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Sample records for factor receptor-a preliminary

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  2. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  3. Cutaneous reactions to anticancer agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a dermatology-oncology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacouture, M E; Melosky, B L

    2007-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in solid tumors. Targeting the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway has become routine practice in the treatment of lung, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon carcinomas. Available agents with selected activity towards the EGFR include low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., erlotinib (Tarceva, Genentech BioOncology/ OSI Pharmaceuticals/ F. Hoffmann-La Roche) and monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux, Bristol-Myers Squibb/ ImClone Systems/ Merck) and panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen). Their use is anticipated to increase for treating other solid tumors that are dependent on this pathway for growth and proliferation. Health Canada and the US FDA have approved erlotinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It has also been approved in the US for use against pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly). Cetuximab and most recently panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen/ Abgenix) were approved by the US FDA for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cetuximab is also approved in the US for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile for this class of drugs is unique, with virtually no hematological toxicity, but frequent cutaneous and gastrointestinal side-effects. Although there is a dearth of randomized trials addressing treatment of the dermatological side-effects, some basic principles of management have been agreed upon and can likely improve patient compliance and decrease inappropriate dose reduction, which may negatively influence the antitumor effect.

  4. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

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    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

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    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  6. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  7. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  8. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II

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    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.

  9. Atherosclerosis risk factors in American Indians with Alzheimer disease: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myron F; Rosenberg, Roger N; Womack, Kyle B; Svetlik, Doris A; Fuller, Carey; Fields, Julie; Hynan, Linda S

    2008-01-01

    Factors predisposing to and associated with atherosclerosis may impact the onset and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). The high prevalence of atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in American Indians makes them ideal subjects to test this association. We compared frequency of history of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and high cholesterol in 34 American Indians with AD with 34 age-matched American Indian controls, and 34 age-matched whites with probable AD. We also measured waist size, height, and weight, and acquired blood for determination of plasma homocysteine and apolipoprotein E genotype. The 3 groups did not differ significantly in age or sex. History of hypertension and diabetes was significantly more common among American Indian AD patients than Indian controls or whites with AD. The 3 groups did not differ in history of stroke or myocardial infarction. Body mass index was significantly greater in both Indian groups than the white AD group. Plasma homocysteine levels were greater, but not significantly so, in the Indian AD than the Indian control group. Thus, there is preliminary evidence of a modest association between history of hypertension and diabetes and AD in a small sample of American Indians. This suggests that changes in lifestyle factors could influence the expression of AD in American Indians.

  10. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide.

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    Qi, Xin; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2009-10-01

    The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA) between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires), while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland.

  11. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

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    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  12. PRELIMINARY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF VISUAL COGNITION AND MEMORY. STUDIES IN CINE-PSYCHOMETRY, FINAL REPORT, PART I.

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    SEIBERT, WARREN F.; AND OTHERS

    PRELIMINARY ANALYSES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MOTION PICTURE FILMS TO FACTOR ANALYTIC STUDIES OF HUMAN INTELLECT. OF PRIMARY CONCERN WERE THE OPERATIONS OF COGNITION AND MEMORY, FORMING TWO OF THE FIVE OPERATION COLUMNS OF GUILFORD'S "STRUCTURE OF INTELLECT." THE CORE REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY WAS DEFINED…

  13. PRELIMINARY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF VISUAL COGNITION AND MEMORY. STUDIES IN CINE-PSYCHOMETRY, FINAL REPORT, PART I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEIBERT, WARREN F.; AND OTHERS

    PRELIMINARY ANALYSES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MOTION PICTURE FILMS TO FACTOR ANALYTIC STUDIES OF HUMAN INTELLECT. OF PRIMARY CONCERN WERE THE OPERATIONS OF COGNITION AND MEMORY, FORMING TWO OF THE FIVE OPERATION COLUMNS OF GUILFORD'S "STRUCTURE OF INTELLECT." THE CORE REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY WAS DEFINED…

  14. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible.

  15. Factors for implementation of development projects with an emphasis on preliminary estimates project (Case Study flagship project of Ilam

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    Abdollahian Vahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Without a doubt optimum performance is possible in the context of a planned development project organized failure to comply with a standard patterndoes not guarantee when a project based on financial forecasts and with the required quality. in this study, based on the standards of project management enumerating the factors for implementation of a project the study is the flagship project of Ilam and finally the implementation of the project as stated in the standard are investigated. in this research project emphasizing the preliminary estimates (estimates and time and workload has been considered and compared to the existing. according to the research findings in 83 percent of projects, project was not according to preliminary financial estimates. 100% of projects have been wrong to predict the time and projects have progressed according to preliminary forecast and in 66 percent of projects supporting private sector investment and hinder the progress of the project is appropriate and the project framework was unchanged.

  16. Risk factors for isolated sleep paralysis in an African American sample: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2008-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research.

  17. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

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    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  18. Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of future sites for implants.

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    Anitua, E

    1999-01-01

    This article presents preliminary clinical evidence of the beneficial effect of the use of plasma rich in growth factors of autologous origin. The plasma is obtained from the individual patient by plasmapheresis. The macroscopic and microscopic results obtained with bone regeneration using this technique, which uses no membrane or barrier, can be observed. The incorporation of these concepts can introduce several advantages, including the enhancement and acceleration of bone regeneration and more rapid and predictable soft tissue healing.

  19. Factors controlling short-term soil microbial response after laboratory heating. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Jordán, Antonio; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial response after fire is controlled by numerous variables which conclude with a mosaic of results depending on organic carbon alterations or pH fire-induced changes. This fact has complicated the studies focused on post-fire microbial response, compiling high variability of opposite result in the bibliography. Soil laboratory heating cannot emulate a real wildfire effect on soil but lead us the possibility to control several variables and it is a valid tool to clarify the relative weight of different factors controlling microbial response after soil heating. In this preliminary study different heated treatments were applied to unaltered forest soil samples, obtaining 4 different heating treatments to simulate a range of fire intensities: unaltered-control (UH), and soil heated at 300, 450 and 500 °C. In order to isolate possible nutrient availability or pH heating-induced changes, different culture media were prepared using soil:water extract from each heating treatments and adding different supplements to obtain the total of 11 different culture media: unheated soil without supplements (UH-N-), unheated soil with nutrient supplement (UH-N+), soil heated at 300 °C without supplements (300-N-), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement (300-N+), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (300-N+pH); soil heated at 450 °C without supplements (450-N-), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement (450-N+), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (450-N+); soil heated at 500 °C without supplements (500-N-), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement (500-N+), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (500-N+). Each media was inoculated with different dilutions of a microbial suspension from the original unaltered soil, and the abundance of viable and cultivable microorganisms were measured by plate count method. In addition, the analysis of heating-induced soil organic

  20. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the transcriptional factor PyrR from Bacillus halodurans

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    Arreola, Rodrigo [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-243, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Vega-Miranda, Anita [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, México DF 14080 (Mexico); Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-243, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Merino-Pérez, Enrique [Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres-Larios, Alfredo, E-mail: torres@ifc.unam.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-243, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico)

    2008-08-01

    The gene-regulation factor PyrR from B. halodurans has been crystallized in two crystal forms. Preliminary crystallographic analysis showed that the protein forms tetramers in both space groups. The PyrR transcriptional regulator is widely distributed in bacteria. This RNA-binding protein is involved in the control of genes involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, in which uridyl and guanyl nucleotides function as effectors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two crystal forms of Bacillus halodurans PyrR are reported. One of the forms belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 59.7, b = 87.4, c = 72.1 Å, β = 104.4°, while the other form belongs to the orthorhombic space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 72.7, b = 95.9, c = 177.1 Å. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis and molecular-replacement solution revealed the presence of four and six monomers per asymmetric unit; a crystallographic tetramer is formed in both forms.

  1. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus.

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    Marina Mathew

    Full Text Available Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10, in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  2. Preliminary Characterisation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-10 Responses to Chlamydia pecorum Infection in the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine. PMID:23527290

  3. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined. (JSR)

  4. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  5. Offending by people with intellectual disabilities in community settings: a preliminary examination of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jessica R; Clare, Isabel C H; Holland, Anthony J

    2013-09-01

    While several validated measures of the life circumstances of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been developed, this stream of research has not yet been well integrated with environmentally oriented criminological theory to explain offending among people with ID. In this study, we attempt to provide a preliminary integration through an investigation of the relationship between contemporary life experiences, well-being, choice and offending among people with ID, exploring the relevance of two classic criminological theories (theories of strain and social control). Questionnaire measures were used to compare a range of 'ordinary' life experiences [the 'Life Experiences Checklist' (LEC)], subjective well-being (the 'Personal Well-being Index - ID') and the extent of choice (the 'Choice Questionnaire'), between offenders (N = 27) and non-offenders (N = 19) with ID recruited through integrated (NHS and Local Authority) multi-disciplinary teams (community teams for adults with learning disabilities). Using regression analyses to explore the strength of associations with offending, it was found that an indicator of impoverished personal relationships, from the LEC provided the best predictor of offending. This finding appears to favour criminological explanations based on social control. Existing measures of life circumstances can be used to explore environmentally oriented criminological theories, bringing benefits to our understanding and treatment of offenders with ID living in community settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α upregulates progesterone receptor-A by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway in human decidua after labor onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z Y; Guo, Y Y; Ren, H B; Zou, Y F; Fan, M S; Lv, Y; Han, P; De, W; Sun, L Z

    2012-01-01

    To date, the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and progesterone receptors (PRs) has been little studied, although both mediate the mechanism of parturition in human deciduas. Thus, the aim of study was to investigate the role of an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in regulating progesterone withdrawal in decidua at human parturition. TNF-α levels and PR isoforms were compared in intrauterine deciduas from women who were in labor (IL, n = 10) or who were not in labor (NIL, n = 10). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling and PR status were analyzed in NIL deciduas after TNF-α stimulation. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to localize and quantitate protein and mRNA expression. TNF-α immunostaining, protein levels, PR-A/PR-B ratio and COX-2 level were significantly higher in IL deciduas (all P human decidua following labor onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  8. Sedentary risk factors across genders and job roles within a university campus workplace: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pvalues, with these risk factors being above the recommended healthy thresholds. IPAQ hours correlated positively with Glu (pworkplace.

  9. Heparin modulates the mitogenic activity of fibroblast growth factor by inducing dimerization of its receptor. a 3D view by using NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Lidia; Canales, Ángeles; Fernández, Israel S; Santillana, Elena; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Cañada, F Javier; Nieto, Pedro; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2013-09-23

    In vitro mitogenesis assays have shown that sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs; heparin and heparan sulfate) cause an enhancement of the mitogenic activity of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Herein, we report that the simultaneous presence of FGF and the GAG is not an essential requisite for this event to take place. Indeed, preincubation with heparin (just before FGF addition) of cells lacking heparan sulfate produced an enhancing effect equivalent to that observed when the GAG and the protein are simultaneously added. A first structural characterization of this effect by analytical ultracentrifugation of a soluble preparation of the heparin-binding domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and a low molecular weight (3 kDa) heparin showed that the GAG induces dimerization of FGFR2. To derive a high resolution structural picture of this molecular recognition process, the interactions of a soluble heparin-binding domain of FGFR2 with two different homogeneous, synthetic, and mitogenically active sulfated GAGs were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. These studies, assisted by docking protocols and molecular dynamics simulations, have demonstrated that the interactions of these GAGs with the soluble heparin-binding domain of FGFR induces formation of an FGFR dimer; its architecture is equivalent to that in one of the two distinct crystallographic structures of FGFR in complex with both heparin and FGF1. This preformation of the FGFR dimer (with similar topology to that of the signaling complex) should favor incorporation of the FGF component to form the final assemblage of the signaling complex, without major entropy penalty. This cascade of events is probably at the heart of the observed activating effect of heparin in FGF-driven mitogenesis.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data for a ternary complex between tissue factor, factor VIIa and a BPTI-derived inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Ruf, Wolfram; Wilson, Ian A.

    1996-10-01

    The binding of tissue factor (TF) with the serine protease coagulation factor VIIa (VIIa) is the initial trigger for activation of the coagulation protease cascades. In complex with TF, VIIa has profoundly enhanced function in the limited proteolytic activation of the natural substrate factors X and IX. Here we report the screening and identification of crystallization conditions to produce diffraction quality crystals of the complex between TF · VIIa and a potent inhibitor (5L 15) derived from mutagenesis of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) sequence. The complex crystals were obtained from the soluble extracellular domain of tissue factor, expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, VIIa expressed in mammalian cells and recombinant 5L15. Because only 1.5 mg of complex were available for this work, a reverse screening based strategy was used in the search and optimization of the crystallization conditions. Two different crystal forms were obtained from polyethylene glycol 4000 and monomethyl polyethylene glycol 2000 with cacodylate buffer at pH 6.5 in the presence of sodium and calcium ions. The addition of magnesium and zinc have profound effects on the crystallization. Both crystal forms are trigonal with cell parameters a = b = 129.3 Å, c = 110.8 Å and a = b = 67.2 Å, c = 314.8 Å diffracting to 7 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively, each with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Complete data sets have been collected from each of these forms to the resolution to which the crystals diffract. A structural understanding of the interaction of VIIa with its cofactor TF to form a binary enzyme, and its inhibition by 5L15 will provide a basis for the development of antithrombotic strategies.

  11. Awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors among women in Malaysia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Soon Lean; Abdul Wahab, Syakirah Bainun; Chiu, Lim Bee; Yusuf, Azlina

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is recognized as the fourth leading cancer in Malaysia. However, women do not always seek help in a timely manner and gaps in awareness may influence screening uptake and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors in female population in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang, Malaysia from January until February 2014. Eighty-seven women were selected by convenient sampling. Awareness of risk factors of ovarian cancer was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square test for the association between socio-demographic data and awareness. A p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. In all, 74.7% of participants answered correctly for the risk factor of increasing age, although 94.3% were unaware of increased risk of tall women. A majority, 71.3%, had a low level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors. There was a significant association between age and knowledge (p=0.047). Additionally, there was a significant association between higher education level and level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors (p=0.039). This study revealed that awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors among Malaysian women is low. The results show a need for improved public understanding about ovarian cancer risks and provision of important information for health professionals about initiatives needed for future awareness, prevention and screening programs.

  12. Self-Paced Instruction: Factors Critical to Implementation in Air Force Technical Training - A Preliminary Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Final FROM .May 82 TO Sep 82 August 1984 116 1s. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATON 17. COSATI CODES It SUBJECT TERMS ( Conan a ,ew agftwcry ad ~ by bieck nunbe...77). Washington, DC: National Institute of Education, June 1977. Arthur D. Little, Inc. Factors relating to the implementation and diffusion of new

  13. Exclusion Factors in Latin American Higher Education: A Preliminary Analyze From University Governing Board Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Diego; Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Gairín, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Access to higher education has increased substantially in Latin America, but inequalities in access to and completion of higher education still remain. In this regard, identifying vulnerable groups and exclusion factors is a priority in Latin America's university systems. The aim of this article is to understand in depth governing board…

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  15. Factor analysis of the clustering of common somatic symptoms: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of outpatient department patients indicate that somatic discomforts such as headache, neck pain, chest pain, low back pain, and gastrointestinal discomfort are commonly found in patients with multiple complaints. Clustering of some symptoms has been found in common somatic symptom analyses. Because of the complexity involved in the diagnosis of patients with multiple complaints, the aim of this study is to identify and classify patterns of somatic symptoms in individuals assessed during a health examination. Methods A total of 683 patients (437 males, 246 females received a one-day physical examination and completed a structured survey during the period from May 2007 to April 2008. A physical symptoms interview was conducted, and medical and demographic data was collected. Results Based on the factor analysis, 4 clusters of symptoms were identified: 1 pain symptoms, 2 cold symptoms, 3 cardiopulmonary symptoms, and 4 gastrointestinal symptoms. The distribution of symptoms differed between males and females. After varimax rotation of factor patterns, 4 extracted factors emerged. In males, the factors were 1 pain symptoms, 2 cold symptoms, 3 cardiopulmonary symptoms, and 4 gastrointestinal symptoms. In females, the factors were 1 pain symptoms, 2 cold symptoms, 3 cardiopulmonary symptoms, and 4 head and gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions Four clusters of somatic symptoms emerged for both males and females; however, the predominant symptoms were different in males and females. Females displayed more head-related symptoms than males. Patients should be thoroughly interviewed about additional symptoms within the same cluster after the recognition of a single somatic complaint.

  16. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  17. Preliminary factor analysis of the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale in a US sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Heman Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy framework, the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale (O’Kelly, in press was originally constructed in Australia to measure sex-role beliefs women may develop through sex-role stereotyping. Factor analysis of the 92 original items showed that 64 items loaded into a single component that accounted for 18.2% of the variance in a sample of 974 Australian women. The present exploratory study examined the psychometric properties of the OWBS in a sample of 202 women born and living in the US. A varimax rotation with cutoff eigenvalues of 3, showed that 37 items loaded into 3 components which accounted for 58.48% of the variance. The items were subsequently grouped into two factors: Ir- rationality, with a total of 27 items was created by merging component 1 and 3 (Pearson’s r = 0.8 between them, and Rationality, with the 10 items from component 2. Analyses indicated a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91 for Fac- tor 1, and a Cronbach’s alpha 0.74 for Factor 2. Results indicate that this version of the instrument may be used to evaluate both the rational and irrational content of sex-role beliefs of women born in the US.

  18. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Fahrial Syam

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267. Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05. The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05. Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008. It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03. However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  19. Simulated tsunami run-up amplification factors around Penang Island for preliminary risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Hui; Kh'ng, Xin Yi; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-08-01

    The mega-tsunami Andaman that struck Malaysia on 26 December 2004 affected 200 kilometers of northwest Peninsular Malaysia coastline from Perlis to Selangor. It is anticipated by the tsunami scientific community that the next mega-tsunami is due to occur any time soon. This rare catastrophic event has awakened the attention of Malaysian government to take appropriate risk reduction measures, including timely and orderly evacuation. To effectively evacuate ordinary citizens to a safe ground or a nearest designated emergency shelter, a well prepared evacuation route is essential with the estimated tsunami run-up heights and inundation distances on land clearly indicated on the evacuation map. The run-up heights and inundation distances are simulated by an in-house model 2-D TUNA-RP based upon credible scientific tsunami source scenarios derived from tectonic activity around the region. To provide a useful tool for estimating the run-up heights along the entire coast of Penang Island, we computed tsunami amplification factors based upon 2-D TUNA-RP model simulations in this paper. The inundation map and run-up amplification factors in six domains along the entire coastline of Penang Island are provided. The comparison between measured tsunami wave heights for the 2004 Andaman tsunami and TUNA-RP model simulated values demonstrates good agreement.

  20. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students’ motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants’ test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. Results A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants’ test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants’ test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p OSCE (r = -0.21, p OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs. PMID:28035056

  1. [A preliminary study of the work values of male nurses in Taiwan and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Ying; Tang, Woung-Ru; Chang, Yue-Cune; Maa, Suh-Hwa

    2013-04-01

    Male nurses account for 1.08% of Taiwan's total professional nursing workforce. While work values are known to impact the practice of female nurses, the work values of male nurses have never been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to explore the work values of male nurses in Taiwan and related factors. We applied a cross-sectional design that targeted all male nurses nationwide and used a structured questionnaire distributed by mail to collect data. Data were collected from 1,087 Taiwan-based male nurses with 745 valid responses. Mean score for overall work value was 2.78 (on a maximum scale of 4). Socio-demographic differences contributed to work value variance among respondents. Major factors of influence on work value included education, work unit, work position, work rank, salary, hospital classification, and reason for choosing a nursing career. This study found personal characteristics, occupational roles, job performance, and reason for choosing a career in nursing to all correlate strongly with work value.

  2. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2016-12-29

    To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.

  3. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  4. Factors determining parents’ decision to follow their children’s recommended vaccination schedule – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Cepuch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recommended vaccination plays an important role in reducing the risk of complications, which may accompany many dangerous diseases. However, they also generate numerous ambivalent emotions among parents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors which might influence parents’ decision to have their children given the recommended vaccines. Material and methods. 100 parents of children aged between 0 and 5 took part in the study. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. Results. Parents’ level of education and knowledge has a significant influence on positive decisions concerning recommended vaccination of their children. The advocacy of anti-vaccination movements does not entail the decision about not having their children vaccinated. Conclusions. Promotional campaigns should be launched in the media, in which solid information should be provided by doctors and nurses. Popularizing free vaccination campaigns among parents will increase the number of vaccinated children.

  5. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  6. The Influencing Factors of Computer Adoption in Agribusiness: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryanto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to investigate factors that influence the intentions of adopting computer for business purpose, and their implications on managerial development. Semi structured interview and courier mailed survey had been employed to collect the data. A conceptual framework and theoretical insight presented based on literature review and primary data collected from the various east java agribusiness. To develop qualitative information of sample characteristics, cross tabulation was employed. Logistic regression was used to test the research hypotheses. The research findings show that the intention to adopt computer in east java agribusiness is strongly influenced by managers whose ages are 41+, education (TAFE/D3, and sales volume. This research has a direct implication on agribusiness development for the overall east java agribusiness and provinces in Indonesia. It is expected that it will encourage other researchers to conducting similar research benchmarking with other developing countries. The complexity and wide range of agribusiness term made the research methodology complicated.

  7. Change in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor after gamma knife radiosurgery for meningioma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of meningioma. Fourteen patients with meningiomas had peripheral venous blood collected at the time of GKRS and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 6 month visits. Plasma VEGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For controls, peripheral blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. The mean plasma VEGF level (29.6 pg/mL) in patients with meningiomas before GKRS was significantly lower than that of the control group (62.4 pg/mL, p=0.019). At 1 week after GKRS, the mean plasma VEGF levels decreased to 23.4 pg/mL, and dropped to 13.9 pg/mL at 1 month, 14.8 pg/mL at 3 months, then increased to 27.7 pg/mL at 6 months. Two patients (14.3%) with peritumoral edema (PTE) showed a level of VEGF 6 months after GKRS higher than their preradiosurgical level. There was no significant association found in an analysis of correlation between PTE and tumor size, marginal dose, age, and sex. Our study is first in demonstrating changes of plasma VEGF after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for meningioma. This study may provide a stimulus for more work related to whether measurement of plasma level has a correlation with tumor response after SRS for meningioma.

  8. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  9. Influence of sitgliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xiang; Xun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of stigliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2015, 168 cases of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into observation group and control group. The observation group was given sitgliptin (Januvia, 100 mg per d), while the control group was given metformin (Glucophage tablet, initial dose 0.5 g bid, twice per d), and the dosage of drugs was adjusted every 2 weeks according to glucose level. If the glucose level still wasn’t controlled to reach the normal standard by maximum dosage of drugs, 0.5 g bid of acarbose (Glucobay) was applied for the treatment 3 times one day till the glucose level reached the normal standard and the observation was kept for 6 months. The HbA1c, BMI, fluctuation indexes, and serum inflammatory factors of two groups were compared. Results: After the treatment of control group and observation group, the differences of PPGE (t=8.425,P=0.012), MAGE (t=7.348,P=0.014) and MODD (t=9.327,P=0.010) between two groups were significant (P<0.05). The differences of IL-6 (t=6.337,P=0.010) and TNF-α(t=6.521,P=0.011) level of observation group and control group after treatment were statistical significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:The sitgliptin could not only achieve glycemic control goal as metformin, but also induce glucose fluctuation and inhibit serum inflammation better.

  10. Gender Differences in Lifestyle Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Preliminary Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Watari Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tomomi; Konno, Satoshi; Munakata, Masanori

    2017-09-01

    Objective In Japan, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and preliminary metabolic syndrome (preMetS) are more prevalent in men; however, it remains unclear whether the relationship between these metabolic disorders and lifestyle factors is similar between genders. Methods We examined waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood, and various lifestyle factors in 3,166 individuals aged from 30-79 years of age from the Japanese general population. MetS was diagnosed on the basis of central obesity - assessed by waist circumference - plus two or more of the following cardio-metabolic risks according to Japanese criteria: high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and lipid abnormality. Central obesity plus one of the risks was defined as preMetS. Results Men had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS (23.3% vs. 8.7%, p<0.001) and preMetS (21.2% vs. 10.2%, p<0.001) than women. An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that heavy drinkers were associated with an increased probability of MetS (odds ratio, 1.91: 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.83) and preMetS (1.69: 1.11-2.58); fast eaters were also related to preMetS (1.83: 1.33-2.55) and MetS (1.55: 1.12-2.15) in men. Lacking regular exercise was significantly associated with preMetS (1.38: 1.03-1.85), but not MetS. In women, preMetS was significantly associated with fast eaters and lacking regular exercise (1.44: 1.01-2.07 and 1.41: 1.02-1.96, respectively); a stepwise increase in each odds ratio (2.02: 1.40-2.91 and 1.47: 1.03-2.09, respectively) was also observed for MetS. Conclusion The relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS or preMetS differed between men and women, which suggests the need for gender-specific lifestyle modification to effectively prevent MetS.

  11. Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case–control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case–control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spin...

  12. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene Polymorphism (T29C in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba M. Talaat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interindividual variations in the capacity of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 production have been ascribed to genetic polymorphisms in TGF-β1 gene. As pathogenesis of HBV has a genetic background, this preliminary study was designed to assess the impact of TGF-β1 (T29C on the susceptibility of Egyptians to HBV infection. Genotyping was performed using single stranded polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR in 65 Egyptian hepatitis B patients and 50 healthy controls. TGF-β1 plasma levels were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05 in HBV patients compared to controls. On the contrary, TC genotype did not show significant difference in both groups. TT genotype was significantly higher (P<0.01 in controls than HBV patients. Our current preliminary data revealed that the frequency of the genotypes in the controls were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE while the patients group was out of HWE (P<0.01. TGF-β1 was significantly (r=-0.684; P<0.001 deceased in the sera of patients as compared to normal subjects. Depending on our preliminary work, CC genotype may act as a host genetic factor in the susceptibility to HBV infection in Egyptians. Taken together, the current data pointed to the importance of polymorphism of TGF-β1 gene (T29C in HBV infection.

  13. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  14. Influence of proliferation signal inhibitors on vascular endothelial growth factor production in heart transplant recipients - preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamieńska, Natalia; Zakliczyński, Michał; Kasperska-Zając, Alicja; Szewczyk, Marta; Trybunia-Orzeszek, Dominika; Nożyński, Jerzy; Pijet, Marta; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Proliferation signal inhibitors (PSI) are especially beneficial for heart transplant recipients, but are rarely used due to frequent side effects. As they may be caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we performed a prospective cross-sectional pilot study to assess the influence of PSI and/or calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) presence in immunosuppressive protocols of heart transplant recipients on VEGF secretion. All electively screened heart transplant recipients willing to participate were enrolled in the study. The preliminary report was based on the results of the first 89 serum samples. The study group (n = 84) consisted of the PSI group (n = 14) further divided into the PSI + CNI subgroup (n = 10) and PSIw/oCNI subgroup (n = 4) based on concomitant CNI use, and the CNIw/oPSI group (n = 70) receiving CNI without PSI. The control group (n = 5) consisted of patients not requiring immunosuppression. VEGF was present in serum of 70 (83%) study group patients: median (range) 18 (0-316) pg/mL, mean 35 ± 57 pg/mL; in 13 (93%) PSI group patients: 22 (0-110) pg/mL, 28 ± 28 pg/mL, with 19 (8-20) pg/mL, 16 ± 6 pg/mL in the PSI + CNI subgroup, and 29 (0-110) pg/mL, 32 ± 32 pg/mL in the PSIw/oCNI subgroup. In the CNIw/oPSI group VEGF was present in 57 (81%) patients: 16 (0-316) pg/mL, 37 ± 62 pg/mL, and in the control group in 3 (60%) patients: 4 (0-110) pg/mL, 32 ± 48 pg/mL. None of the differences observed between any compared groups and/or subgroups was significant (χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test). In conclusion, differences of VEGF concentration observed among groups imply the influence of PSI and CNI on VEGF production, but further studies involving higher numbers of participants are needed to prove it.

  15. Influence of proliferation signal inhibitors on vascular endothelial growth factor production in heart transplant recipients – preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamieńska, Natalia; Kasperska-Zając, Alicja; Szewczyk, Marta; Trybunia-Orzeszek, Dominika; Nożyński, Jerzy; Pijet, Marta; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation signal inhibitors (PSI) are especially beneficial for heart transplant recipients, but are rarely used due to frequent side effects. As they may be caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we performed a prospective cross-sectional pilot study to assess the influence of PSI and/or calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) presence in immunosuppressive protocols of heart transplant recipients on VEGF secretion. All electively screened heart transplant recipients willing to participate were enrolled in the study. The preliminary report was based on the results of the first 89 serum samples. The study group (n = 84) consisted of the PSI group (n = 14) further divided into the PSI + CNI subgroup (n = 10) and PSIw/oCNI subgroup (n = 4) based on concomitant CNI use, and the CNIw/oPSI group (n = 70) receiving CNI without PSI. The control group (n = 5) consisted of patients not requiring immunosuppression. VEGF was present in serum of 70 (83%) study group patients: median (range) 18 (0-316) pg/mL, mean 35 ± 57 pg/mL; in 13 (93%) PSI group patients: 22 (0-110) pg/mL, 28 ± 28 pg/mL, with 19 (8-20) pg/mL, 16 ± 6 pg/mL in the PSI + CNI subgroup, and 29 (0-110) pg/mL, 32 ± 32 pg/mL in the PSIw/oCNI subgroup. In the CNIw/oPSI group VEGF was present in 57 (81%) patients: 16 (0-316) pg/mL, 37 ± 62 pg/mL, and in the control group in 3 (60%) patients: 4 (0-110) pg/mL, 32 ± 48 pg/mL. None of the differences observed between any compared groups and/or subgroups was significant (χ2 and Mann-Whitney U test). In conclusion, differences of VEGF concentration observed among groups imply the influence of PSI and CNI on VEGF production, but further studies involving higher numbers of participants are needed to prove it. PMID:26336417

  16. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  17. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Klintworth, Gordon K; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Enghild, Jan J

    2009-03-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported.

  19. SCHOOL MILK DEMAND – INTERACTION BETWEEN POLICY AND OTHER FACTORS: SOME PRELIMINARY FINDINGS OF A REGIONAL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph, Inken B.; Peter, Guenter; Rothe, Andrea; Salamon, Petra; Weber, Sascha A.; Weible, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent steadily declining consumption of school milk in Germany, a research project was set up by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, in affiliation with other institutions, to retrieve quantifiable information on the different influencing factors and to provide approaches for improving the school milk demand. Main objectives are to evaluate impacts of factors like price, attitudes and habits (especially consumption habits), social background, g...

  20. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women and to Determination of Related Risk Factors (Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to determine the associated factors with fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Hundred thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients’age, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight was completed. Risk factors of osteoporosis were recorded. major and minor risk factors were determined according to Canadian diagnosis and treatment guideline. DXA was used to determine bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Thoracal and lumbar compression fractures were evaulated with thoracal and lumbar radiography. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria. Results: Twenty-six (19% of 137 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had fibromyalgia. Ninety-four (68.6% of all patients were married and 43 (31.4% of all patients were not married, 63 (46% of all patients were literate, 74 (54% of all patients were illiterate. The average age of patients was 73.56±6.17. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, advanced age, to be married, the number of major risk factors and the decrease of lomber and femur bone mineral density were found to be risk factors for fibromyalgia. Educational level, BMI and the number of minor risk factors were not found to be a risk factors for fibromyalgia. Conclusion: It is importatnt to be careful for fibromyalgia not only in premenopousal women but also in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 1-5

  1. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  2. Repair of alveolar cleft defect with mesenchymal stem cells and platelet derived growth factors: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Hossein; Khojasteh, Arash; Soleimani, Masoud; Tehranchi, Azita; Atashi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancing effect of recombinant platelet derived growth factor on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in secondary alveoloplasty. Three patients with 4 alveolar defects were selected for this study. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured from a posterior iliac bone aspirate. MSCs were mounted on biphasic scaffolds and combined with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in the operating room to make a triad of the scaffold, growth factor, and cells. The triads were placed in anterior maxillary cleft defects and closed with lateral advancement gingival flaps. The postoperative cleft bone volume was measured with cone beam computed tomography scans. A mean of 51.3% fill of the bone defect was calculated 3 months post-operation. Our data suggests the use of recombinant platelet derived growth factor with hMSCs may enhance the regeneration capacity of the cells. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential Push-pull Factors to Introduce Takaful (Islamic Insurance as a New Product in India: Preliminary Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Salman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore on the potential push-pull factors to introduce Takaful in India. Nowadays, insurance becomes the backbone of our daily life since it will help us in the case of misfortune. The concept of insurance is acceptable since it is based on the noble idea. However, its practices become questionable from the religious aspect due to the involvement of interest, uncertainty and gambling. As an alternative, Takaful has been introduced and it has been widely spread in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. In India, Takaful has not been offered yet. Due to its potential in India, this study explores the possibilities of introducing it. The findings show that the pushing factor, i.e., innovative nature of the potential customers and the pulling factors such as cost vs. benefit, assess-ability, availability and service quality, product features, reputation of the company, attribute of agent, marketing and promotion and social and religious factors are in favor to introduce Takaful in India.

  4. Liver stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Koshiishi, Tsuyota; Sano, Katsuhiro; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Araki, Tsutomu [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Yamanashi-ken (Japan); Enomoto, Nobuyuki [University of Yamanashi, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Yamanashi (Japan); Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki [University of Yamanashi, 1st Department of Surgery, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    To examine if liver stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. By reviewing the records of magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed at our institution, we selected 301 patients with chronic liver disease who did not have a previous medical history of HCC. All patients underwent MRE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. HCC was identified on MR images in 66 of the 301 patients, who were matched to controls from the remaining patients without HCC according to age. MRE images were obtained by visualising elastic waves generated in the liver by pneumatic vibration transferred via a cylindrical passive driver. Risk factors of HCC development were determined by the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis; gender and liver stiffness by MRE and serum levels of aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, alpha-fetoprotein, and protein induced by vitamin K absence-II. Multivariate analysis revealed that only liver stiffness by MRE was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of 1.38 (1.05-1.84). Liver stiffness measured by MRE is an independent risk factor for HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients in China:A preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to investigate the prevalence of, and factors inlfuencing, preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients.Methods: We enrolled 53 gastric cancer patients from FujianMedical University Union Hospital, who were diagnosed by gastroscopy and would accept laparoscopic surgery. Each participant completed questionnaires to assess their anxiety and depression, coping modes, social support, type D personality and the values of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR).Results:The prevalence rate of preoperative anxiety and depression was 20.75% in the 53 gastric cancer patients. The factors were resigned dimensions of coping style, type D personality, NLR. There were no significant differences in confrontive and avoidant dimensions of coping mode and social support. Conclusion:The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients is still high, and inlfuenced by the coping mode, type D personality and NLR.

  6. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  7. Reader’s Factors in Interpreting Eldorado by Edgar Allan Poe Using Reader-Response Theory: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa R. Simanjuntak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Article aims to find variety of interpretations on Eldorado poem, following the readers’ internal factors, such as societal norms, personal values and past experiences influence the interpretations. Data generated for this study are acquired through field research, in which questionnaires are used as data collecting instrument. The respondents are from third semester students of English Literature in Bina Nusantara University. The finding shows that interpretations of Eldorado include 44% ideas about failure, 24% ideas about perseverance, and 25.33% ideas about taking a journey. In comparison to Eldorado’s more neutral interpretation, it could be said that more respondents prefer to discuss the poem as the journey of life. It can be concluded that different societal norms, personal values and past experiences cause different kinds of interpretations, in which past experience becomes the most influential factor

  8. Repletion of factor XIII following cardiopulmonary bypass using a recombinant A-subunit homodimer. A preliminary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Jerrold H; Gill, Ravi; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2009-01-01

    Bleeding following cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a major concern. Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) functions as a clot-stabilising factor by cross-linking fibrin. Low post-operative levels of FXIII correlate with increased post-operative blood loss. To evaluate...... reviewing ECGs and cardiac enzymes. No other thromboembolic events were seen. Dosing with 25-50 IU/kg rFXIII-A(2) restored levels of FXIII to pre-operative levels, with a tendency towards an overshoot in receiving 50 IU/kg. rFXIII-A(2), in doses from 11.9 IU/kg up to 50 IU/kg, was well tolerated. For post...

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the mitochondrial transcription factor sc-mtTFB from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubot, F D; Chen, C J; Rose, J P; Wang, B C

    2000-07-01

    Eukaryotic mitochondria contain a distinct mini-chromosome. In yeast, transcription of the mitochondrial genome is mediated by a nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase consisting of a single polypeptide core enzyme and a specificity factor termed sc-mtTFB which bears some similarity to bacterial sigma-factors. sc-mtTFB from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 89.7, b = 44.6, c = 98.9 A, beta = 110 degrees. Based on one molecule per asymmetric unit, the solvent content is estimated to be 48%. Small crystals of dimensions 0.01 x 0.05 x 0.13 mm diffract to at least 2.7 A resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Cif, a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; MacEachran, Daniel P; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 A, beta = 100.6 degrees . The crystals diffracted to 2.39 A resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 A(3) Da(-1)), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules.

  11. A Preliminary Research on Middle School Students' Academic Subjective Well-Being and its Major Influential Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dianzhi; Zhang Ronghua

    2006-01-01

    This study is conducted with self-developed questionnaire on 910 middle school students,aimed at describing middle school students' academic subjective well-being and exploring its influential factors.Results show that (1) Academic subjective well-being of middle school students is generally low and there exist differences in different schools and grades.Students from non-key middle schools have lower academic subjective well-being than those from the key schools.Grade 2 students in both junior and senior middle schools have the lowest academic subjective well-being.(2) Factors directly affecting middle school students'academic subjective well-being are academic experience and the present academic achievements, with the former playing a major role.(3) Factors indirectly influencing middle school students' academic subjective well-being are social pressure and expected academic achievements,both of which influence students'academic subjective well-being through students' academic experience or their present academic achievements.

  12. The Difference between Growth Factor Expression after Single and Multiple Fractures: Preliminary Results in Human Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Gregori, Markus; Höchtl-Lee, Leonard; Thomas, Anita; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M.; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Circulating levels of VEGF-A (Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A), TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1), and M-CSF (Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor) were found to be predictors of bone healing and therefore prognostic criteria of delayed bone healing or nonunion. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential rise of these markers in patients with multiple fractures of long bones compared to patients with single fractured long bone. Methods. 92 patients were included in the study and finally after excluding all female patients 45 male patients were left for final analysis and divided into the single or multiple fracture group. TGF-β1, M-CSF, and VEGF-A serum levels were analysed over a time period of two weeks. Results. MCSF serum concentrations were higher in the group with multiple fractures as also TGF-β1 serum concentrations were at one and two weeks after trauma. No statistically significant difference was observed in the VEGF-A serum concentrations of both groups at either measurement point. Conclusion. We did observe a correlation between the quantity of the M-CSF and TGF-β1 expressions in serum and the number of fractured bones; surprisingly there was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels between patients with single and multiple fractures of long bones. PMID:26246654

  13. The Effects of Multi-Growth Factors-Containing Cream on Post-Thyroidectomy Scars: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sungsik; Shin, Jung U; Lee, Youngin; Chung, Woong Youn; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Kwon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-06-01

    Growth factors play important roles in wound healing. However, the evidence for the effects of growth factors on post-thyroidectomy scars is limited. We performed a prospective study to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of a multi-growth factor (MGF)-containing cream on post-thyroidectomy scars. Twenty-one patients with thyroidectomy scars applied MGF cream twice a day. We assessed the changes in erythema, pigmentation, skin elasticity, and skin hydration status using the erythema index, melanin index, cutometer, and corneometer, respectively. In addition, Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and patient satisfaction were assessed at 10 days after surgery (baseline), 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after baseline. The mean total VSS scores were significantly lower at 6 weeks (3.24±1.51 vs. 1.91±1.38) and 12 weeks (3.24±1.51 vs. 1.71±1.59) compared to the baseline. The degree of pigmentation was significantly lower at 12 weeks compared to the baseline, and the skin elasticity, and the skin hydration status were significantly higher at 12 weeks compared to the baseline. Over 85% of the patients were satisfied with the use of MGF cream without any adverse effect. MGF cream might have additive or supportive effect for scar formation after thyroidectomy.

  14. Preliminary study on non-viral transfection of F9 (factor IX gene by nucleofection in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Olmedillas López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemophilia is a rare recessive X-linked disease characterized by a deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or factor IX. Its current treatment is merely palliative. Advanced therapies are likely to become the treatment of choice for the disease as they could provide a curative treatment. Methods. The present study looks into the use of a safe non-viral transfection method based on nucleofection to express and secrete human clotting factor IX (hFIX where human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells were used as target cells in vitro studies and NOD. Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice were used to analyze factor IX expression in vivo studies. Previously, acute liver injury was induced by an injected intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen. Results. Nucleofection showed a percentage of positive cells ranging between 30.7% and 41.9% and a cell viability rate of 29.8%, and cells were shown to secrete amounts of hFIX between 36.8 and 71.9 ng/mL. hFIX levels in the blood of NSG mice injected with ASCs transfected with this vector, were 2.7 ng/mL 48 h after injection. Expression and secretion of hFIX were achieved both in vitro cell culture media and in vivo in the plasma of mice treated with the transfected ASCs. Such cells are capable of eventually migrating to a previously damaged target tissue (the liver where they secrete hFIX, releasing it to the bloodstream over a period of at least five days from administration. Conclusions. The results obtained in the present study may form a preliminary basis for the establishment of a future ex vivo non-viral gene/cellular safe therapy protocol that may eventually contribute to advancing the treatment of hemophilia.

  15. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Cif, a Virulence Factor Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.; MacEachran, D; O& apos; Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 {angstrom}, {beta} = 100.6{sup o}. The crystals diffracted to 2.39 {angstrom} resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules.

  16. Preliminary study on the dissolved oxygen distributions and the influential factors in the Daliao River estuary and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; MENG Wei; ZHENG Binghui; FU Guo

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were surveyed in the Daliao River Estuary in autumn to investigate the temporaland spatial trends of DO distributions. The results indicate that DO is weakly stratified in the Yingkou section of theDaliao River Estuary, and remains constant vertically in the areas near and out of the entrance. Horizontally, both in-stantaneous and continuous observations show that the Yingkou section of the Daliao River Estuary is affected by hy-poxic conditions; while no conditions of low DO have been observed in the areas near and out of the entrance.DO-salinity correlations exhibit different controlling factors of DO distributions in different sections of the Daliao Riv-er Estuary. At the upstream part of the Yingkou section of the Daliao River (A1-A4), oxygen demanding materials and the associated biochemical processes are the main factor controlling the DO distribution, but in the lower part of theYingkou section and the area near and out of the entrance (A5-A15), tidal advections are more influential for DO distributions.

  17. Expression, purification, cocrystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of sucrose octasulfate/human complement regulator factor H SCRs 6–8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, Beverly E.; Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro [The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE (United Kingdom); Clark, Simon J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester University, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Tarelli, Edward [Medical Biomics Centre, St George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Sim, Robert B. [The MRC Immunochemistry Unit, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE (United Kingdom); Day, Antony J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester University, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Lea, Susan M., E-mail: susan.lea@bnc.ox.ac.uk [The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-01

    The crystallization of human complement regulator FH-678{sub 402H} with a glycosaminoglycan analogue is described. Human plasma protein complement factor H (FH) is an inhibitor of the spontaneously activated alternative complement pathway. An allotypic variant of FH, 402His, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Crystals of FH domains 6–8 (FH678) containing 402His have been grown in the presence of a polyanionic sucrose octasulfate ligand (an analogue of the natural glycosaminoglycan ligands of FH) using both native and selenomethionine-derivatized protein. Native data sets diffracting to 2.3 Å and SeMet data sets of up to 2.8 Å resolution have been collected. An anomalous difference Patterson map reveals self- and cross-peaks from two incorporated Se atoms. The corresponding selenium substructure has been solved.

  18. [Preliminary study of the expression of connective tissue growth factor in papillary muscles of the patients with rheumatic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y N; Li, T; Gu, J R; Yu, B Y

    2016-04-19

    To investigate the expression and the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on rheumatic myocardial fibrosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The papillary muscles samples were obtained from patients with RHD during mitral valve replacement.The expression of TGF-β1, CTGF mRNA and CTGF protein were detected with semiquantitative RT-PCR technique and immunohistochemistry technologyin the papillary muscles cell from 41RHD patients and 20 normal papillary muscles samples.The area of myocardial fibrosis was measured by imaging analysis system. SPSS package was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of CTGF and the area of myocardial fibrosis. Compared with normal controls (PU 2.4±0.9), the mean level of CTGF protein expression in the papillary muscles samples of the RHD patients (PU 44.7±6.0) was significantly increased(Pfibrosis (r=0.856, Pfibrosis of RHD.

  19. Anaesthetics modulate tumour necrosis factor α: effects of L-carnitine supplementation in surgical patients. Preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Delogu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Both anaesthetics and surgical trauma could strongly affect the production of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα. During in vitro experiments the authors found that anaesthetics modulate the production of TNFα by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, Pentothal strongly increased the production of the cytokine as compared to both lipopolysacchride treated and control mononuclear cells, whereas in supernatants from Leptofen driven mononuclear cells TNFα was strongly reduced. On the other hand, Pavulon did not significantly affect the cytokine production. In the in vivo study, in an attempt to ameliorate the metabolic response to surgical trauma, L-carnitine was administered to 20 surgical patients, then the circulating TNFα was measured. The results indicate that the levels of circulating TNFα were strongly increased following surgery and that L-carnitine administration resulted in a strong reduction of TNFα. Thus, the data suggest that L-carnitine could be helpful in protecting surgical patients against dysmetabolism dependent on dysregulated production of TNFα.

  20. The Association between risk factors and low back pain among commercial vehicle drivers in peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Jalaludin, Juliana; Aziz, Nasaruddin Abdul; Jemoin, Nizam; Nordin, Rusli; Li Naing, Ayub; Abdullah, Yunus; Abdullah, Mazlan

    2007-04-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with complain of low back pain. A cross sectional study was done from June 2004 until August 2005. Seven hundred and sixty commercial vehicle drivers from 11 bus companies in central, northern and eastern regions in Malaysia participated in this study. Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain; Maestro human vibration meter was used to measure the personal R.M.S values of lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical axes. Modified Owas was used to assess the awkward posture of the driver torso namely, bending forward movement, leaning, sitting straight and twisting. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to evaluate the mood states of bus drivers with complain of low back pain. A high prevalence of low back pain (60.4%) among Malaysian commercial vehicle drivers was found. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, income, education level and non occupational activities revealed that the following factors were related to low back pain: Tension-anxiety [1.080, 95% CI 1.041-1.121], depression dejection [1.047, 95% CI 1.023-1.072], anger-hostility [1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.081], fatigue [1.132, 95% CI 1.089-1.177] and confusion [1.114, 95% CI 1.061-1.169] of POMS, length of employment [1.001, 95% CI 1.0-1.003], steering wheel adjustment [1.521, 95% CI 1.101-2.101], perception of exposing to vibration [1.943, 95% CI 1.389-2.719]. In conclusion, combinations of risks lead to high increase of low back pain complain among Malaysian bus drivers.

  1. Preliminary Study on Occupation and Lifestyle as Conditioning Factors in Women Menstrual Cycle in a Region of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rojas

    2014-09-01

    percentage was important and should be considered. Occupation is an influencing factor over bleeding duration as well as coffee consumption and pesticide exposure. The methodology used is suitable for MC characterization and represents the beginning of further investigations in Venezuela using a larger sample and including other possible factors that could influence MC characteristics.

  2. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary characterization of the mRNA export factor MEX67 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Pandey, Tripti; Kumar, Bijay; Akhtar, Md Sohail; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear export of macromolecules is facilitated by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), embedded in the nuclear envelope and consists of multi-protein complexes. MEX67 is one of the nuclear export factor responsible for the transport of the majority of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The mechanism of mRNA transport through NPCs is unclear due to the unavailability of structures and the known interacting partners of MEX67. The mex67 gene was cloned in pQE30A and was expressed in Escherichia coli. A strategy has been developed to purify the insoluble MEX67 using a nickel affinity column with chelating Sepharose fast flow media, after solubilizing with sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (Sarkosyl). The IMAC purified recombinant MEX67 was further purified using SEC to apparent homogeneity (∼8 mg/L). Following SEC, MEX67 was stable and observed to be a 67 kDa monomeric protein as determined by PAGE and the size exclusion chromatography. The availability of large quantities of the protein will help in its biochemical and biophysical characterization, which may lead to the identification of new interaction partners of MEX67 or MEX67 complex.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of BipD, a virulence factor from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M. J.; Ruaux, A.; Mikolajek, H.; Erskine, P. T.; Gill, R.; Wood, S. P. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Wood, M. [Institute of Animal Health, Division of Environmental Microbiology, Institute for Animal Health, Compton Laboratory, Berkshire RG20 7NN (United Kingdom); Cooper, J. B., E-mail: j.b.cooper@soton.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    BipD is likely to be a component of a type-III protein secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Native and selenomethionyl-BipD proteins have been expressed and crystals have been obtained which diffract to 2.1 Å. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a protein-secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in Salmonella and Shigella. A major function of these secretion systems is to secrete virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. The BipD gene of B. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and most likely functionally analogous to IpaD from Shigella and SipD from Salmonella. Thus, the BipD protein is likely to be a component of a type III protein-secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Proteins in the same class as BipD, such as IpaD and SipD, are thought to act as extracellular chaperones to help the hydrophobic translocator proteins enter the target cell membrane, where they form a pore and might even link the translocon pore with the secretion needle. There is evidence that the translocator proteins also bind an integrin which stimulates actin-mediated insertion of the bacterium into the host-cell membrane. Native BipD has been crystallized in a monoclinic crystal form that diffracts X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. BipD protein which incorporates selenomethionine (SeMet-BipD) has also been expressed and forms crystals which diffract to a higher resolution of 2.1 Å.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration in the aqueous humor of healthy and diseased dogs: a preliminary pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, P; Etchepareborde, S; Fritz, D; Rosolen, S G

    2015-04-01

    To determine reference values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentrations in the aqueous humor of control dogs. To show whether these values are significantly different from those obtained in dogs affected with intraocular pathology: acute anterior uveitis (AAU) or chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Forty-four dogs were included in the study and were divided into two groups: a control group and a group with intraocular disease. Twenty-seven dogs (9 males and 18 females) were examined and found to be normal after a complete ophthalmological examination (control group), 7 (6 females and 1 male) presented with PACG, and 10 (7 females and 3 males) presented with AAU secondary to corneal perforation. One aqueous humor sample (volume ≥ 0.2 mL) was collected from one eye of all dogs. The aqueous TNF-α concentration was determined with an Elisa kit. TNF-α levels were detectable in all dogs. TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the group with intraocular disease compared to the normal control group (P=0.001). In the group with intraocular disease, TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the aqueous humor of the AAU group compared with the PACG group (P=0.001). In the dog, it is possible to measure the concentration of TNF-α in the aqueous humor. The level of TNF-α was significantly higher in the case of AAU. TNF-α is an interesting biomarker for longitudinal follow-up studies of comparative ophthalmology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A prospective longitudinal study of neuropsychological and psychosocial factors in asymptomatic individuals at risk for HTLV-III/LAV infection in a methadone program: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, C H; McKegney, F P; O'Dowd, M A; Selwyn, P A; Schoenbaum, E; Drucker, E; Feiner, C; Cox, C P; Friedland, G

    1987-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that cognitive impairment may be present early in the course of HTLV-III/LAV infection, intravenous drug abusers (IDVAs) without overt symptoms of AIDS related illness were tested with standard neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. This study is the baseline for a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of HTLV-III/LAV infection in this high risk population. Of 211 subjects initially evaluated, 70 (33%) were HTLV-III/LAV seropositive and 141 (67%) were seronegative. At the baseline, by univariate analysis, the seropositive IVDAs were significantly (p less than .05) more impaired than seronegatives on 4 of 8 measures: Finger Tapping--dominant, hand, Digit Span Forward, Trail making A and WAIS-Similarities. However, by multivariate analysis the seropositives were significantly more impaired only on the WAIS-Similarities and Wechsler--Associative Learning tests. Multiple factors such as drug use and psychological stress may have influenced test performance. These preliminary results, however, suggest that seropositive IVDAs may show evidence of impaired neuropsychological function even in the absence of AIDS related symptoms and are consistent with the hypothesis of the early neurotropism of HTLV-III/LAV.

  6. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in an Urban and Peri-urban Setting, Kerman, Southeastern Iran (KERCADR Study: Methodology and Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Navadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article was to present the sampling and measurements methods and the main preliminary findings of the KERCADR cohort study (first round in an urban and peri-urban setting, Kerman, southeastern Iran2009-11. Method: 5900 (3238 female people aged between 15 to 75 years were recruited in the household survey by non-proportional to size one-stage cluster sampling. Trained internal specialists, general practitioners, clinical psychologists and dentists have assessed the study subjects by person-assisted questionnaires regarding different NCD risk factors including cigarette and opium smoking, physical activity, nutrition habits, anxiety, depression, obesity, hypertension and oral health. Blood samples were also collected for determining FBS, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglyceride. Weighted standardized prevalence estimates were calculated by STATA 10 survey analysis package. Results: The participation rate was more than 95% in all subgroups. Cigarette smoking (18.4% vs. 1.2%, opium use (17.8% vs. 3.0% and triglyceridemia (16.1% vs. 12.0% were significantly higher among men than women. In contrast, women were presented with higher level of sever anxiety (29.1% vs. 16.7%, obesity (16.8% vs. 9.2%, low-physical activity (45.1% vs. 39.2% and uncontrolled diabetes (60.2% vs. 31.0%. More than 68% of all subjects have presented with moderate to severe gingival index scores. Conclusion: The first round of the KERCADR cohort with sufficient sample size and response rate provided precise estimates for the main clinical and para-clinical NCD risk factors. These evidences need to be translated into public health interventions and monitored in the next rounds of the cohort.

  7. Preliminaries on pollution risk factors related to mining and ore processing in the Cu-rich pollymetallic belt of Eastern Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbea, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on the mineralogical and geochemical patterns of mining and ore-processing wastes from some occurrences in the Eastern Carpathians; its aim is to identify the main factors and processes that could lead to the pollution of the environment. In this respect, the following types of solid waste were investigated: efflorescent salts developed on the surface of rock blocks from a quarry, ore-processing waste from two tailings ponds, and salt crusts developed at the surface of a tailings pond. The potential risks emphasized by these preliminary investigations are the following: (1) the risk of wind-driven removal and transport of the waste from the surface of tailings ponds, given that fine grains prevail (up to 80%); (2) the risk of tailings removal through mechanical transport by water, during heavy rainfall; (3) the appearance of hydrated sulfates on the rock fragments from the mining waste, sulfates which are highly susceptible to the generation of acid mine drainage (pHmine drainage leachates contain; and (5) the development of a salt crust on the flat, horizontal surfaces of the waste deposit, due to this very shape. Statistical data regarding the amount of both major and minor elements in the tailings have revealed two statistical populations for nearly all the toxic metals. This suggests that, beyond the effect that the tailings have upon the environment through their mere presence in a given area, there are alleged additional factors and processes which intensify the pollution: the location of the waste deposit relative to the topography of the area; the shape of the waste deposit; the development of low areas on the surface of the deposit, areas which favor the appearance of salt crusts; and the mineralogy of efflorescent aggregates.

  8. Association of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk: The Role of Estrogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Adiponectin as Risk factors (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampi Retnowarnadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer diagnosed among women. Many factors influence the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of this study to analyze the role of obesity (waist circumference and body mass index, serum Estradiol levels, TNF-α, and Adiponectin in the occurrence of breast cancer. METHODS: This was observational study with case control design. Eleven breast cancer patients as cases and twelve Fibroadenoma Mammae (FAM patients as controls were analyzed. The serum Estrogen, TNF-α and Adiponectin were examined in their association with breast cancer risk. RESULTS: Women with breast tumor and waist circumference >80 cm have significantly higher breast cancer risk than women with breast tumor and waist circumference 2.30 pg/ml have higher breast cancer risk (19.25 times than women with breast tumor and have lower serum TNF-α levels (95% CI=1.77-209.55, p=0.015. Whereas, women with breast tumor and lower Adiponectin/TNF-α ratio (80 cm and low Adiponectin/TNF-α ratio in women with breast tumor are significantly associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. KEYWORDS: obesity, breast cancer, adiponectin/TNF-α ratio.

  9. Microparticles (MPs), tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor inhibitor (TFPI) in cord blood plasma. A preliminary study and literature survey of procoagulant properties of MPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszyński, Mieczysław; Zekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Waldemar; Kuczyński, Jarosław; Zyliński, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    In the working hypothesis we assumed that the procoagulant activity of microparticles (MPs) is associated with the concentration of tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI), and that these three components together affect fetal hemostasis. The aim of the study was to check whether MPs are present in the cord blood, to compare their concentration with that in the maternal blood, as well as to measure the concentrations of TF antigen and TFPI antigen in the cord blood and maternal blood. The study group consisted of 28 healthy parturient women who gave normal delivery, and their 28 babies. Blood from the umbilical vein was collected immediately after delivery, still prior to omphalotomy, whereas mother's blood was obtained from the antecubital vein. The concentration of MPs as well as TF antigen and TFPI antigen were measured using ELISA method. The level of MPs in cord blood plasma was found to be 6.25 times higher than in the mother's blood plasma (median: 26.76 nM PS; range: 22.90-34.41 nM PS vs. median: 4.26 nM PS; range: 2.68-5.37 nM PS respectively, p=0.0022), whereas the level of TF antigen was 1.94 times higher in the fetus than in the mother (median: 238.03 pg/ml; range: 192.25-283.10 pg/ml vs. median: 122.4 pg/ml, range: 52.71-176.74 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.0012). On the other hand, the level of TFPI antigen was lower in cord blood plasma than in maternal blood plasma, accounting for 33.95% of the value noted in the mother (median: 30.04 ng/ml, range: 24.84-35.12 ng/ml vs. median: 88.48 ng/ml; range: 78.64-107.20 ng/ml, respectively, pMPs) are constituent components of cord blood plasma; their concentration is significantly higher than that in mother's blood plasma. In the fetus, MPs may play a role of a powerful procoagulant, thus facilitating thrombin generation (TF-dependent thrombin generation, which may take place on their surface); this hypothesis is based on literature data and our own evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  10. The possible prognostic role of histone deacetylase and transforming growth factor β/Smad signaling in high grade gliomas treated by radio-chemotherapy: a preliminary immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sferra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF-β/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement and the possible interaction between these two molecular cascades in the pathogenesis and prognosis of GBM. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on microdissected GBM samples, collected from 14 patients (6 men and 8 women ranging in age from 43 to 74 years. The patients were previously divided, on the basis of their overall survival (OS, into two groups: short and long OS. Patients with poor prognosis showed hyperexpression of HDAC4 and HDAC6, an activation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway, with high levels of IL-13, Smad2, PDGF and MMP3 expression, compared to the long survivors. The short OS group exhibits a decrease in Smad 7 expression and also low levels of p21 immunostaining, which represents a common target of the two pathways. The IHC data was confirmed by quantitative analysis and Immunoblotting. Our preliminary results suggest that both HDAC4 and HDAC6 together with the TGF-β/Smad pathway may be involved in progression of GBM and this cross talking could be a useful prognostic marker in this deadly disease.

  11. Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case-control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case-control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection.

  12. Association study of Val66Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene with clozapine-induced metabolic syndrome: preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS is higher among patients receiving atypical antipsychotics (AAPs treatment, and even among AAPs, treatment with clozapine has been shown to be associated with a higher long-term incidence rate of MetS. Likewise, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF deficiency has been reported to result in metabolic traits, such as increased food intake, hyperphagia and obesity, etc. In this study, we hypothesized that a functional polymorphism (Val66Met in the BDNF gene may confer susceptibility to clozapine-induced MetS, potentially in a sex-specific manner, since an interaction between Val66Met polymorphism and sex was observed in our previous studies. A total of 199 schizophrenia patients being treated with clozapine were divided into two groups, MetS and non-MetS, based on the diagnostic criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. We genotyped the Val66Met polymorphism, and measured the serum levels of fasting glucose (GLU, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL. There was a trend indicating a significant association between the homozygous Met/Met genotype and MetS in male patients (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.05-5.41; p = 0.039; corrected p = 0.078. Among the six risk factors listed in the ATPIII criteria, we found a significant association between fasting GLU levels and Val66Met polymorphism in males (p = 0.005; corrected p = 0.03, but not in females (p = 0.65. Post-hoc analysis in males revealed that the Met/Met carriers had significant higher levels of fasting GLU than those with Val/Val or Val/Met genotypes (p = 0.007; corrected p = 0.042 and p = 0.002; corrected p = 0.012, respectively. In conclusion, we observed a weak association between the Val66Met polymorphism and clozapine-induced MetS in a sex-specific manner. While preliminary, such findings prompt further, large-scale longitudinal studies to

  13. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades Crónicas en Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Resultados preliminares de CARMEN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ovidio Orduñez García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen la primera causa de morbilidad y también de mortalidad en Cuba, la vigilancia de ellas constituye un elemento importante para alertar al sistema de salud sobre su evolución. El objetivo de esta comunicación breve es describir la prevalencia de cuatro de los más importante factores de riesgo de estas enfermedades durante el primer corte que se hace de la segunda medición del proyecto CARMEN Cienfuegos, mostrándose también las diferencias con los resultados de la primera medición. Método: Se presenta un corte de la segunda medición de la iniciativa CARMEN en Cienfuegos

  14. Fragile X premutation is a significant risk factor for premature ovarian failure: the International Collaborative POF in Fragile X study--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allingham-Hawkins, D J; Babul-Hirji, R; Chitayat, D; Holden, J J; Yang, K T; Lee, C; Hudson, R; Gorwill, H; Nolin, S L; Glicksman, A; Jenkins, E C; Brown, W T; Howard-Peebles, P N; Becchi, C; Cummings, E; Fallon, L; Seitz, S; Black, S H; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Costa, S S; Otto, P A; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Murray, A; Webb, J; Vieri, F

    1999-04-01

    The preliminary results of an international collaborative study examining premature menopause in fragile X carriers are presented. A total of 760 women from fragile X families was surveyed about their fragile X carrier status and their menstrual and reproductive histories. Among the subjects, 395 carried a premutation, 128 carried a full mutation, and 237 were noncarriers. Sixty-three (16%) of the premutation carriers had experienced menopause prior to the age of 40 compared with none of the full mutation carriers and one (0.4%) of the controls. Based on these preliminary data, there is a significant association between fragile X premutation carrier status and premature menopause.

  15. 水利水电工程初步设计概算影响因素浅析%Influences Factors of the Preliminary Design of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冰洁; 张忠良

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design document of water conservancy and Hydropower Engineering has emphasis impact on the implementa -tion of project .Meanwhile , as a major content of preliminary design documents , preliminary design budgetary estimate plays an im-portant role of cost control and management for completed project .It can not only make effective use of the guarantee fund , but also control the total investment of engineering project .For all, the influence factors of budgetary estimate are analyzed in this paper .%初步设计概算作为初步设计文件的重要内容,不仅能有效地保证资金的合理运用,还能有效地控制工程项目的总投资,对工程造价控制与管理有着重要作用。该文从多角度出发,浅析初步设计阶段影响设计概算的因素。

  16. Factor analysis of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC scale for Chinese cancer caregivers: a preliminary reliability and validity study of the CQOLC-Chinese version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaobo Duan

    Full Text Available The English version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC was translated into simplified Chinese (CQOLC-C, following cultural translation, back-translation and pretest steps. Three hundred and sixty one cancer caregivers participated in this study. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess CQOLC-C reliability. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA was used to generate two models of the measure's factor structure, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were used to test each model, such that the best model to explain the latent structure of the CQOLC-C was identified. EFA using different factor extraction methods yielded two models including four and eight factors. According to the CFA results, model 2 was better fit for the original study data, based on the RMSEA criterion [0.058(90% CI = 0.051-0.065], χ2 (531 = 853.92, p < 0.0001; CFI (0.96, NNFI (0.96, IFI (0.97, and NFI (0.92. We also examined the effect of removing three items on the CQOLC-C factor structure and discuss the resulting differences from other versions. These results indicate that the CQOLC-C's factor structure does not fully fit the original theorized model. This study provides preliminary support for further use of the CQOLC-C. However, the present work provides only partial support for the relevance and construct validity of the scale for Chinese caregivers.

  17. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  18. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  19. Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors on choroid in patients with macular choroid neovascular membrane and degenerative myopia . Preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Solomin; D.A. Magaramov; G. F. Kachalina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: to assess the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors on choroid in patients with myopic macular choroid neovascular membrane.Methods: 12 eyes (12 patients) aged 19-47 years with myopia and macular choroid neovascular membrane (mCNV) were enrolled in a study group. A control group included fellow eyes with early «dry» form age-related macular degeneration. Eyes with mCNV under- went one intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor Ranibizumab...

  20. Effects of low- and high-frequency repetitive magnetic stimulation on neuronal cell proliferation and growth factor expression: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yong; Park, Hyung Joong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Byung Pil; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2015-09-14

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation is a neuropsychiatric and neurorehabilitation tool that can be used to investigate the neurobiology of sensory and motor functions. Few studies have examined the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation on the modulation of neurotrophic/growth factors and neuronal cells in vitro. Therefore, the current study examined the differential effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation on neuronal cell proliferation as well as various growth factor expression. Immortalized mouse neuroblastoma cells were used as the cell model in this study. Dishes of cultured cells were randomly divided into control, sham, low-frequency (0.5Hz, 1Tesla) and high-frequency (10Hz, 1Tesla) groups (n=4 dishes/group) and were stimulated for 3 days. Expression of neurotrophic/growth factors, Akt and Erk was investigated by Western blotting analysis 3 days after repetitive magnetic stimulation. Neuroblastoma cell proliferation was determined with a cell counting assay. There were differences in cell proliferation based on stimulus frequency. Low-frequency stimulation did not alter proliferation relative to the control, while high-frequency stimulation elevated proliferation relative to the control group. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were elevated in the high-frequency magnetic stimulation group. Akt and Erk expression was also significantly elevated in the high-frequency stimulation group, while low-frequency stimulation decreased the expression of Akt and Erk compared to the control. In conclusion, we determined that different frequency magnetic stimulation had an influence on neuronal cell proliferation via regulation of Akt and ERK signaling pathways and the expression of growth factors such as BDNF, GDNF, NT-3 and PDGF. These findings represent a promising opportunity to gain insight into how different

  1. Preliminary separation of the growth factors in platelet-rich plasma: effects on the proliferation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qian; WANG Yun-dan; WU Tao; JIANG Shan; HU Yan-ling; PEI Guo-xian

    2009-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a storage vehicle of growth factors has been successfully used in clinical applications, but in most cases the platelets were autologous. However, the large volume of blood withdrawn has detrimental effects on patients with anemia or poor general health. To overcome these limitations, this study was designed to separate the growth factors in homologous platelet-rich plasma. Methods The gel chromatography with Superdex-75 column was applied to separate PRP supernatants into 4 major fractions. Then the four fractions were vacuumed freeze-dried and re-dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. Proteins concentrations in PRP and in four fractions were detected by bicinchoninic acid protein assay; platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor 131 (TGF-β1) levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The effects of fractions on the proliferation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were determined by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results PRP supernatants were separated into four major fractions by gel chromatography. The proteins recovery was 96.72%. Of the four fractions, fraction B contained the highest TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB levels, and the highest proteins concentrations. Cell proliferation curves of MSC demonstrated that fraction B and C induced a remarkable increase of MTT values compared to the untreated culture (P 0.05). Fraction A and D showed no significant difference to the negative control group (P >0.05). Conclusions The growth factors in PRP supernatants could be preliminarily separated into four fractions by gel chromatography, and the freeze-drying fractions retained the biological activity of growth factors. The growth factors were mostly presented in fraction B and C, and they promoted cell proliferation effectively.

  2. A multi-factor model of panic disorder: results of a preliminary study integrating the role of perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety and anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Wood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panic disorder (PD is a highly prevalent and disabling mental health problem associated with different factors including perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity regarding physical concerns; however, no studies have analyzed the joint relationship between these factors and PD in a multi-factor model using structural equation modeling. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data on these factors and self-reported DSM-IV past-year PD symptoms in a large sample of the general population (N=936. Results: Perceived stress had a significant effect in increasing physiological anxiety, which in turn had an important association with physical concerns. Perfectionism and perceived stress had an indirect relation with past year PD via the mediator role of physiological anxiety and physical concerns. Physical concerns, on one hand, seemed to mediate the impact between perfectionism and PD and, on the other, partially mediated the role between physiological anxiety and PD. Conclusions: Although there is considerable evidence on the association between each of these factors and PD, this model can be considered a broader and productive framework of research on the nature and treatment of PD.

  3. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) for long-term delivery of growth factor in rotator cuff repair: review, preliminary results and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Berger, Simon; Schober, Martin; Boileau, Pascal; Nyffeler, Richard W; Horn, Michael; Dahinden, Clemens A

    2012-06-01

    Surgical repair of the rotator cuff repair is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic surgery. Despite it being the focus of much research, the physiological tendon-bone insertion is not recreated following repair and there is an anatomic non-healing rate of up to 94%. During the healing phase, several growth factors are upregulated that induce cellular proliferation and matrix deposition. Subsequently, this provisional matrix is replaced by the definitive matrix. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) contain growth factors and has a stable dense fibrin matrix. Therefore, use of LPRF in rotator cuff repair is theoretically attractive. The aim of the present study was to determine 1) the optimal protocol to achieve the highest leukocyte content; 2) whether L-PRF releases growth factors in a sustained manner over 28 days; 3) whether standard/gelatinous or dry/compressed matrix preparation methods result in higher growth factor concentrations. 1) The standard L-PRF centrifugation protocol with 400 x g showed the highest concentration of platelets and leukocytes. 2) The L-PRF clots cultured in medium showed a continuous slow release with an increase in the absolute release of growth factors TGF-β1, VEGF and MPO in the first 7 days, and for IGF1, PDGF-AB and platelet activity (PF4=CXCL4) in the first 8 hours, followed by a decrease to close to zero at 28 days. Significantly higher levels of growth factor were expressed relative to the control values of normal blood at each culture time point. 3) Except for MPO and the TGFβ-1, there was always a tendency towards higher release of growth factors (i.e., CXCL4, IGF-1, PDGF-AB, and VEGF) in the standard/gelatinous- compared to the dry/compressed group. L-PRF in its optimal standard/gelatinous-type matrix can store and deliver locally specific healing growth factors for up to 28 days and may be a useful adjunct in rotator cuff repair.

  4. Total encephalic irradiation with complementary dose: preliminary results and prognostic factors; Irradiation encephalique en totalite avec complement de dose: resultats preliminaires et facteurs pronostiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, A.; Kzrisch, C. [CHU d' Amiens, 80 (France); Assouline, A.; Levy, A.; Chargari, C.; Lamproglou, I.; Mazeron, J.J. [CHU Pitie Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Chargari, C. [Hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report an assessment study of prognostic factors of global survival and of the benefit of a complementary dose delivered by a conventional linear accelerator for brain metastases after a total encephalic irradiation. This study is based on data from 250 patients treated in Amiens hospital for secondary brain metastases of a lung or breast cancer and melanoma. Five prognostic factors have been studied: type of primitive tumour, gender, number of metastases, surgical resection of metastases, and improvement of neurological symptoms after radiotherapy. An analysis is performed on a subgroup to determine whether a complementary dose would improve survival in the group of patients presenting less than three metastases. Short communication

  5. Clinical factors associated with extreme sleep apnoea [AHI>100 events per hour] in Peruvian patients: A case-control study–A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rey de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that arterial hypertension, neck circumference, and over 10% SatO2Hb≤90% in total sleep time were associated with a higher probability of Extreme OSA. We recommend investigators to study this population of Extreme OSA looking for an early diagnosis and the identification of prognostic factors in comparison with moderate to severe levels.

  6. The occurrence of IgM and complement factors along myelin sheaths of peripheral nerves An immunohistochemical study of the Guillain-Barre syndrome : Preliminary communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, J.A.F.M.; Baart de la Faille-Kuyper, E.H.

    In nerve biopsies from 4 of 6 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), IgM and complement factors were found, probably localized along myelin sheaths. The possible significance of this phenomenon has been discussed. No such findings were obtained in control subjects.

  7. The occurrence of IgM and complement factors along myelin sheaths of peripheral nerves An immunohistochemical study of the Guillain-Barre syndrome : Preliminary communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, J.A.F.M.; Baart de la Faille-Kuyper, E.H.

    1972-01-01

    In nerve biopsies from 4 of 6 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), IgM and complement factors were found, probably localized along myelin sheaths. The possible significance of this phenomenon has been discussed. No such findings were obtained in control subjects.

  8. Total antioxidant status in lung cancer is associated with levels of endogenous antioxidants and disease stage rather than lifestyle factorspreliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porębska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in different neoplasms, including lung cancer. However, no study concerning the relationship between endogenous antioxidants, lifestyle factors, and TAC has been conducted among lung cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between endogenous antioxidants, severity of disease, lifestyle factors, and TAC in lung cancer patients. Material and methods The study was conducted among 59 lung cancer patients. The levels of total antioxidant status (ATBS method), endogenous antioxidants, and C-reactive protein were measured in patients’ sera automatically. Dietary habits of the subjects were evaluated based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) on the day of admission to hospital. Results We found a positive correlation between serum albumin, uric acid (UA), and TAC and a negative correlation between CRP and TAC. Moreover, TAC was significantly positively associated with disease stage. We did not find any significant relationship between the frequency of selected food consumption and TAC in lung cancer patients, except for a positive correlation between the frequency of refined cereal products consumption and TAC level. Smoking status did not correlate with TAC. Conclusions Total antioxidant status of lung cancer patients results from their disease stage and levels of endogenous antioxidants rather than from lifestyle factors. The lack of influence of diet and smoking on the TAC presumably result from disturbed homeostasis in which cancer, while developing, could determine the redox state to a greater extent than lifestyle factors. PMID:27688727

  9. Increased expression of nerve growth factor correlates with visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gut barrier function in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a preliminary explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Zhang, Y L; Liu, L; Pan, L; Yao, S K

    2017-01-01

    Neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism has attracted increased attention in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Pre-clinical evidence indicates that nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates visceral hypersensitivity and gut barrier dysfunction, via interactions with mast cells and sensory nerve fibres. To explore the role of nerve growth factor, as well as mast cell-nerve growth factor-nerve interaction in IBS-D pathophysiology. In this cross-sectional study, IBS-D patients and healthy controls first underwent clinical and psychological assessments. Visceral sensitivity to rectal distension was tested. As gut barrier function markers, serum diamine oxidase and d-lactate were detected. Rectosigmoid biopsies were taken for the analyses of nerve growth factor expression, mast cell count and activation, and sensory nerve fibres expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Correlations between these parameters were examined in patients. Thirty-eight IBS-D patients (28 males, 10 females; average age 30.2 years) and 20 healthy controls (12 males, 8 females; average age 26.8 years) participated in the study. The patients presented increased psychological symptoms, visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gut barrier function. NGF gene expression, mast cell count and sensory nerve fibres were significantly increased in the patients (P sensitivity thresholds were negatively associated with NGF expression (Bonferroni corrected P function in IBS-D. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The occurrence of IgM and complement factors along myelin sheaths of peripheral nerves An immunohistochemical study of the Guillain-Barre syndrome : Preliminary communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, J.A.F.M.; Baart de la Faille-Kuyper, E.H.

    1972-01-01

    In nerve biopsies from 4 of 6 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), IgM and complement factors were found, probably localized along myelin sheaths. The possible significance of this phenomenon has been discussed. No such findings were obtained in control subjects.

  11. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Ets transcription factor in complex with target DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Teruya; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Kai, Hirofumi; Yamagata, Yuriko, E-mail: yamagata@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862-0973 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The complex between the Ets domain of Ets2 and its target DNA has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. The Ets2 transcription factor is a member of the Ets transcription-factor family. Ets2 plays a role in the malignancy of cancer and in Down’s syndrome by regulating the transcription of various genes. The DNA-binding domain of Ets2 (Ets domain; ETSD), which contains residues that are highly conserved among Ets transcription-factor family members, was expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The aggregation of ETSD produced after thrombin cleavage could be prevented by treatment with NDSB-195 (nondetergent sulfobetaine 195). ETSD was crystallized in complex with DNA containing the Ets2 target sequence (GGAA) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystals were grown using 25% PEG 3350, 80 mM magnesium acetate, 50 mM sodium cacodylate pH 5.0/5.5 as the reservoir at 293 K. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.89, b = 95.52, c = 71.89 Å, β = 101.7° and a V{sub M} value of 3.56 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å.

  12. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  13. Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors on choroid in patients with macular choroid neovascular membrane and degenerative myopia . Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solomin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors on choroid in patients with myopic macular choroid neovascular membrane.Methods: 12 eyes (12 patients aged 19-47 years with myopia and macular choroid neovascular membrane (mCNV were enrolled in a study group. A control group included fellow eyes with early «dry» form age-related macular degeneration. Eyes with mCNV under- went one intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor Ranibizumab 0.5 mg. Retina and choroid examination was performed with SPECtRALIS HRA+OCt (Heidelberg Engineering. Eyes were examined before treatment, in 1 month and in 3 months after treatment.Results: Mean best corrected visual acuity in 1 moth after ranibizumab 0.5 mg injection improved from 0.37±0.18 to 0.47±0.24. In 3 months after treatment best corrected visual acuity was 0.53±0.24. Mean foveal retinal thickness before treatment was 311.4±57.2 μm; 1 month and 3 months after treatment mean foveal retinal thickness decreased to 229.1±41.8 μm and 221.8±29.3 μm, respec- tively. Mean choroid thickness in 1 moth decreased from 54.4±23.7 μm to 37.4±17.0 μm, in 3 moths mean choroid thickness was 48.9±20.1 μm. In the control group best corrected visual acuity was 0.79±0.18, mean foveal retinal thickness and mean choroid thick- ness were 187.1±10.5 μm and 93.7±24.5 μm, respectively.Conclusion: Injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor allowed transient choroid thinning.

  14. A preliminary study of pamidronic acid downregulation of angiogenic factors IGF-1/PECAM-1 expression in circulating level in bone metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeng Wang,1,2 Lei Lei,2,3 Xin-jun Cai,4 Ling Ya Chen,1,2 Meiqin Yuan,2,3 Guonong Yang,1,2 Ping Huang,1,2 Xiaojia Wang2,3 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Zhejiang Key Lab of Diagnosis & Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, 3Department of Chemotherapy Center, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 4Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the expressions of circulating angiogenic factors affected by pamidronic acid (PA intravenous infusion in bone metastatic breast cancer patients and the impact on their prognosis.Methods: Peripheral blood of ten bone metastatic breast cancer patients was collected for serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression detection just before and 2 days after PA infusion.Results: Both IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations decreased after PA treatment for 48 hours (P<0.05. Modification was defined as >20% decrease recorded 2 days after PA administration. The decrease of IGF-1 was more significant in breast cancer patients who had received previous hormonotherapy. Moreover, the progression-free survival of first-line chemotherapy treatment of IGF-1 modified patients was longer than that of IGF-1 unmodified patients (P=0.009.Conclusion: PA treatment could suppress circulating serum IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations; moreover, the prognosis of patients in IGF-1 unmodified group was relatively poor. Keywords: pamidronic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, bone metastatic breast cancer, prognosis

  15. Effect of Nonviral Plasmid Delivered Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Condylar Growth: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harmanpreet Kaur; Hasan Uludağ; Tarek El-Bialy

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important regulator of tissue growth. Previous studies have shown that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates bone growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergetic effect of LIPUS and local injection of nonviral bFGF plasmid DNA (pDNA) on mandibular growth in rats. Design. Groups were control, blank pDNA, bFGF pDNA, LIPUS, and bFGF pDNA + LIPUS. Treatments were performed for 28 days. Significant incr...

  16. ABOUT NOXA, VASCULAR RISK FACTORS, ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION, AND CONSECUTIVE VASCULOPATHY BUT A LITTLE DIFFERENTLY: HOLISTIC APPROACH OF THE PROBLEM (PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Fischer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial system assures unhindered functioning and stability of the internal milieu maintaining vascular health and protecting against vascular injury, noxa. by producing, synthesising and excreting various substances: vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, growth factors and their inhibitors, pro-inflammatory and antiinflammatory agents, pro-thrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, and by keeping them in a strict equilibrium: endothelial dysfunction is the change of these properties, what is inappropriate with regard to the preservation of organ function ("endothelial dysfunction" has been used to define diverse syndromes characterized by changes in distinct endothelial functions, related to a cellular phenotypic switch from a quiescent to an activated state and this multifaceted disorder actually encompasses a spectrum of disturbances in vasomotor responses, antithrombogenic properties, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment [inflammation!] and endothelial cell proliferation [remodelling].In the genesis and later development of chronic vascular injury/vasculopathy (e.g. atherosclerose endothelial dysfunction (ED has a crucial key role. The so called risk factors lead to vascular injury through the same mechanism of actions, by inducing oxidative stress (OS → ED!: Harm (noxa, i.e. isk factors [RFs] → oxidative stress [OS] → endothelial activation [EA], endothlial dysfunction [ED], respectively → vacular injury, vascular disease. Under physiological conditions free radicals are generated during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism: The walls of the mitochondria are leaky to oxygen radicals produced during metabolism. 1% of oxygen used in respiration actually leaks from the mitochondria in the form of superoxide, but in older subjects, and/or in pathological states, in case of risk facor’s existence (i. e., repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic, and genetic foreign impacts

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  18. A preliminary analysis of some epidemiological factors involved in porcine cysticercosis in Bafut and Santa subdivisions, North West Region of Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nchang Allo Nicoline Ngwing; J Wabo Pon; Mpoame Mbida; A Zoli Pagnah; H Njakoi; CF Bilong Bilong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the magnitude and some risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Bafut and Santa, two sub-divisions noted for pig farming in the North West Region of Cameroon. Methods:A total of 499 pigs in 300 households were examined by tongue inspection and serologically by Ag-ELISA. Information was sought on the age and sex of the animals, prevailing husbandry systems, types of feed, the state of each pen and the state of toilets. Futhermore, a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to determine their awareness on taeniasis/cysticercosis and related factors. Results:The prevalence of the disease was significantly higher in Santa (10.2%) than in Bafut (4.2%), although there was a higher level of awareness in both localities (62.3%). Age of pigs, traditional rearing systems (roaming, tethered, earth floor pen, raised floor pen), faecal disposal in the environment and poor sanitation significantly influenced the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis in both localities. Most farmers (79.7%) used a combination of concentrate, grass and kitchen waste to feed pigs. Financial loss from porcine cysticercosis was estimated at 346 900 CFA representing 2% of total income. Conclusions: Control measures advanced here include sensitization campaigns, periodic examination and treatment of infected pigs by veterinarians, improved husbandry systems, proper use of standard latrines regularly inspected by sanitary officers, and sound hygienic and sanitary practices.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS, FEEDING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF 8-15-YEAR-OLD BULGARIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: estudiar el papel de algunos factores socioeconómicos y demográficos, la alimentación y la actividad física en la prevalencia del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros. Material y métodos: en la muestra de esta investigación se incluyeron 881 niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 15 años, que se midieron de forma transversal en el período 2012 - 2014 en las ocho escuelas del gobierno en la región de Smolyan, Bulgaria. De cada niño se midieron la altura y el peso, y se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La evaluación del estado nutricional se realizó utilizando los puntos de corte del IMC internacional para niños y adolescentes. Mediante el cuestionario se recogió información sobre el nivel educativo de los padres, el número de hijos en la familia, lugar de residencia, nutrición y hábitos de alimentación y actividad física de los niños y adolescentes. Los datos fueron analizados por el software Statistica 10.0. Resultados: existe una relación positiva significativa entre el factor “comer en exceso” y los valores de IMC para ambos sexos, y una relación negativa entre el factor de “frecuencia de comidas” y el IMC para los varones (p valores significativamente más altos de IMC se observan entre los niños que comen en exceso en comparación con sus pares, que comen cantidades normales o pequeñas de alimentos (p < 0,05). La obesidad es significativamente más frecuente entre los niños, que comen una o dos veces al día, en comparación con aquellos que tienen tres o más comidas al día (p < 0,05). Conclusión: los resultados preliminares de nuestra investigación muestran que los principales determinantes del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros estudiados son los factores relacionados con la alimentación y la conducta alimentaria, en particular “el comer en exceso

  20. Clinical features and factors associated with outcomes of patients infected with a Novel Influenza A (H7N9 virus: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyze clinical features and factors associated with treatment outcomes of H7N9 influenza A virus infection. METHODS: The clinical progress in 18 H7N9-infected patients was monitored and recorded. The clinical features of H7N9 infection were noted and factors associated with treatment outcomes were analyzed by univariate analyses. RESULTS: The average ages of patients in recovered and critical conditions were 67.0±10.83 years and 72.75±12.0 years, respectively. Renal insufficiency developed more frequently in critically ill patients (P = 0.023. The duration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM therapy was longer in recovered patients than in critically ill patients (P = 0.01. Laboratory tests showed that levels of C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and myoglobin were significantly higher in critically ill patients than in recovered patients (P = 0.011, 0.04, and 0.016, respectively. Meanwhile, levels of all T cell subsets examined including total CD3(+, CD4(+, CD8(+, and CD45(+ T cells were lower in critically ill patients than in recovered patients (P = 0.033, 0.059, 0.015, and 0.039, respectively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that C-reactive protein level, myoglobin level and TCM therapy duration were likely associated with treatment outcomes of H7N9 infection (P = 0.032, 0.041 and 0.017, respectively. CONCLUSION: Elderly people may have increased risk for H7N9 virus infection. T cell-mediated responses play an important role in defense against the H7N9 virus. C-reactive protein level, myoglobin level and TCM duration may be associated with treatment outcomes of H7N9 infection.

  1. Preliminary study of factors affecting the superovulatory response of high producing dairy cows superstimulated regardless of the stage of estrous cycle in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted as a first time commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows using multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET technology in Egypt. We studied factors affecting the superovulatory response (SR in superovulated cows and effects of propylene glycol (PG on embryo quality. Daily milk production at flushing had significantly negative effects on SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. In addition, Brown Swiss cows had better SR than Holstein cows. Moreover, cows having more than 3 parities yielded better response, compared to cows in the first three parities. However, factors such as body weight at flushing, body condition score (BCS at flushing and days in milk (DIM at flushing did not have any association with SR in cows. In addition, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR (Right CL number, P < 0.05; Left CL number, P < 0.05, total embryos per flush (P < 0.05, first grade embryos per flush (P < 0.01 and tended to improve transferable embryos (P = 0.13 and second grade embryos per flush (P = 0.11. However, it tended to increase the number of degenerated embryos per flush (0.06. In conclusion, commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows regardless of stage of estrous cycle by MOET proved successful under Egyptian conditions. Milk yield was negatively associated with SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. Moreover, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR and embryo yields.

  2. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Qiu; De-Hu Tian; Chang-Ling Han; Wei Chen; Zhan-Jian Wang; Zhen-Yun Mu; Kuan-Zhi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients.We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes.They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later.The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later.We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions.We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients.Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads.Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05).Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels.Hemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β =0.364, P =0.001) and maximum pressure (β =0.366, P =0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head.Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β =0.179, P =0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β =0.236, P =0.020).Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β =0.137, P =0.048).Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes.In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β =0.244, P =0.014), and calluses over the course of the study.Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI, SCV, and NSS

  3. Transarterial embolization combined with RNA interference targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study of rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jia-Yan; Xu, Lin-Feng; Wang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Qiao-Sheng; Sun, Hong-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ting

    2017-02-01

    To study whether transarterial embolization (TAE) with RNA interference (RNAi) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can improve efficacy of TAE in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CBRH-7919 rat hepatoma cell line was used and HCC models of rats were constructed. The siRNA transfection compound was made by mixing specific siRNA and Lipofectamine 2000™. Delivery and transfection of siRNA were administered by injecting iodized oil emulsion (diluted lipiodol and siRNA) via hepatic artery. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were detected using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays, respectively. In vitro experiment, the specific HIF-1α-siRNA was proved to inhibit expression levels of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effectively. In animal study, real-time RT-PCR assay showed the average relative mRNA expressions of HIF-1α were 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.03, 0.46 ± 0.005, and 1.00 ± 0.00 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Western blotting assay showed the average relative protein expressions of HIF-1α were 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.87 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 1.02 ± 0.01 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Compared with control, TAE, and siRNA groups, TAE + siRNA can significantly inhibit protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF (P HIF-1α < 0.001; P VEGF < 0.001). Overall survival of rats underwent TAE + siRNA was significantly longer than that of rats treated with TAE monotherapy (P = 0.001). This animal study showed TAE combined with HIF-1α-RNAi could significantly improve efficacy of TAE in treating HCC by inhibiting expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF after TAE treatment.

  4. Expression Patterns of OsPIL11, a Phytochrome-Interacting Factor in Rice, and Preliminary Analysis of Its Roles in Light Signal Transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; PENG Wei-feng; LIU Qian-qian; ZHOU Jin-jun; LIANG Wei-hong; XIE Xian-zhi

    2012-01-01

    The expression patterns of OsPlL11,one of six putative phytochrome-interacting factors,were analyzed in different organs of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).The expression of OsPIL 11 was organ-specific and was regulated by leaf development,abscisic acid (ABA),jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA).To further explore the role of OsPlL 11 in plant light signal transduction,a plant expression vector of OsPIL11 was constructed and introduced into tobacco.When grown under continuous red light,OsPIL11-overexpressed transgenic tobacco exhibited shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons and leaves compared to wild-type seedlings.When grown under continuous far-red light,however,transgenic and wild-type seedlings showed similar phenotypes.These results indicate that OsPIL11 is involved in red light induced de-etiolation,but not in far-red light induced de-etiolation in transgenic tobacco,which lays the foundation for dissecting the function of OsPIL 11 in phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in rice.

  5. A preliminary assessment of factors associated with recurrent disease in a surgical adjuvant clinical trial for patients with breast cancer with special emphasis on the aggressiveness of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, D L; O'Fallon, J R; Scanlon, P W; Payne, W S; Bisel, H F; Edmonson, J H; Frytak, S; Hahn, R G; Ingle, J N; Rubin, J; Creagan, E T

    1982-08-01

    Two hundred ninety-three patients were randomly assigned to three treatment regimens following mastectomy for operable but prognostically unfavorable breast cancer: L-PAM, CFP, or CFP with radiation therapy. For premenopausal patients an increased risk of recurrence was associated with the presence of unfavorable local signs, large number of lymph nodes involved, greater body weight, younger age, and L-PAM treatment. For the postmenopausal patients only three factors were associated with an increased risk of recurrent disease: large tumor size, large number of lymph nodes involved, and inner/central location of the primary lesion. Specifically, the treatment employed has shown no effect. Of particular importance is the fact that for neither group of patients does our experience presently demonstrate clear association of recurrent disease with the level of drug dose administered. Furthermore, evidence suggests that although patients who experience little or no myelosuppression have significantly worse disease-free intervals than patients who experience moderate or severe myelosuppression, here is no benefit for severe myelosuppression over moderate, myelosuppression.

  6. Expression and purification of a natural N-terminal pre-ligand assembly domain of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1 PLAD) and preliminary activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Meng, Fang; Gao, Xiangdong; Dong, Hongxia; Yao, Wenbing

    2011-04-01

    A domain at the NH(2) terminal (N-terminal) of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) termed the pre-ligand binding assembly domain (PLAD). The finding that PLAD can mediate a selective TNFR assembly in previously researches provides a novel target to the prevention of TNFR signaling in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). In this study, a natural N-terminal TNFR1 PLAD was obtained for the first time through the methods of GST-tag fusion protein expression and enterokinase cleavage. After purification with a Q Sepharose Fast Flow column, a natural N-terminal TNFR1 PLAD which purity was up to 95%, was obtained and was identified using Nano LC-ECI-MS/MS. Secondary structure analysis of PLAD was carried out using circular dichroism spectra (CD). After that, the TNFR1 PLAD in vitro anti-TNFα activity and the specific TNFR1 affinity were determined. The results proved that the natural N-terminal TNFR1 PLAD can selectively inhibit TNFα bioactivity mainly through TNFR1. It infers an effective and safe strategy for treating variety of IMID with a low risk of side effects in future.

  7. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Levada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs. In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer’s disease (MNCD-AD; 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD according to Frisoni et al. (2002 and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94% to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

  8. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levada, Oleg A; Cherednichenko, Nataliya V; Trailin, Andriy V; Troyan, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs). In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram) in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD); 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) according to Frisoni et al. (2002) and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94%) to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

  9. Effect of Nonviral Plasmid Delivered Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Condylar Growth: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is an important regulator of tissue growth. Previous studies have shown that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulates bone growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergetic effect of LIPUS and local injection of nonviral bFGF plasmid DNA (pDNA on mandibular growth in rats. Design. Groups were control, blank pDNA, bFGF pDNA, LIPUS, and bFGF pDNA + LIPUS. Treatments were performed for 28 days. Significant increase was observed in mandibular height and condylar length in LIPUS groups. MicroCT analysis showed significant increase in bone volume fraction in bFGF pDNA + LIPUS group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased cell count and condylar proliferative and hypertrophic layers widths in bFGF pDNA group. Results. Current study showed increased mandibular condylar growth in either bFGF pDNA or LIPUS groups compared to the combined group that showed only increased bone volume fraction. Conclusion. It appears that there is an additive effect of bFGF + LIPUS on the mandibular growth.

  10. Notch 1 Receptor, Delta 1 Ligand and HES 1 Transcription Factor are Expressed in the Lining Epithelium of Periapical Cysts (Preliminary Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliou, E; Kerezoudis, NP; Tosios, KI; Kiaris, H

    2010-01-01

    Periapical cyst is a chronic inflammatory disorder of periradicular tissues. The precise pathological mechanisms involved in periapical cyst enlargement remain unclear. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway with a regulatory role in cell fate decisions during development and in carcinogenesis. To date, there are no published data available on the expression of Notch signaling components in periapical cysts or any other jaw cyst. In this immunohistochemical study we have examined the expression of the receptor Notch 1, the ligand Delta 1 and the transcription factor HES 1 in the epithelium of well defined periapical cysts. Immunostaining reaction of Notch 1, Delta 1 and HES 1 was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane and occasionally in the nucleus in the majority of epithelial cells of all periapical cysts. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active in the epithelium of periapical cysts. It can be speculated that activation of epithelial cells of periapical cysts is associated with activation of Notch pathway and imply involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion. PMID:21116324

  11. Effects of apelin and vascular endothelial growth factor on central retinal vein occlusion in monkey eyes intravitreally injected with bevacizumab: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Lu, Qiang; Tao, Yong; Liang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the intraocular distribution of bevacizumab at four weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection and to investigate the effects of IVB on apelin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) of monkey eyes. Methods Direct laser coagulation was performed on all branch retinal veins in the right eyes of six Rhesus monkeys to establish a CRVO model. The eyes of the first three monkeys were enucleated one week, two weeks, and 24 weeks after the establishment of the CRVO model; this was the CRVO group. Subsequently, IVB was injected into the eyes of the last three monkeys one week, two weeks, and 24 weeks after laser coagulation; this was the IVB group. The left eye of the first monkey was used as normal control. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription PCR was used to examine the expression of apelin and VEGF. The penetration of bevacizumab into the retina and iris was investigated by fluorescence immunostaining. Results Immunoreactivity for bevacizumab could be detected in the vessel walls of the iris and choroid on day 28 after injecting IVB: apelin and VEGF staining had been more prominent than normal in the CRVO eye, but these decreased following IVB injection. Expression of apelin mRNA (pretinal neovascularization during the development of CRVO. PMID:21552499

  12. Preliminary Effects of Real-World Factors on the Recovery and Exploitation of Forensic Impurity Profiles of a Nerve-Agent Simulant from Office Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Sego, Landon H.; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Perez Acosta, Gabriel A.; Viglino, Emilie A.; Wahl, Jon H.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2012-12-28

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) was used as a chemical threat agent (CTA) simulant for a first look at the effects of real-world factors on the recovery and exploitation of a CTA’s impurity profile for source matching. Four stocks of DMMP having different impurity profiles were disseminated as aerosols onto cotton, painted wall board, and nylon coupons according to a thorough experimental design. The DMMP-exposed coupons were then solvent extracted and analyzed for DMMP impurities by comprehensive 2-D gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC×GC/MS). The similarities between the coupon DMMP impurity profiles and the known (reference) DMMP profiles were measured by dot products of the coupon profiles and known profiles and by score values obtained from principal component analysis. One stock, with a high impurity-profile selectivity value of 0.9 out of 1, had 100% of its respective coupons correctly classified and no false positives from other coupons. Coupons from the other three stocks with low selectivity values (0.0073, 0.012, and 0.018) could not be sufficiently distinguished from one another for reliable matching to their respective stocks. The results from this work support that: (1) extraction solvents, if not appropriately selected, can have some of the same impurities present in a CTA reducing a CTA’s useable impurity profile, (2) low selectivity among a CTA’s known impurity profiles will likely make definitive source matching impossible in some real-world conditions, (3) no detrimental chemical-matrix interference was encountered during the analysis of actual office media, (4) a short elapsed time between release and sample storage is advantageous for the recovery of the impurity profile because it minimizes volatilization of forensic impurities, and (5) forensic impurity profiles weighted towards higher volatility impurities are more likely to be altered by volatilization following CTA exposure.

  13. Development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure satisfaction with home care in Greece: an exploratory factor analysis of polychoric correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakas Dimitris

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a

  14. Analysis of Circulating Endostatin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Pituitary Adenoma Treated by Stereotactic Radiosurgery: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Park, Seong-Hyun; Park, Ki-Su; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in normal subjects and in patients with pituitary adenoma and to evaluate change in these levels following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for pituitary adenoma. Peripheral venous blood was collected from five patients with pituitary adenoma before SRS using Gamma Knife and at the 1 week and 1 month follow-up visits. Plasma endostatin and VEGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers as controls. Mean baseline plasma endostatin level (105.3 ng/mL, range, 97.0-120.2 ng/mL) in patients with pituitary adenoma was higher than that of the healthy controls (86.6 ng/mL, range, 71.3-98.2 ng/mL) (p=0.001). Mean plasma VEGF level was 89.5 pg/mL (range, 24.1-171.8 pg/mL) in patients with pituitary adenoma at baseline and 29.3 pg/mL (range, 9.2-64.3 pg/mL) in the control group (p=0.050). Plasma endostatin level changed to 106.6 ng/mL 1 week after SRS and decreased to 95.9 ng/mL after 1 month. Plasma VEGF level following SRS decreased to 74.1 pg/mL after 1 week and 79.0 pg/mL after 1 month. There was a trend toward decreased plasma endostatin and VEGF concentrations 1 month after SRS compared to baseline levels (p=0.195, p=0.812, respectively). Plasma endostatin and VEGF levels in patients with pituitary adenoma were significantly elevated over controls at baseline, which decreased from baseline to 1 month after SRS for pituitary adenomas.

  15. 半导体工业废水污染特征因子初探%Preliminary Research of Characteristic Pollution Factor of Semiconductor Industry Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云

    2014-01-01

    指出了集成电路和印制电路板是半导体工业的主要组成部分,而在生产过程中会大量使用氢氟酸,使得虽经过处理后的生产废水中氟离子浓度仍较高,达到7 mg/L左右;通过将半导体企业排放废水与生活污水、地下水及地表水中氟离子浓度进行比较,提出了以氟离子浓度作为半导体工业废水的污染特征因子,并结合不同雨污混接类型污染特征因子,依据物料和水量守恒得出不同混接类型的近似混接水量比例计算公式,以期为后续的雨污混接溯源和雨污改造工程提供借鉴。%Integrated circuits and printed circuit boards are major components of the semiconductor industry ,and a great deal of hydrofluoric acid is used in the production process ,so that the fluorine ion concentration reaches 7 mg/L or so which is high in the production wastewater though it has been treated .Based on the comparison of the fluorine ion concentration of sewage discharge ,groundwater and surface water in the semiconductor industry ,this article takes the fluorine ion concentration as the pollution factor of production wastewater of the semiconductor industry ,and by combining with other tracer parameters of different types of non -stormwater entries into storm drainage systems ,it draws the formulas of illicit discharged water quantity according to the materials and quantity conservation ,which can describe the mixed ratios of different types of illegal discharge sources .The result will be much useful for the subsequent work of determing what types of mixed discharge sources and so does the renovation project .

  16. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  17. 40 CFR 1042.210 - Preliminary approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specific provisions that apply for deterioration factors. Decisions made under this section are considered... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary approval. 1042.210 Section 1042.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION...

  18. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  19. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  20. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  1. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  2. 围绝经期女性元认知相关因素的初步研究%A preliminary study on relevant factors of the metacognition of perimenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相兰; 魏钦令; 李冠英; 韩自力; 张晋碚; 李凌江

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步探索围绝经期女性元认知的相关因素。方法纳入2012年10月至2013年6月广告招募的围绝经期女性志愿者66名,以元认知问卷30项版(metacognition questionnaire,MCQ-30)评估被试认知自信(F1)、积极信念(F2)、认知自我意识(F3)、失控与危险(F4)和控制思想的需要(F5)等5个维度的元认知水平,以艾森克人格问卷(Eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)评估被试内外倾向性(E)、神经质(N)、精神质(P)和掩饰性(L)等个性心理特征,以Zung抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)评估被试核心、认知、焦虑和躯体症状等抑郁症状。分析MCQ各因子与人口学资料、EPQ和SDS间的关系。结果 F1和受教育年限(β’=-0.229,P=0.035)、N分(β’=0.255,P=0.042)及L分(β’=-0.292,P=0.021)相关联;F2与受教育年限(β’=-0.260,P=0.031)、N分(β’=0.248,P=0.039)相关联;F3与SDS核心症状(β’=-0.251,P=0.037)及焦虑症状(β’=-0.248,P=0.039)相关联;F4与体质量指数(β’=0.211,P=0.048)、L分(β=0.511,P<0.001)相关联;F5与P分(β’=0.299,P=0.015)相关联。结论围绝经期女性元认知水平受其个性特征、受教育年限等多种因素影响,对认知过程的自我意识水平较低、自信心较差可能与其抑郁易感性有关。%Objective This preliminary study aimed to investigate relevant factors of the metacognition of peri⁃menopausal women. Methods Total 66 perimenopausal women voluntarily participated in this study from October 2012 to July 2013. The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30-item version (MCQ-30) was used to assess metacognition from 5 di⁃mensions including cognitive confidence (F1), positive beliefs (F2), cognitive self-consciousness (F3), uncontrollability and danger (F4), and need to control thoughts (F5). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was utilized

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  5. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  6. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  7. 商標侵權案件定暫時狀態處分審酌因素之釋明──以eBay案後美國法發展與我國判決實務為中心 The Preliminary Showing on the Factors of Preliminary Injunction in Trademark Infringement Cases─Focusing on American Law after the eBay Case and Taiwan Court Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    范智達 Jr-Da Fan

    2015-12-01

    要求原告花費額外資源去釋明本案勝訴可能性以外之其他因素事實。 In eBay v. MercExchange (2006, the U.S. Supreme Court held that courts must apply the traditional four-factor test for injunctive relief in every case. These “principles of equity” required courts to employ the traditional four-factor test under which the plaintiff must demonstrate (1 a likelihood of success of the merits; (2 the existence of irreparable harm; (3 that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief; and (4 that granting an injunction would not harm the public interest. But when assessing whether a particular instance of trademark infringement resulted in “irreparable harm” U.S. federal courts almost uniformly presumed such irreparable harm upon a finding of likelihood of confusion. In fact, the eBay rules should not be used to eviscerate the normal presumption of irreparable harm that attaches upon a showing of liability in trademark cases. In our country when granting or denying preliminary injunction of trademark infringement cases, the plaintiff often provides a preliminary showing with regard to the existence of legal relation and trademark infringement documentary evidence, not actively providing the existence of irreparable harm, that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief and that an injunction is in the public interest. The court reviewing an application for preliminary injunction deliberates on the likelihood of success on the merits as the most important consideration. Compared with patent and copyright cases of the discretion of the preliminary injunction, the court mainly deliberates on the likelihood of success and the existence of irreparable harm as the most important factor. It is clear intellectual property cases, especially trademark cases on the set of preliminary injunction claim, do not require the plaintiff to take the burden of all factors of trial discretion in Taiwan. Because these harms to

  8. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  9. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  10. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2017-01-01

    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  11. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  12. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  13. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  14. Morning and Night People in the Family: A Preliminary Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bert N.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary statement about morning and night people. The authors collected and analyzed married student responses to open-ended questions concerning "morningness" and "nightness" as factors influencing individual, marital, and family adjustment. This issue has both theoretical and practical significance for marriage and the…

  15. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  16. A Preliminary Study on Hemolytic Activity of the Complement B Factor ofApostichopusjaponicusin vivo%仿刺参补体B因子溶血活性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟磊; 张峰; 毕颖

    2011-01-01

    本文应用高等哺乳动物血清补体B因子溶血检测技术检测仿刺参个体体内补体B因子。通过溶血法检测了健康仿刺参以及人工诱导化皮仿刺参体腔液补体B因子活性。结果显示仿刺参体腔液有补体B因子存在,且含补体B因子仿刺参体腔液溶血活性明显高于去补体B因子体腔液的溶血活性。实验对仿刺参体腔液进行加热处理结果显示其补体B因子是对热不稳定的分子,此特性与高等哺乳动物B因子特征相同。仿刺参体内存在补体B因子,它与脊椎动物补体B因子性质相似,在免疫旁路途径中起重要作用。%In this paper, the method of mammals hemolytic serum for complement factor B test was used to detect the complement B factor of Apostichopus japonicusin vivo. The complement factor B activity in celomocytes fluid of health and skin ulcers of Apostichopus japonicus was detected. The results showed that the sea cucumber body fluid with the existence of complement factor B, containing the sea cucumber complement factor B hemolytic activity of body fluid was higher than that and to complement factor B hemolytic activity of body fluid. Experiments on sea cucumber body fluid to heat treatment showed that its complement factor B is the thermal instability of the molecule, this characteristic and higher mammals, B factor are identical. Complement B factors exists in sea cucumber body, and it play an important role in alternative pathway of complement, similar as vertebrate Complement B factor.

  17. Development and preliminary validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrie-Barrus, Patricia; Averill, Lynnette A; Sudweeks, Richard R; Averill, Christopher L; Mota, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.

  18. Development and preliminary validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henrie-Barrus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.

  19. Lockheed Martin T-Rex: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    T-Rex is a robot which may be used in toxic or flammable environments. The assessment of the T-Rex conducted at the Lockheed Martin facility was limited in its scope. The scope of the assessment was directed by the type of equipment being used and the amount of accessibility to the equipment. Due to severe time constraints--the assessment was conducted in one day--human factors interface activities were limited. This should be considered a preliminary assessment. This report covers aspects of the technology that were available to the assessment team. Recommendations for future evaluation of this technology are also included. The contents are as follows: Electrical Considerations; General Electrical Consideration; Trailing Cables; Grounding; Surface High Voltage Distribution; Low and Medium Voltage Alternating Current Circuits; Potential for Harmful Human Factor Incidents and Enterprise Disablement; Exclusion Zone Emergency Maintenance; and Recommendations.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of AHP IX-bp, a zinc ion and pH-dependent coagulation factor IX binding protein from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianye; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2003-04-01

    A new coagulation factor IX binding protein, AHP IX-bp, has been purified from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom and estimated to be an AB heterodimer of about 25 kDa consisting of two chains (an A chain of 15.5 kDa and a B chain of 15 kDa) linked by one or more disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of AHP IX-bp has been determined and aligned with C-type lectin-like proteins. The protein has a high sequence similarity to some snake-venom C-type lectin-like proteins. AHP IX-bp binds to coagulation factor IX but not to coagulation factor X. Moreover, AHP IX-bp shows binding to coagulation factor IX in both zinc ion-dependent and pH-dependent manners. The affinity between AHP IX-bp and coagulation factor IX is higher under neutral or weakly alkaline conditions than under weakly acidic conditions. Single crystals of AHP IX-bp grown at pH 6.5 and 7.5 diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. Both crystals are isomorphous and belong to the space group P1; only one AB heterodimer is present in the unit cell.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  2. Prevalência de perda auditiva e fatores associados na população idosa de Londrina, Paraná: estudo preliminar Prevalence of hearing loss and associated factors in elderly population in Londrina, Paraná: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Meneses

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência de Perda Auditiva (PA, identificando os fatores associados em pacientes idosos de Londrina - PR. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado em amostra populacional de 61 indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, em 2009, através de anamnese e avaliação audiológica. Aplicou-se o teste do Qui-quadrado e o do Risco Relativo com 95% de confiança e valor de pPURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss (HL, identifying the factors associated with elderly patients in the city of Londrina - PR. METHODS: cross-sectional study in a population sample with 61 individuals aged over 60 years in Londrina-Pr, 2009, through anamnesis and audiological evaluation. We used the chi-square of relative risk with 95% confidence and p-value <0.05 for univariate analysis between HL and associated factors. RESULTS: the whole sample 87.70% had some type of hearing loss or lowering of frequencies. Out of these individuals with HL, the type of HL with greater prevalence in this age group was sensorineural HL, with 63.93% of occurrence. Out of the sample of hypertensive patients, 88.88% had HL, which is an increase of 8 chances to make the hypertensive population to have HL. From the sample of diabetics, 90% had HL, an increase of 9 chances to cause the diabetic population to show HL. Consumers of alcohol, 92.30% had HL. Thus, consumers of alcohol had 12 more chances to get HL. However, from the sample of smokers, former smokers or passive smokers with daily contact with smokers, from these individuals, 87.09% had HL, thus, an increase of 9 chances to have HL. CONCLUSION: the study showed that people over 60 years shows mainly sensory neural HL, and it is a progressive loss and its proportion increased with aging. Risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and smoking are factors that can predispose to HL, especially when associated with presbycusis.

  3. The preliminary case-control study of risk factors of congenital heart disease%先天性心脏病危险因素的病例对照初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦孜; 张国成; 苏海砾; 李军; 许东亮; 杨晓蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of congenital heart disease ( CHD) in xi'an area, and provide the reference for CHD scientific prevention and the study of etiology . Methods We adopted the method of questionnaire survey for the pregnant women antenatal examinationed in Xijing hospital , and filled in the questionnaire of CHD risk factors . We analyzed the risk factors of CHD by applicating X test > the single factor and multiple factors logistic regression analysis . The statistical analysis software was SPSS 13. 0 packages. Results (1 )The result of X test and single factor logistic regression showed that contacting rays during first trimester of pregnancy ( OR = 10. 482 ) , keeping pets ( OR = 8. 668 ) and drinking (OR =6, 326 ) during first trimester of pregnancy ,finding pregnancy was late ( > 13 W, OR = 11. 158 ) , serious throwing up during first trimester of pregnancy ( OR = 2. 369) , having a cold and a fever in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy(OR = 6. 334) , distance from apartment to recent traffic trunk during first trimester of pregnancy 10 ( OR - 3. 628 ) were the risk factors of CHD ; taking composite vitamin ( OR = 0. 535 ) and folic acid ( OR = 0. 519 ) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy , often eat egg, meat, fish and aquatic product ( OR = 0. 033 ) and drink milk and eat bean products ( OR = 0. 045 ) during pregnancy can reduce the risk of perinatal CHD . (2) The result of multi -factor and unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that contacting rays ( OR = 11. 180 ) , drinking ( OR = 7. 296) , distance from apartment to recent traffic trunk < 50 m ( OR = 3. 969 ) or between 50 m and 100 m ( OR = 7. 975 ) , polluting enterprises nearby residence or units ( OR = 8. 436) during first trimester of pregnancy were the major risk factors of CHD. Often eating eggs , meat, fish and aquatic products and drinking milk and eating bean products during pregnancy can reduce the risk of perinatal CHD . Conclusions Contacting rays, drinking and

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of coagulation factor IX-binding protein from habu snake venom at pH 6.5 and 4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Shikamoto, Yasuo; Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: mizuno@affrc.go.jp [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of habu coagulation factor IX-binding protein have been obtained at pH 6.5 and 4.6 and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Coagulation factor IX-binding protein isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (IX-bp) is a C-type lectin-like protein. It is an anticoagulant protein consisting of homologous subunits A and B. The subunits both contain a Ca{sup 2+}-binding site with differing affinity (K{sub d} values of 14 and 130 µM at pH 7.5). These binding characteristics are pH-dependent; under acidic conditions, the affinity of the low-affinity site was reduced considerably. In order to identify which site has high affinity and also to investigate the Ca{sup 2+}-releasing mechanism, IX-bp was crystallized at pH 6.5 and 4.6. The crystals at pH 6.5 and 4.6 diffracted to 1.72 and 2.29 Å resolution, respectively; the former crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 63.5, c = 66.9 Å, β = 117.0°, while the latter belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with a = 134.1, b = 37.8, c = 55.8 Å, β = 110.4°.

  5. A preliminary study on the effect of agro-meteorological factors on molecular mechanism of rice blast occurrence%农业气象因素影响稻瘟病发生分子机制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天华; 白姣姣; 吕东平

    2016-01-01

    Rice is an important food crop in China. Rice blast, a disease caused by ascomycetes (Magnaporthe oryzae), is one of most limiting factors of rice production in the country, which results in huge economic losses to the rice production each year. With the completion of whole genome sequencing of rice and M. oryzae, the interaction mechanism of rice and M. oryzae has become much clearer. Resistance to rice blast fungus can effectively prevent the invasion of pathogenic bacteria through the natural immune system of rice. Also pathogens can cause diseases in susceptible rice varieties by inhibiting innate immune system of rice. Outbreaks of rice blast and popular occur under three necessary conditions — susceptible rice variety, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic meteorological factors. Thus the meteorological factors for the outbreak and epidemics of rice blast play an important role. Based on research achievements in recent years, this paper summarized the interaction mechanism of rice and M. oryzae from the pointing of pathogenic process of M. oryzae and rice resistance, discussed the effects of temperature, illumination, humidity and other meteorological factors on the pathogenesis of M. oryzae and disease resistance of rice. The paper further explored the molecular mechanism of invasion of rice blast epidemic caused by the factors, expecting to find the best ways for preventing and controlling rice blast. Finally, the paper provided theoretical evidences in support of proper prevention and treatment methods of rice blast.%水稻是我国重要的粮食作物,由子囊菌(Magnaporthe oryzae)所引起的稻瘟病是水稻生产活动中的重要限制因子之一,每年给水稻生产造成巨大的经济损失。随着水稻及稻瘟菌全基因组测序工作的完成,水稻和稻瘟菌间的互作机制已日渐明朗。水稻对稻瘟菌的抗性主要来自于自身体内天然免疫机制对病原菌入侵的有效阻止,同时病原菌能够通过

  6. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  7. Preliminary Design of a Femtosecond Oscilloscope

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, Edmond D; Kalantaryan, Davit K; Laziev, Edouard; Margaryan, Amour

    2005-01-01

    The calculations on motion of electrons in a finite length electromagnetic field of linearly and circularly polarized laser beams have shown that one can use the transversal deflection of electrons on a screen at a certain distance after the interaction region for the measurement of the length and longitudinal particle distribution of femtosecond bunches. In this work the construction and preliminary parameters of various parts of a device that may be called femtosecond oscilloscope are considered. The influence of various factors, such as the energy spread and size of the electron bunches, are taken into account. For CO2 laser intensity 1016 W/cm2 and field free drift length 1m the deflection is 5.3 and 0.06 cm, while the few centimeters long interaction length between 2 mirrors requires assembling accuracy 6 mm and 1.3 micron for 20 MeV to 50 keV, respectively.

  8. Preliminary Exploration of Macro-affecting Factors On Peasant-workers'Income Changes (1986-2010)%农民工工资变化的宏观影响因素(1986~2010年)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺霞旭

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-affecting factors of peasant-workers'income and reveals that the wage advantage of low-level managers and the workers in large enterprises diminished over time; while the rising of consumption level of urban residents and the average education of peasant -workers has signif-icant positive impacts on workers'incomes.However, the two variables reduce the income return of the management employers, who worked in private, foreign or joint ventures, or large companies.And the two variables narrow the wage differences of the migrant workers .This paper argues that individual-level factors are relatively stable in the study of peasant-workers.In order to fully understand the income chan-ges of peasant-workers, we should pay more attention to the role of macro-level explanatory variables in the future.%  分析了影响农民工工资变化的宏观因素,发现中低层管理人员与规模较大企业的工资优势随时间段靠近而减弱,城镇居民消费水平逐年增加与农民工平均受教育水平的逐年缓慢增加,均对农民工的收入产生显著正向影响,同时,却降低了管理人员、在私企、外资或合资企业、规模越大的企业工作的农民工的收入回报,缩小了农民工群体内部的工资差异。认为对农民工工资的研究中,个体层次的影响因素均比较稳定,为了更全面地理解农民工工资的变化,将来的研究应该更加关注宏观层次解释变量的作用。

  9. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  10. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2016-12-02

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR's therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  11. Preliminary Study on Meteorological Factors' Influences on the Pomegranate' s Fruit Cracking%气象因子对石榴裂果影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡园春

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate' s fruit cracking becomes one of the primary problems that affect the pomegranate' s quality and yield. Through the experimental research, it was found that the pomegranate' s fruit cracking is closely related with climatic conditions. Main meteorological factors related with the pomegranate' s fruit cracking were also identified. Therefore, the weather forecast can be organically combined with the pomegranate' s production and cultivation. Through comprehensive and matched measures like covering tree' s basal disc with grass, fruit bagging and reasonable pruning, losses of the pomegranate' s fruit cracking can be reduced to the minimum level and the pomegranate's quality can be improved.%石榴裂果成为影响石榴品质、产量的主要问题之一.经过试验研究,发现石榴裂果与气候条件有密切关系,并找出石榴裂果与气象因子有关的主要因素,利用天气预报与石榴生产栽培有机的结合起来,通过采用树盘覆草、果实套袋、合理修剪等综合配套措施,使石榴裂果损失降到最低程度,提高石榴质量.

  12. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  13. The preliminary study on the effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I on κ-casein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M Z; Ji, Y; Wang, C; Chen, L M; Wang, H R; Loor, J J

    2016-04-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on protein synthesis and gene expression of κ-casein in bovine mammary epithelial cell in vitro were studied. The treatments were designed as follows: the growth medium without serum was set as the control group, while the treatments were medium supplemented with GH (100 ng/ml), IGF-I (100 ng/ml), and GH (100 ng/ml) + IGF-I (100 ng/ml). The quantity of κ-casein protein was measured by ELISA, and the κ-casein gene (CSN3) expression was examined by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Compared with the control group, all the experimental groups had greater (p  0.05). Furthermore, no synergistic effect of GH and IGF-I was observed for both the κ-casein concentration and CSN3 expression. It is therefore concluded that GH or IGF-I can independently promote the expression of CSN3 in bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.

  14. 高龄髋部骨折患者术后谵妄因素初步探讨%Preliminary discussion of postoperative delirium factors of elderly patients with hip fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允彦; 马险峰; 李明福; 王海陆; 李静; 田宝方; 钱瑞华

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析不同手术方式对高龄髋部骨折患者术后谵妄的影响,总结相关影响因素。方法:2007年8月-2010年8月收治高龄髋部骨折患者130例,根据手术方式的不同,分为两组。结果:B组术后的谵妄发生率显著低于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组首次及末次的DRS评分均显著高于B组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组的谵妄持续时间明显比A组更短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组的低氧血症发生例数明显比B组更多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组在睡眠时间减少及疼痛评分方面,均显著优于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组术前血压异常、电解质紊乱改善情况明显优于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);另A1组和A2组、B1组和B2组之间谵妄发生情况对比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:高龄髋部骨折患者受心理因素、手术打击、睡眠紊乱、药物、年龄、血压、电解质紊乱等因素影响,但不受术前麻醉方式影响,对于高龄髋部骨折患者行髋关节置换术治疗,其发生谵妄的概率比行内固定术者更高,临床上应当对髋关节置换术后谵妄的发生引起充分的重视。%Objective:To analyze the influence of different operation ways on the postoperative delirium of elderly patients with hip fracture.Methods:130 elderly patients with hip fracture were selected from August 2007 to August 2010.They were divided into two groups according to the different operation ways.Results:The postoperative delirium incidence rate of patients in B groups was significantly lower than that of A group;the difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:The elderly patients with hip fracture are influenced by some factors,such as psychological factors,surgical strike,sleep disorders,drug,age, blood pressure,electrolyte disorder and so on,but it is not influenced by anesthesia method

  15. 恶性疟相关性心肌炎易患因素初步探讨%Preliminary study on the risk factors of myocarditis associated with falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红星; Julian Obiang Ngue

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of myocarditis associated with falciparum malaria. Methods From September 2008 to June 2009, at Regional Hospital of Bata in the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, all falciparum malaria patients were enrolled for a pair-matched case-contrel study to investigate if obesity and smok-ing could be considered as significant risks for the development of falciparum malaria-related myocarditis. Among them, forty-four pairs of patients with and without malaria-related myocarditis (patients without myocarditis as con-trois) were matched by gender, age (±3 years) and race. Data were analyzed with conditioned logistic regression. Results Obesity was significantly associated with the development of falciparum malaria-related myocarditis (P =0. 0271, OR = 3.5,95% CI 1.152-10.633). Conclusion Obesity might be considered as the risk factor for the de-velopment of falciparum malaria-related myocarditis. Early prevention and treatment should be taken. Anti-malaria drugs showing cardiovascular side effects should be used with caution in obese patients.%目的 探讨恶性疟相关性心肌炎的易患因素.方法 对赤道几内亚共和国巴塔地区2008年9月至2009年6月所有诊治的恶性疟患者病例资料进行病例-对照研究,并发恶性疟相关性心肌炎者作为并发心肌炎组,未并发心肌炎者作为对照组,按年龄、性别及种族以1:1相互配对(配对者年龄差≤3),调查分析肥胖与吸烟是否为恶性疟相关性心肌炎的易患因素.对所得数据用统计软件SAS9.1.3进行条件Logistic回归分析.结果 肥胖者患恶性疟时并发恶性疟相关性心肌炎的危险性比非肥胖者大(P=0.0271,比数比=3.5,95%可信区间1.152~10.633).吸烟者未被入选回归模型.结论 患恶性疟的肥胖患者易并发恶性疟相关性心肌炎,应及早采取干预性防治措施并慎用有心血管系统不良反应的抗疟药物.吸烟者与不吸烟者在患恶性疟时并发

  16. Preliminary analysis the factors of root resorption after orthodontic treatment%正畸治疗中牙根吸收影响因素的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 郭丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究正畸治行中牙根吸收的影响因素.方法:随机选择临床上经过正畸治疗且有治疗前后清晰可辨的牙科锥形束CT(cone beam computed tomography,CBCT)的163例患者.通过测量年龄、性别,减数与否、部位,以及牙齿移动方式对于正畸治疗后平均根吸收值(root resorption after treatment,RRAT)的影响,并进行统计学分析,探讨正畸治疗中造成牙根吸收的影响因素.结果:①成人组RRAT均值为0.45,儿重组为0.33,差异有高度显著性(P<0.05);②男性组RRAT均值为0.36,女性组为0.37,差异无显著性;③拔牙组RRAT均值为0.55,未拔牙组为0.39,差异有高度显著性(P<0.05);④前牙RRAT均值为0.54,后牙为0.29,差异有高度显著性,⑤上牙RRAT均值为0.39,下牙为0.40,差异无显著性,⑥牙齿整体移动RRAT均值为0.32,非整体移动为0.46,差异有高度显著性.结论:年龄、减数与否、部位、牙齿移动方式对于正畸治疗后牙根吸收的均有影响.%Objective To investigate the factors relating to root resorption after orthodontic treatment. Methods In this study,163 cases treated with fixed appliance were selected randomly.The relationship between root resorption after treatment (RRAT) and the variables including age, sex, extraction or nonextraction approach, tooth location, tooth movement patterns were analyzed by 2-Independent-Sample T test analysis. Results 1.There were statistically significant differences in root resorption in relation to age (estimate of RRAT for adults group: 0.45, that for children group: 0.33), extraction (estimate of RRAT for the extraction group:0.55, that for non -extraction: 0.39), anterior or posterior teeth (estimate of RRAT for the anterior teeth: 0,54, that for the posterior teeth: 0.29), tooth movement patterns (estimate of RRAT for the bodily movement: 0.32, that for the nonbodily movement: 0.46). 2.There were no statistically significant differences in root resorption in relation

  17. 影响西藏南美藜粒重因素的初步研究%A preliminary study on influencing factors of quinoa thousand-grain weight in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玛群宗; 贡布扎西

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies Tibetan quinoa , particularly the thousand-grain weight quinoa gathered from Tibet Shigatse Mulin County Emma Heung Pilot land in the past two years .The results show that:1 ) the Tibetan quinoa thousand-grain weight is not related to its color , the plant height , the ear height , the stem height , the ear number , the grain weight , but related to valid branch height;2 ) the mature time makes up the biggest factor for the size and weight of quinoa , with the proportion of big grains being larger in premature qui-noa than in mid-mature or late-mature one;3 ) harvest time also constitutes a big factor affecting the weight of thousand-grain quinoa in that the proportion of big grains of quinoa gathered in September , 2012 is larger than that gathered in 2011 , and the proportion of small grains of quinoa gathered in September 2012 is smaller than that gathered in 2011 , and lots of extremely small grains are found in quinoa gathered in 2011 .%研究了西藏南美藜,特别是通过对近两年在西藏日喀则南木林县艾玛乡试验示范地中采集来的西藏南美藜籽粒千粒重的研究与鉴定发现:(1)西藏南美藜千粒重跟它自身的颜色、株高、穗高、穗数、秆径高、整株重、籽粒重无关,与有效分枝高度有关;(2)西藏早熟南美藜大型籽粒占的比例多于西藏中、晚熟南美藜,西藏早熟南美藜小型籽粒占的比例少于西藏中、晚熟南美藜,即籽粒的早熟或中、晚熟是影响籽粒千粒重的因素;(3)2012年9月采集的西藏南美藜大型籽粒占的比例多于2011年采集的,2012年9月采集的西藏南美藜小型籽粒占的比例少于2011年采集的,2011年采集的西藏南美藜还出现了比例不小的极小型籽粒,即籽粒收获的年限是影响籽粒千粒重的因素。

  18. 精神科急诊患者攻击行为危险因素的初步研究%Preliminary study about risk factors of aggressive behaviors in psychiatric emergency patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 李小强; 尹利; 陈媛; 田腾飞; 郑伟; 潘轶竹; 马征; 朱辉; 李广泽; 付彤; 李颖; 及晓; 李京渊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore risk factors of aggressive behaviors in psychiatric emergency patients.Methods 1 325 psychiatric emergency patients except those returning for getting medication were assessed with general information questionnaire, Attack Risk Assessment Scale (ARAS),Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Patients were divided into non-aggressive group (scores of ARAS range between levelⅠand Ⅱ)and aggressive group (scores of ARAS range between level Ⅲ and Ⅳ),and the differences between the two groups were explored.Results There were many significant differences between the two groups,including gender,marital status,profession,in-service or not,family income, visiting season,trigger,visiting objective,clinical diagnosis,medication,administration route (muscular injection or oral taking),disposition after emergency treatment (hospitalization,stay observation or returning home),education background and total scores of BPRS and YMRS (P <0.05).Conclusion Risk factors of aggressive behaviors in psychiatric emergency patients consist of male,divorced,unemployed,low income,low education level,diagnosed with hallucination/delusion state or mania state,etc.%目的:对精神科急诊患者攻击风险行为的发病相关因素进行初步调查研究。方法1325例精神科急诊非取药患者接受一般情况调查、攻击风险评估表(ARAS)、简明精神评定量表(BPRS)、YOUNG 氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)评估。根据 ARAS 评分分为非攻击组(评分Ⅰ~Ⅱ级)和攻击组(评分为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级),比较两组之间的差异。结果攻击组与非攻击组比较有多个因素差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),包括:性别、婚姻状况、职业、是否在职或在读、家庭收入、就诊季节、发病诱因、来诊目的、临床诊断、用药、给药途径(肌肉给药、口服给药)、急诊后去向(住院、留观、回家)

  19. 166例面部皮炎患者临床及致病因素分析%Preliminary analysis of the clinical features and etiological factors of facial dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲燕; 孟现广; 杨秀莉

    2016-01-01

    对166例面部皮炎患者进行问卷调查,部分患者行皮肤斑贴试验与点刺试验。其中,女性(138例)多于男性(28例),年龄2~89岁,平均(30±12)岁;春季发病率为3.85%,高于夏季(0.56%)、秋季(0.84%)和冬季(3.33%);接触性皮炎与激素依赖性皮炎是面部皮炎最常见的类型,分别占30.7%和21.1%;皮肤斑贴试验和点刺试验的阳性率分别为69.05%、72.22%,是寻找致敏原的有效方法。%Questionnaire survey of clinical features and the etiological factors was performed in 166 pa-tients with facial dermatitis (FD). 130 patients were female, and 28 patients were male. The patients aged from 2 to 89 years old and the average age was ( 30 ± 12) years old. The incidence rate in the spring was 3.85%, which was higher than that in summer ( 0. 56%) , autumn ( 0. 84%) and winter ( 3. 33%) . Contact dermatitis (30.7%) and hormone dependent dermatitis (21.1%) were common types. Positive rates of PT and SPT were 69.05% and 72.22%, which were effective methods to find the allergens.

  20. A Preliminary Analysis about Factors Affecting Teachers’ Working Enthusiasm in Higher Vocational Schools%浅析高职院校中影响教师工作积极性的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳; 焦洋; 李蕾; 吴渤

    2015-01-01

    The higher vocational education is a part of our higher education .However ,for a long time ,there are always people who think that higher vocational education is inferior or compare it to the inferior education .In the competition of employment and social environment ,the support and recogni‐tion of the graduates of vocational colleges is not high enough ,so most of the vocational college teachers does not feel proud of their own career .When teachers cannot agree with their professions ,there is no way for them to contribute themselves to their own work .This paper tries to analyze the problems to find some factors which affects the enthusiasm of higher vocational teaching .%高职教育是我国高等教育中的一个组成部分。然而,长期以来总是有人认为高职教育低人一等,甚至将高职教育和次等教育划等号,在社会环境和就业竞争中,高职毕业生的支持度和认可度也并不高,这导致多数高职教师不为自己的职业感到自豪。当教师自身都不认可自己的职业时,更不可能有多么强的动力投身于本职工作。本文将对此问题进行一些分析,找出影响高职教师教学积极性的因素。

  1. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  2. Endothelial Expression of Endothelin Receptor A in the Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C Sek

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS is a rare and potentially fatal vascular disorder characterized by reversible bouts of hypotension and edema resulting from fluid and solute escape into soft tissues. Although spikes in permeability-inducing factors have been linked to acute SCLS flares, whether or not they act on an inherently dysfunctional endothelium is unknown. To assess the contribution of endothelial-intrinsic mechanisms in SCLS, we derived blood-outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC from patients and healthy controls and examined gene expression patterns. Ednra, encoding Endothelin receptor A (ETA-the target of Endothelin 1 (ET-1-was significantly increased in SCLS BOEC compared to healthy controls. Although vasoconstriction mediated by ET-1 through ETA activation on vascular smooth muscle cells has been well characterized, the expression and function of ETA receptors in endothelial cells (ECs has not been described. To determine the role of ETA and its ligand ET-1 in SCLS, if any, we examined ET-1 levels in SCLS sera and functional effects of endothelial ETA expression. ETA overexpression in EAhy926 endothelioma cells led to ET-1-induced hyper-permeability through canonical mechanisms. Serum ET-1 levels were elevated in acute SCLS sera compared to remission and healthy control sera, suggesting a possible role for ET-1 and ETA in SCLS pathogenesis. However, although ET-1 alone did not induce hyper-permeability of patient-derived BOEC, an SCLS-related mediator (CXCL10 increased Edrna quantities in BOEC, suggesting a link between SCLS and endothelial ETA expression. These results demonstrate that ET-1 triggers classical mechanisms of vascular barrier dysfunction in ECs through ETA. Further studies of the ET-1-ETA axis in SCLS and in more common plasma leakage syndromes including sepsis and filovirus infection would advance our understanding of vascular integrity mechanisms and potentially uncover new treatment strategies.

  3. Preliminary analysis for risk factors of upper urinary tract dysfunction associated with ketamine abuse%氯胺酮相关性上尿路功能损害危险因素的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清晖; 吴芃; 王强; 王俊鹏; 陈杨; 黄泽海; 郑少斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the risk factors of chronic ketamine-induced upper urinary tract dysfunction (KUUTD).Methods Medical records of 103 patients with ketamine-associated urinary dysfunction(KAUD) from Sep.2009 to Jul.2015 were retrospectively reviewed.All the patients were divided into the upper urinary tract dysfunction group(n =39)or the normal group(n =64)according to the diagnostic criteria.Indexes such as general features (age,gender,BMI),drug-abusing characteristics (abusing time,frequency,dose,abstinent period),duration of LUTS,pelvic pain and urgency/frequency symptom score(PUF score),serum parameters (WBC,ALT,AST,γ-GT),bladder diary (daytime inter-void interval,nocturia,average urine volume),urodynamic data (maximum cystometric capacity,post-void residual,maximum urethral closure pressure,maximum and average flow rate,instable contraction,bladder compliance) and imaging manifestations were compared between the two groups.Logistic regression analysis was performed for the evaluation of variables with statistical significance.Results There was significantly difference between the two groups in BMI (t =2.127,P =0.043),drug-abusing frequency (t =2.335,P =0.029),abstinent period (t =3.451,P =0.003),duration of LUTS (t =2.289,P =0.036),PUF score (t =3.030,P =0.004),γ-GT value(t =2.697,P =0.012),MCC(t =5.056,P < 0.001),MUCP(t =3.015,P =0.008),BC (t =8.562,P < 0.001) and imaging findings of bladder contracture (x2 =15.155,P <0.001).The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that drug-abusing frequency(OR =1.279,P =0.038),abstinent period(OR =0.394,P =0.028),γ-GT value (OR =1.007,P =0.032),MCC (OR =0.775,P =0.011)and BC (OR =0.013,P =0.008)were the key factors of KUUTD.Conclusion Consecutive and frequent drug abuse,combination with chronic obstructive cholangitis,reduced capacity and low compliance bladder are the risk factors of upper urinary tract dysfunction associated with ketamine abuse.%目的 探讨长期滥用氯胺酮导致上尿路

  4. Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGF-β1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothe, Dustin L. [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Coplowitz, Shana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Greenwood, Eleni [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor β -1 (TGF-β1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-β1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-β1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-β1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-β1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P≤0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P≤.001), 12 months (P≤.001), 18 months (P≤.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-β1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-β1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-β1 levels correlate with

  5. Sensitivity to Pain Traumatization Scale: development, validation, and preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joel; Fashler, Samantha R; Wicks, Claire; Pagé, M Gabrielle; Roosen, Kaley M; Kleiman, Valery; Clarke, Hance

    2017-01-01

    Background This article reports three studies describing the development and validation of the 12-item Sensitivity to Pain Traumatization Scale (SPTS-12). SPT refers to the anxiety-related cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to pain that resemble the features of a traumatic stress reaction. Methods In Study 1, a preliminary set of 79 items was administered to 116 participants. The data were analyzed by using combined nonparametric and parametric item response theory resulting in a 12-item scale with a one-factor structure and good preliminary psychometric properties. Studies 2 and 3 assessed the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPTS-12 in a community sample of 823 participants (268 with chronic pain and 555 pain-free) and a clinical sample of 345 patients (126 with chronic post-surgical pain, 92 with other nonsurgical chronic pain, and 127 with no chronic pain) at least 6 months after undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, respectively. Results The final SPTS-12 derived from Study 1 comprised 12 items that discriminated between individuals with different levels of SPT, with the overall scale showing good to very good reliability and validity. The results from Studies 2 and 3 revealed a one-factor structure for chronic pain and pain-free samples, excellent reliability and concurrent validity, and moderate convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion The results of the three studies provide preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the SPTS-12. PMID:28615962

  6. Preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity in carbonate storage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are used for a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 storage and reduction of the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. To identify a suitable depleted reservoir, it is essential to do a preliminary and comprehensive assessment of key storage factors such as storage capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment. However, there are a limited number of studies providing a preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity potential in depleted gas reservoirs prior to a CO2 storage operation. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary assessment of a gas field located in Malaysia for its storage potential based on subsurface characterization prior to injection. Evaluation of the reservoir interval based on the facies, cores, and wireline log data of a well located in the field indicated that the pore type and fabrics analysis is very beneficial to identify suitable locations for a successful storage practice. Although the results obtained are promising, it is recommended to combine this preliminary assessment with the fluid-mineral interactions analysis before making any judgment about reliability of storage sites.

  7. Preliminary study on effect of aspirin against endogenous protective factors of intestinal mucosa in SD rats%阿司匹林对SD大鼠小肠内源性保护因素影响的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桐; 杨天飞; 车筑平; 谭庆华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨非甾体类消炎药( Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs ,NSAIDs)阿司匹林注射液对SD大鼠回肠生长抑素(Somatostatin,SST)、表皮生长因子受体(Epidermal growth factor receptor ,EGFR)、前列腺素E2(Prostaglandin E2,PGE2)及黏液影响。方法:取32只SD大鼠随机分为灌胃组、灌肠组、腹腔注射组及空白对照组四组,每组8只。对回肠黏膜损伤进行评分,阿利辛蓝染色显示其黏液的分布并测定阳性面积及积分光密度( Integrated option density ,IOD)值;ELISA检测各组回肠组织SST、EGFR、PGE2水平;免疫组化检测各组回肠组织SST、EGFR、PGE2的分布,图像分析软件测定IOD值。结果:阿司匹林治疗组肠黏膜损伤指数比正常对照组高( P<0.05),两两比较黏膜损伤评分无差别;其黏液的面积和IOD值均比正常对照组低( P<0.05),其中腹腔注射组的面积(602.17±158.03)及IOD值(249.54±113.19)最低( P<0.05)。四组间的SST、EGFR浓度、IOD值差异无统计学意义,四组间PGE2浓度、IOD值相比较,空白对照组最高( P<0.05),三组阿司匹林组间两两比较其水平没有差异。结论:阿司匹林在不同给药途径下,2周均可引起大鼠小肠黏膜的损伤。这种损伤中,小肠黏膜的完整性破坏和黏膜黏液的分泌受到了明显影响,而腹腔注射给药对小肠黏膜黏液的合成和分泌影响最大,可能这些改变与PGE2的降低有关。无明确结果表明SST和EGFR参与了NSAIDs性肠病的病理生理过程。%Objective:To investigate the changes of somatostatin ,epidermal growth factor receptor ,prostaglandin E2 and mucus of ileum in SD rats injected aspirin.Methods:32 SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:oral intake group ,coloclyster group ,in-traperitoneal injection group and normal control group.Ileal tissue sections were stained by Alcian blue.The positive area and

  8. Preliminary Purification and Influencing Factors of Antimicrobial Polypeptides from Porphyra Haitannsis%坛紫菜(Porphyra Haitanensis)中抑菌活性肽的制备与初步纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕾; 魏玉西; 刘淇; 赵玲; 王凌燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Extracting and purifying the water-soluble protein from Porphyra haitanensis, and to investigate the inhibitory activity on Staphyloccocus aureu. Methods: The water-soluble protein was hydrolysated by pepsin at 37C and pH1.8 for 3h. The hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, Bio-Gel P-10 and DEAE Sephadex A-50 chromatography. The molecular weight of antibacterial polypeptides was detcted by SDS-PAGE. The antimicrobial activity of every fraction obtained during purification procedures was detected by plat stiletto method. The inhibitory effect on Staphyloccocus aureu, and the activity influencing factors of polypeptides were detected. Results: The molecular weight f antibacterial polypeptides was between 43.0KD and 66.2KD. The antibacterial peptides' antimicrobial activity to Staphyloccocus aureus was affected by temperature intensively. On the other hand, the synergistic effects were observed in all combination of DSA-1 + 5%EDTA, DSA-1+ 5% citric acid, DSA-1 + 5%Ve or DSA-1+ 25%DMSO, and antagonistic effects were observed in combination of DSA-1 + 5%VE+ 25%DMSO. Conclusion: The antibacterial polypeptides was purified from water-soluble protein of Porphyra haitanensis, which molecular weight was between 43.0KD and 66.2KD. The antibacterial activity of the antibacterial polypeptides was affected by temperature, some organic acid and some vitamine.%目的:提取坛紫菜中水溶性蛋白,并对其进行初步纯化和抑菌活性影响因素研究.方法:坛紫菜水溶性蛋白胃蛋白酶在37℃、pH1.8条件下酶解3h,再经超滤、Bio-Gel P-10和DEAE SephadexA-50层析纯化步骤得到一定分子量范围的多肽混合物.采用平板打孔法和对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用,跟踪测定活性多肽纯化过程及其活性影响因素.结果:SDS-PAGE测定结果表明该抗菌多肤分子量介于43.0KD~66.2KD之间.它对金黄色葡萄球菌生长的抑制作用随着温度的升高逐渐减弱,5%EDTA、5%

  9. Preliminary Study on Environmental Factors Influencing Natural Gravity Irrigation in Ziquejie Terrace%紫鹊界梯田原生态自流灌溉的环境因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文盛; 尤伟; 李亚龙; 程冬兵; 刘晓路; 张平仓

    2011-01-01

    Located at Shuiche Town, Xinhua County of Hunan Province, Ziquejie Terrace is a newly discovered heritage of ancient rice fanning. The natural gravity irrigation process in Ziquejie Terrace is analyzed in terms of flow movement and circulation, based on which the influencing factors on the process are summarized and studied. The gravity irrigation consists of two coupled processes, the SIP ( surface irrigation process) and the UIP ( underground irrigation process) , of which the former dominates in rainy seasons while the latter prevails in dry seasons. The gravity irrigation process is mostly influenced by vegetation, geological and geomorphic condition, human activity and climate, all of which are indispensible for the natural gravity irrigation. Water source of the SIP, which comes from rainfalls intercepted and stored by vegetation, and water source of the UIP, which is offered by the underground " stealthy reservoir" formed by the terrace' s special geological condition, hand in hand reallocate the water resources in the terrace region to ensure the irrigation in dry seasons. And the supplies of input water sources for the irrigation are increased by perpendicular change of climate characteristics in the terrace region. Moreover, the local farmer' s careful cultivation on the terraces contributes to the storing and saving of irrigation water resources. The UIP speed is limited by the special geological condition, while is accelerated by the middle mountain landform and the steep slope. They interact, and result in an equilibrium, which finally guarantees the underground irrigation time in dry seasons.%紫鹊界梯田位于湖南省新化县水车镇,是一处新发现的我国古代农耕稻作文化遗存.从水流运动与循环角度对紫鹊界梯田原生态自流灌溉过程进行分析,并在此基础上对影响该过程的因素进行系统归纳与分析.梯田自流灌溉过程是地面灌溉与地下灌溉的耦合过程,雨季以地面灌溉为

  10. 保护性耕作下农田土壤风蚀量及其影响因子的研究初报%A Preliminary Study on Soil Wind Erosion and its Impact Factors with Conservation Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 王俊英; 刘永霞; 周继红; 韩烈刚

    2009-01-01

    [研究目的]通过对保护性耕作下土壤风蚀影响与控制的研究,旨在为指导京郊裸露农田治理和结构调整,生态补贴的实施提供理论依据.[方法]2008年4月采用移动式风洞仪进行研究,并得出以下初步结论:[结果](1)六种地块下土壤风蚀量以裸露翻旋地最高,种植越冬覆盖作物能显著降低土壤风蚀量;不同免耕播种机和秸秆处理方式下,风蚀量区别主要在于播种机,以迪尔风蚀量最低,农哈哈机型最高;四种耕作方式下土壤风蚀量以旋耕地最高,翻耕地比旋耕地降低80.81%,重耙和免耕地风蚀量分别比旋耕地降低95.35%和97.71%;冬小麦五种不同播期下土壤风蚀量随着播期的推后逐渐增大.(2)四种作物中小麦田的覆盖率最高,其次为紫花苜蓿和小黑麦,油菜覆盖率最低;四种耕作方式下耙耕小麦田覆盖率最高为84.00%,旋耕最低为55.33%;五个播期下9月27日播种的小麦田覆盖率显著高于其他播期,10月7日和10月12日最低.(3)将土壤风蚀量作为依变量,覆盖率、作物株高和土壤容重作为自变量进行多元回归分析,并建立多元回归方程:Y=173.186-0.449X1-0.485X2-72.699X3.%In this paper, we studied farmland soil wind erosion and its impact factors in Beijing city under con-servation tillage in use of Movable Erosion Wind Tunnel. The results show that (1) the volume of soil wind ero-sion in rotary exposed farmland shows the highest spin in Six plots, cover crops planted in winter can signifi-cantly reduce the volume of soil erosion; In different no-tillage methods and straw treatment, the amount of wind erosion depends on seeding-machine, and the volume of Deere comes up to minimum, agricultural haha maximum; Volume of soil erosion in rotary reach the highest spin in four farming methods, plough tillage less 80.81% than rotary, and harrow tillage less 97.71%,no tillage less 95.35%; With the delay of sowing dates, the amount of soil erosion in

  11. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  12. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  13. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  14. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  15. Preliminary Conceptual Design for Safety Parameter display System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyunju; Seong, Seunghwan; Kim, Wansu; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Kwangseop; Jang, Gwisook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A PGSFR (prototype Gen-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor) is under development at KAERI. A safety parameter display system (SPDS) should be designed for licensing the PGSFR in order to cope with the TMI action plan requirements. Thus, a preliminary conceptual design for the SPDS of PGSFR including licensing requirements, intrinsic function, critical variables and alarm legs for the SPDS of the PGSFR is studied herein. At first, some documents issued by NRC related to install a SPDS include the following: - NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements - NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities - NUREG-0835, Human Factors Acceptance Criteria for the Safety Parameter display System, Draft Report for Comment. The preliminary concept design for the SPDS of the PGSFR was studied. In designing of the PGSFR, the studied design concept will be refined and implemented through further studies to acquire the approval of a safety analysis report of the PGSFR.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  17. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  18. Grid-connected ICES preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    A group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical education facilities, known as the HEAL Complex, was chosen as the site (in New Orleans) for the demonstration of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). The contract work included a preliminary energy supply/demand assessment of the Demonstration Community, a preliminary feasibility analysis and conceptual design of a candidate Demonstration System, preliminary assessment of institutional factors, preparation of a detailed work management plan for subsequent phases of the demonstration program, firming-up of commitments from participating parties, and reporting thereon. This Phase I study has indicated that a central ICES plant producing steam, chilled water, and by-product electricity to serve the HEAL Complex is technically and economically feasible to the extent that Phase II, Detailed Feasibility and Preliminary Design, should be implemented. (MCW)

  19. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  20. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary review. 116.10... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written complaint, the District Commander will review the complaint to determine if, in the District...

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  2. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  3. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  4. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  5. Overweight and urban pollution: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Giubilati, Roberto; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Sancini, Angela

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study is to determine whether in workers exposed to urban pollution the risk of developing overweight and obesity is higher in workers exposed to urban pollution compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 150 volunteers, 75 workers exposed to urban pollution (50 women and 25 men) and 75 indoor workers (50 women and 25 men). Once measured the weight and height and calculated body mass index (BMI) for each worker, the research was based on the comparison, between the two groups, of the mean values of the measurements and of the frequency of workers with BMI index higher than the cut-off of normality. The only statistically significant difference found was for the mean value of weight in women, which was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers. The mean values of BMI and the frequency of workers with BMI higher than normal was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers in both sexes, but not statistically significant. The data suggest that outdoor workers may be subject to an additional risk of developing obesity as a result of exposure to urban air pollution (which, like obesity, is a source of oxidative stress). So, our preliminary study encourages to continue this line of research by implementing the sample and considering all the confounding factors. Furthermore, the results highlight the necessity to take account of gender differences in the context of health surveillance of workers.

  6. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  7. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  8. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  9. A preliminary model of wheelchair service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Sara L; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Burkitt, Kelly H; Tolerico, Michelle; Switzer, Galen E; Fine, Michael J; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    To integrate and expand on previously published models of wheelchair service delivery, and provide a preliminary framework for developing more comprehensive, descriptive models of wheelchair service delivery for adults with spinal cord injury within the U.S. health care system. Literature review and a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. Not applicable. Ten academic, clinical, regulatory, and industry experts (Department of Veterans Affairs [VA] and non-VA) in wheelchair service delivery. Not applicable. Interviewees were asked to discuss the full range of variables and stakeholders involved in wheelchair service delivery, and to limit their scope to the provision of primary subsequent or replacement chairs (not backup chairs) to adults within the United States. Most experts we interviewed stressed that clients who require a wheelchair play a central role in the wheelchair service delivery process. Providers (including clinicians, rehabilitation engineers, and rehabilitation counselors) are also critical stakeholders. More so than in other health care settings, suppliers play an integral role in the provision of wheelchairs to clients and may significantly influence the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. Suppliers often have a direct role in wheelchair service delivery through their interactions with the clinician and/or client. This model also identified a number of system-level factors (including facility administration and standards, policies, and regulations) that influence wheelchair service delivery and ultimately the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. We developed a detailed, descriptive model of wheelchair service delivery that integrates the delivery process and device outcomes, and includes the patient-level, provider-level, and system-level factors that may directly influence those processes and outcomes. We believe that this detailed model can help clinicians and researchers describe and consider the complexities of wheelchair

  10. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  11. Births: preliminary data for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2013-09-01

    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  12. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-binding domain of AdpA, the central transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces griseus, in complex with a duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming Dong; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Ohtsuka, Jun; Hirano, Setsu; Nagata, Koji; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-08-01

    Streptomyces griseus AdpA is the central transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade and activates a number of genes that are required for both secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, leading to the onset of streptomycin biosynthesis as well as aerial mycelium formation and sporulation. The DNA-binding domain of AdpA consists of two helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs and shows low nucleotide-sequence specificity. To reveal the molecular basis of the low nucleotide-sequence specificity, an attempt was made to obtain cocrystals of the DNA-binding domain of AdpA and several kinds of duplex DNA. The best diffracting crystal was obtained using a 14-mer duplex DNA with two-nucleotide overhangs at the 5'-ends. The crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 76.86, b = 100.96, c = 101.25 Å. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 3.71 Å(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal was most likely to contain one DNA-binding domain of AdpA and one duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 66.8%.

  14. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  15. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  16. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    CERN Document Server

    Amaré, J; Cuesta, C; García, E; Ginestra, C; Martínez, M; Oliván, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Pobes, C; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, P; Villar, J A

    2013-01-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and ...

  17. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonny- light crude oil contaminated diet ... This preliminary result suggest that Bonny-Light crude oil may have the potential .... different components. Its exploration ... organisms found in crude oil polluted.

  18. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program Integrity § 457.925 Preliminary investigation. If the State agency receives a complaint of fraud or abuse...

  19. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  20. Preliminary project proposal : Missouri chutes, NE & IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for the Missouri Chutes National Wildlife Refuge that would be in Nebraska and Iowa on the Missouri River. This preliminary project proposal focuses...

  1. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  2. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  3. Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NEIC global earthquake bulletin is called the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters or PDE, and is one of many discrete products in the ANSS Comprehensive...

  4. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  5. 转化生长因子β1和结缔组织生长因子在大鼠肺纤维化中的表达%A preliminary study of transforming growth factor-β1-mRNA and connective tissue growth factor-mRNA on pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 马国强; 杨敬平; 孙德俊

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of transforming growth factor-β1-mRNA and connective tissue growth factor-mRNA on pulmonary Interstitial fibrosis in rats. Methods 48 female wistar rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups: model group and normal control group. There were 24 rats in each group. Models were founded by Bleomycin A2. The rats in the model group were filled with bleomycin A2 (5 mg/kg) once in the trachea. The normal control group were filled with equal saline in the trachea. The rats were sacrificed under drugged state at 3, 7, 14, 28 days of feeding, then the pulmonary coefficients were observed in each group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and van gieson chan biter acid fuchinacid staining were done and the expression of the transforming growth factor β1-mRNA and connective tissue growth factor-mRNA were detected by the nuclic acid by hybridization in situ technique. Results The expression of TGFβ1-mRNA and CTGF-mRNA in lung tissue increased as fibrosis developed. Conclusion The expression of TGFβ1-mRNA, CTGF-mRNA in lung tissue plays important role in our flowing study.%目的 观察转化生长因子β1-mRNA(TGFβ1-mRNA)和结缔组织生长因子-mRNA(CTGF-mRNA)在博莱霉素诱导的大鼠肺间质纤维化中的表达.方法 48只雌性Wistar大鼠,随机分为正常组、模型组、每组24只,以气管内注入博莱霉素A2(BLM-A2)建立大鼠肺间质纤维化模型,模型组气管内一次性注入BLM-A2(5 mg/kg),正常组气管内注入等量生理盐水.两组大鼠在实验周期第3天、7天、14天和28天用腹主动脉放血法处死进行以下检测:计算肺系数:肺系数=肺湿重(mg)/体重(g),进行HE和VG染色,原位杂交测定大鼠肺组织中TGFβ1-mRNA和CTGF-mRNA的表达情况.结果 TGFβ1-mRNA和CTGF-mRNA在博莱霉素诱导的大鼠肺间质纤维化中的表达明显增强.结论 TGFβ1-mRNA和CTGF-mRNA的表达增强表明TGFβ1-mRNA和CTGF-mRNA与肺纤维化的发生、发展有较大关联,为本研究后

  6. Preliminary organizational culture scale focused on artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavia, Tomas

    2006-12-01

    In this preliminary study, an Organizational Culture Scale was developed to assess cultural artifacts according to Schein's typology (1985). It includes a set of cultural artifacts to measure the extent to which an organization is more or less traditional. A total of 249 managers from a range of different companies responded to the items. Preliminary analysis yielded a one-dimensional scale with 14 items with high internal consistency and homogeneity.

  7. Preliminary organizational culture scale focused on artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavia, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    In this preliminary study, an organizational culture scale was developed to assess cultural artifacts according to Schein´s typology (1985). It includes a set of cultural artifacts to measure the extent to which an organization is more or less traditional. A total of 249 managers from a range of different companies responded to the items. Preliminary analysis yielded a one-dimensional scale with 14 items with high internal consistency and homogeneity.

  8. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR): therapeutic target and predictive biological marker in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Pnina; Cohen, Shira

    2016-09-01

    The Gi protein-associated A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is over-expressed in inflammatory cells, and this high expression is also reflected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease. CF101, a selective agonist with high affinity to the A3AR, is known to induce robust anti-inflammatory effect in experimental animal models of adjuvant-, collagen-, and tropomyosin-induced arthritis. The effect is mediated via a definitive molecular mechanism entailing deregulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the Wnt signal transduction pathways resulting in apoptosis of inflammatory cells. CF101 was found to be safe and well tolerated in all preclinical, phase I, and phase II human clinical studies. In two phase II clinical studies where CF101 was administered to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as a stand-alone drug, a significant anti-rheumatic effect and a direct significant correlation were found between receptor expression at baseline and patients' response to the drug, suggesting that A3AR may be utilized as a predictive biomarker. The A3AR is a promising therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis and can be used also as a biological marker to predict patients' response to CF101. This is a unique type of a personalized medicine approach which may pave the way for a safe and efficacious treatment for this patient population.

  9. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the s

  10. Receptores A3 da adenosina: uma nova abordagem terapêutica no câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gaspar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multi-factorial disease linked with different initiating causes, cofactors and promoters, and several types of cellular damage. Advancing knowledge on the cellular and molecular biology of the processes that regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cellular responses to external signals, has provided a wealth of information about the cancer cell and how it differs from a normal one. These findings make available a number of potential targets for new therapeutic approaches. The Medicinal Chemistry artwork performed so far in the development of selective and potent adenosine receptor A3 ligands, a current cancer target, will be highlighted in this work.

  11. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  12. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  13. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    The study of the human past needs the effort of different disciplines including history, archaeology and non invasive imaging techniques such geophysics whose application for cultural heritage has been dramatically increasing in the last two decades. The capability of geophysical techniques in identifying subsurface features of cultural interest depends on: 1) the nature of the physical interaction between the archaeological residues and its surrounding; 2) the performance of geophysical sensors, including Ground Penetrating radar (GPR), magnetometry, electrical resistivity along with other earth observation imaging systems (SAR, LiDAR, multispectral remote sensing); 3) the knowledge of the expected features of cultural interest to be detected. A correct approach must necessarily take into account these three factors on which depends the success of any preventive archaeological investigation based on geophysical prospecting techniques and remote sensing [1]. Such approach characterized the scientific researches performed by ITACA Mission of CNR in Southern America, since 2008, aimed at discovering unknown prehispanic sites, mapping historical settlements and monitoring archaeological heritage affected by man-made and natural risks [2-5]. One of the sites recently investigated by ITACA Mission is Tiwanaku, which is located on a valley at 3880 m above sea level, near the southern shoreline of the Titicaca Lake, in Bolivia. Tiwanaku was center of a prehispanic civilization which influenced large territories of south-central Andes from 500 to 1150 AD [6-7]. The available archaeological records attest a long human frequentation divided in three phases. In the first one (100 BC-AD 500), Tiwanaku emerged as major regional center. In the second one (AD 500-1150), it became a densely inhabited center with a political and economic leading role in the southern-central Andean region which ended around 1000 AD due to a long-term drought. Finally, in the third phase (AD 1150

  14. Toroidicity Dependence of Tokamak Edge Safety Factor and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren

    2002-01-01

    In large tokamak device and reactor designs, the relationship between the toroidal current and the edge safety factor is very important because this will determine the eventual device or reactor size according to MHD stability requirements. In many preliminary

  15. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  16. International Behavior Analysis: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    Project. The Project’s basic goal is to provide a means for producing comparative, empirical generalizations about how, when, and why nations are...sources of behavior have been identified. These cpoens (or collections of source factors) include: (1) psychological; (2) political ; (3) societal; (4...nation initiate an external action? Thatis, after one or more conditions generate a decision occasion, how does the nation respond? Similar in nature is

  17. The quality improvement attitude survey: Development and preliminary psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B

    2017-08-22

    To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and

  18. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  20. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  1. Regulation of epithelial sodium channel a-subunit expression by adenosine receptor A2a in alveolar epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wang; WANG Dao-xin; ZHANG Wei; LI Chang-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel a-subunit (a-ENaC) is an important factor for alveolar fluid clearance during acute lung injury. The relationship between adenosine receptor A2a (A2aAR) expressed in alveolar epithelial cells and aα-ENaC is poorly understood. We targeted the A2aAR in this study to investigate its role in the expression of αa-ENaC and in acute lung injury.Methods A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of A2aAR agonist CGS-21680 and with 100 μmol/L CGS-21680 for various times. Rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after CGS-21680 was injected. Animals were sacrificed and tissue was harvested for evaluation of lung injury by analysis of the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, lung permeability and myeloperoxidase activity. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-ENaC in A549 cells and alveolar type II epithelial cells.Results Both mRNA and protein levels of α-ENaC were markedly higher from 4 hours to 24 hours after exposure to 100μmol/L CGS-21680. There were significant changes from 0.1 umol/L to 100 μmol/L CGS-21680, with a positive correlation between increased concentrations of CGS-21680 and expression of α-ENaC. Treatment with CGS-21680during LPS induced lung injury protected the lung and promoted α-ENaC expression in the alveolar epithelial cells.Conclusion Activation of A2aAR has a protective effect during the lung injury, which may be beneficial to the prognosis of acute lung injury.

  2. PRELIMINARY ACCOUNTING WORKS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of financial statements is a complex process of aggregation of data and accounting information in the perspective of establishing economic and financial indicators. The adoption of a uniform set of preliminary accounting work for the closure of the current financial exercises is the only way for romanian companies to ensure that their financial situations are reliable, and on this basis, the users can make the best decisions. According to IASB Framework, the objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an enterprise that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions: managers, shareholders, prospective investors, financial institutions, suppliers, customers, employees, competitors, general public, governments. The complexity of the accounting works preceding the financial statement preparation is determined by the large volume of theoretical and practical knowledge that can be influenced by the following factors: different accounting policies, accounting estimates, professional judgment, verifiability, measurability, fraud and error. The main objective of this scientific paper is to highlight the importance of preliminary accounting works for the annual financial statements establisment, focusing on the presentation of their chronological evidence.

  3. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Oxley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  4. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  5. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  6. Increase of scavenger receptor A-positive monocytes in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Iwao; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Toshio; Ebe, Katsuya; Nagai, Tsuneo

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of the scavenger receptor A (SRA) index (no. SRA(+) monocytes observed in 10 high-power fields of peripheral blood (PB) smear samples, normal upper limit or =30 at hospitalization. The SRA index of 82.4% of AMI, and 75.9% of UA, and 70.3% of SA patients was > or =30 at hospitalization. For 36 AMI patients who initially had an SRA index of <30 at hospitalization, it exceeded 30 within 2 days, and the SRA index rapidly increased in most AMI patients after hospitalization. SRA(+) monocytes were considered to differentiate from SRA(-) monocytes in PB. An abnormally high SRA index is considered to be a useful indication of disrupted or fissured or eroded plaque.

  7. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic equivalent of a complete Customs Form 1302 (Cargo Declaration), in the manner provided in § 4.7(b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  9. 25 CFR 11.1005 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1005 Preliminary inquiry. (a) If a minor is placed in... purpose of determining: (1) Whether probable cause exist to believe the minor committed the alleged.... (b) If a minor has been released to the parents, guardian or custodian, the children's court shall...

  10. Preliminary aspects of a qualitative research projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Haidau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented preliminary aspects on the design of of qualitative research achieved by nongovernmental organizations in the North-East of Romȃnia. The research aims to identify attitudes, opinions and behaviors to nongovernmental organizations to implement public relations programs and campaigns.

  11. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment of a Team, the leader of the initial assessment will report his/her findings to the Director in a... the extent the Director deems it appropriate, the Director may conduct a preliminary reconnaissance at the site of a building failure. The Director may establish and deploy a Team to conduct the...

  12. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits, modul...

  13. Preliminary Results on Charmed Meson Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sarwar, S; Paolone, V S; Reyes, M; Anjos, J C; Yager, P M; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R A; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Méndez, H; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vásquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; Ramírez, J E; O'Reilly, B; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Gourlay, S A; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Sarwar, S; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Park, K S; Rahimi, A; Gardner, R; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Myung, S S; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; Brambilla, D; Caccianiga, B; Calandrino, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M G; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, A; Sala, S; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Hernández, Pilar; López, A M; Méndez, L; Mirles, M A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Zhang-Mayaguez, Y; Copty, N K; Purohit, M; Cho, K; Handler, T; Engh, D; Johns, W E; Hosack, M; Nehring, M S; Sales, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Webster, M S; Sheaff, M; Kwon, Y; Sarwar, Shahzad

    2001-01-01

    We report the preliminary measurement by the FOCUS Collaboration (E831 at Fermilab) of masses and widths of the L=1 charm mesons $D_2^{*0}$ and $D_2^{*+}$. The fit of the invariant mass distribution requires an additional term to account for a broad structure over background.

  14. Preliminary Study on Airlift Membran—Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUNong; XINGWeihong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor named “airlift membrane-bioreactor”is discussed.For municipal wastewater reclamation,the preliminary study on airlift membrane-bioreactor shows its good performance such as high flux and lower energy consumption.The airlift membrane-bioreactor is potentially applicable in bioengineering and environmental protection fields.

  15. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  16. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  17. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2017-04-12

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  19. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary or temporary relief. 1601.23 Section 1601.23... Employment Practices § 1601.23 Preliminary or temporary relief. (a) In the interest of the expeditious... subdivision, any recommendation for preliminary or temporary relief shall be transmitted directly to the...

  20. 体外新鲜人血法检测热原相关因子IL-1β的条件优化及初步方法学研究%Optimization and Preliminary Methodology Study of in vitro Fresh Human Whole Blood Detection Method for Pyrogen-related Factor IL-1β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文佳; 陈志明; 庞智慧; 方海顺; 何华红; 李薇

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To establish the detection method for pyrogen-related factor interleukin 1β(IL-1β)through optimiz-ing detection condition,and to conduct preliminary methodology study. METHODS:The in vitro fresh human whole blood detec-tion method was used. The bacterial endotoxin standard solution(5,2,0.8,0.32 EU/ml)were added into diluted blood;using di-luted RPMI 1640 as blank control,the content of IL-1β in blood sample was determined by ELISA after incubation. The relation-ship of the addition of different attenuants(RPMI 1640 culture,sterilized normal saline)and fetal bovine serum,final dilution vol-ume fraction(40%,20%,10%and 8.3%)and storage duration(2,5,6,8,26 h)with the contents of endotoxin IL-1βwere in-vestigated,and related coefficient and detection limits were calculated. Different dilution times of Qingkailing injection and Ginaton injection samples and interference solutions were added into diluted blood to detect their recovery. RESULTS:The results indicated that RPMI 1640 media and 40% diluted blood was more sensitive(detection limit was 0.128 EU/ml,r=0.993);while the addition of fetal bovine serum didn’t influence the results. The detection limits of blood sample storied at 4 ℃ for 26 h were 0.128 EU/ml (r>0.990). When Qingkailing injection and Ginaton injection were diluted 10,32 and more times,the detection method was not interfered and the recovery ranged 68%-118%. CONCLUSIONS:Established in vitro fresh human whole blood detection method can be used for the detection of pyrogen,and provides trial evidence for the pyrogen detection of TCM injection.%目的:建立热原相关因子白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)的检测方法并优化其条件,同时进行初步方法学研究。方法:采用体外新鲜人血法。将5、2、0.8、0.32 EU/ml的细菌内毒素标准溶液加入稀释血液中,同时用稀释后的RPMI 1640作为空白对照,培养后采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)试验测定血液中释放的IL-1β含量。

  1. A preliminary design of the collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.; Gai, W.; Doran, S.; Lindberg, R.; Power, J.G.; Strelnikov, N.; Sun, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I. [ANL, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Li, Y. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); Gao, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Shchegolkov, D.Y.; Simakov, E.I. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A preliminary design of the multi-meter long collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator that achieves a highly efficient transfer of the drive bunch energy to the wakefields and to the witness bunch is considered. It is made from ~0.5 m long accelerator modules containing a vacuum chamber with dielectric-lined walls, a quadrupole wiggler, an rf coupler, and BPM assembly. The single bunch breakup instability is a major limiting factor for accelerator efficiency, and the BNS damping is applied to obtain the stable multi-meter long propagation of a drive bunch. Numerical simulations using a 6D particle tracking computer code are performed and tolerances to various errors are defined.

  2. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation requirements and preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible, since it depends on different factors, among which their location inside the liver functional segments. Alternative techniques consist in local use of chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour. Radio frequency and cryosurgical ablations are examples of such alternative techniques that may be performed percutaneously. This requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction with these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency, whilst they benefit from minimal invasiveness. This paper introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation and describes preliminary experiments focusing on data registration evaluation. To keep close to conventional protocols, we consider registration of pre-operative CT or MRI data to intra-operative echographic data.

  3. Preliminary results in surgery of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Bouza, A A

    1998-09-01

    The authors present the preliminary results of 20 patients selected to be operated on between January 1996 and April 1997. These patients presented one of the present indications for stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP), such as: rigidity, akinesia/bradykinesia, gait dysfunction, drug induced dyskinesias and tremor. Every patient of this protocol was evaluated by: UPDRS score, Schwab and England scale, Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale before and after surgery. The results in 3 months showed a remarkable improvement after PVP (P < 0.01) in all functional assessments, except for facial expression, speech and posture. The morbidity was 5%. 5 patients (25%) who were in Hoehn and Yahr 5 underwent a bilateral simultaneous PVP. In 5 patients (25%), who had tremor, during the PVP, VIM thalamotomy was added. These preliminary results, suggest that PVP is highly effective for PD symptoms.

  4. Rare earth optogalvanic spectroscopy: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destro, Marcelo G.; Neri, Jose W.; Rodrigues, Nicolau A.S.; Silveira, Carlos A.B.; Riva, Rudimar [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/EFO), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fotonica]. E-mail: destro@ieav.cta.br; Victor, Alessandro R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The IEAv has special interest in the studies of rare earth isotope applications in laser medium and integrated optics as well as aerospace research. We are starting to work with Ytterbium, Erbium, Dysprosium and Neodymium laser selective photoionization research. This paper describes the preliminary results of emission and optogalvanic spectroscopy obtained from a Neodymium hollow cathode lamps. Furthermore these results were used to setup our laser systems to work to leads a Nd isotopes selective laser photoionization. (author)

  5. Institutional Repositories in India: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates various aspects of institutional repositories (IR’s) developed in India. The present study has identified the existence of 16 functional IRs some of which were not registered in any of the directories such as ROAR, Open DOAR. The study explores the timeline involved in planning, pilot testing, to system implementation of IR, exploratory activities conducted before implementing IR, its anticipated benefits.

  6. A Toolbox for Rotorcraft Preliminary Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lier, Max; Krenik, Alex; Kunze, Philipp; Kohlgrüber, Dieter; Schwinn, Dominik; Lützenberger, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a toolbox, which is able to reflect the conceptual and preliminary design process of rotorcraft configuration. Such a toolbox is a valuable aid for the design engineer and can be used for the assessment of new technologies with regard to the overall configuration. This toolbox is currently extended to model novel rotorcraft configurations. Automated optimization procedures will be added in the future as well. This paper describes the too...

  7. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  8. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  9. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DRING

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  10. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J, RODWELL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  11. [Tonsillectomy with a laser dissector. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, H

    1984-11-01

    A so called laser-dissector with a flexible beam guide system for tonsillectomy is described. With this instrument the tissue is irradiated for a very short time resulting in a coagulation of the peritonsillar tissue with closure of the small vessels even before mechanical dissection is performed. A preliminary report of 10 patients is given. The main advantage is that the procedure could be performed without or with much less bleeding as in tonsillectomy without using vasoconstrictors.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  13. Visualizing estrogen receptor-a-expressing neurons using a new ERa-ZsGreen reporter mouse line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of biological functions of estrogens, including regulation of energy metabolism, are mediated by neurons expressingestrogen receptor-a (ERa) in the brain. However, complex intracellular processes in these ERa-expressing neurons are difficult to unravel, due to the lack of strategy to visua...

  14. Scavenger receptor A index and coronary thrombus in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Iwao; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Toshio; Ebe, Katsuya; Nagai, Tsuneo

    2011-06-01

    To examine the relationship between the scavenger receptor A (SRA) index (the number of SRA+ cells observed in 10 high power fields of peripheral blood (PB) smear samples; normal upper limit <30) and coronary thrombus, 389 thrombi obtained from 393 patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were examined. Thrombi were classified into platelets (PT), mixed (MT), fibrin-rich (FT) and organizing thrombi (OT); 387, 269, 57 and 29 cases were detected, respectively. Patients were divided into group A (PT only, 89 cases), B (containing MT and PT but not FT, 243 cases), and C (containing FT, 57 cases). SRA+ cells had infiltrated into all FT cases and 147 of the 269 MT, but no PT. At hospitalization, the SRA index exceeded 30 in 276 patients. PT was observed in 274 cases, and MT and FT (residual mural thrombus; RMT) observed in 230. Infarct-related coronary artery was thought to be totally and rapidly occluded by PT that had formed as a result of severe stenosis due to extrusion of plaque content or growth of RMT. An abnormal increase of SRA+ cells is considered to be a useful finding to detecting the presence of PT and, probably, RMT.

  15. Cellular Recognition and Trafficking of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles by Macrophage Scavenger Receptor A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Galya; Chrisler, William B.; Cassens, Kaylyn J.; Tan, Ruimin; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Zangar, Richard C.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2011-09-01

    The internalization of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into cells is known to involve active transport mechanisms, yet the precise biological molecules involved are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the uptake of amorphous silica ENPs (92 nm) by macrophage cells is strongly inhibited by silencing expression of scavenger receptor A (SR-A). In addition, ENP uptake is augmented by introducing SR-A expression into human cells that are normally non-phagocytic. Confocal fluorescent microscopy analyses show that the majority of single or small clusters of silica ENPs co-localize intracellularly with SR-A and are internalized through a pathway characteristic of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In contrast, larger silica NP agglomerates (>500 nm) are poorly co-localized with the receptor, suggesting independent trafficking or internalization pathways are involved. SR-A silencing also caused decreased cellular secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to silica ENPs. As SR-A is expressed in macrophages throughout the reticulo-endothelial system, this pathway is likely an important determinant of the biodistribution of, and cellular response to ENPs.

  16. The aggravation of arthritis by periodontitis is dependent of IL-17 receptor A activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Sabrina G; Talbot, Jhimmy; Sônego, Fabiane; Turato, Walter M; Grespan, Renata; Avila-Campos, Mario J; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cirelli, Joni A

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis aggravates the antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model, and whether this effect is dependent on the Th17/IL-17 signalling pathway. Antigen-induced arthritis was triggered by local injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joint of previously immunized C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)-knockout mice. Periodontal disease in naïve or arthritic mice was induced by oral infection with P. gingivalis. Animals were sacrificed 7, 15 and 30 days after infection. Alveolar bone loss, joint histopathology, articular hyperalgesia and joint cytokine production were assessed, in addition to the proportion of Th17 and Treg cells isolated from the inguinal lymph nodes. No influence of experimentally-induced arthritis was found on the alveolar bone resorption induced by P. gingivalis. However, mice with experimentally-induced arthritis that were exposed to P. gingivalis presented higher joint damage and Th17 frequencies when compared to non-infected mice. The aggravation of arthritis by periodontitis was accompanied by increased TNF and IL-17 production and articular neutrophil infiltration, whereas arthritis aggravation and changes in neutrophil infiltration were absent in IL-17RA-deficient mice. The effects of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis on arthritis are dependent on Th17 expansion and IL-17RA signalling, which lead to increased neutrophil infiltration into the joints. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  18. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J Tan

    Full Text Available Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA and endothelin receptor B (ETB. Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p. or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p., atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  19. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Roderick J; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Lin; Liu, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA) and endothelin receptor B (ETB). Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p.), atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios). Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  20. Cerebral A{sub 1} adenosine receptors (A{sub 1}AR) in liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, Christian [Research Centre Juelich, Brain Imaging Centre West, Institute of Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [Research Centre Juelich, Brain Imaging Centre West, Institute of Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kircheis, Gerald; Haussinger, Dieter [University of Duesseldorf, Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Holschbach, Marcus H.; Coenen, Heinz H. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Juelich (Germany); Herzog, Hans; Elmenhorst, David [Research Centre Juelich, Brain Imaging Centre West, Institute of Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Kaiser, Hans J. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Zilles, Karl [Research Centre Juelich, Brain Imaging Centre West, Institute of Medicine, Juelich (Germany); C. and O. Vogt Institute of Brain Research, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bauer, Andreas [Research Centre Juelich, Brain Imaging Centre West, Institute of Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Duesseldorf, Department of Neurology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The cerebral mechanisms underlying hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are poorly understood. Adenosine, a neuromodulator that pre- and postsynaptically modulates neuronal excitability and release of classical neurotransmitters via A{sub 1} adenosine receptors (A{sub 1}AR), is likely to be involved. The present study investigates changes of cerebral A{sub 1}AR binding in cirrhotic patients by means of positron emission tomography (PET) and [{sup 18}F]CPFPX, a novel selective A{sub 1}AR antagonist. PET was performed in cirrhotic patients (n = 10) and healthy volunteers (n = 10). Quantification of in vivo receptor density was done by Logan's non-invasive graphical analysis (pons as reference region). The outcome parameter was the apparent binding potential (aBP, proportional to B{sub max}/K{sub D}). Cortical and subcortical regions showed lower A{sub 1}AR binding in cirrhotic patients than in controls. The aBP changes reached statistical significance vs healthy controls (p < 0.05, U test with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment for multiple comparisons) in cingulate cortex (-50.0%), precentral gyrus (-40.9%), postcentral gyrus (-38.6%), insular cortex (-38.6%), thalamus (-32.9%), parietal cortex (-31.7%), frontal cortex (-28.6), lateral temporal cortex (-28.2%), orbitofrontal cortex (-27.9%), occipital cortex (-24.6), putamen (-22.7%) and mesial temporal lobe (-22.4%). Regional cerebral adenosinergic neuromodulation is heterogeneously altered in cirrhotic patients. The decrease of cerebral A{sub 1}AR binding may further aggravate neurotransmitter imbalance at the synaptic cleft in cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Different pathomechanisms may account for these alterations including decrease of A{sub 1}AR density or affinity, as well as blockade of the A{sub 1}AR by endogenous adenosine or exogenous xanthines. (orig.)

  1. Association between polymorphisms in Interleukin-17 receptor A gene and childhood IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ah Baek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Interleukin-17 (IL-17 is produced by activated CD4+T cells and exhibits pleiotropic biological activity on various cell types. IL-17 was reported to be involved in the immunoregulatory response in IgA nephropathy (IgAN. Our aim was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA gene and childhood IgAN. Methods : We analyzed the SNPs in the IL-17RA in 156 children with biopsy-proven IgAN and 245 healthy controls. We divided the IgAN patients into 2 groups and compared them with respect to proteinuria (?#180; and &gt;4 mg/m2/h, ?#180;0 and &gt;40 mg/m2/h, respectively and the presence of pathological levels of biomarkers of diseases such as interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, or global sclerosis. Results : No difference was observed between the SNP genotypes rs2895332, rs1468488, and rs4819553 between IgAN patients and control subjects. In addition, no significant difference was observed between allele frequency of SNPs rs2895 332, rs1468488, and rs4819553 between patients in the early and advanced stage of the disease. However, significant difference was observed between the genotype of SNP rs2895332 between patients with proteinuria (&gt;4 mg/m2/h and those without proteinuria (codominant model OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19&#8211;0.66, P&lt;0.001; dominant model OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17&#8211;0.69 P=0.002; recessive model OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01&#8211;1.06 P=0.025. Conclusion : Our results indicate that the SNP in IL-17RA (rs2895332 may be related to the development of proteinuria in IgAN patients.

  2. Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.; Haven, K.

    1979-12-01

    This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  3. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  4. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  5. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits......, modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed...

  6. PRELIMINARY PROGRAMMED WHOLE—BODY COUNTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少东; 郑文忠; 等

    1995-01-01

    It is capable of giving the initial intakes of radionuclides and the assessment quantitites used in radiation protection according to its measured results of radionuclides in vivo.It is accomplished by providing the software of controlling,interface and internal dose estimation programs to the original iron cabin shielding whole-body counter.The preliminary application shows that its data processing is rapid and correct,and can meet the requirement of rapid internal radioactive contamination monitoring and diagnosing in case of lots of internal contamination subjects happened in nuclear accident.

  7. Underwater Munitions Expert System: Preliminary Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    coral   reefs ,  can  be  added  to  future  versions  of  UnMES.     For  this  preliminary  UnMES...administer  areas   polluted  by  discarded  munitions.    Towards  this  end,  SERDP  is   sponsoring   the   development...estimating   seawater   pollution   from   dissolved   chemical   components  of  munitions.    

  8. Preliminary results from a new spin spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Bedrossian, P.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1998-12-31

    The first preliminary results from a novel spectrometer for elementally-specific measurements of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films are presented here. The key measurements are based upon spin-resolving and photon-dichroic photoelectron spectroscopy. True spin-resolution is achieved by the use of a Mini-Mott detection scheme. The photon-dichroic measurements include the variant magnetic x-ray linear dichroism (MXLD). Both a multi-channel, energy dispersive collection scheme as well as the spin-detecting Mini-Mott apparatus are used in data collection. The Spin Spectrometer is based at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7) at the Advanced Light Source.

  9. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  10. Ecological economics - a special perspective? Preliminary reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on some preliminary reflections from a research project concerning ecological economics as a special perspective. As Clive Spash noted in a presentation at the ESEE conference in Cambridge, July 2001, ecological economics has reached the age of puberty, looks into the glass...... and searches its own identity. The identity seeking processes are visible in the large number of publications discussing the characteristics of ecological economics as well as the similarities to and differences from environmental economics. The present paper is a part of this stream. The paper is work...

  11. Preliminary results on nonparametric facial occlusion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of face recognition has been extensively studied in the available literature, however, some aspects of this field require further research. The design and implementation of face recognition systems that can efficiently handle unconstrained conditions (e.g. pose variations, illumination, partial occlusion... is still an area under active research. This work focuses on the design of a new nonparametric occlusion detection technique. In addition, we present some preliminary results that indicate that the proposed technique might be useful to face recognition systems, allowing them to dynamically discard occluded face parts.

  12. 33 CFR 127.315 - Preliminary transfer inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.315 Preliminary...

  13. Preliminary Validation of the Scale of Attitudes from Psychologists and psychology students (IAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Guerra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of training psychologists involves addressing both technical skills and generic or attitudinal competencies. However, there are not instruments for assessing attitudinal skills in psychologists and psychology students. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe the process of construction and preliminary validation of an instrument of attitudinal competencies in psychologists and psychology students (IAPE. 152 students and graduates of psychology were considered in the different phases of the study. Participants answered the IAPE and another two instruments to assess convergent and divergent validity. Results showed that the final instrument consist of 17 items has one-factor structure with adequate internal consistency. Furthermore, they showed the validity (convergent, divergent and discriminant of the instrument. Finally, it is discussed the usefulness of this instrument in the national context. At the same time it is been said that this is a preliminary study, being necessary futher researchs to conclude about IAPE validity.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Trewia nudiflora Linn. roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, N; Srivastava, Mayank; Tiwari, Pallavi

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causative factors of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Plants have been used in traditional medicine in different parts of world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies for human kind. The present study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) and antioxidant activity by 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytochemicals including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora showed significant antioxidant activity compared to standard drug ascorbic acid.

  15. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  16. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...... of the project, the focus is on the regional extend of diurnal variability. Particularly, extensive sensitivity tests regarding the definition of SSTfound fields show that using only quality 5 SEVIRI data results in warmer foundation fields SSTfound while there is an added ∼0.2 K variability when using multi...... Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal....

  17. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  18. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  19. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Aswini; Bhat, Vinaya; Nair, K Chandrasekheran; Suresh, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar) for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  20. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  1. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  2. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhang, Z.Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. [Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States); Williams, J.R. [Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  3. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  4. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  5. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zhang, Z.Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. (Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States)); Williams, J.R. (Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  6. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  7. Preliminary design for a MAGLEV development facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, H. T.; He, J. L.; Chang, S. L.; Bouillard, J. X.; Chen, S. S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L. O.; Lottes, S. A.; Rote, D. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh from 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  8. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  9. ISSA/TSS power preliminary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A projected power shortfall during the initial utilization flights of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) has prompted an inquiry into the use of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to provide station power. The preliminary design of the combined ISSA/TSS system is currently underway in the Preliminary Design Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This document focuses on the justification for using a tether system on space station, the physical principles behind such a system, and how it might be operated to best utilize its capabilities. The basic components of a simple DC generator are a magnet of some type and a conductive wire. Moving the wire through the magnetic field causes forces to be applied to the electric charges in the conductor, and thus current is induced to flow. This simple concept is the idea behind generating power with space-borne tether systems. The function of the magnet is performed by the earth's magnetic field, and orbiting a conductive tether about the earth effectively moves the tether through the field.

  10. α2-containing GABAA receptors: A target for the development of novel treatment strategies for CNS disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    GABAA receptors have important physiological functions, as revealed by pharmacological studies and experiments involving gene-targeted mouse models, and are the target of widely used drugs such as the benzodiazepines. In this review, we are summarizing current knowledge about the function of α2-containing GABAA receptors, a receptor subtype representing approximately 15–20% of all GABAA receptors. This receptor subtype mediates anxiolytic-like, reward-enhancing, and antihyperalgesic actions o...

  11. Eph receptor A10 has a potential as a target for a prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Yamashita, Takuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Higashisaka, Kazuma [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Mukai, Yohei [Laboratory of Innovative Antibody Engineering and Design, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Kamada, Haruhiko [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • EphA10 mRNA is overexpressed in breast, prostate and colon cancer cell lines. • EphA10 is overexpressed in clinical prostate tumors at mRNA and protein levels. • Anti-EphA10 antibodies were cytotoxic on EphA10-positive prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: We recently identified Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) as a novel breast cancer-specific protein. Moreover, we also showed that an in-house developed anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting EphA10 as a promising target for breast cancer therapy. However, the only other known report for EphA10 was its expression in the testis at the mRNA level. Therefore, the potency of EphA10 as a drug target against cancers other than the breast is not known. The expression of EphA10 in a wide variety of cancer cells was studied and the potential of EphA10 as a drug target was evaluated. Screening of EphA10 mRNA expression showed that EphA10 was overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines as well as in prostate and colon cancer cell lines. Thus, we focused on prostate cancers in which EphA10 expression was equivalent to that in breast cancers. As a result, EphA10 expression was clearly shown in clinical prostate tumor tissues as well as in cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. In order to evaluate the potential of EphA10 as a drug target, we analyzed complement-dependent cytotoxicity effects of anti-EphA10 mAb and found that significant cytotoxicity was mediated by the expression of EphA10. Therefore, the idea was conceived that the overexpression of EphA10 in prostate cancers might have a potential as a target for prostate cancer therapy, and formed the basis for the studies reported here.

  12. Preliminary criteria for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avouac, J; Fransen, Julie Munk; Walker, U A

    2011-01-01

    To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc).......To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)....

  13. 40 CFR 8.6 - Preliminary environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary environmental review. 8.6 Section 8.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.6 Preliminary environmental review. (a) Unless an...

  14. Preliminary design of pseudo satellites: Basic methods and feasibility criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical models of weight and energy balances, aerodynamic models, and solar irradiance models to perform pseudo-satellite preliminary design are presented. Feasibility criteria are determined in accordance with the aim of preliminary design dependent on mission scenario and type of payload.

  15. 28 CFR 2.48 - Revocation: Preliminary interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation: Preliminary interview. 2.48....48 Revocation: Preliminary interview. (a) Interviewing officer. A parolee who is retaken on a warrant... violated his parole as charged, and if so, whether a revocation hearing should be conducted. The...

  16. 37 CFR 1.480 - Demand for international preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand for international... Provisions International Preliminary Examination § 1.480 Demand for international preliminary examination. (a) On the filing of a proper Demand in an application for which the United States International...

  17. Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.

  18. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois mode Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector. Information in this package includes the Subsystem Design and Development Approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the Preliminary Design Review.

  19. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  20. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  1. Compulsive sexual behavior inventory: a preliminary study of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E; Miner, M; Ohlerking, F; Raymond, N

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study was designed to develop empirically a scale of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to test its reliability and validity in a sample of individuals with nonparaphilic CSB (N = 15), in a sample of pedophiles (N = 35) in treatment for sexual offending, and in a sample of normal controls (N = 42). Following a factor analysis and a varimax rotation, those items with factor loadings on the rotated factors of greater than .60 were retained. Three factors were identified, which appeared to measure control, abuse, and violence. Cronbach's alphas indicated that the subscales have good reliability. The 28-item scale was then tested for validity by a linear discriminant function analysis. The scale successfully discriminated the nonparaphilic CSB sample and the pedophiles from controls. Further analysis indicated that this scale is a valid measure of CSB in that there were significant differences between the three groups on the control subscale. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than the other two groups on the abuse subscale, with the other two groups not scoring significantly differently from one another. This indicated that pedophiles were more abusive than the nonparaphilic CSB individuals or the controls. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than controls on the violence subscale. Nonparaphilic individuals with compulsive sexual behavior scored slightly lower on the violence subscale, although not significantly different. As a preliminary study, there are several limitations to this study, which should be addressed, in further studies with larger sample sizes.

  2. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  3. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  4. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  5. The Preliminaries of a Reference: Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2016-01-01

    No decisive ruling was delivered by the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereafter: the Court) in Case C-189/14, Bogdan Chain v Atlanco Ltd. There is usually no case note worth writing without a judgment. However, the case in question came close to being concluded with a judgment, and the ......No decisive ruling was delivered by the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereafter: the Court) in Case C-189/14, Bogdan Chain v Atlanco Ltd. There is usually no case note worth writing without a judgment. However, the case in question came close to being concluded with a judgment......, and the reasons why no conclusive ruling was delivered is precisely what makes this case worth writing about. A preliminary reference was issued by a national court in Nicosia (Cyprus) following which at the Court, a reporting Judge and Advocate General were appointed. An oral hearing in the presence...

  6. CTF3 Design Report Preliminary Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Bernard, M; Bertuzzi, J P; Bienvenu, G; Bonzano, R; Bossart, Rudolf; Braun, H; Bravin, Enrico; Borburgh, J; Buttkus, J; Chazarenc, E; Chaput, R; Chohan, V; Cloye, J J; Corsini, R; Coudert, G; Damiani, M; Deghaye, S; Delahaye, J P; Di Maio, F; Dobers, T; Dubief, P; Dupuy, B; Durieu, L; Ferrari, A; Garvey, Terence; Geschonke, Günther; Hansen, J; Hellgren, H; Hourican, M; Lamidon, M; Le Duff, J; Lefèvre, T; Lewis, J H; Lindroos, J; Mahner, E; McMonagle, G; Monteiro, J; Mourier, J; Mouton, B; Odier, P; Otto, T; Pearce, P; Pittin, R; Poehler, M; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Rettig, M; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Riva, R; Rossat, G; Royer, P; Sermeus, L; Setas, K; Simonet, G; Sladen, Jonathan P H; Søby, L; Tanner, L; Tecker, F A; Thomi, J C; Wilson, Ian H; Yvon, G

    2001-01-01

    The design of CLIC is based on a two-beam scheme, where the short pulses of high power 30 GHz RF are extracted from a drive beam running parallel to the main beam. The 3rd generation CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) will demonstrate the generation of the drive beam with the appropriate time structure, the extraction of 30 GHz RF power from this beam, as well as acceleration of a probe beam with 30 GHz RF cavities. The project makes maximum use of existing equipment and infrastructure of the LPI complex, which became available after the closure of LEP. In the first stage of the project, the "Preliminary Phase", the existing LIL linac and the EPA ring, both modified to suit the new requirements, are used to investigate the technique of frequency multiplication by means of interleaving bunches from subsequent trains. This report describes the design of this phase.

  7. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaid Paulo A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preliminary laryngeal electromyography (LEMG data and botulinum toxin treatment in patients with dysphonia due to movement disorders. Twenty-five patients who had been clinically selected for botulinum toxin administration were examined, 19 with suspected laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia (SD, 5 with vocal tremor, and 1 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. LEMG evaluations were performed before botulinum toxin administration using monopolar electrodes. Electromyography was consistent with dystonia in 14 patients and normal in 5, and differences in frequency suggesting essential tremor in 3 and Parkinson tremors in 2. The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory.

  8. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.

  9. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  10. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Development of a distress inventory for cancer: preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Advances in cancer treatment have led to cure and prolongation of patients′ lives; however associated psychosocial problems, including distress, can detrimentally affect patients′ compliance with treatment and ultimately, their outcome. Symptom distress has been well addressed in many studies; however, psychological distress has only been quantified by using depression or anxiety scales/checklists or quality of life scales containing a distress sub scale/component or by the use of scales that are not psychological distress-specific. AIMS: The present study is an attempt to construct a psychological distress inventory for specific use with cancer patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The standardisation sample consisted of 63 randomly selected patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone/ were undergoing curative treatment at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Distress Inventory for Cancer contained 57 positively and negatively toned items. An item analysis was conducted, followed by a factor analysis, thereby identifying the domains influencing distress. RESULTS: The final questionnaire contained 26 items subdivided into four domains viz. the personal, spiritual, physical, and the family domains, with each domain providing a sub score. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach′s alpha of the scale was found to be 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These are the preliminary results of an ongoing study on global distress and tool development process. Reported here is the first step towards development of such tool.

  12. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  13. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  14. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  15. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  16. VEGF Expression in Patellar Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027

  17. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  18. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  19. Signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor: a new paradigm for multistate regulatory GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shu-ou; Schmid, Sandra L; Zhang, Xin

    2009-07-28

    The GTP-binding proteins or GTPases comprise a superfamily of proteins that provide molecular switches in numerous cellular processes. The "GTPase switch" paradigm, in which a GTPase acts as a bimodal switch that is turned "on" and "off" by external regulatory factors, has been used to interpret the regulatory mechanism of many GTPases for more than two decades. Nevertheless, recent work has unveiled an emerging class of "multistate" regulatory GTPases that do not adhere to this classical paradigm. Instead of relying on external nucleotide exchange factors or GTPase activating proteins to switch between the on and off states, these GTPases have the intrinsic ability to exchange nucleotides and to sense and respond to upstream and downstream factors. In contrast to the bimodal nature of the GTPase switch, these GTPases undergo multiple conformational rearrangements, allowing multiple regulatory points to be built into a complex biological process to ensure the efficiency and fidelity of the pathway. We suggest that these multistate regulatory GTPases are uniquely suited to provide spatial and temporal control of complex cellular pathways that require multiple molecular events to occur in a highly coordinated fashion.

  20. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  1. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  2. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    initial results are also presented along with a discussion of the preliminary findings. Comparative NDE of various defects in reinforced concrete specimens is a key component in identifying the most promising techniques and directing the research and development efforts needed to characterize concrete degradation in commercial NPPs. This requires access to the specimens for data collection using state-of-the-art technology. The construction of the specimen detailed in this report allows for an evaluation of how different NDE techniques may interact with the size and complexities of NPP concrete structures. These factors were taken into account when determining specimen size and features to ensure a realistic design. The lateral dimensions of the specimen were also chosen to mitigate unrealistic boundary effects that would not affect the results of field NPP concrete testing. Preliminary results show that, while the current methods are able to identify some of the deeper defects, improvements in data processing or hardware are necessary to be able to achieve the precision and reliability achieved in evaluating thinner and less heavily reinforced concrete structures.

  3. Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantifi...

  4. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  5. 血清CA125、甲胎蛋白及胎盘生长因子在胎盘早剥预测中的初步研究%A preliminary study of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor for prediction of placental abruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世凯; 宋莉莉; 陈铎

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测胎盘早剥、重度子痫前期及正常妊娠孕妇的血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平,探讨其与胎盘早剥的关系,为胎盘早剥的预测及早期诊断提供理论依据.方法:采用微粒酶免疫分析法( MEIA)和双抗体夹心ELISA法检测孕妇血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平.结果:胎盘早剥组CA125和甲胎蛋白明显高于其他两组,胎盘生长因子明显低于其他两组(P<0.05).结论:检测外周血CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平对于预测胎盘早剥具有一定的临床价值.%Objective: To detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha-fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in the pregnant women with placental abruption, the pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, and the normal pregnant women, explore their relationships with placental abruption, provide a theoretical basis for prediction and early diagnosis of placental abruption. Methods: Micropartical enzyme immu-noassay and double - antibody sandwich ELISA were used to detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor. Resnlts: The levels of serum CA123 and alpha - fetoprotein in placental abruption group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups, the level of placental growth factor in placental abruption group was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (P <0.05) . Conclusion: Detecting the levels of CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in peripheral blood has a certain clinical value for predicting placental abruption.

  6. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术难易度相关因素分析及其评分标准的初探%Analysis of factors related to difficulty level of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and preliminary study of its scoring criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 李军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a scoring criteria for assessment of the difficulty levels of laparoscopic cholecystectomy ( LC) . Methods The preoperative and intraopertive clinical data of 845 LC patients treated during a period of five years were analyzed. The data were firstly analyzed with univariate methods to screen out the risk factors causing the operative difficulties, which were further identified by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Numerical values were assigned to these factors to construct the scoring criteria predicting the difficulty levels of LC. Results The risk factors causing operative difficulties or even converting to open cholecystectomy ( OC) were identified, which included the thickness of gallbladder wall ( ≥4 mm) , diameter of the common bile duct ( ≥8 mm) , size of gallbladder ( ≥103 cm3 and <6. 3 cm3) , cholecystic inflammation and severe adhesions in the Calot's triangle. The scoring criteria for assessing difficulty levels of LC were obtained based on these factors. Conclusions The establishment of scoring criteria is clinically helpful for the selection of LC or OC convertion.%目的 建立腹腔镜(LC)难易程度的评分标准.方法 对5年间实施LC的845例患者术前、术中临床资料进行单因素分析,筛选引起手术困难的危险因素后进行Logistic多元回归分析,并对诸因素进行赋值,建立LC难易程度的评分标准.结果 胆囊壁增厚(≥4 mm),胆总管直径(CBD≥8 mm),胆囊体积(≥103 cm3或< 6.3 cm3),胆囊本身炎症状况,胆囊三角致密粘连等因素是导致手术困难乃至中转开腹(OC)的危险因素.根据上述因素建立LC难易程度评分标准.结论LC难易度评分标准的建立有利于临床选择LC或中转OC.

  7. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  8. Preliminary utilization of Iran's ERTS-1 data in the field of geology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavi, M. S.; Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of a number of selected ERTS-1 images undertaken in the fields of geology and water resources for the purpose of testing its applicability and usefulness for mapping the natural resources of Iran identified a number of geologic and hydrologic phenomena, such as previously unknown faults, streams, and lakes. Due to a number of limiting factors, the results of this study are by no means conclusive; yet, the encouraging results obtained demonstrate the importance of satellite imagery for multidisciplinary resource analysis purposes in Iran.

  9. Aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase G534A gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manisha Patnaik; Pallabi Pati; Surendra N. Swain; Manoj K. Mohapatra; Bhagirathi Dwibedi; Shantanu K. Kar; Manoranjan Ranjit

    2014-12-01

    Essential hypertension which accounts 90–95% of the total hypertension cases is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 G534A polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India. A total of 246 hypertensive subjects (males, 159; females, 87) and 274 normal healthy individuals (males, 158; females, 116) were enrolled in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis of genetic and biochemical data revealed that in this population the CT and TT genotypes of aldosterone synthase C-344T polymorphism, frequency of alcohol consumption and aldosterone levels were significantly high among the total as well as male hypertensives, while the AC and CC genotypes of angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C polymorphism were significantly high among the total as well as female hypertensives. High density lipoprotein levels were higher in male hypertensives.

  10. Aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase G534A gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manisha Patnaik; Pallabi Pati; Surendra N. Swain; Manoj K. Mohapatra; Bhagirathi Dwibedi; Shantanu K. Kar; Manoranjan Ranjit

    2015-06-01

    Essential hypertension which accounts 90–95% of the total hypertension cases is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 G534A polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India. A total of 246 hypertensive subjects (males, 159; females, 87) and 274 normal healthy individuals (males, 158; females, 116) were enrolled in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis of genetic and biochemical data revealed that in this population the CT and TT genotypes of aldosterone synthase C-344T polymorphism, frequency of alcohol consumption and aldosterone levels were significantly high among the total as well as male hypertensives, while the AC and CC genotypes of angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C polymorphism were significantly high among the total as well as female hypertensives. High density lipoprotein levels were higher in male hypertensives.

  11. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  12. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  13. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor:a regulator of Th17 and Treg cell development in disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peggy P Ho; Lawrence Steinman

    2008-01-01

    @@ The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)was discovered almost 30 years ago as a specific binding site for the halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon,2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD),an environmental toxin (as reviewed in [1]).Within the last decade,AhR was found to have a basic helixloop-helix and function as a ligand-activated transcription factor.Located in the cytoplasm of most cells,AhR forms a receptor complex with several proteins including the chaperone protein hsp90 (a 90kDa heat shock protein).

  14. Maternal nutrition influences angiogenesis in the placenta through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors: A novel hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Akshaya; Sundrani, Deepali; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-10-01

    Placental angiogenesis is critical to maintain adequate blood flow during gestation, and any alterations in this process can result in an adverse pregnancy. Growing evidence indicates that suboptimal maternal nutrition can alter placental development. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, maternal nutrition likely influences the expression of genes involved in placental development through regulation of various transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which can be activated by ligands including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Indeed, several studies demonstrated a role for PPAR in implantation, trophoblast differentiation, and angiogenesis. Alterations in maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect the expression of PPARs via epigenetic mechanisms or through homocysteine, which is known to compete for PPARs. This review discusses the role of maternal nutrition-particularly micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12 , and omega-3 fatty acids-in modulating the activity of PPARs during placentation and angiogenesis, which affects placental and fetal growth. Additional animal and human studies need to be undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which maternal nutrition regulates PPARs, specifically to determine whether PPARs affect placental angiogenesis directly through angiogenic factors or indirectly by modulating trophoblast differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preliminary conceptual design about the CEPC calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015.1 The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD2 as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%E (GeV) and 50%E (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/E (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  16. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  17. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  18. The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z.Y.

    2016-06-01

    BISOL, which was named as Beijing-ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He{sup 2+} beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.

  19. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  20. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  1. STACEE-32: Design, performance, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rene A.

    2000-06-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is designed to detect astrophysical sources of γ-rays at energies between 25 and 500 GeV. STACEE uses large solar mirrors (heliostats) to collect the atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in γ-ray air showers. The use of a large mirror collection area will allow STACEE to probe γ-ray sources at energies above the reach of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), but below the reach of conventional Cherenkov telescopes. During the 1998-99 observing season, a portion of STACEE using 32 heliostats was installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). This initial configuration (STACEE-32) observed a number of astronomical sources, including the Crab and several active galactic nuclei (AGN). Here we report on these observations. We highlight the experimental configuration and the preliminary results from the Crab data. The full STACEE experiment using 64 heliostats will be commissioned in 2000. .

  2. Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  3. Preliminary study natural gas; Foerstudie naturgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamnevik, Stefan; Carlsson, Tomas; Dyhr, Kurt

    2000-09-01

    FOA has carried out a preliminary study on natural gas for the Swedish National Energy Administration. To use natural gas as an energy source could be one step towards use of carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen content. It has a high heat of combustion, 55 MJ/kg, and a low emission of carbon dioxide, 2.8 kg/kg fuel or 0.051 kg/MJ. The carbon dioxide emission per energy unit is twice as high for coal, 75% higher for wood fuels, and 27% higher for fuel oils. The Swedish natural gas network starts at Malmoe and ends at Hyltebruk. The natural gas used is imported from Denmark by Sydgas AB. It would be possible in the future to get connections to the Russian and the Norwegian networks and also to import LNG by ship and store it to buffer the different consumption demands during summer and winter. Natural gas is non-toxic but can be suffocating due to too low oxygen content at high concentrations. Combustion with an inadequate air supply will form toxic carbon monoxide like other carbonaceous fuels. Natural gas/air mixtures may explode like other gaseous fuels. The gas is lighter than air and is therefore dispersed better than heavier gases like LPG. Natural gas is difficult to detonate unlike other gases.

  4. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  5. Modeling Malaysia's Energy System: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current dynamic and fragile world energy environment necessitates the development of new energy model that solely caters to analyze Malaysia’s energy scenarios. Approach: The model is a network flow model that traces the flow of energy carriers from its sources (import and mining through some conversion and transformation processes for the production of energy products to final destinations (energy demand sectors. The integration to the economic sectors is done exogeneously by specifying the annual sectoral energy demand levels. The model in turn optimizes the energy variables for a specified objective function to meet those demands. Results: By minimizing the inter temporal petroleum product imports for the crude oil system the annual extraction level of Tapis blend is projected at 579600 barrels per day. The aggregate demand for petroleum products is projected to grow at 2.1% year-1 while motor gasoline and diesel constitute 42 and 38% of the petroleum products demands mix respectively over the 5 year planning period. Petroleum products import is expected to grow at 6.0% year-1. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate that the model performs as expected. Thus other types of energy carriers such as natural gas, coal and biomass will be added to the energy system for the overall development of Malaysia energy model.

  6. Sociology of diagnosis: a preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2009-03-01

    Diagnoses are the classification tools of medicine, and are pivotal in the ways medicine exerts its role in society. Their sociological study is commonly subsumed under the rubrics of medicalisation, history of medicine and theory of disease. Diagnosis is, however, a powerful social tool, with unique features and impacts which deserve their own specific analysis. The process of diagnosis provides the framework within which medicine operates, punctuates the values which medicine espouses, and underlines the authoritative role of both medicine and the doctor. Diagnosis takes place at a salient juncture between illness and disease, patient and doctor, complaint and explanation. Despite calls for its establishment, almost two decades ago (Brown 1990), there is not yet a clear sociology of diagnosis. This paper argues that there should be, and, as a first step, draws together a number of threads of medical sociology that potentially contribute to this proposed sociology of diagnosis, including the place of diagnosis in the institution of medicine, the social framing of disease definitions, the means by which diagnosis confers authority to medicine, and how that authority is challenged. Through this preliminary review, I encourage sociology to consider the specific role of diagnosis in view of establishing a specific sub-disciplinary field.

  7. Preliminary Report on Coining of Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P; Wall, M; Hodge, N; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-27

    We were tasked with developing a coining technique that would evaluate the feasibility of using a pressing, or coining process to imprint a one-dimensional sinusoidal pattern onto a thin disk specimen. We performed finite element method simulations of the coining process, designed, built, and tested a coining apparatus and tested surrogate materials, and coined a sample of special nuclear material. The preliminary results were encouraging. The pressing of a 3-mm diameter by {approx}100 {micro}m thick disc to 500 pounds of pressure produced a flat part with a 1-{micro}m deep by 50-{micro}m period sine wave pattern covering all of the surface and thus demonstrated the method for replicating ultraprecision, mesoscale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank. This coining technique is being developed to provide specialty processing for the manufacturing of difficult to machine, millimeter-size components made from materials that present hazardous conditions. The technology is versatile and can be used to imprint a wide range of features, or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The coining process requires a simple, conceivably hand held tool, which efficiently produces ultra-precision work pieces without the production of byproducts such as machining chips, or grinding swarf. It shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required.

  8. ALMA Nutator Design and Preliminary Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M; Ni, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wei-Long; Chen, Ming-Tang; Raffin, Philippe; Ong, Chin-Long; Ho, Paul T P; Symmes, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the past two years of collaboration between the di?erent actors on the ALMA nutator. Building on previous developments, the nutator has seen changes in much of the design. A high-modulus carbon ?fiber structure has been added on the back of the mirror in order to transfer the voice coils forces with less deformation, thus reducing delay problems due to flexing. The controller is now an off?-the-shelf National Instrument NI-cRIO, and the ampli?fier a class D servo drive from Advanced Motion Controls, with high peak power able to drive the coils at 300 Volts DC. The stow mechanism has been totally redesigned to improve on the repeatability and precision of the stow position, which is also the reference for the 26 bits Heidenhain encoders. This also improves on the accuracy of the stow position with wind loading. Finally, the software, written largely with National Instrument's LabView, has been developed. We will discuss these changes and the preliminary performances achieved to date. Keywords: ALMA, ...

  9. The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S. X.; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    BISOL, which was named as Beijing_ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He2+ beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.

  10. Prostate elastography: preliminary in vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S. K.; Feleppa, E. J.; Kalisz, A.; Ramchandran, S.; Ennis, R. D.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Wuu, C.-S.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-01

    We report preliminary results from our investigation of in vivo prostate elastography. Fewer than 50% of all prostate cancers are typically visible in current clinical imaging modalities. Elastography displays a map of strain that results when tissue is externally compressed. Thus, elastography is ideal for imaging prostate cancers because they are generally stiffer than the surrounding tissue and stiffer regions usually exhibit lower strain in elastograms. In our study, digital radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound echo data were acquired from prostate-cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy. Seed placement is guided by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe, which is held in a mechanical fixture. The probe can be moved in XYZ directions and tilted. The probe face, in contact with the rectal wall, is used to apply a compression force to the immediately adjacent prostate. We also used a water-filled (acoustic) coupling balloon to compress the prostate by increasing the water volume inside the balloon. In each scan plane (transverse), we acquired RF data from successive scans at the scanner frame rate as the deformation force on the rectal wall was continuously increased. We computed strain using 1D RF cross-correlation analysis. The compression method based on fixture displacement produced low-noise elastograms that beautifully displayed the prostate architecture and emphasized stiff areas. Balloon-based compression also produced low-noise elastograms. Initial results demonstrate that elastography may be useful in the detection and evaluation of prostate cancers, occult in conventional imaging modalities.

  11. A preliminary profile of Australian women accessing doula care: findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Frawley, Jane; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Despite growing interest and controversy regarding the value of doulas in contemporary maternity care, little is known about the profile of women who choose to involve a doula in their care team. This preliminary analysis indicates that women's attitudes towards maternity care may influence their use of a doula more so than demographic factors. Further research examining these issues in more detail is needed for all those involved in maternity care to ensure safe maternal and fetal outcomes.

  12. 33 CFR 1.07-25 - Preliminary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-25 Preliminary matters. (a... issue will preclude its consideration. (b) The right to a hearing is waived if the party does not...

  13. Preliminary report on Lake Bowdoin near Malta, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary report covers the physical features, land ownership, and water resources of the Lake Bowdoin area as part of a habitat improvement project.

  14. Wrinkle Ridges in Aeolis Dorsa, Mars: Preliminary Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, R. M.; Burr, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    Previous work has interpreted wrinkle ridges as compressional landforms caused by movement along blind thrust faults. Our preliminary mapping in the Aeolis Dorsa, Mars has identified widely distributed wrinkle ridges, suggesting episodic contraction.

  15. Preliminary Report on Seaside Sparrow Population Genetics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary report on a genetic variation study that was conducted at St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Blood samples were taken from 57 Seaside...

  16. Preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the late winter and early springs 1995, we conducted a preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh (NCM), at the south end of San Francisco Bay,...

  17. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  18. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  20. Preliminary fishery management report : Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of fishery management at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge was conducted from June 18 to 20, 1952. This brief preliminary report will serve to highlight the...

  1. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  2. Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub-Saharan ... upon their life histories and degree of association with estuarine environments. ... Estuarine fish communities in Africa are strongly influenced by the prevailing ...

  3. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  4. FY2012 Office of Child Support Preliminary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Preliminary Report highlights financial and statistical program achievements based on quarterly and annual data. In fiscal year (FY)...

  5. A biogeographic study of intermountain leeches : Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary report for a five year study on leeches in the intermountain west. This work began out of curiosity to determine what, besides fishes, occurred in the...

  6. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, M.; ABRAHAM.G.C; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alka...

  8. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  9. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of the following three subtypes: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. Activation of PPAR-α reduces triglyceride level and is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR-γ causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPAR- β/δ enhances fatty acids metabolism. Thus, PPAR family of nuclear receptors plays a major regulatory role in energy homeostasis and metabolic function. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in dyslipidemia, diabetes, adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fertility or reproduction, pain, and obesity.

  10. Preliminary microphysical characterization of precipitation at ground over Antarctica coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Montopoli, Mario; Baldini, Luca; Dietrich, Stefano; Porcù, Federico

    2017-04-01

    processing PSD spectra. Software provided by disdrometer manufacturer assumes spherical shape to compute the size and the fall velocity of the particle. In the case of solid precipitation, this assumption can be unrealistic. However, averaging over a long time the influence of irregular shape of the particles can be reduced. Despite this limit, the Parsivel disdrometer has been used in several study to measure falling snow. In this work, some preliminary measurements from OTT Parsivel at MSZ are presented. In particular, the PSD collected during summer season 2016-2017 are analyzed in order to infer microphysical characteristics of snows in Antarctica. A specific methodology to estimate the reflectivity factor and the snow rate from snow size spectra collected by Parsivel is investigated. Microphysical properties of Antarctica precipitating clouds, in particular PSD, are compared to measurements collected by disdrometer during snow events in other regions, such as the data collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in Ontario, Canada.

  11. Preliminary analysis of factors which elevate blood pressure levels among children in three provinces of China%我国三省7~13岁儿童血压升高影响因素的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟荣; 翟屹; 沈冲; 宋逸; 施小明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童血压升高的影响因素,为制定儿童高血压预防控制措施提供参考依据.方法 数据来源于中国疾病预防控制中心青年科研基金“我国6~13岁学龄儿童主要慢性病干预模式及适宜技术研究”项目,选取江苏、山东、广西3省的调查资料,包括血压测量与相关因素调查,分析儿童血压升高的影响因素.结果 共收集2774名7~13岁儿童的资料,该人群血压升高检出率为28.6%,男、女儿童检出率分别为29.8%、27.1%;城市、乡村儿童血压升高检出率分别为31.5%、24.8%.单因素分析显示,居住地类型(城市或乡村)、居住地区、高血压家族史、超重肥胖、中心型肥胖、身高、出生体重以及早餐、蔬菜、奶制品的食用频率、早餐包括咸菜与儿童血压升高有统计学关联(均有P<0.05);多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示,居住地类型、超重肥胖、身高、居住地区、早餐包括咸菜是儿童高血压升高的危险因素.结论 超重肥胖、常食用咸菜是儿童血压升高的危险因素,控制肥胖是减少儿童高血压的重要措施.%Objective To evaluate the factors which elevate blood pressure levels in children and to provide evidence for hypertension prevention. Methods The data was collected from the "6~ 13 Year Old Children Predominant Chronic Diseases Intervention Model and Technology Study in China", funded by the Chinese CDC Research Foundation for Youth, with selected survey data from Jiangsu, Shandong, and Guangxi provinces, which investigated influential factors of high blood pressure levels in China. Results Data was collected from 2 774 children aged 7~13, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 28.6% . Univariate analysis showed that the type of residence (urban or rural), province of residence, family history of hypertension, overweight and obesity, central obesity, height, and birth weight, as well as frequency of breakfast

  12. Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  14. Failure of Magnetic Fluid Seals Operating in Water: Preliminary Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewski Leszek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses properties of magnetic fluid seals installed in rotary sealing nodes which operate in the utility water environment. Seals of this type have been examined as a possible solution to the problem with ship manoeuvring propulsion sealing. The present analysis bases on laboratory durability tests of magnetic fluid seals exposed to longterm utility water loads, at different water pressures and shaft revolutions. The basic seal durability criterion was the number of revolutions made by the sealing node shaft until the appearance of water tightness loss (leakage. It was found that the main factor leading to the wear of the seal is the relative speed of the magnetic fluid with respect to that of the utility water, and this process is heavily affected by the pressure acting on the seal. The reported test results are presented in the form of diagrams showing the seal durability (time until water tightness loss as a function of rotational speed. The curves shown in the diagrams are regular, with two different rotational speed ranges: the highspeed range, when the tightness loss is relatively fast, and the low-speed range, with a clear tendency to prolong the seal lifetime. These diagrams were given the name of durability curves of the MF seal operating in water. The results of the performed tests suggest formal similarity between the experimental data distribution concerning tightness loss processes occurring in magnetic fluid seals operating in water environment and metal fatigue processes. The article proposes a preliminary simplified durability model to describe the examined phenomenon.

  15. Environmental and perceived stress in Australian dental undergraduates: Preliminary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Astill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dental students have reported a high prevalence of psychological stress and the causes are associated with the challenging dental environmental and demographic factors. This study aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation on dental students’ stress status, using a sample of first-to-third-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students in an Australian university. Special interests included causes of dental environmental stress and access to help services. Methods. A sample of 145 students was surveyed with a modified Dental Environmental Survey and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale in 2014. The participants’ demographic information was also collected. Results. The response rate was 95.4%. Second-year (P = 0.042, third-year (P < 0.001 and employed students (P = 0.027 were more likely to report stress resulting from transition to clinical learning. Third-year students were more often stressed about communicating and approaching staff (P = 0.023 as well as different opinions between staff (P < 0.001 and reduced holidays (P < 0.001. Students that were younger than 21 years of age (P = 0.001, that were first years (P < 0.001, and that were not in a relationship (P = 0.010 more often found difficulty of course work stressful. Students who were not in a relationship more often considered learning manual dexterity a source of stress (P = 0.034. Students previously seeking professional help were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.010. Conclusion. Causes of dental environment stress varied among years of study and demographic backgrounds. Professional support to stressed students should be enhanced. Further investigation is indicated.

  16. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  17. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  18. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  19. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  20. Preliminary status of the CALET observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, which has been developed by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, is a high-energy astroparticle physics mission to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary goals of the CALET mission include investigating possible nearby sources of high energy electrons, studying the details of galactic particle propagation and searching for dark matter signatures. During a two- year mission, extendable to five years, the CALET experiment will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma-rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to several 100 TeV. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument was launched on Aug. 19, 2015 to the ISS with HTV-5 (H-II Transfer Vehicle 5) and was successfully berthed to the Japanese Experiment Module- Exposure Facility (JEM-EF) . After a functional check-out phase until the beginning of October, it started an initial operation phase which was completed on Nov. 17, whence it began its standard operation phase. This paper will review the preliminary status of the CALET.

  1. Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, Tarek [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  2. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  3. BASE Flexible Array Preliminary Lithospheric Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Anderson, M. L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Erslev, E.; Harder, S. H.; Miller, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) is a Flexible Array experiment integrated with EarthScope. The goal of BASE is to develop a better understanding of how basement-involved foreland arches form and what their link is to plate tectonic processes. To achieve this goal, the crustal structure under the Bighorn Mountain range, Bighorn Basin, and Powder River Basin of northern Wyoming and southern Montana are investigated through the deployment of 35 broadband seismometers, 200 short period seismometers, 1600 “Texan” instruments using active sources and 800 “Texan” instruments monitoring passive sources, together with field structural analysis of brittle structures. The novel combination of these approaches and anticipated simultaneous data inversion will give a detailed structural crustal image of the Bighorn region at all levels of the crust. Four models have been proposed for the formation of the Bighorn foreland arch: subhorizontal detachment within the crust, lithospheric buckling, pure shear lithospheric thickening, and fault blocks defined by lithosphere-penetrating thrust faults. During the summer of 2009, we deployed 35 broadband instruments, which have already recorded several magnitude 7+ teleseismic events. Through P wave receiver function analysis of these 35 stations folded in with many EarthScope Transportable Array stations in the region, we present a preliminary map of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. This crustal map is our first test of how the unique Moho geometries predicted by the four hypothesized models of basement involved arches fit seismic observations for the Bighorn Mountains. In addition, shear-wave splitting analysis for our first few recorded teleseisms helps us determine if strong lithospheric deformation is preserved under the range. These analyses help lead us to our final goal, a complete 4D (3D spatial plus temporal) lithospheric-scale model of arch formation which will advance our understanding of the mechanisms

  4. Preliminary classification criteria for the cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, S; Soldano, F; Isola, M; Monti, G; Gabrielli, A; Tzioufas, A; Ferri, C; Ferraccioli, G F; Quartuccio, L; Corazza, L; De Marchi, G; Casals, M Ramos; Voulgarelis, M; Lenzi, M; Saccardo, F; Fraticelli, P; Mascia, M T; Sansonno, D; Cacoub, P; Tomsic, M; Tavoni, A; Pietrogrande, M; Zignego, A L; Scarpato, S; Mazzaro, C; Pioltelli, P; Steinfeld, S; Lamprecht, P; Bombardieri, S; Galli, M

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop preliminary classification criteria for the cryoglobulinaemic syndrome or cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV). Methods Study part I developed a questionnaire for CV to be included in the formal, second part (study part II). Positivity of serum cryoglobulins was defined by experts as an essential condition for CV classification. In study part II, a core set of classification items (questionnaire, clinical and laboratory items, as agreed) was tested in three groups of patients and controls—that is, group A (new patients with the CV), group B (controls with serum cryoglobulins but lacking CV) and group C (controls without serum cryoglobulins but with features which can be observed in CV). Results In study part I (188 cases, 284 controls), a positive response to at least two of three selected questions showed a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 83.5% for CV. This questionnaire was employed and validated in study part II, which included 272 patients in group A and 228 controls in group B. The final classification criteria for CV, by pooling data from group A and group B, required the positivity of questionnaire plus clinical, questionnaire plus laboratory, or clinical plus laboratory items, or all the three, providing a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 93.6% for CV. By comparing data in group A versus group C (425 controls), the same classification criteria showed a sensitivity 88.5% and a specificity 97.0% for CV. Conclusion Classification criteria for CV were developed, and now need validation. PMID:21571735

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  6. The relationship between the presence of autoantibodies, indicators of local and systemic inflammation, the serum concentration of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and the intensity of salivary gland infiltration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome – a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to find markers related to activation of B cells, which show a correlation with the systemic inflammation markers – erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein and with the intensity of in situ inflammation. Material and methods Forty-one primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients (33 female, 8 male) of the mean age 52.9 ±15 years were included. A group of 20 healthy volunteers was applied as a control. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), concentration of gamma-globulins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured by routine laboratory tests. Titres of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method, while anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies were detected by both the dot-blot method and an enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of BAFF in sera were measured by sandwich ELISA. Biopsies of minor salivary glands were taken and the focus score (FS) was calculated. Correlations between quantitative variables were assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r). Results Serum concentrations of BAFF was significantly higher in the pSS patients than in the control group. The study revealed a statistically significant correlation between ANAs titre and the FS (r = 0.421). Anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies positively correlated with ESR. There was also a positive correlation between the gamma globulin level and the titres of all tested autoantibodies. Conclusions The positive correlation between ANAs and FS confirms the importance of these autoantibodies in the local inflammatory process. The positive correlation between anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies and ESR suggests involvement of these antibodies in generalization of the inflammatory response. In the pSS group serum concentrations of BAFF were statistically significantly higher than healthy volunteers. All presented results confirm the role of activity of B cells in the course of pSS. PMID:27407265

  7. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  8. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo.

  9. The Melanocortin 3 Receptor: A Novel Mediator of Exercise-Induced Inflammation Reduction in Postmenopausal Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Henagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether resistance exercise training-induced reductions in inflammation are mediated via melanocortin 3 receptor expression in obese (BMI 32.7±3.7 women (65.6±2.8 yrs randomized to either a control (=11 or resistance training group (=12. The resistance trained group performed resistance training 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Resting blood samples were collected before and after the training intervention in both resistance trained and control groups. Resistance training upregulated melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA by 16-fold (=.035 and decreased monocyte count, without changing leukocyte number, body composition, or body weight. Resistance trained individuals exhibited increased sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli, whereas control individuals exhibited no change. While there was no change in whole blood tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA between the groups, whole blood interleukin 10 mRNA was higher in the resistance trained group following the intervention period. In summary, it appears that resistance training may modulate melanocortin 3 receptor expression, providing a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training.

  10. Adenosine A3 Receptor: A promising therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishat, Shamama; Khan, Luqman A; Ansari, Zafar M; Basir, Seemi F

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are one of the major factors for early mortality in the present worldwide scenario and have become a major challenge in both developing and developed nations. It has thus become of immense importance to look for different therapeutic possibilities and treatments for the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases. Recent advancements in research have opened various means for better understanding of the complication and treatment of the disease. Adenosine receptors have become tool of choice in understanding the signaling mechanism which might lead to the cardiovascular complications. Adenosine A3 receptor is one of the important receptor which is extensively studied as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disorder. Recent studies have shown that A3AR is involved in the amelioration of cardiovascular complications by altering the expression of A3R. This review focuses towards the therapeutic potential of A3AR involved in cardiovascular disease and it might help in better understanding of mechanism by which this receptor may prove useful in improving the complications arising due to various cardiovascular diseases. Understanding of A3AR signaling may also help to develop newer agonists and antagonists which might be prove helpful in the treatment of cardiovascular disorder.

  11. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium M. Shamaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in hypertension-related genes can affect blood pressure (BP via alteration of salt and water reabsorption by the nephron. The genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been extensively studied because of the well documented role of this system in the control of BP. It has been previously shown that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1 gene polymorphism could be associated with increased risk of EH. So, in the current study, we evaluated the frequency of ATR1 (A1166C polymorphism in relation to EH in a group of Egyptian population. The study population included 83 hypertensive patients and 60 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism – Polymerase chain reaction (RFLP – PCR was used for the analysis of A1166C polymorphism of ATR1 genes in peripheral blood samples of all patients and controls. The results revealed that there was a positive risk of developing EH when having the T allele whether in homozygous or heterozygous state. From this work, it was concluded that there was an association between ATR1 (A1166C gene polymorphism and the risk of developing EH.

  12. Interaction model of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) with sweet taste receptors: A computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayank; Jaitak, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Docking studies were performed on natural sweeteners from Stevia rebaudiana by constructing homology models of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits of human sweet taste receptors. Ramachandran plot, PROCHECK results and ERRAT overall quality factor were used to validate the quality of models. Furthermore, docking results of steviol glycosides (SG's) were correlated significantly with data available in the literature which enabled to predict the exact sweetness rank order of SG's. The binding pattern indicated that Asn 44, Ans 52, Ala 345, Pro 343, Ile 352, Gly 346, Gly 47, Ala 354, Ser 336, Thr 326 and Ser 329 are the main interacting amino acid residues in case of T1R2 and Arg 56, Glu 105, Asp 215, Asp 216, Glu 148, Asp 258, Lys 255, Ser 104, Glu 217, Leu 51, Arg 52 for T1R3, respectively. Amino acids interact with SG's mainly by forming hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group of glucose moieties. Significant variation in docked poses of all the SG's were found. In this study, we have proposed the mechanism of the sweetness of the SG's in the form of multiple point stimulation model by considering the diverse binding patterns of various SG's, as well as their structural features. It will give further insight in understanding the differences in the quality of taste and will be used to improve the taste of SG's using semi-synthetic approaches.

  13. Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale (DASAS – Adaptation of the metod and preliminary psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Finogenow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents the results of the study on the Polish version of the revised Emotional Labor Scale (ELS, developed by Lee and Brotheridge. The ELS measures deep acting and 2 aspects of surface acting (hiding feelings and faking emotions. Material and Methods: Psychometric characteristics of the Polish version of the ELS, named Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale (DASAS, were analyzed in the preliminary study on 332 people working in various service professions. We verified factor structure of the scale, its reliability, and construct validity (that is, the relationships between its subscales and other measures of workplace functioning. Results: The results indicated that the DASAS has good psychometric properties which are comparable with the characteristics of the original scale. We replicated a 3-factor structure of the scale and confirmed its satisfying internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusions: The preliminary findings suggest that the DASAS is an adequate measure of deep and surface acting. Med Pr 2015;66(3:359–371

  14. An instrument for measuring pharmacist and physician attitudes towards collaboration: preliminary psychometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an instrument for measuring attitudes toward pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships for administration to practicing pharmacists and physicians, as well as to students in pharmacy and medical schools. Based on a review of literature, a preliminary version of an instrument was developed (30 items), and through a pilot study of face validity and content validity with 12 pharmacists and 10 physicians, 18 items were chosen for quantitative analyses. We asked 88 respondents (61 pharmacists, 27 physicians) to judge the relevance, clarity, and representativeness of each item to the concept of pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships. Sixteen items with a relevancy endorsement greater than 85% and significant item-total score correlations were retained. The following underlying constructs emerged from factor analysis: "collaboration and team work," "accountability," "overlapping responsibility," and "authority". These factors supported the multidimensionality and construct validity of the instrument. No gender difference was observed; however, pharmacists scored higher than physicians on the total score of the instrument. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha was .81 for pharmacists, .92 for physicians, and .87 for the combined sample. Encouraged by these preliminary findings, we plan to undertake further research to examine the instrument's psychometric properties including criterion-related and predictive validities with larger and more representative samples of pharmacists, physicians, and students in pharmacy and medical schools.

  15. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  16. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  17. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  18. 家畜出栏率影响因素初探——以西藏4地市为例%A preliminary study on influencing factors of livestock slaughter rates A case study in four cities of Tibet Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 白玛卓嘎; 其米旺姆; 魏学红

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires and interviews were used to investigate factors that affected livestock slaughter rates based on ages of farmers, educational background, livestock structure, sales and the farmers' wish in the four cities of Tibet Autonomous Region. The results showed that farmers and herders over the age of 31 had stronger ideological conflicts about improving slaughter rates due to the influence of the ideas of wealth and religious. Qthers farmers and herders under the age of 31 with a higher educational background hoped to improve slaughter rates and were able to accept ideas of planting artificial grass. University students had much different opinions on wealth and religious thought campared with the farmers and herd- ers. The students could better accept the new ideas and have a much stronger willingness to improve the rate of livestock for sale which had important significance to promote the rate of domestic animals for sale in pastoral areas and reduce the pressure on natural grassland in the future.%以西藏自治区4地市为代表,采用问卷、访问等调查形式,从农牧民的年龄、学历,畜群结构、出栏情况以及农牧民对提高家畜出栏率的意愿等方面进行调查,来了解影响家畜出栏率的因素。结果表明,31岁以上农牧民由于受财富观念和宗教思想的影响,对提高出栏率方面有较强的抵触思想;学历较高的30岁以下的农牧民有提高家畜出栏率的意愿,能够接受人工饲草种植;在校大学生财富观念和宗教思想与普通农牧民有很大不同,可以较好地接受新思想,有很强的提高出栏率的意愿,这在将来对提高农牧区家畜出栏率和减轻天然草地压力具有重要意义。

  19. Preliminary study on preparation of human coagulation factor Ⅷ using ion exchange chromatography with FG TMAE%以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质的离子交换层析制备人凝血因子Ⅷ的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梅芳; 是翡; 吴志韡; 吴云涛; 夏祯; 许静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore preparation of human coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ)using ion exchange chromatography (ICE) with a strong anion exchanger FG TMAE as separating medium.Methods The initial conditions of ICE were identified by linear gradient elution using eluent containing different concentrations of NaCl.Ionic strength and pH value of the wash solution and eluentand and temperature of the sample were optimized to finally identify the optimum conditions of ICE with FG TMAE.Results When ICE was carried out using wash solution containing 220 mmol/L NaCl and eluent containing 450 mmol/L NaCl at pH7.0 in room temperature (20-25 ℃),recoveries (77.53%) and specific activity (24.67 IU/mg) of FⅧ were both high.Conclusion FⅧ preparation using ICE with FG TMAE is feasible.%目的 初步探索以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质进行离子交换层析来制备人凝血因子Ⅷ.方法 以含不同氯化钠浓度的洗脱液进行线性梯度来初步确定离子交换层析的条件,并优化离子交换层析的洗涤液和洗脱液的离子强度和pH值以及样品的温度,最终确定以强阴离子交换剂FGTMAE为介质进行离子交换层析的最适条件.结果 在室温(20~25℃)条件下,以pH 7.0的含220 mmol/L氯化钠的洗涤液和pH 7.0的含450 mmol/L氯化钠的洗脱液进行离子交换层析,可使人凝血因子Ⅷ的回收率(77.53%)和比活性(24.67 IU/mg)均较高.结论 以强阴离子交换剂FG TMAE为介质进行离子交换层析制备人凝血因子Ⅷ是可行的.

  20. Proteolytic fragmentation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: a novel mechanism regulating channel activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2016-06-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) release channels. Regulation of channel activity by Ca(2+) , nucleotides, phosphorylation, protein binding partners and other cellular factors is thought to play a major role in defining the specific spatiotemporal characteristics of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. These properties are, in turn, believed pivotal for the selective and specific physiological activation of Ca(2+) -dependent effectors. IP3 Rs are also substrates for the intracellular cysteine proteases, calpain and caspase. Cleavage of the IP3 R has been proposed to play a role in apoptotic cell death by uncoupling regions important for IP3 binding from the channel domain, leaving an unregulated leaky Ca(2+) pore. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate following proteolysis that N- and C-termini of IP3 R1 remain associated, presumably through non-covalent interactions. Further, we show that complementary fragments of IP3 R1 assemble into tetrameric structures and retain their ability to be regulated robustly by IP3 . While peptide continuity is clearly not necessary for IP3 -gating of the channel, we propose that cleavage of the IP3 R peptide chain may alter other important regulatory events to modulate channel activity. In this scenario, stimulation of the cleaved IP3 R may support distinct spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals and activation of specific effectors. Notably, in many adaptive physiological events, the non-apoptotic activities of caspase and calpain are demonstrated to be important, but the substrates of the proteases are poorly defined. We speculate that proteolytic fragmentation may represent a novel form of IP3 R regulation, which plays a role in varied adaptive physiological processes.

  1. N-Glycosylation on different tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein: a preliminary analysis%不同肿瘤坏死因子受体-Fc融合蛋白N-糖基化修饰糖链的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何椿鹏; 华玲; 杨小盼; 万德有; 李萌萌; 王清清; 陈方; 董立厚; 高新

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立基于LC-MS的N-糖基化修饰糖链的分析方法,并比较不同肿瘤坏死因子受体(TNFR)-Fc融合蛋白N-糖基化修饰差异.方法 用肽-N-糖苷酶F释放糖蛋白中的修饰糖链,有机溶剂沉淀蛋白后,利用还原胺化反应将2-氨基苯甲酰胺标记至糖链上,并通过亲水作用萃取柱除去过量标记试剂,所得糖链采用ZIC-HILIC亲水作用色谱柱结合离子阱质谱进行分析.以市售TNFR-Fc融合蛋白为标准品,优化影响标记效率的各种因素后,对A和B两种TNFR-Fc融合蛋白制品的N-糖基化修饰糖链进行了分析和比较.结果 TNFR-Fc融合蛋白A和B中的修饰糖链主要含有岩藻糖、末端唾液酸、末端半乳糖、末端N-乙酰葡糖胺等糖型,且末端唾液酸含量相近,但融合蛋白A的岩藻糖和末端N-乙酰基葡萄糖的含量显著高于融合蛋白B,而融合蛋白B末端半乳糖含量高于融合蛋白A.结论 成功建立了基于LC-MS的N-糖基化修饰糖链的分析方法,该方法可有效分析糖蛋白中的修饰糖链类型和含量比例,对于详细表征糖蛋白药物结构及性质具有参考价值,并为进一步研究糖基化对糖蛋白药物药理活性以及药代动力学研究奠定了良好基础.%Objective To develop a method for N-glycans analysis based on LC-MS,and compare the N-glycans of different tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-Fc fusion proteins.Methods Glycans were released from TNFR-Fc fusion glycoproteins by PNGase F.Proteins were removed by precipitation with organic solvent and the oligosaccharides were evaporated to dryness and then labeled with 2-aminobenzamide.After excess 2-aminobenzamide was removed from the labeling samples by hydrophilic solid phase extraction column,the glycans were separated on ZIC-HILIC columns and then analyzed with linear ion trap mass spectrometer.The N-glycans analysis method was developed with the commercially available TNFR-Fc fusion glycoprotein,the factors affecting

  2. The preliminary study of molecular imaging of colorectal cancer cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide-based MR targeting probe containing vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro%抗血管内皮生长因子MR靶向超顺磁性分子探针的构建及体外大肠癌细胞显像的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨; 李健丁; 张瑞平; 辛磊; 李晶

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-based MR probe containing vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) to investigate their biological and chemical properties and targeting effect of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Methods The anti-VEGF-SPIO probe was fabricated with VEGF antibody and SPIO through chemical method. Its biological and chemical properties and reflexivity were tested with SDS-PAGE and MRL The SW620 cells incubated with anti-VEGF-SPIO probe for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively and compared with marrow mesenchymal stem cell at 37℃. The comparison among groups was conducted by using analysis of variance and LSD-t test. The MRI results were confirmed by the Prussian blue staining. The comparison among groups was performed by analysis of variance and factorial experiment. Results SPIO-based MR probe containing VEGF was successfully contributed and isolated. The reflexivity of anti-VEGF-SPIO probe was 0.0426×10~6 mol/s. The immunofluorescence and prussia blue stain proved high expression of VEGF in SW620 cells. Anti-VEGF-SPIO probe and SW620 cellscombined at 37℃ in vitro MRI proved the SW620 cells incubated with anti-VEGF-SPIO probe appeared hypointense on T_2WI and T_2~* WI. MR signal were 392±7,91±8,264±10 for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively, which were statistically different from that before incubation 679±12 (F=4735.489, P0.05). Conclusion Nanoscale iron particles containing the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor molecular probe can evaluate tumor angiogenesis at the receptor level, which provides a new way of the tumor angiogenesis diagnosis and anti-angiogenesis therapy.%目的 探讨携带纳米铁颗粒的抗血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)分子探针的构建方法及其生物理化性状,以及对体外大肠癌细胞的靶向作用.方法 采用化学交联法构建抗体分子探针,应用十二烷基磺酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳及MR扫描仪检测抗体对比剂的生化及磁学特性.将抗

  3. 社区居家老人骨质疏松相关生活方式与疾病因素的初步调查%The preliminary investigation on life-styles and disease factors related to osteoporosis among community elderly residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭月琴; 王军; 朱晓晖; 崔世维; 杨建军

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于南通市居民健康信息系统,了解社区居家老年人对骨质疏松相关因素的知晓率,为完善社区卫生服务内容、方式以及早期干预提供理论依据,同时也为政府指导和制定老年人口健康策略提供第一手数据。方法:自行设计调查问卷,对南通市学田社区60岁及以上老年人进行抽样问卷调查,内容包括基本情况、生活方式、疾病史、饮食情况等。数据比较采用t检或χ2检验。结果:共194例老年人参与了本次调查,骨质疏松相关生活方式:吸烟(12.4%),饮酒(19.1%),经常饮用浓茶(21.6%),经常补钙(17.5%),经常喝牛奶(51.5%),以素为主(86.1%),经常吃杂粮(76.8%),规律运动(72.2%),长时间静坐(8.2%),定期体检(86.6%);骨质疏松相关疾病:糖尿病占(17.5%),高血压(61.3%),高血脂(38.7%),甲状腺功能亢进(4.6%),风湿病(10.3%),非暴力骨折史(23.2%),慢性腰腿痛(65.5%),严重心脑血管病(30.4%),慢性肝炎(6.2%)。不同性别、年龄、家庭月收入与骨质疏松相关生活方式和疾病因素的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。另外,电视广播是骨质疏松相关知识传播的主要渠道(知晓率51.0%)。结论:本社区老年人群中骨质疏松相关不良生活方式仍占相当比例,人群普遍患有骨质疏松相关疾病,提示应加大对社区老年人群骨质疏松的健康宣教力度,普查骨质疏松的发病情况,有效诊治骨质疏松相关疾病,将老年人群骨质疏松的防治关口前移。%Objec tive: Based on the health information platform of community inhabitant in Nantong , to investigate the awareness of osteoporosis influence factors among community elderly population,provide the theoretical evidence for improving the community health service content, ways and early intervention, and give the first-hand data to government for guiding and establishing elderly population health

  4. 慢性肾病对患者认知功能的影响及其相关因素的初步研究%Impact of chronic kidney disease on patients' cognitive function and its related factors: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 邓志宽; 赵景宏; 黄云剑; 冯兵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on patients' cognitive function and its related factors.Methods A total of 266 patients diagnosed with 3-5 stage CKD,age > 18 years,enrolled as outpatients or inpatients in our nephrology department from June 2014 to June 2015,were subjected this study.According to the value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),the patients were divided into stage 3 CKD group (CKD3) (60 mL/min > eGFR≥ 30 mL/min,n =92),stage 4 CKD group (CKD4) (30 mL/min >eGFR≥ 15 mL/min,n=96) and stage 5 CKD group (CKD5) (eGFR < 15 mL/min,n =78).Eighty cases of control were recruited from hospital staffs following the criteria:normal appearance,eGFR > 90 mL/min and matched age,sex,and education level with the patients.Minimental state examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate the subjects' cognitive function.The levels of serum creatinine (Cr),urea nitrogen (UN),uric acid (UA),cholesterol (CHE),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by OLYMPUS AU2700 automatic biochemical analyzer.Hemoglobin (Hb) level was examined by XFA9500 automatic blood cell analyzer.All data were analyzed using statistical software SSPS 13.0.Results The overall incidence of cognitive impairment in stage 3-5 CKD groups was remarkably higher (33.1%) than that of the control (7.5%).Moreover,the incidence of cognitive impairment was increased along the CKD stage from 3 to 5.In the CKD-4 and-5 groups the increased incidence was statistically significant (P < 0.01).In addition,the MMSE score was significantly decreased from stage 3 to 5 compared to the control (CKD 3 group,P < 0.05;CKD-4 and-5 groups,P < 0.01).The MMSE score was negatively correlated with the factors of age,UN,Cr and UA (P < 0.01),but positively correlated with Hb (P < 0.05) and eGFR (P < 0.01).Conclusion CKD affects the patients' cognitive function significantly.The incidence and

  5. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR......, the 1-dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature and salinity profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal....

  6. Preliminary Approach on the Estimation of Ponto-Sarmatic Habitats’ Preservation in NE Romania via Herpetological Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu STOICA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific approach proposes a preliminary study on habitat suitability and factors’ influence using the herpetological indicator Vipera ursinii moldavica and is intended to depict well adapted preservation measures for the Ponto-Sarmatic ecosystems in the context of increased human pressure. The primary goal is to establish an impact hierarchy for the controlling factors. The study incorporates various natural and human related factors via correspondence analysis in order to mark out for the most influential ones. The goal is to enhance understanding of variables’ contribution to the process and find appropriate intervention measures as far as the Natura 2000 Management Plans are concerned

  7. 人源血管内皮生长因子突变体Ⅱ的克隆表达、分离纯化及初步鉴定%Cloning, Expression, Purification and Preliminary Identification of Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Mutant Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹荣月; 张鹏; 徐茂磊; 陈檬; 邢芸; 胡晓利; 黄巧玲

    2013-01-01

    To obtain the hVEGF121 Ⅱ protein for the preparation of anti-tumor vaccines which were stronger to resist angiogenesis,the recombinant prokaryotic plasmid expressing human vascular endothelial growth factor mutant hVEGF121 Ⅱ was constructed.By PCR technique,the gene encoding two tandem repeat sequences of peptide 407-426 inside heat shock protein mHSP70 was introduced to the terminus of the constructed hVEGF121 Ⅰ mutant gene.PCR product digested with Hind Ⅲ and NcoI was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+) digested with the same restriction endonuclease.Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli strain BL21 (DE3).After the reorganized strain was induced with lactose and lysised by ultrasonic,the resulting inclusion body was washed,dissolved,and diluted to renature and purified by ion-exchange chromatography to get the target protein hVEGF121 Ⅱ,and then it was identified by Western-blot.The recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)-hVEGF121 Ⅱ expressing hVEGF121 Ⅱ was successfully constructed.After the recombinant strains were induced with galactose,the target protein accounted for 62% of the whole bacteria cell proteins,and its purity reached 95% after separation and purification procedure.Both the monomer and dimmer of the hVEGF121 Ⅱ protein could combine with VEGF antibody.The successful expression of hVEGF121 Ⅱ protein has laid the foundation for its immunology research.%构建人源血管内皮生长因子突变体hVEGF121Ⅱ的重组原核表达质粒,获得hVEGF121Ⅱ蛋白用于制备抗血管生成作用更强的抗肿瘤疫苗.利用PCR技术,在已构建的hVEGF121 Ⅰ突变体的基因末端引入热休克蛋白mHSP70的407-426两段串联重复序列的编码基因,PCR产物经Hind Ⅲ和Nco Ⅰ双酶切后连接到经同样限制性内切酶切过的原核表达载体pET-28a(+)上,转入大肠杆菌菌株BL21(DE3)中,乳糖诱导表达,超声破碎菌体,包涵体经洗涤、溶解、稀释复性、离

  8. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  9. Occupational stress and personality traits in multiple sclerosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concetta Incerti, Chiara; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Argento, Ornella; Pisani, Valerio; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Ferraro, Elisabetta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Benedict, Ralph H B; Nocentini, Ugo

    2015-07-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, causing a wide range of neurological and psychological symptoms. Impairment of ambulation and cognition in particular are associated with work difficulties and unemployment. Although many aspects of work status have been investigated in MS, there are no reports on factors that predict the development of occupational stress, prior to job loss. The aim of this preliminary study was to ascertain if personality traits predispose MS patients to occupational stress. We evaluated 26 MS patients using physical disability scales and self-report questionnaires focused on mood, fatigue, and personality [measured with the NEO Five Factor Inventory]. The primary outcome measure was the Occupational Stress Indicator [OSI]. Results showed significant positive correlations (ppersonality dispositions in the hope that employment may be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-based optimization of a nuclear reactor core design: a preliminary model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Wagner F.; Alves Filho, Hermes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional]. E-mails: wfsacco@iprj.uerj.br; halves@iprj.uerj.br; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Reatores]. E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    A new formulation of a nuclear core design optimization problem is introduced in this article. Originally, the optimization problem consisted in adjusting several reactor cell parameters, such as dimensions, enrichment and materials, in order to minimize the radial power peaking factor in a three-enrichment zone reactor, considering restrictions on the average thermal flux, criticality and sub-moderation. Here, we address the same problem using the minimization of the fuel and cladding materials costs as the objective function, and the radial power peaking factor as an operational constraint. This cost-based optimization problem is attacked by two metaheuristics, the standard genetic algorithm (SGA), and a recently introduced Metropolis algorithm called the Particle Collision Algorithm (PCA). The two algorithms are submitted to the same computational effort and their results are compared. As the formulation presented is preliminary, more elaborate models are also discussed (author)

  11. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  12. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  13. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  14. Preliminary Anthropometric Specification for Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    worked for QinetiQ and BAE Systems in the UK. He has provided Human Factors expertise to numerous procurement programs and currently leads the...specification be updated when sufficient data becomes available for the female Army population. 4. It is recommended that the intergenerational change in

  15. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  16. A Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses multivariate methods on actual data from 267 patients with noninsulin- dependent (Type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to see how the various risk factors can affect the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The approach succeeds in identifying preliminary risk factors such as smoking for males, although the females had higher fasting blood glucose at diagnosis. Not surprisingly, hypertension is common among patients of both sexes and it has an association with proteinuria in female patients in the sample.

  17. Hierarchical Modeling and Robust Synthesis for the Preliminary Design of Large Scale Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick N.

    1997-01-01

    Large-scale complex systems are characterized by multiple interacting subsystems and the analysis of multiple disciplines. The design and development of such systems inevitably requires the resolution of multiple conflicting objectives. The size of complex systems, however, prohibits the development of comprehensive system models, and thus these systems must be partitioned into their constituent parts. Because simultaneous solution of individual subsystem models is often not manageable iteration is inevitable and often excessive. In this dissertation these issues are addressed through the development of a method for hierarchical robust preliminary design exploration to facilitate concurrent system and subsystem design exploration, for the concurrent generation of robust system and subsystem specifications for the preliminary design of multi-level, multi-objective, large-scale complex systems. This method is developed through the integration and expansion of current design techniques: Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques for partitioning large-scale complex systems into more tractable parts, and allowing integration of subproblems for system synthesis; Statistical experimentation and approximation techniques for increasing both the efficiency and the comprehensiveness of preliminary design exploration; and Noise modeling techniques for implementing robust preliminary design when approximate models are employed. Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques including intermediate responses, linking variables, and compatibility constraints are incorporated within a hierarchical compromise decision support problem formulation for synthesizing subproblem solutions for a partitioned system. Experimentation and approximation techniques are employed for concurrent investigations and modeling of partitioned subproblems. A modified composite experiment is introduced for fitting better predictive models across the ranges of the factors, and an approach for

  18. Determination of the heavy metal binding capacity of aquatic samples using MetPLATE: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F; Bitton, G; Kong, I C

    1999-08-30

    MetPLATE, a microbial toxicity test which is specific for heavy metal toxicity, was used to rapidly determine the heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of a wide range of surface waters from Florida and Georgia. HMBC determines the impact of physicochemical factors on metal bioavailability and toxicity. The new developed protocol, using MetPLATE as the toxicity assay, showed that HMBC varied from 1.7 to 39.2 for Cd whereas the ranges for Cu and Ag were Hogtown Creek, Gainesville, FL, and from the St John's river in Jacksonville, FL. Both surface waters displayed the highest HMBC during the Fall season. Preliminary examination of the limited data set confirms that HMBC may be influenced by the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These preliminary data show that the impact of physical and chemical parameters on the toxicity of metals in aquatic environments can be rapidly assessed using rapid and low-cost microbiotests.

  19. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  20. Preliminary Model of Acute Mountain Sickness Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    variance, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were utilized in selecting the final model using the... information and completed an Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). The ESQ assessed AMS severity using the validated AMS-Cerebral (AMS-C) factor...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  1. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHANASEKARAN.M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alkaloids in leaf tissue. Anatomical and histochemical investigation offered some clues on the localization of certain specific metabolites. This paper revealed preliminary phytochemical constituents of Kigelia pinnta D.C.., by phytochemical and histochemical investigation.

  3. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    . Deformation here is expressed as a belt of major, north-northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip faults and abundant seismicity. The seismicity intensifies farther to the northeast and includes a prominent zone of deep earthquakes associated with northward subduction of the Indian plate beneath Eurasia that extends beneath the Hindu Kush and Pamirs Mountains. Production of the seismic hazard maps is challenging because the geological and seismological data required to produce a seismic hazard model are limited. The data that are available for this project include historical seismicity and poorly constrained slip rates on only a few of the many active faults in the country. Much of the hazard is derived from a new catalog of historical earthquakes: from 1964 to the present, with magnitude equal to or greater than about 4.5, and with depth between 0 and 250 kilometers. We also include four specific faults in the model: the Chaman fault with an assigned slip rate of 10 mm/yr, the Central Badakhshan fault with an assigned slip rate of 12 mm/yr, the Darvaz fault with an assigned slip rate of 7 mm/yr, and the Hari Rud fault with an assigned slip rate of 2 mm/yr. For these faults and for shallow seismicity less than 50 km deep, we incorporate published ground-motion estimates from tectonically active regions of western North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Ground-motion estimates for deeper seismicity are derived from data in subduction environments. We apply estimates derived for tectonic regions where subduction is the main tectonic process for intermediate-depth seismicity between 50- and 250-km depth. Within the framework of these limitations, we have developed a preliminary probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment of Afghanistan, the type of analysis that underpins the seismic components of modern building codes in the United States. The assessment includes maps of estimated peak ground-acceleration (PGA), 0.2-second spectral acceleration (SA), and 1.0-secon

  4. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    experiments, special experimental methods were devised to create similar boundary conditions in the iron films. Preliminary MFM studies conducted on single and polycrystalline iron films with small sub-areas created with focused ion beam have correlated quite well qualitatively with phase-field simulations. However, phase-field model dimensions are still small relative to experiments thus far. We are in the process of increasing the size of the models and decreasing specimen size so both have identical dimensions. Ongoing research is focused on validation of the phase-field model. Validation is being accomplished through comparison with experimentally obtained MFM images (in progress), and planned measurements of major hysteresis loops and first order reversal curves. Extrapolation of simulation sizes to represent a more stochastic bulk-like system will require sampling of various simulations (i.e., with single non-magnetic defect, single magnetic defect, single grain boundary, single dislocation, etc.) with distributions of input parameters. These outputs can then be compared to laboratory magnetic measurements and ultimately to simulate magnetic Barkhausen noise signals.

  5. [Tuscan Chronic Care Model: a preliminary analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Angelo; Meggiolaro, Angela; Rossi, Luigi; Fioravanti, C; Palermita, F; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to present a preliminary analysis of efficacy and effectiveness of a model of chronically ill care (Chronic Care Model, CCM). the analysis took into account 106 territorial modules, 1016 General Practitioners and 1,228,595 patients. The diagnostic and therapeutic pathways activated (PDTA), involved four chronic conditions, selected according to the prevalence and incidence, in Tuscany Region: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Heart Failure (SC), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and stroke. Six epidemiological indicators of process and output were selected, in order to measure the model of care performed, before and after its application: adherence to specific follow-up for each pathology (use of clinical and laboratory indicators), annual average of expenditure per/capita/euro for diagnostic tests, in laboratory and instrumental, average expenditure per/capita/year for specialist visits; hospitalization rate for diseases related to the main pathology, hospitalization rate for long-term complications and rate of access to the emergency department (ED). Data were collected through the database; the differences before and after the intervention and between exposed and unexposed, were analyzed by method "Before-After (Controlled and Uncontrolled) Studies". The impact of the intervention was calculated as DD (difference of the differences). DM management showed an increased adhesion to follow-up (DD: +8.1%), and the use of laboratory diagnostics (DD: +4,9 €/year/pc), less hospitalization for long-term complications and for endocrine related diseases (DD respectively: 5.8/1000 and DD: +1.2/1000), finally a smaller increase of access to PS (DD: -1.6/1000), despite a slight increase of specialistic visits (DD: +0,38 €/year/pc). The management of SC initially showed a rising adherence to follow-up (DD: +2.3%), a decrease of specialist visits (DD:E 1.03 €/year/pc), hospitalization and access to PS for exacerbations (DD: -4.4/1000 and DD: -6

  6. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  7. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...

  8. Preliminary functional impression for the mandibular complete denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiche, H

    1989-01-01

    A technique for producing a preliminary impression of a resorbed edentulous mandibular ridge is presented. A 2-mm metal wire is adapted to the curve of the mandibular arch. A high-viscosity impression material is then formed to the wire and placed in the patient's mouth. Speech movements are used to functionally shape the material. Following polymerization, additional material is added to create extensions not captured in the first impression. A final wash using a low-viscosity silicone or polysulfide rubber material completes the impression. The resultant preliminary impression has the advantage of not being distorted by an ill-fitting stock tray or artificially manipulated by the clinician.

  9. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  10. A study to determine influential factors on product positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Product positioning plays an important role on business development especially in food industry. In this paper, we perform an exploration study to find important factors influencing product positioning in Iranian food industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 260 randomly selected people from food industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.86 in preliminary stage and final 0.697 in final stage, which are statistically acceptable. The study uses factor analysis to find important factors and detects six important factors including marketing organization, market analysis, past perception strategy, product presentation, brand loyalty and dynamic organizational structure.

  11. The impact of situational factors on health care preferences: exploring the prospect of situationally based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1991-06-01

    Health care marketing research has examined the relationship between health care utilization and (1) client demographic characteristics and (2) service characteristics. The impact of situational factors on health care utilization has received limited attention. The authors find that the influence of situational factors in the health care market is substantial and suggest some preliminary situational segmentation strategies.

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Educational Attainment of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tors, Barbara

    The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…

  13. LINE1 insertions as a genomic risk factor for schizophrenia: Preliminary evidence from an affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Klengel, Torsten; Fallon, James H; Mangalam, Harry; Madduri, Ravi; Rodriguez, Alex; DeCrescenzo, Paula; Glovienka, Emily; Sobell, Janet; Klengel, Claudia; Pato, Michele; Ressler, Kerry J; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show that human-specific LINE1s (L1HS) play a key role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and its disorders, and that their transpositions within the human genome are more common than previously thought. Many polymorphic L1HS, that is, present or absent across individuals, are not annotated in the current release of the genome and are customarily termed "non-reference L1s." We developed an analytical workflow to identify L1 polymorphic insertions with next-generation sequencing (NGS) using data from a family in which SZ segregates. Our workflow exploits two independent algorithms to detect non-reference L1 insertions, performs local de novo alignment of the regions harboring predicted L1 insertions and resolves the L1 subfamily designation from the de novo assembled sequence. We found 110 non-reference L1 polymorphic loci exhibiting Mendelian inheritance, the vast majority of which are already reported in dbRIP and/or euL1db, thus, confirming their status as non-reference L1 polymorphic insertions. Four previously undetected L1 polymorphic loci were confirmed by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the insert. A large fraction of our non-reference L1s is located within the open reading frame of protein-coding genes that belong to pathways already implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The finding of these polymorphic variants among SZ offsprings is intriguing and suggestive of putative pathogenic role. Our data show the utility of NGS to uncover L1 polymorphic insertions, a neglected type of genetic variants with the potential to influence the risk to develop schizophrenia like SNVs and CNVs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations in urban China: Preliminary study of some important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaodan; Wei, Wenjuan; Weschler, Louise B; Salthammer, Tunga; Kan, Haidong; Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-07-15

    The Huai River and Qingling Mountain divide (H-Q) divide China into north and south with respect to public policies for building construction and operation practises. China's building energy efficiency standard mandates that air exchange rates be 0.5h(-1) north of the H-Q divide and 1h(-1) south of the divide. China's heating policy allows space heating systems only north of the H-Q divide. Consequently, indoor temperature and humidity differ considerably between north and south. A theoretical model using indoor temperature, humidity, and air change rate was developed to predict indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Data for 39 cities were obtained from 42 studies. There was good agreement between the literature and modelling in a theoretical reference room. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) model was applied to estimate cancer risk from formaldehyde exposure indoors. The median indoor formaldehyde concentration for renovation ever from 2002 to 2015 in Chinese cities was 125μg/m(3), which is higher than the WHO threshold, 100μg/m(3). The median indoor formaldehyde concentrations in the north were higher than in the south (0.5 times higher for dwellings renovated within the past year and 0.2 times higher for renovation ever), driven by the much higher northern winter concentrations (40-1320%). The U.S.EPA model predicts that the lifetime formaldehyde related cancer risk for people living north of the H-Q divide is 1.2 times greater than for people living south. This can be partly explained by greater indoor exposure to formaldehyde for Chinese living north of the H-Q divide.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation into Motivational Factors Associated with Older Adults' Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Clarkson, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the relative importance of older problem gamblers' motives for gambling. A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the past year Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), was completed by a…

  16. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Boulay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter for an individual and not a group.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  18. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  19. Establishment of preliminary regulatory network of TRPV1 and related cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of TRPV1 and related cytokines on children bronchial asthma. TRPV1 mRNA level and two SNP genotypes of children in case group and control group were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Western blot and ELISA were used to measure the levels of cytokines like IgE, IL-2, etc. Their correlations were analyzed by Logistic regression and KEGG analysis. Moreover, tertiary structure of protein and miRNA binding sites were also predicted by online tools. Case group was obviously different from control group in TRPV1 mRNA level, the two SNP genotypes distribution and the related cytokines levels. Logistic regression analysis further demonstrated that TRPV1 mRNA level, EOS, IL-4 and IL-5 may be risk factors for children bronchial asthma. And based on that, the preliminary regulatory network of children bronchial asthma was drawn. What’s more, mutation of rs4790521 and rs4790522 in TRPV1 gene both induced its corresponding miRNA binding site’s change. The preliminary regulatory network of TRPV1 and related cytokines on children bronchial asthma established in this study provides certain theoretical basis for pathogenesis and treatment of children bronchial asthma.

  20. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  1. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  2. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  3. A preliminary study for spatial representiveness of flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The results of eddy covariance observation system could represent the physical process at certain area of the surface. Thus point-to-area representativeness was of primary interest in flux observation. This research presents a preliminary study for flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites by the use of observation data and Flux Source Area Model (FSAM). Results show that the footprint expands and is further away from flux tower when atmosphere becomes more stable, the observation height increases, or the surfaces become smoother. This suggests that the area represented by the flux observation becomes larger. The distances from the reference point to the maximum point Smax and the minimum point x1 of source weight function (Dmax and Dmin, respectively) can be influenced by atmosphere stability which becomes longer when atmosphere is more stable. For more rough surfaces and lower observation point Dmax and Dmin become shorter. This research gives the footprint at level P=90% at ChinaFLUX sites at different atmosphere stability. The preliminary results of spatial representiveness at ChinaFLUX sites were given based on the dominant wind direction and footprint response to various factors. The study also provides some theoretical basis for data quality control and evaluating data uncertainty.

  4. Development and preliminary verification of the 3D core neutronic code: COCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H.; Mo, K.; Li, W.; Bai, N.; Li, J. [Reactor Design and Fuel Management Research Center, China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., 47F/A Jiangsu Bldg., Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-07-01

    As the recent blooming economic growth and following environmental concerns (China)) is proactively pushing forward nuclear power development and encouraging the tapping of clean energy. Under this situation, CGNPC, as one of the largest energy enterprises in China, is planning to develop its own nuclear related technology in order to support more and more nuclear plants either under construction or being operation. This paper introduces the recent progress in software development for CGNPC. The focus is placed on the physical models and preliminary verification results during the recent development of the 3D Core Neutronic Code: COCO. In the COCO code, the non-linear Green's function method is employed to calculate the neutron flux. In order to use the discontinuity factor, the Neumann (second kind) boundary condition is utilized in the Green's function nodal method. Additionally, the COCO code also includes the necessary physical models, e.g. single-channel thermal-hydraulic module, burnup module, pin power reconstruction module and cross-section interpolation module. The preliminary verification result shows that the COCO code is sufficient for reactor core design and analysis for pressurized water reactor (PWR). (authors)

  5. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  6. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  7. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Scannapieco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  8. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  9. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  10. eVITAL: A Preliminary Taxonomy and Electronic Toolkit of Health-Related Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To create a preliminary taxonomy and related toolkit of health-related habits (HrH following a person-centered approach with a focus on primary care. Methods. From 2003–2009, a working group (n=6 physicians defined the knowledge base, created a framing document, and selected evaluation tools using an iterative process. Multidisciplinary focus groups (n=29 health professionals revised the document and evaluation protocol and participated in a feasibility study and review of the model based on a demonstration study with 11 adult volunteers in Antequera, Spain. Results. The preliminary taxonomy contains 6 domains of HrH and 1 domain of additional health descriptors, 3 subdomains, 43 dimensions, and 141 subdimensions. The evaluation tool was completed by the 11 volunteers. The eVITAL toolkit contains history and examination items for 4 levels of engagement: self-assessment, basic primary care, extended primary care, and specialty care. There was positive feedback from the volunteers and experts, but concern about the length of the evaluation. Conclusions. We present the first taxonomy of HrH, which may aid the development of the new models of care such as the personal contextual factors of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF and the positive and negative components of the multilevel person-centered integrative diagnosis model.

  11. Online privacy: overview and preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mekovec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last decade using the Internet for online shopping, information browsing and searching as well as for online communication has become part of everyday life. Although the Internet technology has a lot of benefits for users, one of the most important disadvantages is related to the increasing capacity for users’ online activity surveillance. However, the users are increasingly becoming aware of online surveillance methods, which results in their increased concern for privacy protection. Numerous factors influence the way in which individuals perceive the level of privacy protection when they are online. This article provides a review of factors that influence the privacy perception of Internet users. Previous online privacy research related to e-business was predominantly focused on the dimension of information privacy and concerned with the way users’ personal information is collected, saved and used by an online company. This article’s main aim is to provide an overview of numerous Internet users’ privacy perception elements across various privacy dimensions as well as their potential categorization. In addition, considering that e-banking and online shopping are one of the most widely used e-services, an examination of online privacy perception of e-banking/online shopping users was performed. 

  12. Berberine promotes the development of atherosclerosis and foam cell formation by inducing scavenger receptor A expression in macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Li; Wenqi Yao; Xiudan Zheng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Berberine is identified to lower the serum cholesterol level in human and hamster through the induction of low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor in hepatic cells. To evaluate its potential in preventing atherosclerosis, the effect of berberine on atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice was investigated, in apoE-/-mice, berberine induced in vivo foam cell formation and promoted atherosclerosis development. The foam cell for-mation induced by berberine was also observed in mouse RAW264.7 cells, as well as in mouse and human primary macrophages. By inducing scavenger receptor A (SR-A) expression in macrophages, berberine increased the uptake of modified LDL (DiO-Ac-LDL). Berberine-induced SR-A expression was also observed in macrophage foam cells in vivo and in the cells at atherosclerotic lesion. Analysis in RAW264.7 cells indicated that berberine induced SR-A ex-pression by suppressing PTEN expression, which led to sustained Akt activation. Our results suggest that to evaluate the potential of a cholesterol-reducing compound in alleviating atherosclerosis, its effect on the cells involved in ath-erosclerosis development, such as macrophages, should also be considered. Promotion of foam cell formation could counter-balance the beneficial effect of lowering serum cholesterol.

  13. Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, M Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early-stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non-neoplastic Het-1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry-based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA-based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation.

  14. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors with HISQ valence quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of our kaon semileptonic form factor calculations using the highly-improved staggered quark (HISQ) formulation to simulate the valence fermions. We present results for the form factor f_+^{K \\pi}(0) on the asqtad N_f=2+1 MILC configurations, discuss the chiral-continuum extrapolation, and give a preliminary estimate of the total error. We also present a more preliminary set of results for the same form factor but with the sea quarks also simulated with the HISQ action; these results include data at the physical light quark masses. The improvements that we expect to achieve with the use of the HISQ configurations and simulations at the physical quark masses are briefly discussed.

  15. 78 FR 9687 - Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Matthew Shapiro, Chief Executive Officer, Prineville Energy Storage,...

  16. 76 FR 6459 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit...

  17. 76 FR 7838 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit...

  18. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  19. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  20. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  1. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  2. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  4. 19 CFR 111.61 - Decision on preliminary proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision on preliminary proceedings. 111.61 Section 111.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... director will prepare a summary of any oral presentations made by the broker or his attorney and forward...

  5. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  6. Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in children: a preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Maria, B. de; Tielens, L.K.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blockade is a well-established technique in upper limb surgery. Among the infraclavicular approaches, the vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus (VIP) block is easy to perform and has a large spectrum of nerve blockade. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine

  7. Cusum charts for preliminary analysis of individual observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); R.J.M.M. Does (Ronald)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA preliminary Cusum chart based on individual observations is developed from the uniformly most powerful test for the detection of linear trends. This Cusum chart is compared with several of its competitors which are based on the likelihood ratio test and on transformations of standardiz

  8. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  9. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  10. The total Somali clan genealogy : a preliminary sketch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary genealogy of all Somali 'clans'. Somali kinship is based on patrilineal descent, but there are no equivalents in the Somali language for the words 'clan' and 'lineage'. The Somali terminology for the levels of social segmentation is complex, amongst others because o

  11. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  12. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  13. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  14. Preliminary Development and Validation of the Mindful Student Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.

    2017-01-01

    Research validating mindfulness-based interventions with youths and in schools is growing, yet research validating measures of youths' mindfulness in schools has received far less empirical attention. The present study makes the case for and reports on the preliminary development and validation of a new, 15-item, multidimensional, self-report…

  15. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  16. Preliminary identification of problem soils for infrastructure projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available soils are those within the top 1.0m or 1.5m of the soil profile, a mechanism for evaluating these materials without preliminary filed work and testing would be invaluable. Since 1971, the Department of Agriculture has systematically mapped the soils...

  17. Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water: A case study ... in Mvudi River used as a source of domestic water for people who live around it. ... of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa (DWAF) and the World Health ...

  18. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in reinfo

  19. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  20. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)