses can transform one source into two (or even many) omnidirectionally. Like the overlapped illusion optics does, they can even transform multiple sources into one. Rather than using negative index materials, implementation here only needs isotropic positive index materials like other gradient index lenses. One obvious drawback however, is that they have singular permittivity values which restrict them to functioning at one single frequency. This however, needs not be the case when applying transmutation methods, which enable the lenses to work in a broadband frequency range.
Multiscale conformal pattern transfer
Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre
2016-06-01
We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.
Conformational flexibility of aspartame.
Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea
2016-05-01
L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.
Conformal Complementarity Maps
Barbón, José L F
2013-01-01
We study quantum cosmological models for certain classes of bang/crunch singularities, using the duality between expanding bubbles in AdS with a FRW interior cosmology and perturbed CFTs on de Sitter space-time. It is pointed out that horizon complementarity in the AdS bulk geometries is realized as a conformal transformation in the dual deformed CFT. The quantum version of this map is described in full detail in a toy model involving conformal quantum mechanics. In this system the complementarity map acts as an exact duality between eternal and apocalyptic Hamiltonian evolutions. We calculate the commutation relation between the Hamiltonians corresponding to the different frames. It vanishes only on scale invariant states.
Conformal boundaries of warped products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2006-01-01
In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....
Predicting bioactive conformations and binding modes of macrocycles
Anighoro, Andrew; de la Vega de León, Antonio; Bajorath, Jürgen
2016-10-01
Macrocyclic compounds experience increasing interest in drug discovery. It is often thought that these large and chemically complex molecules provide promising candidates to address difficult targets and interfere with protein-protein interactions. From a computational viewpoint, these molecules are difficult to treat. For example, flexible docking of macrocyclic compounds is hindered by the limited ability of current docking approaches to optimize conformations of extended ring systems for pose prediction. Herein, we report predictions of bioactive conformations of macrocycles using conformational search and binding modes using docking. Conformational ensembles generated using specialized search technique of about 70 % of the tested macrocycles contained accurate bioactive conformations. However, these conformations were difficult to identify on the basis of conformational energies. Moreover, docking calculations with limited ligand flexibility starting from individual low energy conformations rarely yielded highly accurate binding modes. In about 40 % of the test cases, binding modes were approximated with reasonable accuracy. However, when conformational ensembles were subjected to rigid body docking, an increase in meaningful binding mode predictions to more than 50 % of the test cases was observed. Electrostatic effects did not contribute to these predictions in a positive or negative manner. Rather, achieving shape complementarity at macrocycle-target interfaces was a decisive factor. In summary, a combined computational protocol using pre-computed conformational ensembles of macrocycles as a starting point for docking shows promise in modeling binding modes of macrocyclic compounds.
Two Additional Remarks on Conformism
Schlicht, Ekkehart
2014-01-01
Abstract This note offers two comments on the article “Social Influences towards Conformism in Economic Experiments” by Hargreaves Heap that is to appear in the Economics e-Journal. One relates to the concept of conformism, the other lines out some phenomena where an explicit recognition of group processes, such as conformism, may be analytically helpful.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozynski, M.; Gerder, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik
2003-07-01
Saving of resources will be a key issue in future building construction. A new building projected on the campus of Brunswick University will have a power supply and ventilation concept that ensures low energy consumption. The project is carried out with funds provided by the Federal Minister of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in the context of the SolarBau funding concept. Construction of the building will be followed by an extensive monitoring programme that is to ensure its perfect function. [German] Eine wesentliche Zielsetzung zukuenftigen Bauens ist der sparsame Umgang mit Ressourcen. Im Rahmen eines integralen Planungsprozesses konnte fuer den Neubau des Informatikzentrums der TU Braunschweig ein Energie- und Lueftungskonzept realisiert werden, dass auf einen niedrigen Energieverbrauch zielt. Das Projekt wird im Rahmen des Foerderkonzeptes SolarBau durch das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) gefoerdert. Durch das anschliessende umfangreiche Monitoringprogramm wird derzeit die Funktionsfaehigkeit dieses Konzeptes ueberprueft. (orig.)
CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall S. Seright
2003-09-01
This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the
Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie
2011-01-01
The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…
Boström, J
2001-12-01
Several programs (Catalyst, Confort, Flo99, MacroModel, and Omega) that are commonly used to generate conformational ensembles have been tested for their ability to reproduce bioactive conformations. The ligands from thirty-two different ligand-protein complexes determined by high-resolution (Confort) performed least well. For the seven ligands in the set having eight or more rotatable bonds, none of the bioactive conformations were ever found, save for one exception (Flo99). These ligands do not bind in a local minimum conformation according to AMBER*\\GB/SA. Taking these last two observations together, it is clear that geometrically similar structures should be collected in order to increase the probability of finding the bioactive conformation among the generated ensembles. Factors influencing bioactive conformational retrieval have been identified and are discussed.
OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.
Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh
1990-01-01
Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)
Identification of Molecular Markers Linked to TuMV Resistant Gene in Cabbage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Jinping; WANG Chao; LIU Ying
2008-01-01
A total of 144 F2 individuals were obtained from the crossing between 1047 (susceptible) and A21 (resistant).Two RAPD markers were screened out in 200 random primers using BSA(Bulked Segregant Analysis). Two RAPD markers, designated as AG13/2000 and U16/660,were 7.7 cM and 8.38 cM apart from the TuMV resistant gene,respectively. The two RAPD fragments were converted to SCAR markers.SCAR markers were confined in germplasm.
Jornada "Cómo crear tu propia asesoría fiscal"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana María Delgado García
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Los Estudios de Derecho y Ciencia Política de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya organizaron el día 23 de septiembre de 2015 la jornada «Cómo crear
tu propia asesoría fiscal», bajo la dirección de Ana María Delgado García (Directora del Máster Universitario de Fiscalidad de la UOC y Rafael Oliver Cuello (Abogado, asesor fiscal y profesor consultor de Fiscalidad de la UOC.
Opšte vibracije na sedištu pilota kod dva tipa helikoptera
Živković Dejan; Basarić Gradimir; Jovelić Stojan
2002-01-01
U ovom radu opisano je merenje opštih vibracija na sedištu pilota kod dva tipa helikoptera (po jedna letelica) sa turbomlaznim motorima, kao i trećinsko-oktavna analiza ubrzanja opštih vibracija u sve tri ose. Iz dobijenih rezultata sledi da su nivoi ubrzanja kod prvog tipa helikoptera najveći u trećinsko-oktavnom opsegu sa centralnom frekvencijom od 16 Hz. Maksimalne vrednosti ubrzanja opštih vertikalnih vibracija izmerene su za režime lebdenja (0,977 m/s2) i horizontalnog leta pri brzini od...
Ciuda tu corazón, es para toda la vida -Para Disfrutar la Música Clasica
2012-01-01
Cuida tu corazón, es para toda la vida. Importantelibro de información sobre prevenciónde de las enfermedades cardiovasculares,dirigido a la comunidad en general.Hace parte de la colección de libros sobre prevención primaria: “Cuidatu corazón, vive mejor” que desde hace varios años viene publicandoel profesor, doctor Fernando Manzur Jattin, desde su grupo de investigación:“Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas”, perteneciente a laFacultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena y Categoriza...
Transportvaneundersøgelsen - Variabeldeklaration : TU 2006-09, version 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Hjalmar
, eller anden årsag. Undervejs omtales en række vigtige detaljer ved spørgeskemaet, men dette notat har ikke til formål at give en udtømmende beskrivelse af hvilke spørgsmål, der er stillet til hvem og hvornår. Her kan det være til stor nytte at besøge testspørgeskemaet på http://tu2010.dk/dev/starttest.php...
Alim, Karen; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki
2016-01-01
Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni
2013-01-01
This paper analyses how large Danish companies are responding to new governmental regulation which requires them to report on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The paper is based on an analysis of 142 company annual reports required by the new Danish regulation regarding CSR reporting, plus ...... in CSR reporting practices. Finally, it is argued that non-conformance with the new regulatory requirements is not solely about conscious resistance but may also be caused by, for example, lack of awareness, resource limitations, misinterpretations, and practical difficulties....
Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki
2016-10-01
Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.
Jarvis, P D
2006-01-01
We present a conformal theory of a dissipationless relativistic fluid in 2 space-time dimensions. The theory carries with it a representation of the algebra of 2-$D$ area-preserving diffeomorphisms in the target space of the complex scalar potentials. A complete canonical description is given, and the central charge of the current algebra is calculated. The passage to the quantum theory is discussed in some detail; as a result of operator ordering problems, full quantization at the level of the fields is as yet an open problem.
1991-01-01
Kehtib 1. aprillist 1991. Lisatud ajutine juhend: töö vahendamine tööotsijale, töötule, töötu abiraha määramine ja maksmine Lisatud: töötu abiraha arvutamine. Muudatus: RT I 1992 nr. 27 art. 362
Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Khan, Gulzar Ali [University of Peshawar, Department of Mathematics, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Pakistan); Bokhari, Ashfaque H. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
2015-11-15
In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs. (orig.)
Supergravitational conformal Galileons
Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt
2017-08-01
The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios
Conformal invariant saturation
Navelet, H
2002-01-01
We show that, in onium-onium scattering at (very) high energy, a transition to saturation happens due to quantum fluctuations of QCD dipoles. This transition starts when the order alpha^2 correction of the dipole loop is compensated by its faster energy evolution, leading to a negative interference with the tree level amplitude. After a derivation of the the one-loop dipole contribution using conformal invariance of the elastic 4-gluon amplitude in high energy QCD, we obtain an exact expression of the saturation line in the plane (Y,L) where Y is the total rapidity and L, the logarithm of the onium scale ratio. It shows universal features implying the Balitskyi - Fadin - Kuraev - Lipatov (BFKL) evolution kernel and the square of the QCD triple Pomeron vertex. For large L, only the higher BFKL Eigenvalue contributes, leading to a saturation depending on leading log perturbative QCD characteristics. For initial onium scales of same order, however, it involves an unlimited summation over all conformal BFKL Eigen...
Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that the reduced free energy changes sign, at the second, fifth and sixth order in the coupling, when decreasing the number of flavors from the upper end of the conformal window. If the change in sign is interpreted as signal of an instability of the system then we infer a critical number of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary o...
网购用户从众行为影响因素实证研究%An Empirical Study on Factors Affecting the Conformity Behavior of Online Shoppers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘江; 朱庆华; 吴克文; 赵宇翔
2012-01-01
基于从众行为的基本概念和特征，通过分析国内外文献资料，借鉴社会心理学领域的相关研究理论和成果，构建网购用户从众行为影响因素模型并提出相关假设。通过问卷调查的方式进行数据收集，利用SPSS17．0进行统计分析并使用Lisrel8．70软件进行结构方程建模以验证本研究提出的假设，并计算模型中各变量对用户网购从众行为的影响程度．研究认为用户网购从众行为主要受网购态度和网购习惯的影响。研究结论可以为电子商务中的设计者、管理者以及政策制定者提供相关的参考依据和建议。%Based nn the introduction of concept and charac.teristics of eontormity behavior, as well as the literature review on some relevant theories and publications of social psyehology field, the paper proposes several potential factors that may affect the conformity behaviror of online shoppers, and builds a conceptual model with some relevant hypotheses put forward. The empirical data are collected by questionnaire survey. Specifically, it employs SPSS 17.0 to make descriptive statistical mralysis on the sample data, and structural eqaa- tion model is constructed by applying Lisrel 8.70 to verify the hypotheses and estimate the variables＇ impact on the conformity behavior of online shoppers. The finding shows that the contormity behavior of online shoppers ix affected by the attitude anti habit of online shoppers. Furthermore, the paper may yield some implications for the developers, managers, and policy-makers of e-enmmeree.
Diasystème et spécification de traits en tu'un savi (mixtecan otomangue oriental)
Léonard, Jean,
2010-01-01
This contribution aims to focus on various descriptions and theories of the segmental inventory and distributional constraints of the phonology of Tu'un Savi (Mixtec). The Oto-Manguean languages are reputed to be among the most complex of Meso-America due to the intricacy of their surface forms. Mixtec (known as Tu'un Savi or Ñuu Savi by its speakers) is part of the Mixtecan sub-family, which includes Trique, Cuicatec and probably also Amuzgo (Longacre, 1957, 1961; Longacre & Millon, 1961), b...
Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems in phase space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Li-Li; Cai Jian-Le; Li Yuan-Cheng
2009-01-01
This paper studies the conformed invariance and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems in phase space.The definition and the determining equation of conformed invariance for general holonomic systems in phase space are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformeal invariance and Lie symmetry.The relationship between the conformed invaxiance and the Lie symmetry is discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invaxiance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal single-parameter transformation group is deduced.The conserved quantities of the system axe given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta
2012-01-01
/Principal Findings We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420–444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX). Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed...... by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta;
2012-01-01
barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2012-03-15
Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.
The "Da Ming Hunyi Tu": Repurposing a Ming Map in Sino-African Diplomacy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Akin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In 2002, an exhibition at South Africa’s parliament included a reproduction of the Da Ming Hunyi Tu (Amalgamated map of the Great Ming, citing it as the earliest world map to depict the entire African continent. As part of its broader efforts to shape a narrative of long-standing and peaceful international relations with Africa, the People’s Republic of China formally presented a replica of this map as a gift to the South African government in conjunction with the exhibition. In official statements and popular media coverage alike, the map was described as evidence of a distinctly Chinese approach to global relations, based on benevolence and mutual respect. In particular, the map was ahistorically intertwined with the legacy of Zheng He’s diplomatic expeditions, which reached the East African coast in the early 1400s. To the cartographic historian, however, the depiction of Africa in the Da Ming Hunyi Tu is clearly derived from non-Chinese sources that predate Zheng He’s expeditions. This article examines the ways in which the map has been divorced from its original context to suit modern needs, exemplifying the deployment of cartography to deflect anxieties about the nature of Chinese economic influence in South Africa.
H1 - antihistamīna preparātu aprite aptiekās
Palamarčuka, Nadežda
2009-01-01
Maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, kādi H1-antihistamīna preparāti ir vislabāk pazīstami un tiek visvairāk pirkti aptiekās. Pētījumā tika aptaujāti 100 pacienti un analizēti lieltirgotavas MagnumMedical H1-antihistamīna preparātu tirdzniecības apjomi. Iegūtie rezultāti liecina, ka vislielākais H1-antihistamīna preparātu patēriņš ir pirmās paaudzes preparātiem Tavegyl (klemastīns) un Suprastin (hloropiramīns), jo to iegādei nav nepieciešamas receptes, tie ir salīdzinoši lēti un ir bijuši p...
TuBaFrost 5: multifunctional central database application for a European tumor bank.
Isabelle, M; Teodorovic, I; Morente, M M; Jaminé, D; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Dinjens, W N M; Oosterhuis, J W; Lam, K H; Oomen, M H A; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; van de Vijver, M; van Boven, H; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; Lopez-Guerrero, J A; Llombart Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; van Veen, E-B; van Damme, B; Riegman, P H J
2006-12-01
Developing a tissue bank database has become more than just logically arranging data in tables combined with a search engine. Current demand for high quality samples and data, and the ever-changing legal and ethical regulations mean that the application must reflect TuBaFrost rules and protocols for the collection, exchange and use of tissue. To ensure continuation and extension of the TuBaFrost European tissue bank, the custodianship of the samples, and hence the decision over whether to issue samples to requestors, remains with the local collecting centre. The database application described in this article has been developed to facilitate this open structure virtual tissue bank model serving a large group. It encompasses many key tasks, without the requirement for personnel, hence minimising operational costs. The Internet-accessible database application enables search, selection and request submission for requestors, whereas collectors can upload and edit their collection. Communication between requestor and involved collectors is started with automatically generated e-mails.
Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles
Graham, C Robin
2012-01-01
The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.
Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks
Hogervorst, Matthijs
2016-01-01
We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.
Conformal invariance, Noether symmetry, Lie symmetry and conserved quantities of Hamilton systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Rong; Xu Xue-Jun
2012-01-01
In this paper,the relation of the conformal invariance,the Noether symmetry,and the Lie symmetry for the Hamilton system is discussed in detail. The definition of the conformal invariance for Hamilton systems is given.The relation between the conformal invariance and the Noether symmetry is discussed,the conformal factors of the determining expressions are found by using the Noether symmetry,and the Noether conserved quantity resulted from the conformal invariance is obtained.The relation between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry is discussed,the conformal factors are found by using the Lie symmetry,and the Hojman conserved quantity resulted from the conformal invariance of the system is obtained.Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.
Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Henan, E-mail: wuhenanby@163.com; Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)
2014-01-15
The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.
Domènech, Guillem
2016-01-01
From higher dimensional theories, e.g. string theory, one expects the presence of non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We review the notion of conformal frames in cosmology and emphasize their physical equivalence, which holds at least at a classical level. Furthermore, if there is a field, or fields, which dominates the universe, as it is often the case in cosmology, we can use such notion of frames to treat our system, matter and gravity, as two different sectors. On one hand, the gravity sector which describes the dynamics of the geometry and on the other hand the matter sector which has such geometry as a playground. We use this interpretation to build a model where the fact that a curvaton couples to a particular frame metric could leave an imprint in the CMB.
Reflections on Conformal Spectra
Kim, Hyungrok; Ooguri, Hirosi
2015-01-01
We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions $\\Delta_0$ of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite $\\Delta_0$ as well as for large $\\Delta_0$. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.
Reflections on Conformal Spectra
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink
Dynamics in the Charged Time Conformal Schwarzschild Black Hole
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M Umair; Abbas, G
2016-01-01
In this work, we present the new technique for discussing the dynamical motion of neutral as well as charged particles in the absence/presence of magnetic field around the time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. Initially, we find the numerical solutions of geodesics of Schwarzschild black hole and the time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. We observe that the Schwarzschild spacetime admits the time conformal factor $e^{\\epsilon f(t)}$, where $f(t)$ is an arbitrary function and $\\epsilon$ is very small which causes the perturbation in the spacetimes. This technique also re-scale the energy content of spacetime. We also investigate the thermal stability, horizons and energy conditions corresponding time conformal Schwarzschild spacetime. Also, we examine the dynamics of neutral and charged particle around time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. We investigate the circumstances under which the particle can escape from vicinity of black hole after collision with another particle. We analyze the effective pot...
Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.
Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica
2013-02-01
This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.
“MONTEVIDEO, TU CASA”: ELEMENTOS PARA UNA LECTURA DEL CUERPO EN EL ESPACIO PÚBLICO MODERNO.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cecilia Seré Quintero
2015-11-01
Full Text Available El eslogan “Montevideo, tu casa” utilizado por la Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo (Uruguay entre 1991 y 2006, funciona como punto de partida para el análisis de las formas modernas que toma el espacio público urbano. La ciudad, escenario de la modernidad, da cuenta de la indistinción que se establecerá entre lo público y lo privado a partir de la emergencia de lo social, la consolidación del Estado-nación y la configuración de la economía política como parámetro de lectura de la realidad. Con ello, la política se verá reducida a la gestión y administración de las necesidades de la población, y la vida en términos biológicos tendrá allí un lugar central, factor clave para la organización de un espacio público que se presenta como una extensión del ámbito doméstico. El proceso de modernización de la ciudad de Montevideo es tomado en este artículo para dar cuenta de los efectos de una política contemporánea que se rige por la primacía de lo económico y donde parecen reducirse las distinciones entre el espacio público y el doméstico a cuestiones de tamaño o escala, teniendo como correlato una biologización de la vida pública y por tanto de la política.
Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation.
Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H; Michlewski, Gracjan
2014-11-20
RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL) of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity.
Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nila Roy Choudhury
2014-11-01
Full Text Available RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs, only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity.
2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award Honors Prof.TU You-you for the Discovery of Artemisinin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
The 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award honors a scientist who discovered artemisinin and its utility for treating malaria.Prof.TU You-you (China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,Beijing) transformed an ancient Chinese healing method into the most powerful antimalarial medicine currently available that has saved millions of lives across the globe,especially in the developing world.
Gas Phase Conformations of Tetrapeptide Glycine-Phenylalanine-Glycine-Glycine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui-bin Chen; Yao Wang; Xin Chen; Zi-jing Lin
2012-01-01
Systematic search of the potential energy surface of tetrapeptide glycine-phenylalanineglycine-glycine (GFGG) in gas phase is conducted by a combination of PM3,HF and BHandHLYP methods.The conformational search method is described in detail.The relative electronic energies,zero point vibrational energies,dipole moments,rotational constants,vertical ionization energies and the temperature.dependent conformational distributions for a number of important conformers are obtained.The structural characteristics of these conformers are analyzed and it is found that the entropic effect is a dominating factor in determining the relative stabilities of the conformers.The measurements of dipole moments and some characteristic IR mode are shown to be effective approaches to verify the theoretical prediction.The structures of the low energy GFGG conformers are also analyzed in their connection with the secondary structures of proteins.Similarity between the local structures of low energy GFGG conformers and the α-helix is discussed and manyβ- and γ-turn local structures in GFGG conformers are found.
Water drives peptide conformational transitions
Nerukh, Dmitry
2011-01-01
Transitions between metastable conformations of a dipeptide are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water with the peptide's configurational motions indicate that water is the main driving force of the conformational changes.
Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
2009-01-01
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
2009-01-01
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
Actors conform, observers react: the effects of behavioral synchrony on conformity.
Dong, Ping; Dai, Xianchi; Wyer, Robert S
2015-01-01
Engaging in synchronous behavior can induce a more general disposition to copy others, which increases the tendency to conform to others' preferences in an unrelated choice situation. In contrast, observing others perform synchronous behavior can induce psychological reactance and decrease conformity to others' preferences. Five experiments confirmed these different effects and circumscribed the conditions in which they occurred. Actors typically focus their attention on the goal to which their synchronous behavior is directed, inducing a copying-others mindset that generalizes to later situations. In contrast, observers focus on the actors' behavior independently of the goal to which it pertains. Consequently, they become sensitive to the restrictions on freedom that synchronous behavior requires and experience reactance. However, changing the relative attention that actors and observers pay to these factors can reverse the effects of the actors' synchronous behavior on conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
A guidelines handbook for GPR surveys in tunnels: a COST Action TU1208 contribution
Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Alani, Amir M.; Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio
2016-04-01
A significant open issue concerning the reliability of geophysical methods and in particular of ground penetrating radar (GPR), both in research and professional context, is a general lack of international standards. This is a major problem to be faced, in order to gain scientific strictness for the GPR practices, and to easily extend to the international community the results achieved within the area of single virtuous countries. Producing international guidelines can represent an important step forward, in this sense. In the memorandum of understanding of the COST Action TU1208 is clearly stated that one of the main purposes of the Action is the "development of innovative protocols and guidelines which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European Standards, for an effective GPR application in CE tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols". Of course this is not a simple task to be accomplished. Firstly, survey procedures are highly dependent on the objective of the survey itself. On the basis of the objective of each geophysical test, the GPR system, the antenna configuration, and even the processing procedures may change. Besides, these procedures are also influenced by the environmental conditions in which the tests are performed. This affects several aspects spanning from hardware to software, but including, for instance, also safety issues. Due to these reasons, one of the main goal of the COST Action TU1208 is the development of several guidelines related to the main applications of GPR in the field of civil engineering. In this work, the structure of a guidelines handbook for GPR activities in tunnels is outlined. In the first sections, the principal references in the field are provided, and the most common GPR equipment and complementary technologies are described. Subsequently, the survey methodologies are explained. Particular attention is paid to the preliminary activities to be carried
Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks
Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-09-12
In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsushi Kaneko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, have histopathologically and immunologically different characteristics. We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100, ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM enhancement. Our current aims were to examine whether TU-100 ameliorates a type-2 model colitis that histologically resembles UC and identify the active ingredients. Methods. TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN- induced type-2 model colitis. The morbidity was evaluated by body weight loss and the macroscopic score of colonic lesions. ADM was quantified using an EIA kit. Results. TU-100 prevented weight loss and colon ulceration. ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was increased by TU-100 addition. Screening to identify active ingredients showed that [6]-shogaol and hydroxy α-sanshool enhanced ADM production. Conclusions. TU-100 exerted a protective effect in OXN-induced type-2 model colitis, indicating that TU-100 may be a beneficial agent for treatment of UC.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
葛缨; 赵耀
2012-01-01
Objective Based on interview, searching of references, counseling of experts, the Questionnaire of Tu Jia Nationality Juniors' Knowledge of Sex and Attitude of Sex was constructed. Methods Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of data from 790 Tu Jia nationality juniors showed that the Questionnaire of Tu Jia nationality juniors' Knowledge of Sex had 21 items, including four dimensions : physiological development, reproductive mystery, health care, venereal disease prevention; and the Questionnaire of Tu Jia nationality juniors' Attitude of Sex had 30 items, consisting of six dimensions: sex education attitude , sexual nature attitude, sexual morality attitude, sex description attitude , love attitude, unmarried sex attitude. Results The overall condition of knowledge of sex in all kinds of Tu Jia nationality juniors is good There are significant differences in sexual attitude among Tu Jia nationality juniors with various grades, residences, parents' educations. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the questionnaire are statistically reasonable.%目的 通过访谈、文献查阅、专家咨询等方式,编制了土家族初中生性知识、性态度问卷.方法 经过790名土家族初中生被试评定,对数据进行探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析显示,土家族初中生性知识问卷由21个项目组成,包括:生理发育、生殖奥秘、卫生保健、性病防治等4个因素；性态度问卷由30个项目组成,包括:性教育态度、性本质态度、性道德态度、性描写态度、谈恋爱态度、未婚性行为态度等6个因素.结果 土家族初中生各类群体对性知识了解总体情况较好,不同年级、居住地和父母文化程度的土家族初中生的性态度情况存在差异.结论问卷的信度与效度达到统计标准水平.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiyan Liu
Full Text Available Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu. In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged in s.......e. they are independent on the specific matter representation.......We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...
Imaging of conformational changes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michl, Josef [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-03-13
Control of intramolecular conformational change in a small number of molecules or even a single one by an application of an outside electric field defined by potentials on nearby metal or dielectric surfaces has potential applications in both 3-D and 2-D nanotechnology. Specifically, the synthesis, characterization, and understanding of designed solids with controlled built-in internal rotational motion of a dipole promises a new class of materials with intrinsic dielectric, ferroelectric, optical and optoelectronic properties not found in nature. Controlled rotational motion is of great interest due to its expected utility in phenomena as diverse as transport, current flow in molecular junctions, diffusion in microfluidic channels, and rotary motion in molecular machines. A direct time-resolved observation of the dynamics of motion on ps or ns time scale in a single molecule would be highly interesting but is also very difficult and has yet to be accomplished. Much can be learned from an easier but still challenging comparison of directly observed initial and final orientational states of a single molecule, which is the basis of this project. The project also impacts the understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and single-molecule spectroscopic detection, as well as the synthesis of solid-state materials with tailored properties from designed precursors.
Latosinski, Adam; Meissner, Krzysztof A; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos in such a way that the scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3)$_N$ which is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of such an enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3)$_N$ symmetry are natural Dark M...
Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks
Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Walters, Matthew T; Wang, Junpu
2015-01-01
Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the $t$-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$...
Regular Submanifolds in Conformal Space Qnp
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Changxiong NIE; Chuanxi WU
2012-01-01
The authors study the regular submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp and introduce the submanifold theory in the conformal space Qnp.The first variation formula of the Willmore volume functional of pseudo-Riemannian submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp is given.Finally,the conformal isotropic submanifolds in the conformal space Qnp are classified.
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity generated by a conformal method
Pravda, Vojtech; Podolsky, Jiri; Svarc, Robert
2016-01-01
We study the role of conformal transformations in constructing vacuum solutions to quadratic gravity. We find that such solutions can be obtained by solving one non-linear partial differential equation for the conformal factor on any Einstein spacetime or, more generally, on any background with vanishing Bach tensor. We show that all spacetimes conformal to Kundt are either Kundt or Robinson--Trautmann, and we provide explicit Kundt and Robinson--Trautman solutions to quadratic gravity by solving the above mentioned equation on certain Kundt backgrounds.
Background independent exact renormalization group for conformally reduced gravity
2015-01-01
Within the conformally reduced gravity model, where the metric is parametrised by a function f ( ϕ ) of the conformal factor ϕ , we keep dependence on both the background and fluctuation fields, to local potential approximation and O ∂ 2 $$ \\mathcal{O}\\left({\\partial}^2\\right) $$ respectively, making no other approximation. Explicit appearances of the background metric are then dictated by realising a remnant diffeomorphism invariance. The standard non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) ...
Conformal Patterson-Walker metrics
Hammerl, Matthias; Šilhan, Josef; Taghavi-Chabert, Arman; Žádník, Vojtěch
2016-01-01
The classical Patterson-Walker construction of a split-signature (pseudo-)Riemannian structure from a given torsion-free affine connection is generalized to a construction of a split-signature conformal structure from a given projective class of connections. A characterization of the induced structures is obtained. We achieve a complete description of Einstein metrics in the conformal class formed by the Patterson-Walker metric. Finally, we describe all symmetries of the conformal Patterson-Walker metric. In both cases we obtain descriptions in terms of geometric data on the original structure.
More on the conformal mapping of quasi-local masses: The Hawking-Hayward case
Hammad, Fayçal
2016-01-01
The conformal transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local mass is reexamined. It has been found recently that the conformal transformation of the latter exhibits the 'wrong' conformal factor compared to the way usual masses transform under conformal transformations of spacetime. We show, in analogy with what was found recently for the Misner-Sharp mass, that unlike the purely geometric definition of the Hawking-Hayward mass, the latter exhibits the 'right' conformal factor whenever expressed in terms of its material content via the field equations. The case of conformally invariant scalar-tensor theories of gravity is also examined. The equivalence between the Misner-Sharp mass and the Hawking-Hayward mass for spherically symmetric spacetimes manifests itself by giving identical peculiar behaviors under conformal transformations.
More on the conformal mapping of quasi-local masses: the Hawking-Hayward case
Hammad, Fayçal
2016-12-01
The conformal transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local mass is re-examined. It has been found recently that the conformal transformation of the latter exhibits the ‘wrong’ conformal factor compared to the way usual masses transform under conformal transformations of spacetime. We show, in analogy with what was found recently for the Misner-Sharp mass, that unlike the purely geometric definition of the Hawking-Hayward mass, the latter exhibits the ‘right’ conformal factor whenever expressed in terms of its material content via the field equations. The case of conformally invariant scalar-tensor theories of gravity is also examined. The equivalence between the Misner-Sharp mass and the Hawking-Hayward mass for spherically symmetric spacetimes manifests itself by giving identical peculiar behaviors under conformal transformations.
Logarithmic conformal field theory
Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo
2013-12-01
Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more
National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -
Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...
Graphene-based conformal devices.
Park, Yong Ju; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Hyunmin; Ahn, Jong-Hyun
2014-08-26
Despite recent progress in bendable and stretchable thin-film transistors using novel designs and materials, the development of conformal devices remains limited by the insufficient flexibility of devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-based conformal and stretchable devices such as transistor and tactile sensor on a substrate with a convoluted surface by scaling down the device thickness. The 70 nm thick graphene-based conformal devices displayed a much lower bending stiffness than reported previously. The demonstrated devices provided excellent conformal coverage over an uneven animal hide surface without the need for an adhesive. In addition, the ultrathin graphene devices formed on the three-dimensionally curved animal hide exhibited stable electrical characteristics, even under repetitive bending and twisting. The advanced performance and flexibility demonstrated here show promise for the development and adoption of wearable electronics in a wide range of future applications.
Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5
Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.
Some Progress in Conformal Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun-Yung A. Chang
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.
Conformal anomalies and gravitational waves
Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann
2017-09-01
We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D = 4 for both the C2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant E4 can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ⩾ 5, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions. Although there remain open questions, in particular concerning the true significance of conformal anomalies in non-conformal theories, as well as their possible gauge dependence for spin s ⩾3/2, these cancellations suggest a hidden conformal structure of unknown type in these theories.
Boström, Jonas
2001-12-01
Several programs (Catalyst, Confort, Flo99, MacroModel, and Omega) that are commonly used to generate conformational ensembles have been tested for their ability to reproduce bioactive conformations. The ligands from thirty-two different ligand-protein complexes determined by high-resolution ( le2.0 Å) X-ray crystallography have been analyzed. The Low-Mode Conformational Search method (with AMBER* and the GB/SA hydration model), as implemented in MacroModel, was found to perform better than the other algorithms. The rule-based method Omega, which is orders of magnitude faster than the other methods, also gave reasonable results but were found to be dependent on the input structure. The methods supporting diverse sampling (Catalyst, Confort) performed least well. For the seven ligands in the set having eight or more rotatable bonds, none of the bioactive conformations were ever found, save for one exception (Flo99). These ligands do not bind in a local minimum conformation according to AMBER*GB/SA. Taking these last two observations together, it is clear that geometrically similar structures should be collected in order to increase the probability of finding the bioactive conformation among the generated ensembles. Factors influencing bioactive conformational retrieval have been identified and are discussed.
CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall S. Seright
2004-09-30
This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity
Moon, Taeyoon
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implement the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.
Conformal symmetry breaking operators for differential forms on spheres
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Pevzner, Michael
2016-01-01
This work is the first systematic study of all possible conformally covariant differential operators transforming differential forms on a Riemannian manifold X into those on a submanifold Y with focus on the model space (X, Y) = (Sn, Sn-1). The authors give a complete classification of all such conformally covariant differential operators, and find their explicit formulæ in the flat coordinates in terms of basic operators in differential geometry and classical hypergeometric polynomials. Resulting families of operators are natural generalizations of the Rankin–Cohen brackets for modular forms and Juhl's operators from conformal holography. The matrix-valued factorization identities among all possible combinations of conformally covariant differential operators are also established. The main machinery of the proof relies on the "F-method" recently introduced and developed by the authors. It is a general method to construct intertwining operators between C∞-induced representations or to find singular vecto...
Yu, Rongjun; Sun, Sai
2013-01-01
When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad.
Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L. [TU Delft (Netherlands). Reactor Inst. Delft; Neeft, E.A.C.; Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Nieuwdorp (Netherlands)
2015-07-01
awarded research proposals available at www.covra.nl/downloads/o pera. Building up competences and knowledge on radioactive waste management and geological disposal is an important goal of OPERA. To this end OPERA collaborates with TU Delft to develop an academic curriculum for the chair Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the Master of Science Engineering. Furthermore, the results obtained in OPERA will be presented at a Summer School which is planned to be organized at the end of the Program. TU Delft educates young specialists, bachelor and master students, by research projects on geological disposal at the new actinide laboratory (U and Th). For such purpose the knowledge transfer from other OPERA partners is also foreseen, including students internships and visits of the research facilities. Reactor Institute Delft (RID) is part of the Applied Sciences faculty of TU Delft and houses the Radiation Science and Technology (RST) department. RID operates the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR), a 2 MW pool- type research reactor in an academic setting. The reactor is used as a source of neutrons and positrons for research purposes, including those of OPERA. It also provides neutrons to a variety of facilities for radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. OPERA is financed by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the public limited liability company Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland (EPZ) and coordinated by COVRA.
Development of SAP-DoA techniques for GPR data processing within COST Action TU1208
Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian
2016-04-01
This work focuses on the use of Sub-Array Processing (SAP) and Direction of Arrival (DoA) approaches for the processing of Ground-Penetrating Radar data, with the purpose of locating metal scatterers embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. Research activities have been carried out during two Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in May 2015 and January 2016. In applications involving smart antennas and in the presence of several transmitters operating simultaneously, it is important for a receiving array to be able to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the incoming signals, in order to decipher how many emitters are present and predict their positions. A number of methods have been devised for DoA estimation: the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT) are amongst the most popular ones [1]. In the scenario considered by us, the electromagnetic sources are the currents induced on metal elements embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. GPR radargrams are processed, to estimate the DoAs of the electric field back-scattered by the sought targets. In order to work in near-field conditions, a sub-array processing (SAP) approach is adopted: the radargram is partitioned in sub-radargrams composed of few A-scans each, the dominant DoA is predicted for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. This pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is processed by applying the statistical procedure described in [2]. We tested our approach on synthetic GPR radargrams, obtained by using the freeware simulator gprMax implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method [3]. In particular, we worked with
La ciudad-mito y lo grotesco en los hermanos González Tuñón
2015-01-01
La poética de los hermanos González Tuñón, iniciada al calor de las vanguardias porteñas, es estudiada atendiendo a la mítica de lo urbano, lo que permite a su vez analizar el empleo de la estética grotesca como modo de subrayar una cultura híbrid
BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Chen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6 plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Objective: To study the effects of different concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) on human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s. Method: Human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s in exponential growth stage was used to study the effect of different drug concentrations on the cell line in the presence of different concentrations (0 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 10 μg/m, 200 μg/ml) of ASODN and sense oligodeoxynucleotides (SODN). Cell counts and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolzyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were carried out. Results: The inhibitory rate on the cell line PaTu8988s was 98.73%,95.76%,69.49%,33.05% and 0 for ASODM concentrations of 200 μg/ml,100 μg/ml,50 μg/ml,25 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml at 48 hours. Conclusions: K-ras complementary ASODN can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer cell line PaTu8988s by 30.05% to 98.73%. This is likely to contribute to the specificity of the K-ras mRNA complementary capped ASODN sequential codon. Non-specific effect and side effect of ASOND were observed for instance, the greater the concentration is, the earlier the peak of inhibitory rate is reached. In concentration of 25 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml ASODN showed a dose-effect correlation
Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bzowski, Adam [Institute for Theoretical Physics,K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); McFadden, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N. Waterloo, N2L 2Y5 Ontario (Canada); Skenderis, Kostas [Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,Highfield, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)
2014-03-25
We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (‘triple-K integrals’). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple-K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.
Conformity Behavior During a Fire Disaster
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Duo, Qi; Shen, Huizhang; Zhao, Jidi; Gong, Xiaomin
2016-01-01
..., the number of choices offered for making an escape was negatively related to conformity behavior, and decision-making performance was found to be a dual mediator both between the level of fear activation and conformity behavior and between the number of choices and conformity behavior. Keywords: conformity behavior, fire disaster, fear activation, number...
Group Cohesiveness, Deviation, Stress, and Conformity
1993-08-11
Yuke1son, Weinberg & Jackson , 1984; Carron & Chelladurai, 1981). The classical studies of jury dynamics began to appear within the field of...1987), individuation was negatively correlated with conformity (Santee & Maslach , 1982). Conformity Paradi&ms Host studies of conformity have...appear to affect conformity rates independently of attraction . However, later ~tudies by Dittes and Kelley (1956) and Jackson and Saltzstein (1958
40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any...
Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo
Horne, Keith
2016-01-01
We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r)=S_0 a/(r+a), decreasing from S_0 at r=0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S_0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric g_{\\mu\
New potentials for conformal mechanics
Papadopoulos, G
2012-01-01
We show that V=\\alpha x^2+\\beta x^{-2} arises as a potential of 1-dimensional conformal theories. This class of conformal models includes the DFF model \\alpha=0 and the harmonic oscillator \\beta=0. The construction is based on a different embedding of the conformal symmetry group into the time re-parameterizations from that of the DFF model and its generalizations. Depending on the range of the couplings $\\alpha, \\beta$, these models can have a ground state and a well-defined energy spectrum, and exhibit either a $SL(2,\\bR)$ or a SO(3) conformal symmetry. The latter group can also be embedded in Diff(S^1). We also present several generalizations of these models which include the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and non-linear models with suitable metric and potential couplings. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gaugetheories to admit a SL(2,\\bR) or SO(3) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries t...
Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Yi-Ping; Fu Jin-Li
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a new concept of the conformal invariance and the conserved quantities for Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry. The definition about conformal invariance of Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry is given. The conformal factor in the determining equations is found. The relationship between Birkhoff system's conformal invariance and second-class Mei symmetry are discussed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance, which are simultaneously of second-class symmetry, are given. And Birkhoff system's conformal invariance may lead to corresponding Mei conserved quantities, which is deduced directly from the second-class Mei symmetry when the conformal invariance satisfies some conditions. Lastly, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the result.
Quéva, Julien
2015-01-01
This article investigates the properties of a set of conformally invariant equations on conformally flat Einstein spacetimes. These equations are shown to be gauge invariant if $d=4$. We provide a conformally invariant gauge condition to that equation which generalizes in a simple manner, on those spacetimes, the Eastwood-Singer gauge condition. A byproduct of this conformally invariant gauge fixing equation is an alternate proof of Branson's factorization formula of GJMS operators on Einstein manifolds for $d=4$. A field strength $F$ is built upon the field $A$, its properties are worked out in details.
Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.
Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude
2003-10-01
Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.
Logarithmic exotic conformal Galilean algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henkel, Malte, E-mail: Malte.henkel@univ-lorraine.fr [Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour (CNRS UMR 7198), Université de Lorraine Nancy, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Hosseiny, Ali, E-mail: al_hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhani, Shahin, E-mail: rouhani@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11165-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-02-15
Logarithmic representations of the conformal Galilean algebra (CGA) and the Exotic Conformal Galilean algebra (ECGA) are constructed. This can be achieved by non-decomposable representations of the scaling dimensions or the rapidity indices, specific to conformal Galilean algebras. Logarithmic representations of the non-exotic CGA lead to the expected constraints on scaling dimensions and rapidities and also on the logarithmic contributions in the co-variant two-point functions. On the other hand, the ECGA admits several distinct situations which are distinguished by different sets of constraints and distinct scaling forms of the two-point functions. Two distinct realisations for the spatial rotations are identified as well. This is the first concrete example of a reducible, but non-decomposable representation, without logarithmic terms. Such cases had been anticipated before.
Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals
Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao
2015-01-01
Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...
Conformal Anomalies and Gravitational Waves
Meissner, Krzysztof A
2016-01-01
We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that, among presently known theories, a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in $D=4$ for both the $C^2$ invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant $E_4$ can only be achieved for $N$-extended supergravities with $N\\geq 5$, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions.
Lectures on Conformal Field Theory
Qualls, Joshua D
2015-01-01
These lectures notes are based on courses given at National Taiwan University, National Chiao-Tung University, and National Tsing Hua University in the spring term of 2015. Although the course was offered primarily for graduate students, these lecture notes have been prepared for a more general audience. They are intended as an introduction to conformal field theories in various dimensions, with applications related to topics of particular interest: topics include the conformal bootstrap program, boundary conformal field theory, and applications related to the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the reader to be familiar with quantum mechanics at the graduate level and to have some basic knowledge of quantum field theory. Familiarity with string theory is not a prerequisite for this lectures, although it can only help.
Renyi entropy and conformal defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics
2016-04-18
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.
Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
2015-01-01
To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.
TU Comae Berenices : Blazhko RR Lyrae Star in a Potential Binary System
de Ponthiere, Pierre; Menzies, Kenneth; Sabo, Richard
2016-01-01
We present the results of a photometry campaign of TU Com performed over a five-year time span. The analysis showed that the possible Blazhko period of 75 days published by the General Catalogue of Variable Stars is not correct. We identified two Blazhko periods of 43.6 and 45.5 days. This finding is based on measurement of 124 light maxima. A spectral analysis of the complete light curve confirmed these two periods. Besides the Blazhko amplitude and phase modulations, another long term periodic phase variation has been identified. This long term periodic variation affects the times of maximum light only and can be attributed to a light-travel time effect due to orbital motion of a binary system. The orbital parameters have been estimated by a nonlinear least-square fit applied to the set of (O-C) values. The Levenberg-Marquart algorithm has been used to perform the nonlinear least-square fit. The tentative orbital parameters include an orbital period of 1676 days, a minimal semi-major axis of 1.55 AU and a s...
Social influence: compliance and conformity.
Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J
2004-01-01
This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.
Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eri Saijo
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to
Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes
Bini, Donato
2016-01-01
The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.
Ueno, Nobuhiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Kono, Toru; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Musch, Mark W
2014-01-01
The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ free (GF) mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.
The discodermolide hairpin structure flows from conformationally stable modular motifs.
Jogalekar, Ashutosh S; Kriel, Frederik H; Shi, Qi; Cornett, Ben; Cicero, Daniel; Snyder, James P
2010-01-14
(+)-Discodermolide (DDM), a polyketide macrolide from marine sponge, is a potent microtubule assembly promoter. Reported solid-state, solution, and protein-bound DDM conformations reveal the unusual result that a common hairpin conformational motif exists in all three microenvironments. No other flexible microtubule binding agent exhibits such constancy of conformation. In the present study, we combine force-field conformational searches with NMR deconvolution in different solvents to compare DDM conformers with those observed in other environments. While several conformational families are perceived, the hairpin form dominates. The stability of this motif is dictated primarily by steric factors arising from repeated modular segments in DDM composed of the C(Me)-CHX-C(Me) fragment. Furthermore, docking protocols were utilized to probe the DDM binding mode in beta-tubulin. A previously suggested pose is substantiated (Pose-1), while an alternative (Pose-2) has been identified. SAR analysis for DDM analogues differentiates the two poses and suggests that Pose-2 is better able to accommodate the biodata.
Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories
Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2004-01-01
Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...
Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie
2011-12-01
The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women.
Molecular mechanics conformational analysis of tylosin
Ivanov, Petko M.
1998-01-01
The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with molecular mechanics (AMBER∗ force field) including modelling of the effect of the solvent on the conformational preferences (GB/SA). A Monte Carlo conformational search procedure was used for finding the most probable low-energy conformations. The present study provides complementary data to recently reported analysis of the conformations of tylosin based on NMR techniques. A search for the low-energy conformations of protynolide, a 16-membered lactone containing the same aglycone as tylosin, was also carried out, and the results were compared with the observed conformation in the crystal as well as with the most probable conformations of the macrocyclic ring of tylosin. The dependence of the results on force field was also studied by utilizing the MM3 force field. Some particular conformations were computed with the semiempirical molecular orbital methods AM1 and PM3.
Youth Conformity Regarding Institutions and Media
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Nikolay Ivantchev
2012-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment on conformity was carried out. The participants were 95 youths. The scale “Conformity – Autonomy” from I. Karagiozov’s questionnaire for locus of control (1998 was also used. The results indicated the prevalence of youth conformity regarding institutions and media. The different types of conformity were related to each other. The subjects’ gender and the experimentators’ gender mediated the connections between the both types of conformity. The female youths conformed more with institutions than the male youths, but there were not any significant gender differences in their conform behavior regarding media (magazines. More male youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a woman. More female youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a man.
Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons
Chatterjee, Ayan
2015-01-01
The formulation of quasi-local conformal Killling horizons(CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon is taken to be a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.
Conformal mapping for multiple terminals
Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao
2016-11-01
Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...
Conformal Relativity: Theory and Observations
Pervushin, V; Zorin, A
2005-01-01
Theoretical and observational arguments are listed in favor of a new principle of relativity of units of measurements as the basis of a conformal-invariant unification of General Relativity and Standard Model by replacement of all masses with a scalar (dilaton) field. The relative units mean conformal observables: the coordinate distance, conformal time, running masses, and constant temperature. They reveal to us a motion of a universe along its hypersurface in the field space of events like a motion of a relativistic particle in the Minkowski space, where the postulate of the vacuum as a state with minimal energy leads to arrow of the geometric time. In relative units, the unified theory describes the Cold Universe Scenario, where the role of the conformal dark energy is played by a free minimal coupling scalar field in agreement with the most recent distance-redshift data from type Ia supernovae. In this Scenario, the evolution of the Universe begins with the effect of intensive creation of primordial W-Z-b...
Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming
Clopton, Joe R.
2007-01-01
Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.
A tutorial on conformal prediction
Shafer, Glenn
2007-01-01
Conformal prediction uses past experience to determine precise levels of confidence in new predictions. Given an error probability $\\epsilon$, together with a method that makes a prediction $\\hat{y}$ of a label $y$, it produces a set of labels, typically containing $\\hat{y}$, that also contains $y$ with probability $1-\\epsilon$. Conformal prediction can be applied to any method for producing $\\hat{y}$: a nearest-neighbor method, a support-vector machine, ridge regression, etc. Conformal prediction is designed for an on-line setting in which labels are predicted successively, each one being revealed before the next is predicted. The most novel and valuable feature of conformal prediction is that if the successive examples are sampled independently from the same distribution, then the successive predictions will be right $1-\\epsilon$ of the time, even though they are based on an accumulating dataset rather than on independent datasets. In addition to the model under which successive examples are sampled indepen...
Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.
Fulop, F.; And Others
1983-01-01
In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical…
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the $...
Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming
Clopton, Joe R.
2007-01-01
Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.
Fake Conformal Symmetry in Unimodular Gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2016-01-01
We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry, identically vanish as in the conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with the conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences among Einstein's general relativity, the conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity and the Weyl-transverse (WTDiff) gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.
Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2016-08-01
We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio
2013-04-01
can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio
2016-04-01
This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of
Conformal Window and Correlation Functions in Lattice Conformal QCD
Iwasaki, Y.
We discuss various aspects of Conformal Field Theories on the Lattice. We mainly investigate the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf degenerate fermions in the fundamental representation, employing the one-plaquette gauge action and the Wilson fermion action. First we make a brief review of our previous works on the phase structure of lattice gauge theories in terms of the gauge coupling constant and the quark mass. We thereby clarify the reason why we conjecture that the conformal window is 7 ≤ Nf ≤ 16. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, "conformal theories with IR cutof" and point out that any numerical simulation on a lattice is bounded by an IR cutoff ∧IR. Then we make predictions that when Nf is within the conformal window, the propagator of a meson G(t) behaves at large t, as G(t) = c exp (-mHt)/tα, that is, a modified Yukawa-type decay form, instead of the usual exponential decay form exp (-mHt), in the small quark mass region. This holds on an any lattice for any coupling constant g, as far as g is between 0 and g*, where g* is the IR fixed point. We verify that numerical results really satisfy the predictions for the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 16 case. Thirdly, we discuss small number of flavors (Nf = 2 ˜ 6) QCD at finite temperatures. We point out theoretically and verify numerically that the correlation functions at T/Tc > 1 exhibit the characteristics of the conformal function with IR cutoff, an exponential decay with power correction. Investigating our numerical data by a new method which we call the "local-analysis" of propagators, we observe that the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 2 at T ˜ 2Tc case are similar to each other, while the Nf = 16 case and the Nf = 2 at T = 102 ˜ 105Tc cases are similar to each other. Further, we observe our data are consistent with the picture that the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 2 at T ˜ 2Tc case are close to the meson unparticle model. On the other hand, the Nf = 16 case and the Nf = 2 at T = 102 ˜ 105Tc cases are close to
Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José
2009-06-01
Resistance to nine races of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose, was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the cross between the anthracnose differential bean cultivars TU (resistant to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449) and MDRK (resistant to races, 449, and 1545). Molecular marker analyses were carried out in the F(2) individuals in order to map and characterize the anthracnose resistance genes or gene clusters present in these two differential cultivars. The results of the combined segregation indicate that at least three independent loci conferring resistance to anthracnose are present in TU. One of them, corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-5, is located in linkage group B7, and is formed by a cluster of different genes conferring specific resistance to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449. Evidence of intra-cluster recombination between these specific resistance genes was found. The second locus present in TU confers specific resistance to races 31 and 102, and the third locus confers specific resistance to race 102, the location of these two loci remains unknown. The resistance to race 1545 present in MDRK is due to two independent dominant genes. The results of the combined segregation of two F(4) families showing monogenic segregation for resistance to race 1545 indicates that one of these two genes is linked to marker OF10(530), located in linkage group B1, and corresponds to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-1. The second gene conferring resistance to race 1545 in MDRK is linked to marker Pv-ctt001, located in linkage group B4, and corresponds to the Co-3/Co-9 cluster. The resistance to race 449 present in MDRK is conferred by a single gene, located in linkage group B4, probably included in the same Co-3/Co-9 cluster.
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio
2015-04-01
This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects
Boundary terms of conformal anomaly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Solodukhin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons–Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.
Conformal Bootstrap in Mellin Space
Gopakumar, Rajesh; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2016-01-01
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients. We illustrate the power of this method in the epsilon expansion of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point by computing operator dimensions and, strikingly, OPE coefficients to higher orders in epsilon than currently available using other analytic techniques (including Feynman diagram calculations). Our results enable us to get a somewhat better agreement of certain observables in the 3d Ising model, with the precise numerical values that...
Conformal methods in general relativity
Valiente Kroon, Juan A
2016-01-01
This book offers a systematic exposition of conformal methods and how they can be used to study the global properties of solutions to the equations of Einstein's theory of gravity. It shows that combining these ideas with differential geometry can elucidate the existence and stability of the basic solutions of the theory. Introducing the differential geometric, spinorial and PDE background required to gain a deep understanding of conformal methods, this text provides an accessible account of key results in mathematical relativity over the last thirty years, including the stability of de Sitter and Minkowski spacetimes. For graduate students and researchers, this self-contained account includes useful visual models to help the reader grasp abstract concepts and a list of further reading, making this the perfect reference companion on the topic.
Boundary terms of conformal anomaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr
2016-01-10
We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons–Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.
Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)]. e-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it
2005-07-01
With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)
Generative models of conformational dynamics.
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term 'generative' refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GRAPHICAL MODELS OF ENERGY LANDSCAPES), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc.) from long timescale simulation data.
Conformal Bootstrap in Mellin Space
Gopakumar, Rajesh; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2017-02-01
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of conformal field theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built-in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients. We illustrate the power of this method in the ɛ expansion of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point by reproducing anomalous dimensions and, strikingly, obtaining OPE coefficients to higher orders in ɛ than currently available using other analytic techniques (including Feynman diagram calculations). Our results enable us to get a somewhat better agreement between certain observables in the 3D Ising model and the precise numerical values that have been recently obtained.
Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"
Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N
2015-01-01
We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...
Octonionic geometry and conformal transformations
Gogberashvili, Merab
2016-01-01
We describe space-time using split octonions over the reals and use their group of automorphisms, the non-compact form of Cartan's exceptional Lie group G2, as the main geometrical group of the model. It is studied connections of the G2-rotations of octonionic 8D space with the conformal transformations in 4D Minkowski space-time. It is shown that the dimensional constant needed in these analysis naturally gives the observed value of the cosmological constant.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...... the $\\delta$-expansion, for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm....
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Monogenic Functions in Conformal Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Eastwood
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Monogenic functions are basic to Clifford analysis. On Euclidean space they are defined as smooth functions with values in the corresponding Clifford algebra satisfying a certain system of first order differential equations, usually referred to as the Dirac equation. There are two equally natural extensions of these equations to a Riemannian spin manifold only one of which is conformally invariant. We present a straightforward exposition.
Conformal theory of galactic halos
Nesbet, R K
2011-01-01
Current cosmological theory describes an isolated galaxy as an observable central galaxy, surrounded by a large spherical halo attributed to dark matter. Galaxy formation by condensation of mass-energy out of a primordial uniform background is shown here to leave a scar, observed as a centripetal gravitational field halo in anomalous galactic rotation and in gravitational lensing. Conformal theory accounts for the otherwise counterintuitive centripetal effect.
All N=4 Conformal Supergravities
Butter, Daniel; de Wit, Bernard; Sahoo, Bindusar
2016-01-01
All N=4 conformal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are constructed. These are the only N=4 supergravity theories whose actions are invariant under off-shell supersymmetry. They are encoded in terms of a holomorphic function that is homogeneous of zeroth degree in scalar fields that parametrize an SU(1,1)/U(1) coset space. When this function equals a constant the Lagrangian is invariant under continuous SU(1,1) transformations.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.
Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows
Mojaza, Matin; Ryttov, Thomas A; Sannino, Francesco
2012-01-01
We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according to a spinorial representation. We investigate the phase diagram using a purely perturbative four loop analysis, the all-orders beta function and the ladder approximation.
Conformal Al doped ZnO on rough silicon surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otto, Martin; Miclea, Paul T. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Physics, Heinrich Damerow Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kroll, Matthias; Kaesebier, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute for Applied Physics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Salzer, Roland [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str.1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Physics, Heinrich Damerow Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str.1, 06120 Halle (Germany)
2011-07-01
The feasibility of perfectly conformal deposition of transparent but highly conductive ZnO thin films on rough silicon surfaces for photovoltaic applications has been investigated. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) deposited via thermal ALD was used as a conformal cover layer for plasma etched black silicon. The coated structures achieve reflectances as low as 2.5% throughout the whole visible spectrum whereas the films exhibit resistivities of only 1.1.10{sup -3} {omega}cm. An absorption enhancement of nearly a factor of 10 at a wavelength of 1150 nm compared to a simulated perfect ARC was observed.
Conformal symmetry wormholes and the null energy condition
Kuhfittig, Peter K F
2016-01-01
In this paper we seek a relationship between the assumption of conformal symmetry and the exotic matter needed to hold a wormhole open. By starting with a Morris-Thorne wormhole having a constant energy density, it is shown that the conformal factor provides the extra degree of freedom sufficient to account for the exotic matter. The same holds for Morris-Thorne wormholes in a noncommutative-geometry setting. Applied to thin shells, there would exist a radius that results in a wormhole with positive surface density and negative surface pressure and which violates the null energy condition on the thin shell.
Group analysis of a conformal perfect fluid spacetime
Govinder, K. S.; Hansraj, S.
2012-04-01
We find new exact solutions of the Einstein field equations for a perfect fluid metric conformal to a spacetime of type D in the Petrov classification scheme. We analyse the complete system of equations using Lie group analysis. While previous work was confined to conformal factors of the form U = U(t, x), we investigate the complete situation U = U(t, x, y, z) as well as an auxiliary integrability condition. New classes of solutions are generated via the symmetry generators. The resulting solutions are examined for physical plausibility. Expressions for the energy density and pressure are obtained explicitly and empirical results suggest that these dynamical quantities are positive as expected.
EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Italo Tempera
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.
Conformal mapping and convergence of Krylov iterations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Driscoll, T.A.; Trefethen, L.N. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
Connections between conformal mapping and matrix iterations have been known for many years. The idea underlying these connections is as follows. Suppose the spectrum of a matrix or operator A is contained in a Jordan region E in the complex plane with 0 not an element of E. Let {phi}(z) denote a conformal map of the exterior of E onto the exterior of the unit disk, with {phi}{infinity} = {infinity}. Then 1/{vert_bar}{phi}(0){vert_bar} is an upper bound for the optimal asymptotic convergence factor of any Krylov subspace iteration. This idea can be made precise in various ways, depending on the matrix iterations, on whether A is finite or infinite dimensional, and on what bounds are assumed on the non-normality of A. This paper explores these connections for a variety of matrix examples, making use of a new MATLAB Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping Toolbox developed by the first author. Unlike the earlier Fortran Schwarz-Christoffel package SCPACK, the new toolbox computes exterior as well as interior Schwarz-Christoffel maps, making it easy to experiment with spectra that are not necessarily symmetric about an axis.
Stiel, Andre C; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel; Westmeyer, Gil G
2014-01-01
Photocontrol of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) was used to program optoacoustic signal time courses that were temporally unmixed to increase the proteins contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) in optoacoustic imaging. In this way, two variants of the RSFP Dronpa with very similar optoacoustic spectra could be readily discriminated in the presence of highly absorbing blood. Addition of temporal unmixing to multispectral optoacoustic tomography (tuMSOT) in conjunction with synthetic or genetically controlled photochromic contrast agents and customized photoswitching schedules can increase the performance of multiplexed and high contrast molecular optoacoustic imaging.
Control de criaderos de Aedes aegypticon el programa Recicla por tu bienestar en Mérida, México
Mario A. Barrera-Pérez; Norma Pavía-Ruz; Jorge Eduardo Mendoza-Mézquita; Nerio Torres-Arcila; Ramón Hernández-Hernández; Francisco Castro-Gamboa; Eduardo Geded-Moreno; Azael Cohuo-Rodríguez; Anuar Medina-Barreiro; Edgar Koyoc-Cardeña; Héctor Gómez-Dantés; Axel Kroeger; Gonzalo Vázquez-Prokopec; Pablo Manrique-Saide
2015-01-01
Objetivos. Determinar la importancia de los criaderos de Ae. aegypti en Mérida; evaluar el impacto del programa Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB) sobre la presencia/abundancia de éstos y la percepción de los habitantes. Material y métodos. S e calculó la importancia de los criaderos por su productividad pupal. Se realizaron muestreos pre y post RxB en colonias para cuantificar el total de recipientes/criaderos. Se aplicó una encuesta a participantes sobre la percepción sobre RxB en colonias sel...
Maloney, Alexander; Maxfield, Henry; Ng, Gim Seng
2017-06-01
We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2, Z ) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2, Z ). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2, Z ) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2, Z ) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the correlation function of certain heavy operators, where we compute holographically the semi-classical conformal block with a heavy internal operator.
Conformal window and Landau singularities
Grunberg, G
2001-01-01
A physical characterization of Landau singularities is emphasized, which should trace the lower boundary N_f^* of the conformal window in QCD and supersymmetric QCD. A natural way to disentangle ``perturbative'' from ``non-perturbative'' contributions below N_f^* is suggested. Assuming an infrared fixed point is present in the perturbative part of the QCD coupling even in some range below N_f^* leads to the condition gamma(N_f^*)=1, where gamma is the critical exponent. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion, one gets 4
Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity.
Shestakova, Anna; Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily
2013-10-01
Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment.
Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidka Rodak
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.
MIXED SELF-CONFORMAL MULTIFRACTAL MEASURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meifeng Dai
2009-01-01
Mixed multifractal analysis studies the simultaneous scaling behavior of finitely many measures. A self-conformal measure is a measure invariant under a set of conformal mappings. In this paper, we provide a description of the mixed multifractal theory of finitely many self-conformal measures.
40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to...
40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan...
40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky...
On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras
Zhang, Jiao
2015-04-01
We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.
Recent Advances in Computational Conformal Geometry
Gu, Xianfeng David; Luo, Feng; Yau, Shing-Tung
2009-01-01
Computational conformal geometry focuses on developing the computational methodologies on discrete surfaces to discover conformal geometric invariants. In this work, we briefly summarize the recent developments for methods and related applications in computational conformal geometry. There are two major approaches, holomorphic differentials and curvature flow. Holomorphic differential method is a linear method, which is more efficient and robust to triangulations with lower qua...
Conformational effect of dicyclo-hexano-18-crown-6 on isotopic fractionation of zinc: DFT approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boda, A.; Singha Deb, A. K.; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K. T.; Ghosh, S. K. [Chemical Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)
2014-04-24
Generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional employing triple zeta valence plus polarization (TZVP) basis set has been used to compute the reduced partition function ratio and isotopic separation factor for zinc isotopes. The isotopic separation factor was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The isotopic separation factor was found to depend on the conformation of the crown ether ligand. The trans-trans conformation shows the highest fractionation compared to cis-cis conformer. The present theoretical results can thus be used to plan the isotope separation experiments.
Conformity of nurse prescribing to care needs: nurses' understanding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marília Silveira Faeda
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: investigate the understanding of nurses on nurse prescribing conformity to the care needs of hospitalized patients and factors associated with that conformity. Method: a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, was conducted at 20 in-patient units of a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo. The participants (N=139 answered a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: For 43 (30.9% nurses, nurse prescribing is always in line with patients' care needs. The fields of body care and elimination, skin and mucosa care and investigation and monitoring were the most frequently addressed. Conclusion: in the perception of most nurses, nurse prescribing does not conform with patients' health heeds. The establishment of strategies to improve prescribing quality is recommended, as well as the development of permanent qualification programs and the systematic use of instruments for assessment of patients' care demands regarding nursing.
Conformity of nurse prescribing to care needs: nurses' understanding.
Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan
2017-04-01
investigate the understanding of nurses on nurse prescribing conformity to the care needs of hospitalized patients and factors associated with that conformity. a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, was conducted at 20 in-patient units of a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo. The participants (N=139) answered a semi-structured questionnaire. For 43 (30.9%) nurses, nurse prescribing is always in line with patients' care needs. The fields of body care and elimination, skin and mucosa care and investigation and monitoring were the most frequently addressed. in the perception of most nurses, nurse prescribing does not conform with patients' health heeds. The establishment of strategies to improve prescribing quality is recommended, as well as the development of permanent qualification programs and the systematic use of instruments for assessment of patients' care demands regarding nursing.
X-ray clusters of galaxies in conformal gravity
Diaferio, Antonaldo
2008-01-01
We run adiabatic N-body/hydrodynamical simulations of isolated self-gravitating gas clouds to test whether conformal gravity, an alternative theory to General Relativity, is able to explain the properties of X-ray galaxy clusters without resorting to dark matter. We show that the gas clouds rapidly reach equilibrium with a density profile which is well fit by a beta-model whose normalization and slope are in approximate agreement with observations. However, conformal gravity fails to yield the observed thermal properties of the gas cloud: (i) the mean temperature is at least an order of magnitude larger than observed; (ii) the temperature profiles increase with the square of the distance from the cluster center, in clear disagreement with real X-ray clusters. These results depend on a gravitational potential whose parameters reproduce the velocity rotation curves of spiral galaxies. However, this parametrization stands on an arbitrarily chosen conformal factor. It remains to be seen whether a different confor...
Lee, Seung Yeob; Shin, Jong Hee; Park, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Kim, Soo Hyun
2014-03-01
Colistin resistance remains rare among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species. We noted the emergence of colistin-resistant bloodstream isolates of the Acinetobacter genomic species (GS) 13BJ/14TU from patients at a university hospital between 2003 and 2011. We report here, for the first time, the microbiological and molecular characteristics of these isolates, with clinical features of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU bacteremia. All 11 available patient isolates were correctly identified as Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU using partial rpoB gene sequencing but were misidentified using the phenotypic methods Vitek 2 (mostly as Acinetobacter baumannii), MicroScan (mostly as A. baumannii/Acinetobacter haemolyticus), and the API 20 NE system (all as A. haemolyticus). Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, including carbapenems, but all were resistant to colistin, for which it is unknown whether the resistance is acquired or intrinsic. However, the fact that none of the patients had a history of colistin therapy strongly suggests that Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU is innately resistant to colistin. The phylogenetic tree of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that all 11 isolates formed a separate cluster from other Acinetobacter species and yielded five sequence types. However, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 11 distinct patterns, suggesting that the bacteremia had occurred sporadically. Four patients showed persistent bacteremia (6 to 17 days), and all 11 patients had excellent outcomes with cleared bacteremia, suggesting that patients with Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU-associated bacteremia show a favorable outcome. These results emphasize the importance of precise species identification, especially regarding colistin resistance in Acinetobacter species. In addition, MLST offers another approach to the identification of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU, whereas PFGE is useful for genotyping for this species.
Dynamics of particles around time conformal Schwarzschild black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Ali, Farhad [Kohat University of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Kohat (Pakistan); Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)
2016-11-15
In this work, we present the new technique for discussing the dynamical motion of neutral as well as charged particles in the absence/presence of a magnetic field around the time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. Initially, we find the numerical solutions of geodesics of the Schwarzschild black hole and the time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. We observe that the Schwarzschild spacetime admits the time conformal factor e{sup εf(t)}, where f(t) is an arbitrary function and ε is very small, which causes a perturbation in the spacetimes. This technique also re-scales the energy content of spacetime. We also investigate the thermal stability, horizons and energy conditions corresponding to time conformal Schwarzschild spacetime. Also, we examine the dynamics of a neutral and charged particle around a time conformal Schwarzschild black hole. We investigate the circumstances under which the particle can escape from the vicinity of a black hole after collision with another particle. We analyze the effective potential and effective force of a particle in the presence of a magnetic field with angular momentum graphically. (orig.)
Low Temperature Induced Conformation Changes of Aminoacylase
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢强; 孟凡国; 周海梦
2004-01-01
Control of aggregation, by lowering temperature and protein concentrations, can enhance the extent of successful refolding. The low temperature has been used in protein folding studies, as undesired aggregations often occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is very important to study the effects of low temperature on the native enzyme to help understand the factors that affect the structure of the proteins. In this paper, aminoacylase was studied at different temperatures by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, and ultraviolet difference spectra. The results show that aminoacylase conformation changes as the temperature changes, becoming more compact at low temperatures, and having more secondary structural content. However, the activity is very low at low temperature, and totally diminishes at 4℃. Aminoacylase tends therefore to be more condense, with less residues exposed and low enzyme activities at low temperature. This observation might explain the self-protection of organisms under conditions of extreme temperature.
Nondestructive tests for railway monitoring. European Experience in COST Action TU1208
Fontul, Simona; Solla, Mercedes; Loizos, Andreas
2016-04-01
The railway monitoring is an important issue for a proper maintenance planning. With the increase in loads and travel speed, it is important to be able to diagnose the track defects and to plan the proper maintenance without interfering with the users. Traditionally, the maintenance actions are planned based on the geometric level parameters assessed without contact with the line, at traffic speed, by dedicated inspection vehicles. Nevertheless, the geometric condition of the line does not provide information on the defects causes. In order to complements the information on the causes, geophysics measurements can be performed in a nondestructive way. Among these later methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. A resume of the European experience in COST Action TU1208 of the application of GPR for railway monitoring and the measurement interpretation is presented in this paper. Also complementary nondestructive tests and other geophysical methods are referred, together with case studies of their application. The main troubleshooting and the needs for data analysis
Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.
Bergman, Jessica M; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Hughes, Diarmaid
2014-01-01
Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg) in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase) as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase) also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.
Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessica M Bergman
Full Text Available Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.
Families and degenerations of conformal field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roggenkamp, D.
2004-09-01
In this work, moduli spaces of conformal field theories are investigated. In the first part, moduli spaces corresponding to current-current deformation of conformal field theories are constructed explicitly. For WZW models, they are described in detail, and sigma model realizations of the deformed WZW models are presented. The second part is devoted to the study of boundaries of moduli spaces of conformal field theories. For this purpose a notion of convergence of families of conformal field theories is introduced, which admits certain degenerated conformal field theories to occur as limits. To such a degeneration of conformal field theories, a degeneration of metric spaces together with additional geometric structures can be associated, which give rise to a geometric interpretation. Boundaries of moduli spaces of toroidal conformal field theories, orbifolds thereof and WZW models are analyzed. Furthermore, also the limit of the discrete family of Virasoro minimal models is investigated. (orig.)
Hillen, M.; Verhoelst, T.; Degroote, P.; Acke, B.; Van Winckel, H.
2015-08-01
We present our already-published evaluation of the effectiveness of the CODEX models, released in 2011, in representing the atmospheres of M-type Mira variables. We present a high-precision interferometric K-band time series of TU And, consisting of 50 nights that cover eight consecutive pulsation cycles. At each phase, the flux at 2.2μm was obtained, along with the spectral shape and visibility points in five channels across the K band. We show a comparison between these data and the dynamical self-excited CODEX model which gives the closest match in stellar parameters yet available. Both the spectrum and the visibilities are consistently reproduced around visual minimum phases. Near the maximum phases, however, the current models predict a photosphere that is too hot and compact, surrounded by an extended atmosphere that lacks H2O opacity, compared to the observations. A better coverage in the model parameter space is needed to make firm conclusions as to the cause of the discrepancies. In the case of TU And, the discrepancy might be lifted by adopting a lower value of the mixing length parameter combined with an increased stellar mass and/or a decreased metallicity.
Vysílač sériových dat ve formátu RS-232
Paul, Martin
2008-01-01
Cílem této bakalářské práce je navržení vysílače sériových dat formátu RS-232 ve vývojovém prostředí Xilinx ISE WebPACK s možností nastavit detaily formátu vysílaných dat vstupními signály. Dále je nutné prozkoumat požadavky navrženého vysílače na spotřebu strukturních prvků v různých cílových obvodech PLD a na závěr provést ověření funkčnosti návrhu pomocí vývojového kitu. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to create an RS-232 transmitter in the Xilinx ISE WebPACK development system with th...
The Biological Bases of Conformity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for
Gauge Choice in Conformal Gravity
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2017-01-01
In a recent paper (MNRAS 458, 4122 (2016)) K. Horne examined the effect of a conformally coupled scalar field (referred to as Higgs field) on the Mannheim-Kazanas metric gμν, i.e. the static spherically symmetric metric within the context of conformal gravity (CG), and studied its effect on the rotation curves of galaxies. He showed that for a Higgs field of the form S(r) = S0a/(r + a), where a is a radial length scale, the equivalent Higgs-frame Mannheim-Kazanas metric tilde{g}_{μ ν } = Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with Ω = S(r)/S0, lacks the linear γr term, which has been employed in the fitting of the galactic rotation curves without the need to invoke dark matter. In this brief note we point out that the representation of the Mannheim-Kazanas metric in a gauge where it lacks the linear term has already been presented by others, including Mannheim and Kazanas themselves, without the need to introduce a conformally coupled Higgs field. Furthermore, Horne argues that the absence of the linear term resolves the issue of light bending in the wrong direction, i.e. away from the gravitating mass, if γr > 0 in the Mannheim-Kazanas metric, a condition necessary to resolve the galactic dynamics in the absence of dark matter. In this case we also point out that the elimination of the linear term is not even required because the sign of the γr term in the metric can be easily reversed by a simple gauge transformation, and also that the effects of this term are indeed too small to be observed.
The biological bases of conformity.
Morgan, T J H; Laland, K N
2012-01-01
Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects' behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning.
Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules
Mimbs, Scott M.
2010-01-01
The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement
Pajewski, Lara; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona
2017-04-01
This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 4 "Different applications of GPR and other NDT technologies in civil engineering" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action TU1208, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. WG4 deals with the use of GPR outside from the civil engineering area, namely in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics, agriculture and management of water resources, investigation of polluted industrial sites, non-destructive testing of living tree trunks, planetary exploration, demining, localization of people buried under avalanches and debris, and more. Furthermore, this WG studies the integration of GPR with other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods. The most relevant achievements stemming from WG4 will be presented during the 2017 EGU GA. These are: (i) The collection of thorough information on the state-of-the-art, ongoing studies, problems and future research needs on the topics of interest for this WG; (ii) The performance of a plethora of interesting case studies in important sites all over Europe, including well-known historical places such as Stonehenge (United Kingdom), Carnuntum (Austria), the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland), the Tholos Tomb of Acharnon (Athens, Greece), the Łazienki Royal Palace (Warsaw, Poland), and more; (iii) WG4 contributed to the TU1208 Education Pack, an open educational package conceived to teach GPR in University
From conformal to Einstein gravity
Anastasiou, Giorgos; Olea, Rodrigo
2016-10-01
We provide a simple derivation of the equivalence between Einstein and conformal gravity (CG) with Neumann boundary conditions given by Maldacena. As Einstein spacetimes are Bach flat, a generic solution to CG would contain both Einstein and non-Einstein parts. Using this decomposition of the spacetime curvature in the Weyl tensor makes manifest the equivalence between the two theories, both at the level of the action and the variation of it. As a consequence, we show that the on-shell action for critical gravity in four dimensions is given uniquely in terms of the Bach tensor.
From Conformal to Einstein Gravity
Anastasiou, Giorgos
2016-01-01
We provide a simple derivation of the equivalence between Einstein and Conformal Gravity (CG) with Neumann boundary conditions given by Maldacena. As Einstein spacetimes are Bach flat, a generic solution to CG would contain both Einstein and non-Einstein part. Using this decomposition of the spacetime curvature in the Weyl tensor, makes manifest the equivalence between the two theories, both at the level of the action and the variation of it. As a consequence, we show that the on-shell action for Critical Gravity in four dimensions is given uniquely in terms of the Bach tensor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appelquist, T; Avakian, A; Babich, R; Brower, R C; Cheng, M; Clark, M A; Cohen, S D; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Soltz, R; Vranas, P
2009-11-30
We study the chiral condensate <{bar {psi}}{psi}> for an SU(3) gauge theory with N{sub f} massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N{sub f} is increased from 2 to 6. For N{sub f} = 2, our lattice simulations of <{bar {psi}}{psi}>/F{sup 3}, where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant, agree with the measured QCD value. For N{sub f} = 6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N{sub f} increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio
2014-05-01
This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG
Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208
Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian
2016-04-01
This work deals with the study of the sensitivity of GPR electromagnetic waves to moisture variation in wood material in relation with the direction of fibers and polarization of Electromagnetic field. The relations between relative permittivity and moisture content and the amplitude attenuation with distance was a target study using the direct waves in Wide Angle Radar Reflection (WARR) configuration. Comparison of results measured with reflected waves and direct waves was of main importance since they have different behavior in relation with moisture variation, due to different path of propagation. This research activity has been carried out during one Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November-December 2015. In context of durability evaluation of construction materials, several studies have been carried out by the I2M team, University of Bordeaux, using direct and reflected waves for the evaluation of water content on concrete and wood materials [1-3]. As related to the wood material there is one study carried out using the reflected waves on wood for different humidity and different wood samples, in all the direction of polarization using GPR technique ground coupled antenna at 1.5 GHz [3]. This work continued with different moisture content in order to study the behavior of direct waves as function of moisture. Results taken from those measurements are compared with them from Fixed Offset (reflected method) with one antenna (1.5GHz or 2.6GHz), realized from the previous studies from the I2M and already published [1-3]. The results taken from this work from the reflected waves, show that the effect of wood anisotropy is significant on the variation of relative permittivity with moisture content on wood sample and that is in good agreement with the previous results [3-6]. As related to the direct waves, a small
Assessment of waterfront location in hardened concrete by GPR within COST Action TU1208
Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Klysz, Gilles; Balayssac, Jean Paul; Pajewski, Lara
2016-04-01
This work focuses on the analysis of the capability of Ground-Penetrating radar (GPR) technique for evaluating how the water penetrates into concrete samples by means of the assessment of the waterfront advance. Research activities have been carried out during a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November 2015. The evaluation of water penetrability is crucial in most building materials, such us concrete, since, water and aggressive chemical agents dissolved therein contribute to the deterioration of the material. A number of techniques have been developed to measure their advance in concrete. Although the most common method for measuring water content is the gravimetric method by observing the change in mass, this method has a large number of disadvantages. In this context, non-destructive techniques as GPR play an interesting role. In particular, the application of GPR in the building materials area is providing very promising and interesting results regarding the building materials characterization and especially concrete deterioration evaluation [1-3]. In addition, recent experimental studies highlight the strong relation between wave propagation parameters (velocity and energy level) and water content advance [4-5]. Water content has a decisive influence on dielectric properties and those might be assessed by the study of the wave properties that are derived by using GPR. Therefore, the waterfront advance will result in a change on wave parameters. In line with this, this research is focused on the development of specific processing algorithms necessary to understand how the water penetrates and how the wave parameters will be affected regarding the location of the antenna in reference to the water absorption direction. For this purpose, concrete samples were manufactured, which after curing (90 days) and oven
Proper time and conformal problem in Kaluza-Klein theory
Minguzzi, E
2015-01-01
In the traditional Kaluza-Klein theory, the cylinder condition and the constancy of the extra-dimensional radius (scalar field) imply that timelike geodesics on the 5-dimensional bundle project to solutions of the Lorentz force equation on spacetime. This property is lost for non constant scalar fields, in fact there appear new terms that have been interpreted mainly as new forces or as due to a variable inertial mass and/or charge. Here we prove that the additional terms can be removed if we assume that charged particles are coupled with the same spacetime conformal structure of neutral particles but through a different conformal factor. As a consequence, in Kaluza-Klein theory the proper time of the charged particle might depend on the charge-to-mass ratio and the scalar field. Then we show that the compatibility between the equation of the projected geodesic and the classical limit of the Klein-Gordon equation fixes unambiguously the conformal factor of the coupling metric solving the `conformal ambiguity ...
Speaking order predicts memory conformity after accounting for exposure to misinformation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hewitt, Lauren Y; Kane, Robert; Garry, Maryanne
2013-01-01
.... One factor that may contribute to this effect is the order in which people speak; some research has investigated this issue, but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between memory conformity and speaking order...
Conformal ALON® and spinel windows
Goldman, Lee M.; Smith, Mark; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri
2017-05-01
The requirements for modern aircraft based reconnaissance systems are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. ALON consists primarily of aluminum and oxygen, similar to that of alumina, with a small amount of nitrogen added to help stabilize the cubic gamma-AlON phase. ALON's chemical similarity to alumina, translates into a robust manufacturing process. This ease of processing has allowed Surmet to produce ALON windows and domes in a wide variety of geometries and sizes. Spinel (MgAl2O4) contains equal molar amounts of MgO and Al2O3, and is a cubic material, that transmits further into the Infrared than ALON. Spinel is produced via powder processing techniques similar to those used to produce ALON. Surmet is now applying the lessons learned with ALON to produce conformal spinel windows and domes as well.
Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng
2016-01-01
We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...
Holography and Conformal Anomaly Matching
Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro; Narain, K S
2013-01-01
We discuss various issues related to the understanding of the conformal anomaly matching in CFT from the dual holographic viewpoint. First, we act with a PBH diffeomorphism on a generic 5D RG flow geometry and show that the corresponding on-shell bulk action reproduces the Wess-Zumino term for the dilaton of broken conformal symmetry, with the expected coefficient aUV-aIR. Then we consider a specific 3D example of RG flow whose UV asymptotics is normalizable and admits a 6D lifting. We promote a modulus \\rho appearing in the geometry to a function of boundary coordinates. In a 6D description {\\rho} is the scale of an SU(2) instanton. We determine the smooth deformed background up to second order in the space-time derivatives of \\rho and find that the 3D on-shell action reproduces a boundary kinetic term for the massless field \\tau= log(\\rho) with the correct coefficient \\delta c=cUV-cIR. We further analyze the linearized fluctuations around the deformed background geometry and compute the one-point functions ...
Complex conformational heterogeneity of the highly flexible O6-benzyl-guanine DNA adduct.
Wilson, Katie A; Wetmore, Stacey D
2014-07-21
The conformational preference of the O6-benzyl-guanine (BzG) adduct was computationally examined using nucleoside, nucleotide, and DNA models, which provided critical information about the potential mutagenic consequences and toxicity of the BzG adduct in our cells. Substantial conformational flexibility of the BzG moiety, including rotation of the bulky group with respect to the base and the internal conformation of the bulk moiety, is seen in the nucleoside and nucleotide models. This large conformational flexibility suggests the conformation adopted by BzG is dependent on the local environment of the BzG adduct. Upon incorporation of the adduct into the DNA helix, the BzG conformational flexibility is maintained. The range of BzG conformations adopted in DNA likely arises due to a combination of the long and flexible (-CH2-) linker, the small adduct size, and the lack of discrete interactions between the bulky moiety and G. Because of the conformational flexibility of the adduct, many DNA conformations are observed for BzG adducted DNA, including those not previously reported in the literature, and thus, a modified nomenclature for adducted DNA conformations is presented. Furthermore, the preferred conformation of BzG adducted DNA is greatly dependent on a number of factors, including the pairing nucleotide, the discrete interactions in the helix, and the solvation of the benzyl moiety. These factors in turn lead to a complicated mutagenic and toxic profile that may invoke pairing with natural C, mispairs, or deletion mutations, which is supported by previously reported experimental biochemical studies. Despite this complex mutagenic profile, pairing with C leads to the most stable helical structure, which is the first combined structural and energetic explanation for experimental studies reporting a higher rate of C incorporation than any other nucleobase upon BzG replication.
Monticelli, Daniele
2006-01-01
Keeleuuenduse ja tõlketegevuse mõningastest olulistest seostest Noor-Eesti liikumisega alanud kultuurilise revolutsiooni kontekstis. Lähema lingvistilise vaatluse alla võetakse Gabriele D'Annunzio "L'Innocente" ("Süütu") Villem Ridala tõlkes. Järgneb: Keel ja Kirjandus, 2006, nr. 6, lk. 477-490
Bhuta, P; Chládek, S
1982-08-30
The effect of the antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin on EF-Tu-catalyzed (ribosome-dependent) GTP hydrolysis in the presence of A-Phe, C-A-Phe, or C-C-A-Phe (related to the sequence of the 3'-terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA)(System I) or by methanol ('uncoupled GTPase', System II) was investigated. In System I, thiostrepton increases the binding affinities of the effectors to the EF-Tu.GTP.70 S ribosome complex, as well as the extent of the GTP hydrolysis, while the KmGTP is virtually unchanged. Similarly, in the uncoupled system (System II) and in the absence of effectors, thiostrepton significantly increases VmaxGTP, whereas KmGTP remains unaffected. Micrococcin is without any effect in both systems. The 'uncoupled GTPase' (in System II) is also strongly inhibited by C-A-Phe. The results indicate the crucial role of the EF-Tu site which binds the aminoacylated C-C-A terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA in promoting GTP hydrolysis. It follows that the binding of the model effectors (such as C-C-A-Phe) to that site is favorably influenced by the interaction of thiostrepton with the 50 S ribosomal subunit, whereas thiostrepton, per se, does not influence the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP.
Pouderoijen, M.T.; Piccinini, D.
2013-01-01
This booklet shows the results of a project developed by TU Delft in a Master elective course offered by the chair of Landscape Architecture: Landscape Architecture ON site, being part of Oerol Festival 2013. The aim of the project was to express the landscape of Terschelling into a temporarily proj
Montoya, Nelson
2002-01-01
El uso de drogas en acuacultura: ¿te dispones a aplicar una droga y/o químico en tu sistema de cultivo?. La aplicación de drogas no reguladas o no aprobadas para su uso en acuacultura representa un riesgo humano potencial.
We employ the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to examine tropospheric sulfateproduction in the northern hemisphere using the Carbon Bond 2005 chemical mechanism withupdated toluene chemistry (CB05TU) and the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism(RACM2) without and with ...
Axial symmetry and conformal Killing vectors
Mars, M; Mars, Marc; Senovilla, Jose M.M.
1993-01-01
Axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformal symmetry are studied and it is shown that, if there is no further conformal symmetry, the axial Killing vector and the conformal Killing vector must commute. As a direct consequence, in conformally stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes, no restriction is made by assuming that the axial symmetry and the conformal timelike symmetry commute. Furthermore, we prove that in axisymmetric spacetimes with another symmetry (such as stationary and axisymmetric or cylindrically symmetric spacetimes) and a conformal symmetry, the commutator of the axial Killing vector with the two others mush vanish or else the symmetry is larger than that originally considered. The results are completely general and do not depend on Einstein's equations or any particular matter content.
Simulating Protein Conformations through Global Optimization
Mucherino, A; Pardalos, P M
2008-01-01
Many researches have been working on the protein folding problem from more than half century. Protein folding is indeed one of the major unsolved problems in science. In this work, we discuss a model for the simulation of protein conformations. This simple model is based on the idea of imposing few geometric requirements on chains of atoms representing the backbone of a protein conformation. The model leads to the formulation of a global optimization problem, whose solutions correspond to conformations satisfying the desired requirements. The global optimization problem is solved by the recently proposed Monkey Search algorithm. The simplicity of the optimization problem and the effectiveness of the used meta-heuristic search allowed the simulation of a large set of high-quality conformations. We show that, even though only few geometric requirements are imposed, some of the simulated conformation results to be similar (in terms of RMSD) to conformations real proteins actually have in nature.
Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers
Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.
2015-09-01
Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.
Conformal submanifold geometry I-III
Burstall, Francis E
2010-01-01
In Part I, we develop the notions of a Moebius structure and a conformal Cartan geometry, establish an equivalence between them; we use them in Part II to study submanifolds of conformal manifolds in arbitrary dimension and codimension. We obtain Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations and a conformal Bonnet theorem characterizing immersed submanifolds of the conformal n-sphere. These methods are applied in Part III to study constrained Willmore surfaces, isothermic surfaces, Guichard surfaces and conformally-flat submanifolds with flat normal bundle, and their spectral deformations, in arbitrary codimension. The high point of these applications is a unified theory of Moebius-flat submanifolds, which include Guichard surfaces and conformally flat hypersurfaces.
Conformal symmetries of FRW accelerating cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2014-07-15
We show that any accelerating Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) cosmology with equation of state w<−1/3 (and therefore not only a de Sitter stage with w=−1) exhibits three-dimensional conformal symmetry on future constant-time hypersurfaces if the bulk theory is invariant under bulk conformal Killing vectors. We also offer an alternative derivation of this result in terms of conformal Killing vectors and show that long wavelength comoving curvature perturbations of the perturbed FRW metric are just conformal Killing motions of the FRW background. We then extend the boundary conformal symmetry to the bulk for accelerating cosmologies. Our findings indicate that one can easily generate perturbations of scalar fields which are not only scale invariant, but also fully conformally invariant on super-Hubble scales. Measuring a scale-invariant power spectrum for the cosmological perturbation does not automatically imply that the universe went through a de Sitter stage.
地球信息图谱与数字地球%On Geo-informatic TuPu and Digital Earth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖克; 秦建新; 张青年
2001-01-01
Digital Earth can be understood as digitized reoresentation and the recognition for real earth and related, geo-phenomena. Digital Earth consists of spatial information with different levels and application models with different objectives. It includes the establishment of base and thematic digital maps with global, national, regional and urban scales, and satellite image data with different resolution and various geo-informations such as population, economy, society and their application systems. Geo-informatic TuPu, as graphic representation of spatio-temporal change of geo-information, is an effective tool for the application of Digital Earth. “Tu”, in Chinese word, includes graphics, maps and images. The Chinese word “Pu” means the well-regulated sequence arrangement of the congener things, such as spectrum, chromatogram. “TuPu” involves the characteristics of “Tu” and “Pu” at the same time. Geo-information TuPu can not only reflect spatial distribution characteristics of geo-phenomena and regional differences between them, but also reveal the deeper level rules related to the cause of formation, the process of evolution and morphology. Having the aid of computer visualization and Virtual Reality technology, TuPu can dynamically and muti-dimensionally reveal the spatial-temporal distribution and evolvement laws of all kinds of geo-phenomena. In this paper, the technological system of Digital Earth and its significance, and the concept of Geo-informatic TuPu are discussed firstly, then, the model of Geo-informatic TuPu transmission is presented. On the basis of the above-mentioned researches, the relationship between Digital Earth and Geo-informatic TuPu is discussed. It reaches to the conclusion that the development of Digital Earth will provide with abundant information resources and strong technological support for Geo-informatic TuPu researches, and the enforcement of Digital Earth strategy will supply Geo-informatic Tu
Mutational analysis of Glu272 in elongation factor 1A of E. coli
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.
1998-01-01
In our previous work (Mansilla et al. (1997) Protein Eng. 10, 927-934) we showed that Arg7 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu (EF1A) plays an essential role in aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding. Substitution of Arg7 by Ala or Glu lost this activity. We proposed that Arg7 forms a salt bridge...
Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia.
Imel, E.A.; Peacock, M.; Pitukcheewanont, P.; Heller, H.J.; Ward, L.M.; Shulman, D.; Kassem, M.; Rackoff, P.; Zimering, M.; Dalkin, A.; Drobny, E.; Colussi, G.; Shaker, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hui, S.L.; Econs, M.J.
2006-01-01
CONTEXT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tu
Mutational analysis of Glu272 in elongation factor 1A of E. coli
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.
1998-01-01
In our previous work (Mansilla et al. (1997) Protein Eng. 10, 927-934) we showed that Arg7 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu (EF1A) plays an essential role in aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding. Substitution of Arg7 by Ala or Glu lost this activity. We proposed that Arg7 forms a salt bridge ...
Two-way WKB Approximation Applied to GPR - COST Action TU1208
Prokopovich, Igor; Popov, Alexei; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara
2016-04-01
account. In this work we study bistatic EM pulse probing of a horizontally layered medium in a 2D case. Coupled WKB equations set describing both forward and backward waves are derived and solved analytically. The comparison of our semi-analytical solutions with numerical calculations by gprMax software [4] demonstrates a good agreement, being hundreds of times faster than the letter. Our numerical results explain the protracted return pulses in the low-frequency GPR data. As an example, we discuss the experimental data obtained during the GPR mission in search of a big fragment of Chelyabinsk meteorite under a thick silt layer at the bottom of Chebarcul' Lake [5]. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) facilitating this work by a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) within the framework of the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). References 1. H. Bremmer "Propagation of electromagnetic waves", in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. Berlin-Goettingen-Heidelberg: Springer, 1958, pp. 423-639 2. L.M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Stratified Media (in Russian). Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, 1957. 3. V.A.Vinogradov, V.V. Kopeikin, A.V. Popov, "An Approximate Solution of 1D Inverse Problem", in Proc. 10th Internat. Conf. on GPR, 21-24 June, 2004, Delft, The Netherlands 4. A. Giannopoulos, "Modelling ground penetrating radar by GprMax", Construction and Building Materials, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 755-762, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.06.007 5. V. V. Kopeikin , V. D. Kuznetsov, P. A. Morozov, A. V. Popov et al., "Ground penetrating radar investigation of the supposed fall site of a fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite in Lake Chebarkul'", Geochemistry International, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 575-582, 2013, doi: 10.1134/S0016702913070112
TASI Lectures on the Conformal Bootstrap
Simmons-Duffin, David
2016-01-01
These notes are from courses given at TASI and the Advanced Strings School in summer 2015. Starting from principles of quantum field theory and the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, we develop the basics of conformal field theory, including conformal Ward identities, radial quantization, reflection positivity, the operator product expansion, and conformal blocks. We end with an introduction to numerical bootstrap methods, focusing on the 2d and 3d Ising models.
Conformal Invariance and Quantum Nature of Particles
Salehi, H; Salehi, Hadi; Bisabr, Yousef
2003-01-01
We investigate a gravitational model whose vacuum sector is invariant under conformal transformations. In this model, matter is taken to be coupled with a metric which is different but conformally related to the metric appearing explicitly in the vacuum sector. It is then show that the effect of a conformal symmetry breaking would lead to a particle concept. In particular, a correspondence between quantum nature of the particles and the gravitational interaction of matter is established.
Multiple conformations of proteins in native state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Examples of protein sequences that can adopt multiple native states are recently accumulated. Characterization of the protein multiple conformations will have important implications for our understanding of the relationship between structure and function, and their folding kinetics. In present review, the experimental evidence for the existence of multiple conformations in the native state of proteins, the molecular basis and the biological significance of multiple conformations of proteins are focused.
Conformational changes in glycine tri- and hexapeptide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2006-01-01
conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of the characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods...... also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids....
Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline
Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.
2013-06-01
Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.
Conformal Anomaly and Large Scale Gravitational Coupling
Salehi, H
2000-01-01
We present a model in which the breackdown of conformal symmetry of a quantum stress-tensor due to the trace anomaly is related to a cosmological effect in a gravitational model. This is done by characterizing the traceless part of the quantum stress-tensor in terms of the stress-tensor of a conformal invariant classical scalar field. We introduce a conformal frame in which the anomalous trace is identified with a cosmological constant. In this conformal frame we establish the Einstein field equations by connecting the quantum stress-tensor with the large scale distribution of matter in the universe.
Conformal invariance conserved quantity of Hamilton systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Jian-Le; Luo Shao-Kai; Mei Feng-Xiang
2008-01-01
This paper studies conformal invariance and comserved quantRies of Hamilton system.The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for Hamilton system are provided.The relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry are discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group is deduced.It gives the conserved quantities of the system and an example for illustration.
Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appelquist, Thomas; Brower, Richard C.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D.; Fleming, George T.; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T.; Osborn, James C.
2012-04-01
We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with N{sub f} = 10 light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension {gamma}* {approx} 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.
Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors
Appelquist, Thomas; Buchoff, Michael I; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D; Fleming, George T; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T; Osborn, James C; Rebbi, Claudio; Schaich, David; Schroeder, Chris; Voronov, Gennady; Vranas, Pavlos
2012-01-01
We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with ten light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension approximately equal to 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.
A conformal model of gravitons
Donoghue, John F
2016-01-01
In the description of general covariance, the vierbein and the Lorentz connection can be treated as independent fundamental fields. With the usual gauge Lagrangian, the Lorentz connection is characterized by an asymptotically free running coupling. When running from high energy, the coupling gets large at a scale which can be called the Planck mass. If the Lorentz connection is confined at that scale, the low energy theory can have the Einstein Lagrangian induced at low energy through dimensional transmutation. However, in general there will be new divergences in such a theory and the Lagrangian basis should be expanded. I construct a conformally invariant model with a larger basis size which potentially may have the same property.
Charged gravastars admitting conformal motion
Usmani, A A; Ray, Saibal; Nandi, K K; Kuhfittig, Peter K F; Rakib, Sk A; Hasan, Z
2010-01-01
We propose a new model of a {\\it gravastar} admitting conformal motion. While retaining the framework of the Mazur-Mottola model, the gravastar is assumed to be internally charged, with an exterior defined by a Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m rather than a Schwarzschild line element. The solutions obtained involve (i) the interior region, (ii) the shell, and (iii) the exterior region of the sphere. Of these three cases the first case is of primary interest since the total gravitational mass vanishes for vanishing charge and turns the total gravitational mass into an {\\it electromagnetic mass} under certain conditions. This suggests that the interior de Sitter vacuum of a charged gravastar is essentially an electromagnetic mass model that must generate the gravitational mass. We have also analyzed various other aspects such as the stress energy tensor in the thin shell and the entropy of the system.
Conformable eddy current array delivery
Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes
2016-02-01
The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.
Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity
Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb
2014-01-01
Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.
Electromagnetic characterization of conformal antennas
Volakis, John L.; Kempel, Leo C.; Alexanian, Angelos; Jin, J. M.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.
1992-01-01
The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a new technique which permits an accurate simulation of microstrip patch antennas or arrays with various feed, superstrate and/or substrate configurations residing in a recessed cavity whose aperture is planar, cylindrical or otherwise conformed to the substructure. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system suitable for solution via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform. The final code is intended to compute both scattering and radiation patterns of the structure with an affordable memory demand. With upgraded capabilities, the four included papers examined the radar cross section (RCS), input impedance, gain, and resonant frequency of several rectangular configurations using different loading and substrate/superstrate configurations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nobuhiro Ueno
Full Text Available The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100 has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF and germ free (GF mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.
Structure fluctuations and conformational changes in protein binding
Ruvinsky, Anatoly M; Tuzikov, Alexander V; Vakser, Ilya A
2011-01-01
Structure fluctuations and conformational changes accompany all biological processes involving macromolecules. The paper presents a classification of protein residues based on the normalized equilibrium fluctuations of the residue centers of mass in proteins and a statistical analysis of conformation changes in the side-chains upon binding. Normal mode analysis and an elastic network model were applied to a set of protein complexes to calculate the residue fluctuations and develop the residue classification. Comparison with a classification based on normalized B-factors suggests that the B-factors may underestimate protein flexibility in solvent. Our classification shows that protein loops and disordered fragments are enriched with highly fluctuating residues and depleted with weakly fluctuating residues. To calculate the dihedral angles distribution functions, the configuration space was divided into cells by a cubic grid. The effect of protein association on the distribution functions depends on the amino a...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaersgård, I V; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Wiborg, O
1995-01-01
in aminoacyl-tRNA affinity, an increase in intrinsic GTP hydrolysis, different behaviours in effector stimulation of the intrinsic GTPase activity, and that they are completely unable to sustain poly(Phe) synthesis in an in-vitro poly(U)-directed system. Our results indicates that particularly Gly83...
Princic, A.; Rombouts, J. P.; de Smaele, M. M. P.
2012-04-01
3TU.Datacentrum (datacentrum.3tu.nl) is a portal for science- and technology research data in the Netherlands. It serves data-curation needs of scientists in different disciplines of engineering and science varying from hydrology, water management, electron microscopy, to remote sensing. This data center provides long-term archive and permanent access to research data, it enables sharing and reuse of research data, and provides tools for citation of research datasets. The versatility of disciplines and versatility of needs is a challenge of the data center. The solutions offered differ in the functionality offered to the user. For a complex collection of simple datasets consisting of ongoing hydrological measurements from several project partners, using several instruments, on several locations, over a long period of time, there was a need for central storage in order to share the data and enable easy combination of data sets. The measurements are not repeatable and are also valuable for multidisciplinary research, which justified investment in the preservation and 'publishing' of the data. For a simple collection of complex datasets consisting of measurements of the meteorological radar, obtaining high resolution temporal and spatial precipitation data including those non-detectable by standard meteorological radar like drizzle, there was a need to store the data due to volume. These data come from a single instrument and from a single organization. Sharing with other scientists was difficult, which justified investment in the preservation and 'publishing' of the data. 3TU.Datacentrum offered solutions for both cases. Standardized solution to both collections is the data model: datasets, instruments, locations and time frames are all objects on their own, with own metadata and interconnected through rdf relationships. These relations are exploited in the user interface for navigation and inclusion, e.g. of instrument and location metadata in the display of
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Derobert, Xavier; Fontul, Simona; Govedarica, Miro; Gregoire, Colette; Loizos, Andreas; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Plati, Christina; Ristic, Aleksandar; Tosti, Fabio; Van Geem, Carl
2017-04-01
This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 2 "GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The principal goal of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG2 include: 1. The state of the art on the use of GPR in civil engineering was composed and open issues were identified. The few existing international/national guidelines/protocols for GPR inspection in civil engineering were reviewed and discussed. Academic end-users, private companies and stakeholders presented their point of view and needs. 2. Guidelines for investigating flexible pavement by using GPR were prepared, with particular regard to layer-thickness assessment, moisture-content sensing, pavement-damage detection and classification, and other main GPR-based investigations in pavement engineering. 3. Guidelines for GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids were prepared, with a main focus on urban areas. 4. Guidelines for GPR assessment of concrete structures, with particular regard to inspections in bridges and tunnels, were prepared. 5. A report was composed, including a series of practical suggestions and very useful information to guide GPR users during building inspection. 6. WG2 Members carried out a plethora of case studies where GPR was used to survey roads, highways, airport runways, car
Simple Space-Time Symmetries: Generalizing Conformal Field Theory
Mack, G; Mack, Gerhard; Riese, Mathias de
2004-01-01
We study simple space-time symmetry groups G which act on a space-time manifold M=G/H which admits a G-invariant global causal structure. We classify pairs (G,M) which share the following additional properties of conformal field theory: 1) The stability subgroup H of a point in M is the identity component of a parabolic subgroup of G, implying factorization H=MAN, where M generalizes Lorentz transformations, A dilatations, and N special conformal transformations. 2) special conformal transformations in N act trivially on tangent vectors to the space-time manifold M. The allowed simple Lie groups G are the universal coverings of SU(m,m), SO(2,D), Sp(l,R), SO*(4n) and E_7(-25) and H are particular maximal parabolic subgroups. All these groups G admit positive energy representations. It will also be shown that the classical conformal groups SO(2,D) are the only allowed groups which possess a time reflection automorphism; in all other cases space-time has an intrinsic chiral structure.
Conformal Boundary Conditions and Three-Dimensional Topological Field Theory
Felder, Giovanni; Fröhlich, Jürg; Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph
2000-02-01
We present a general construction of all correlation functions of a two-dimensional rational conformal field theory, for an arbitrary number of bulk and boundary fields and arbitrary topologies. The correlators are expressed in terms of Wilson graphs in a certain three-manifold, the connecting manifold. The amplitudes constructed this way can be shown to be modular invariant and to obey the correct factorization rules.
Conformal boundary conditions and three-dimensional topological field theory
Felder, G; Fuchs, J; Schweigert, C
2000-01-01
We present a general construction of all correlation functions of a two-dimensional rational conformal field theory, for an arbitrary number of bulk and boundary fields and arbitrary topologies. The correlators are expressed in terms of Wilson graphs in a certain three-manifold, the connecting manifold. The amplitudes constructed this way can be shown to be modular invariant and to obey the correct factorization rules.
Hillen, M.; Verhoelst, T.; Degroote, P.; Acke, B.; van Winckel, H.
2012-02-01
Context. Our comprehension of stellar evolution on the AGB still faces many difficulties. To improve on this, a quantified understanding of large-amplitude pulsator atmospheres and interpretation in terms of their fundamental stellar parameters are essential. Aims: We wish to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently released CODEX dynamical model atmospheres in representing M-type Mira variables through a confrontation with the time-resolved spectro-photometric and interferometric PTI data set of TU And. Methods: We calibrated the interferometric K-band time series to high precision. This results in 50 nights of observations, covering 8 subsequent pulsation cycles. At each phase, the flux at 2.2 μm is obtained, along with the spectral shape and visibility points in 5 channels across the K-band. We compared the data set to the relevant dynamical, self-excited CODEX models. Results: Both spectrum and visibilities are consistently reproduced at visual minimum phases. Near maximum, our observations show that the current models predict a photosphere that is too compact and hot, and we find that the extended atmosphere lacks H2O opacity. Since coverage in model parameter space is currently poor, more models are needed to make firm conclusions on the cause of the discrepancies. We argue that for TU And, the discrepancy could be lifted by adopting a lower value of the mixing length parameter combined with an increase in the stellar mass and/or a decrease in metallicity, but this requires the release of an extended model grid. Figure 4 and Table 1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Conformal Higgs, or techni-dilaton- composite Higgs near conformality
Yamawaki, Koichi
2010-01-01
In contrast to the folklore that Technicolor (TC) is a "Higgsless theory", we shall discuss existence of a composite Higgs boson, Techni-Dilaton (TD), a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the scale invariance in the Scale-invariant/Walking/Conformal TC (SWC TC) which generates a large anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m \\simeq 1$ in a wide region from the dynamical mass $m$ $= {\\cal O}$ (TeV) of the techni-fermion all the way up to the intrinsic scale $\\Lambda_{\\rm TC}$ of the SWC TC (analogue of $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$), where $\\Lambda_{\\rm TC} $ is taken typically as the scale of the Extended TC scale $\\Lambda_{\\rm ETC}$: $\\Lambda_{\\rm TC} \\simeq \\Lambda_{\\rm ETC}\\sim10^3$ TeV $ (\\gg m)$. All the techni-hadrons have mass on the same order ${\\cal O} (m)$, which in SWC TC is extremely smaller than the intrinsic scale $\\Lambda_{\\rm TC} \\simeq \\Lambda_{\\rm ETC} $, in sharp contrast to QCD where both are of the same order. The mass of TD arises from the {\\it non-perturbative scale anomaly} associated with the techni-fermion ...
TU-AB-201-07: Image Guided Endorectal HDR Brachytherapy Using a Compliant Balloon Applicator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, G; Goodman, K [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is an option to deliver a focal, high-dose radiotherapy to rectal tumors for patients undergoing non-operative management. We investigate a new multichannel, MR compatible applicator with a novel balloon-based design to provide improved treatment geometry. We report on the initial clinical experience using this applicator. Methods: Patients were enrolled on an IRB-approved, dose-escalation protocol evaluating the use of the anorectal (AR-1) applicator (Ancer Medical, Hialeah, FL), a multichannel applicator with two concentric balloons. The inner balloon supports 8 source lumens; the compliant outer balloon expands to separate the normal rectal wall and the source lumens, yet deforms around a firm, exophytic rectal mass, leading to dose escalation to tumor while sparing normal rectum. Under general anesthesia, gold fiducial markers were inserted above and below the tumor, and the AR applicator was placed in the rectum. MRI-based treatment plans were prepared to deliver 15 Gy in 3 weekly fractions to the target volume while sparing healthy rectal tissue, bladder, bowel and anal muscles. Prior to each treatment, CBCT/Fluoroscopy were used to place the applicator in the treatment position and confirm the treatment geometry using rigid registration of the CBCT and planning MRI. After registration of the applicator images, positioning was evaluated based on the match of the gold markers. Results: Highly conformal treatment plans were achieved. MR compatibility of the applicator enabled good tumor visualization. In spite of the non-rigid nature of the applicators and the fact that a new applicator was used at each treatment session, treatment geometry was reproducible to within 2.5 mm. Conclusions: This is the first report on using the AR applicator in patients. Highly conformal plans, confidence in MRI target delineation, in combination with reproducible treatment geometry provide encouraging feedback for continuation with
Enthalpy-entropy contribution to carcinogen-induced DNA conformational heterogeneity.
Liang, Fengting; Cho, Bongsup P
2010-01-19
DNA damage by adduct formation is a critical step for the initiation of carcinogenesis. Aromatic amines are strong inducers of environmental carcinogenesis. Their DNA adducts are known to exist in an equilibrium between the major groove (B) and base-displaced stacked (S) conformations. However, the factors governing such heterogeneity remain unclear. Here we conducted extensive calorimetry/NMR/CD studies on the model DNA lesions caused by fluorinated 2-aminfluorene (FAF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (FABP) in order to gain thermodynamic and kinetic insights into the S/B conformational equilibrium. We demonstrate that there are large differences in enthalpy-entropy compensations for FABP and FAF. The small and flexible FABP exclusively adopts the less perturbed B conformer with small enthalpy (DeltaDeltaH-2.7 kcal/mol)/entropy (DeltaDeltaS-0.7 eu) change. In contrast, FAF stacks better and exists as a mixture of B and S conformers with large enthalpy (DeltaDeltaH-13.4 kcal/mol)/entropy (DeltaDeltaS-34.2 eu) compensation. van't Hoff analysis of dynamic (19)F NMR data indicated DeltaH(BS) = 4.1 kcal/mol in favor of the B conformer and DeltaS(BS) = 15.6 cal mol(-1) K(-1) in favor of the intercalated S conformer. These findings demonstrate that the favorable entropy of the S conformer over B conformer determines the S/B population ratios at physiological temperatures.
The conformal approach to asymptotic analysis
Nicolas, Jean-Philippe
2015-01-01
This essay was written as an extended version of a talk given at a conference in Strasbourg on "Riemann, Einstein and geometry", organized by Athanase Papadopoulos in September 2014. Its aim is to present Roger Penrose's approach to asymptotic analysis in general relativity, which is based on conformal geometric techniques, focusing on historical and recent aspects of two specialized topics~: conformal scattering and peeling.
Asymptotic symmetry algebra of conformal gravity
Irakleidou, M
2016-01-01
We compute asymptotic symmetry algebras of conformal gravity. Due to more general boundary conditions allowed in conformal gravity in comparison to those in Einstein gravity, we can classify the corresponding algebras. The highest algebra for non-trivial boundary conditions is five dimensional and it leads to global geon solution with non-vanishing charges.
40 CFR 52.138 - Conformity procedures.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity procedures. 52.138 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.138 Conformity procedures. (a) Purpose. The... plans for metropolitan transportation planning organizations (MPOs) to use when determining...
14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...
Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
2011-01-01
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities
Tod, Paul
2007-01-01
We analyse conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem.
Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
2011-01-01
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
DIMENSIONS FOR RANDOM SELF-CONFORMAL SETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Yanyan; Wu Jun
2003-01-01
A set is called regular if its Hausdorff dimension and upper box-counting dimension coincide.In this paper,we prove that the random self-conformal set is regular almost surely.Also we determine the dimensions for a class of random self-conformal sets.
Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking
Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774
2011-01-01
We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...
A geodesic model in conformal superspace
Gomes, Henrique de A
2016-01-01
In this paper, I look for the most general geometrodynamical symmetries compatible with spatial relational principles. I argue that they lead either to a completely static Universe, or one embodying spatial conformal diffeomorphisms. Demanding locality for an action compatible with these principles severely limits its form, both for the gravitational part as well as all matter couplings. The simplest and most natural choice for pure gravity has two propagating physical degrees of freedom (and no refoliation-invariance). The system has a geometric interpretation as a geodesic model in infinite dimensional conformal superspace. Conformal superspace is a stratified manifold, with different strata corresponding to different isometry groups. Choosing space to be (homeomorphic to) $S^3$, conformal superspace has a preferred stratum with maximal stabilizer group. This stratum consists of a single point -- corresponding to the conformal geometry of the round 3-sphere. This is the most homogeneous non-degenerate geome...
On Combinatorial Expansions of Conformal Blocks
Marshakov, A; Morozov, A
2009-01-01
In a recent paper (arXiv:0906.3219) the representation of Nekrasov partition function in terms of nontrivial two-dimensional conformal field theory has been suggested. For non-vanishing value of the deformation parameter \\epsilon=\\epsilon_1+\\epsilon_2 the instanton partition function is identified with a conformal block of Liouville theory with the central charge c = 1+ 6\\epsilon^2/\\epsilon_1\\epsilon_2. If reversed, this observation means that the universal part of conformal blocks, which is the same for all two-dimensional conformal theories with non-degenerate Virasoro representations, possesses a non-trivial decomposition into sum over sets of the Young diagrams, different from the natural decomposition studied in conformal field theory. We provide some details about this intriguing new development in the simplest case of the four-point correlation functions.
Finite Conformal Quantum Gravity and Nonsingular Spacetimes
Modesto, Leonardo
2016-01-01
We explicitly prove that a class of finite quantum gravitational theories (in odd as well as in even dimension) is actually a range of anomaly-free conformally invariant theories in the spontaneously broken phase of the conformal Weyl symmetry. At classical level we show how the Weyl conformal invariance is likely able to tame the spacetime singularities that plague not only Einstein gravity, but also local and weakly non-local higher derivative theories. This latter statement is rigorously proved by a singularity theorem that applies to a large class of weakly non-local theories. Following the seminal paper by Narlikar and Kembhavi, we provide an explicit construction of singularity-free black hole exact solutions conformally equivalent to the Schwarzschild metric. Furthermore, we show that the FRW cosmological solutions and the Belinski, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz (BKL) spacetimes, which exactly solve the classical equations of motion, are conformally equivalent to regular spacetimes. Finally, we prove that the ...
Permeable conformal walls and holography
Bachas, Constantin; de Boer, Jan; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Ooguri, Hirosi
2002-06-01
We study conformal field theories in two dimensions separated by domain walls, which preserve at least one Virasoro algebra. We develop tools to study such domain walls, extending and clarifying the concept of `folding' discussed in the condensed-matter literature. We analyze the conditions for unbroken supersymmetry, and discuss the holographic duals in AdS3 when they exist. One of the interesting observables is the Casimir energy between a wall and an anti-wall. When these separate free scalar field theories with different target-space radii, the Casimir energy is given by the dilogarithm function of the reflection probability. The walls with holographic duals in AdS3 separate two sigma models, whose target spaces are moduli spaces of Yang-Mills instantons on T4 or K3. In the supergravity limit, the Casimir energy is computable as classical energy of a brane that connects the walls through AdS3. We compare this result with expectations from the sigma-model point of view.
Permeable conformal walls and holography
Bachas, C P; Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H
2002-01-01
We study conformal field theories in two dimensions separated by domain walls, which preserve at least one Virasoro algebra. We develop tools to study such domain walls, extending and clarifying the concept of `folding' discussed in the condensed-matter literature. We analyze the conditions for unbroken supersymmetry, and discuss the holographic duals in AdS3 when they exist. One of the interesting observables is the Casimir energy between a wall and an anti-wall. When these separate free scalar field theories with different target-space radii, the Casimir energy is given by the dilogarithm function of the reflection probability. The walls with holographic duals in AdS3 separate two sigma models, whose target spaces are moduli spaces of Yang-Mills instantons on T4 or K3. In the supergravity limit, the Casimir energy is computable as classical energy of a brane that connects the walls through AdS3. We compare this result with expectations from the sigma-model point of view.
Cosmology in Conformally Flat Spacetime
Endean, Geoffrey
1997-04-01
A possible solution to cosmological age and redshift-distance difficulties has recently been proposed by applying the appropriate conformally flat spacetime (CFS) coordinates to the standard solution of the field equations in a standard dust model closed universe. Here it is shown that CFS time correctly measures the true age of the universe, thus answering a major theoretical objection to the proposal. It is also shown that the CFS interpretation leads to a strong Copernican principle and is in all other respects wholly self-consistent. The deceleration parameter q0 is related to t0, the present age of the universe divided by L, the scale length of its curvature (an absolute constant). The values of q0 and L are approximately 5/6 and 9.2 × 109 yr, respectively. It is shown that the universe started everywhere simultaneously, with no recession velocity until the effects of its closed topology became significant. Conclusions to the contrary in standard theory (the big bang) stem from a different definition of recession velocity. The theoretical present cosmological mass density is quantified as 4.4 × 10-27 kg m-3 approximately, thus greatly reducing, in a closed universe, the observational requirement to find hidden mass. It is also shown that the prediction of standard theory, for a closed universe, of collapse toward a big crunch termination, will not in fact take place.
Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes.
Gyulassy, Attila; Günther, David; Levine, Joshua A; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio
2014-12-01
Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.
47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bolton Evan E
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average
C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Kun, E-mail: mengkun@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Liu, E-mail: lzhao@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2017-02-15
The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.
A note on conformally compactified connection dynamics tailored for anti-de Sitter space
Bodendorfer, N.
2016-12-01
A framework conceptually based on the conformal techniques employed to study the structure of the gravitational field at infinity is set up in the context of loop quantum gravity to describe asymptotically anti-de Sitter quantum spacetimes. A conformal compactification of the spatial slice is performed, which, in terms of the rescaled metric, has now finite volume, and can thus be conveniently described by spin networks states. The conformal factor used is a physical scalar field, which has the necessary asymptotics for many asymptotically AdS black hole solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goede Andrean
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of known protein structures provides valuable information about pharmaceutical targets. Drug binding sites are identifiable and suitable lead compounds can be proposed. The flexibility of ligands is a critical point for the selection of potential drugs. Since computed 3D structures of millions of compounds are available, the knowledge of their binding conformations would be a great benefit for the development of efficient screening methods. Results Integration of two public databases allowed superposition of conformers for 193 approved drugs with 5507 crystallised target-bound counterparts. The generation of 9600 drug conformers using an atomic force field was carried out to obtain an optimal coverage of the conformational space. Bioactive conformations are best described by a conformational ensemble: half of all drugs exhibit multiple active states, distributed over the entire range of the reachable energy and conformational space. A number of up to 100 conformers per drug enabled us to reproduce the bound states within a similarity threshold of 1.0 Å in 70% of all cases. This fraction rises to about 90% for smaller or average sized drugs. Conclusion Single drugs adopt multiple bioactive conformations if they interact with different target proteins. Due to the structural diversity of binding sites they adopt conformations that are distributed over a broad conformational space and wide energy range. Since the majority of drugs is well represented by a predefined low number of conformers (up to 100 this procedure is a valuable method to compare compounds by three-dimensional features or for fast similarity searches starting with pharmacophores. The underlying 9600 generated drug conformers are downloadable from the Super Drug Web site 1. All superpositions are visualised at the same source. Additional conformers (110,000 of 2400 classified WHO-drugs are also available.
Evolving black holes from conformal transformations of static solutions
Mello, Marina M C; Zanchin, Vilson T
2016-01-01
A class of non-stationary spacetimes is obtained by means of a conformal transformation of the Schwarzschild metric, where the conformal factor $a(t)$ is an arbitrary function of the time coordinate only. We investigate several situations including some where the final state is a central object with constant mass. The metric is such that there is an initial big-bang type singularity and the final state depends on the chosen conformal factor. The Misner-Sharp mass is computed and a localized central object may be identified. The trapping horizons, geodesic and causal structure of the resulting spacetimes are investigated in detail. When $a(t)$ asymptotes to a constant in a short enough time scale, the spacetime presents an event horizon and its analytical extension reveals black-hole or white-hole regions. On the other hand, when $a(t)$ is unbounded from above as in cosmological models, the spacetime presents no event horizons and may present null singularities in the future. The energy-momentum content and ot...
On functional representations of the conformal algebra
Rosten, Oliver J.
2017-07-01
Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor.
Conformational elasticity theory of chain molecules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG; Xiaozhen
2001-01-01
This paper develops a conformational elasticity theory of chain molecules, which is based on three key points: (ⅰ) the molecular model is the rotational isomeric state (RIS) model; (ⅱ) the conformational distribution function of a chain molecule is described by a function of two variables, the end-to-end distance of a chain conformation and the energy of the conformation; (ⅲ) the rule of changes in the chain conformational states during deformation is that a number of chain conformations would vanish. The ideal deformation behavior calculated by the theory shows that the change in chain conformations is physically able to make the upward curvature of the stress-strain curve at the large-scale deformation of natural rubber. With the theory, different deformation behaviors between polymers with different chemical structures can be described, the energy term of the stress in the deformations can be predicted, and for natural rubber the fraction of the energy term is around 13%, coinciding with the experimental results.
Conformation-dependent DNA attraction
Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang
2014-05-01
Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by
Spectra of conformal sigma models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tlapak, Vaclav
2015-04-15
In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2} sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic
Topological conformal defects with tensor networks
Hauru, Markus; Evenbly, Glen; Ho, Wen Wei; Gaiotto, Davide; Vidal, Guifre
2016-09-01
The critical two-dimensional classical Ising model on the square lattice has two topological conformal defects: the Z2 symmetry defect Dɛ and the Kramers-Wannier duality defect Dσ. These two defects implement antiperiodic boundary conditions and a more exotic form of twisted boundary conditions, respectively. On the torus, the partition function ZD of the critical Ising model in the presence of a topological conformal defect D is expressed in terms of the scaling dimensions Δα and conformal spins sα of a distinct set of primary fields (and their descendants, or conformal towers) of the Ising conformal field theory. This characteristic conformal data {Δα,sα}D can be extracted from the eigenvalue spectrum of a transfer matrix MD for the partition function ZD. In this paper, we investigate the use of tensor network techniques to both represent and coarse grain the partition functions ZDɛand ZD σ of the critical Ising model with either a symmetry defect Dɛ or a duality defect Dσ. We also explain how to coarse grain the corresponding transfer matrices MDɛand MD σ, from which we can extract accurate numerical estimates of {Δα,sα}Dɛ and {Δα,sα}Dσ. Two key ingredients of our approach are (i) coarse graining of the defect D , which applies to any (i.e., not just topological) conformal defect and yields a set of associated scaling dimensions Δα, and (ii) construction and coarse graining of a generalized translation operator using a local unitary transformation that moves the defect, which only exist for topological conformal defects and yields the corresponding conformal spins sα.
On Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in conformal teleparallel gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, J.G.; Ulhoa, S.C. [International Center of Condensed Matter Physics Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Santos, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Instituto de Fisica, Mato Grosso (Brazil); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, BC (Canada)
2016-03-15
In this paper we use the conformal teleparallel gravity to study an isotropic and homogeneous Universe which is settled by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. The conformal symmetry demands the existence of a scalar field which works as a dark field for this model. We solve numerically the field equations then we obtain the behavior of some cosmological parameters such as the scale factor, the deceleration parameter and the energy density of the perfect fluid which is the matter field of our model. The field equations, which we called modified Friedmann equations, allow us to define a dark fluid, with dark energy density and pressure, responsible for the acceleration in the Universe, once we defined an equation of state for the dark fluid. (orig.)
Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications
Spyrou, N. K.
2011-02-01
The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.
Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert K. Nesbet
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.
Conformable Fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov Method
Karayer, H.; Demirhan, D.; Büyükkılıç, F.
2016-07-01
We introduce conformable fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method by means of conformable fractional derivative which is the most natural definition in non-integer calculus. Since, NU method gives exact eigenstate solutions of Schrödinger equation (SE) for certain potentials in quantum mechanics, this method is carried into the domain of fractional calculus to obtain the solutions of fractional SE. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the conformable fractional NU method, we solve fractional SE for harmonic oscillator potential, Woods—Saxon potential, and Hulthen potential.
The decomposition of global conformal invariants
Alexakis, Spyros
2012-01-01
This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese
Conformal blocks in the QCD Pomeron formalism
Navelet, H
1996-01-01
The conformal invariance properties of the QCD Pomeron in the transverse plane allow us to give an explicit analytical expression for the conformal eigenvectors in the mixed representation in terms of two conformal blocks, each block being the product of an holomorphic times an antiholomorphic function. This property is used to give an exact expression for various functions of interest, the Pomeron amplitude in both momentum and impact-parameter variables, the QCD dipole multiplicities and dipole-dipole cross-sections in the whole parameter space, and we recover the expression of the four-point gluon Green function given recently by Lipatov
QCD, conformal invariance and the two Pomerons
Munier, S
1998-01-01
Using the solution of the BFKL equation including the leading and subleading conformal spin components, we show how the conformal invariance underlying the leading log (1/x) expansion of perturbative QCD leads to elastic amplitudes described by two effective Pomeron singularities. One Pomeron is the well-known "hard" BFKL leading singularity while the new one appears from a shift of the higher conformal spin BFKL singularities from subleading to leading position. This new effective singularity is compatible with the "soft" Pomeron and thus, together with the "hard" Pomeron, meets at large $Q^{2}$ the "double Pomeron" solution which has been recently conjectured by Donnachie and Landshoff.
Conformal field theory with gauge symmetry
Ueno, Kenji
2008-01-01
This book presents a systematic approach to conformal field theory with gauge symmetry from the point of view of complex algebraic geometry. After presenting the basic facts of the theory of compact Riemann surfaces and the representation theory of affine Lie algebras in Chapters 1 and 2, conformal blocks for pointed Riemann surfaces with coordinates are constructed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the sheaf of conformal blocks associated to a family of pointed Riemann surfaces with coordinates is constructed, and in Chapter 5 it is shown that this sheaf supports a projective flat connection-one of
Conformal invariance in quantum field theory
Todorov, Ivan T; Petkova, Valentina B
1978-01-01
The present volume is an extended and up-to-date version of two sets of lectures by the first author and it reviews more recent work. The notes aim to present a self-contained exposition of a constructive approach to conformal invariant quantum field theory. Other parts in application of the conformal group to quantum physics are only briefly mentioned. The relevant mathematical material (harmonic analysis on Euclidean conformal groups) is briefly summarized. A new exposition of physical applications is given, which includes an explicit construction of the vacuum operator product expansion for the free zero mass fields.
Conformational and Vibrational Studies of Triclosan
Özişik, Haci; Bayari, S. Haman; Saǧlam, Semran
2010-01-01
The conformational equilibrium of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFTe/B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p)) method. Four different geometries were found to correspond to energy minimum conformations. The IR spectrum of triclosan was measured in the 4000-400 cm-1 region. We calculated the harmonic frequencies and intensities of the most stable conformers in order to assist in the assignment of the vibrational bands in the experimental spectrum. The fundamental vibrational modes were characterized depending on their total energy distribution (TED%) using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) force field method.
Conformal field theory on the plane
Ribault, Sylvain
2014-01-01
We provide an introduction to conformal field theory on the plane in the conformal bootstrap approach. We introduce the main ideas of the bootstrap approach to quantum field theory, and how they apply to two-dimensional theories with local conformal symmetry. We describe the mathematical structures which appear in such theories, from the Virasoro algebra and its representations, to the BPZ equations and their solutions. As examples, we study a number of models: Liouville theory, (generalized) minimal models, free bosonic theories, the $H_3^+$ model, and the $SU_2$ and $\\widetilde{SL}_2(\\mathbb{R})$ WZW models.
Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barros, Manuel, E-mail: mbarros@ugr.es [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Granada, 1807 Granada (Spain); Ferrandez, Angel, E-mail: aferr@um.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Murcia Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)
2011-07-15
Highlights: > The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. > Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. > The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.
Static validation of licence conformance policies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2008-01-01
Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...
Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.
2005-01-01
A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sophie Démare-Lafont
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Cet article examine le champ sémantique de l’expression dātu ša šarri, « loi du roi », formée sur un terme d’origine vieux-perse (data. La dizaine d’occurrences d’époques achéménide et séleucide montre que la « loi du roi »désigne un mode d’élaboration de la norme issu de la pratique judiciaire du souverain, progressivement compilée pour former un corps de règles invoquées dans les contrats. Ce procédé de création de la loi et de fabrication des recueils législatifs rappelle celui du rescrit romain.This article investigates the meaning of the formula dātu ša šarri, “law of the king”, using the akkadian dātu based on the old Persian word dāta. The ten Achaemenid and Seleucid occurrences of this formula suggest a process of creation of legal rules comparable to the Roman rescript: the legal standard dātu ša šarri derives from the judicial practice of the king, whose decisions were progressively compiled in order to create a body of regulations which were invoked in contracts.
[Self-conciousness and conformity: moderating effects of conformity motives and task-interest].
Oshimi, T
2000-10-01
This study investigated the relationship between self-consciousness and conforming behavior, with conformity motives and task-interest as their moderator variables. One hundred fifty-six (156) participants were asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical conforming situation, and estimate the probability of their conforming behavior and various conformity motives behind it, as well as their interest in the task. They also completed Self-Consciousness Scale. Among low task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed more than the low if either motive for avoidance of isolation or motive for fairness was high, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for avoidance of isolation was high. Among high task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed less than the low, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for fairness was high. The relationship between conformity motives and standards of behavior was discussed.
Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sesnic, Silvestar; Randazzo, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien; Benedetto, Francesco; Economou, Nikos
2017-04-01
This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 3 "Electromagnetic methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. Among the most interesting achievements of WG3, we wish to mention the following ones: (i) A new open-source version of the finite-difference time-domain simulator gprMax was developed and released. The new gprMax is written in Python and includes many advanced features such as anisotropic and dispersive-material modelling, building of realistic heterogeneous objects with rough surfaces, built-in libraries of antenna models, optimisation of parameters based on Taguchi's method - and more. (ii) A new freeware CAD was developed and released, for the construction of two-dimensional gprMax models. This tool also includes scripts easing the execution of gprMax on multi-core machines or network of computers and scripts for a basic plotting of gprMax results. (iii) A series of interesting freeware codes were developed will be released by the end of the Action, implementing differential and integral forward-scattering methods, for the solution of simple electromagnetic problems by buried objects. (iv) An open database of synthetic and experimental GPR radargrams was created, in cooperation with WG2. The idea behind this initiative is to give researchers the
Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Persico, Raffaele; Tosti, Fabio
2017-04-01
This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 1 "Novel Ground Penetrating Radar instrumentation" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.cost.eu, www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the Action, which started in April 2013 and is ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG1 include: 1. The state of the art on GPR systems and antennas was composed; merits and limits of current GPR systems in civil engineering applications were highlighted and open issues were identified. 2. The Action investigated the new challenge of inferring mechanical (strength and deformation) properties of flexible pavement from electromagnetic data. A semi-empirical method was developed by an Italian research team and tested over an Italian test site: a good agreement was found between the values measured by using a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and the values estimated by using the proposed semi-empirical method, thereby showing great promises for large-scale mechanical inspections of pavements using GPR. Subsequently, the method was tested on a real scale, on an Italian road in the countryside: again, a good agreement between LFWD and GPR data was achieved. As a third step, the method was tested at larger scale, over three different road sections within the districts of Madrid and Guadalajara, in Spain: GPR surveys were carried out at the speed of traffic for a total of 39 kilometers, approximately; results were collected by using different GPR antennas
Furet O; Goodwin JL; Quan SF
2011-01-01
Background: Longitudinal assessments of parasomnias in the adolescent population are scarce. This analysis aims to identify the incidence and remission of parasomnias in the adolescent age group.Methods: The TuCASA study is a prospective cohort study that initially enrolled children between the ages of 6 and 11 years (Time 1) and subsequently re-studied them approximately 5 years later (Time 2). At both time points parents were asked to complete a comprehensive sleep habits questionnaire desi...
Grahovac, Nada
2016-01-01
U okviru doktorske disertacije razvijena je brza i selektivna metoda zaodređivanje i praćenje ostataka herbicida na bazi sulfonilurea (nikosulfuron,oksasulfuron, tribenuron metil, tritosulfuron, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron iprosulfuron) u zemljištu primenom visoko pritisne tečne hromatografije saUV detektor sa nizom fotoosetljivih dioda (HPLC-UV-DAD). Razdvajanjesulfonilurea je izvedeno uz primenu Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 kolone. U ciljudefinisanja odgovarajućih uslova analize, ispitan je ...
Yuan, Da; Yang, Xue; Guo, Jun-Chao
2016-05-01
Public excitement over the award of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the Chinese medical scientist You-you TU for the discovery of a herbal anti-malarial, may mislead the Chinese people into believing that traditional Chinese herbal medi-cine can be used to cure all disease without any ad-verse effects. The aim of this paper is to explain the advantages and disadvantages of herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) objectively.
"Toi qui, de façon générale..." : propositions relatives et "tu" générique en samba leko
Fabre, Gwenaëlle
2004-01-01
A partir de récits techniques en samba leko, je cherche ici à rendre compte de constructions originales qui associent un "tu" ou un "nous" au personnage central de l'activité décrite. Sur le plan syntaxique, il s'agit d'énoncés complexes qui comportent une proposition principale, une proposition relative et un topique.
Conformal Symmetries of Adiabatic Modes in Cosmology
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
We remark on the existence of non-linearly realized conformal symmetries for scalar adiabatic perturbations in cosmology. These conformal symmetries are present for any cosmological background, beyond any slow-roll or quasi-de Sitter approximation. The dilatation transformation shifts the curvature perturbation by a constant, and corresponds to the well-known symmetry under spatial rescaling. We argue that the scalar sector is also invariant under special conformal transformations, which shift the curvature perturbation by a term linear in the spatial coordinates. We discuss whether these conformal symmetries can be extended to include tensor perturbations. Tensor modes introduce their own set of non-linearly realized symmetries. We identify an infinite set of large gauge transformations which maintain the transverse, traceless gauge condition, while shifting the tensor mode non-trivially.
On Functional Representations of the Conformal Algebra
Rosten, Oliver J
2014-01-01
Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations; one such is identified, in a particular representation, as an Exact Renormalization Group equation specialized to a fixed-point. Therefore, the associated functional is identified with the Wilsonian Effective Action and this creates a concrete link between action-free formulations of Conformal Field Theory and the cutoff-regularized path integral approach. Following this, the energy-momentum tensor is investigated, from which it becomes apparent that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. It follows, essentially trivially, that if the Schwinger functional exists and is non-vanishing then theories exhibiting ...
A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin
2009-01-01
The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...... procedure. Both are only partly solved problems. Here, we focus on the problem of conformational sampling. The current state of the art solution is based on fragment assembly methods, which construct plausible conformations by stringing together short fragments obtained from experimental structures. However...... efficient sampling of RNA conformations in continuous space, and with associated probabilities. We show that the model captures several key features of RNA structure, such as its rotameric nature and the distribution of the helix lengths. Furthermore, the model readily generates native-like 3-D...
Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.
Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M
2015-03-01
We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.
Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.
Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel
2017-08-01
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.
General Information for Transportation and Conformity
Transportation conformity is required by the Clean Air Act section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federal funding and approval are given to highway and transit projects that are consistent with SIP.
Conformally covariant parametrizations for relativistic initial data
Delay, Erwann
2017-01-01
We revisit the Lichnerowicz-York method, and an alternative method of York, in order to obtain some conformally covariant systems. This type of parametrization is certainly more natural for non constant mean curvature initial data.
Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi
2012-01-01
We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.
Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2012-06-01
We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.