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Sample records for factor receptor trafficking

  1. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells

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    Tan, Y; Chiow, KH; Huang, D; Wong, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. Experimental approach: We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Key results: Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. Conclusion and implications: This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. PMID:20233216

  2. Nuclear functions and subcellular trafficking mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor family

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    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that various diseases, including many types of cancer, result from alteration of subcellular protein localization and compartmentalization. Therefore, it is worthwhile to expand our knowledge in subcellular trafficking of proteins, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 of the receptor tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed and activated in human malignancies and frequently correlated with poor prognosis. The well-characterized trafficking of cell surface EGFR is routed, via endocytosis and endosomal sorting, to either the lysosomes for degradation or back to the plasma membrane for recycling. A novel nuclear mode of EGFR signaling pathway has been gradually deciphered in which EGFR is shuttled from the cell surface to the nucleus after endocytosis, and there, it acts as a transcriptional regulator, transmits signals, and is involved in multiple biological functions, including cell proliferation, tumor progression, DNA repair and replication, and chemo- and radio-resistance. Internalized EGFR can also be transported from the cell surface to several intracellular compartments, such as the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondria, in addition to the nucleus. In this review, we will summarize the functions of nuclear EGFR family and the potential pathways by which EGFR is trafficked from the cell surface to a variety of cellular organelles. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of EGFR trafficking will shed light on both the receptor biology and potential therapeutic targets of anti-EGFR therapies for clinical application. PMID:22520625

  3. Rab GTPases Regulate Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking of Factor VIIa

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    Nayak, Ramesh C.; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa. PMID:23555015

  4. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

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    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses

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    Nair, R.; Lauks, J.; Jung, S; Cooke, N.E.; de Wit, H.; Brose, N.; Kilimann, M.W.; Verhage, M.; Rhee, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found

  6. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

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    Fanny Kortüm

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow.

  7. New insights into how trafficking regulates T cell receptor signaling

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    Jieqiong Lou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL have been well studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohisiocytosis (FHLH. However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions.

  8. The Role of Rab Proteins in Neuronal Cells and in the Trafficking of Neurotrophin Receptors

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    Cecilia Bucci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that are important for neuronal development, neuronal survival and neuronal functions. Neurotrophins exert their role by binding to their receptors, the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC and p75NTR, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily. Binding of neurotrophins to receptors triggers a complex series of signal transduction events, which are able to induce neuronal differentiation but are also responsible for neuronal maintenance and neuronal functions. Rab proteins are small GTPases localized to the cytosolic surface of specific intracellular compartments and are involved in controlling vesicular transport. Rab proteins, acting as master regulators of the membrane trafficking network, play a central role in both trafficking and signaling pathways of neurotrophin receptors. Axonal transport represents the Achilles' heel of neurons, due to the long-range distance that molecules, organelles and, in particular, neurotrophin-receptor complexes have to cover. Indeed, alterations of axonal transport and, specifically, of axonal trafficking of neurotrophin receptors are responsible for several human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we will discuss the link between Rab proteins and neurotrophin receptor trafficking and their influence on downstream signaling pathways.

  9. The Role of Rab Proteins in Neuronal Cells and in the Trafficking of Neurotrophin Receptors

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    Bucci, Cecilia; Alifano, Pietro; Cogli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that are important for neuronal development, neuronal survival and neuronal functions. Neurotrophins exert their role by binding to their receptors, the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and p75NTR, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Binding of neurotrophins to receptors triggers a complex series of signal transduction events, which are able to induce neuronal differentiation but are also responsible for neuronal maintenance and neuronal functions. Rab proteins are small GTPases localized to the cytosolic surface of specific intracellular compartments and are involved in controlling vesicular transport. Rab proteins, acting as master regulators of the membrane trafficking network, play a central role in both trafficking and signaling pathways of neurotrophin receptors. Axonal transport represents the Achilles' heel of neurons, due to the long-range distance that molecules, organelles and, in particular, neurotrophin-receptor complexes have to cover. Indeed, alterations of axonal transport and, specifically, of axonal trafficking of neurotrophin receptors are responsible for several human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we will discuss the link between Rab proteins and neurotrophin receptor trafficking and their influence on downstream signaling pathways. PMID:25295627

  10. Membrane Trafficking of Death Receptors: Implications on Signalling

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    Wulf Schneider-Brachert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Death receptors were initially recognised as potent inducers of apoptotic cell death and soon ambitious attempts were made to exploit selective ignition of controlled cellular suicide as therapeutic strategy in malignant diseases. However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. Beyond activation of the apoptotic cascade, involvement in a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, proliferation and immune response was recognised. Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. A growing body of evidence points to an elegant spatiotemporal regulation of composition and assembly of the receptor-associated signalling complex. Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events.

  11. A versatile optical tool for studying synaptic GABAA receptor trafficking.

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    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Zhang, Ming; Larsen, Mads B; Pilli, Jyotsna; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Bruchez, Marcel P; Johnson, Jon W; Waggoner, Alan S; Watkins, Simon C; Jacob, Tija C

    2017-11-15

    Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here, we describe an optical tool to study synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA A R) dynamics through adaptable fluorescent-tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a GABA A R γ2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (γ2 pH FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates Malachite Green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters and do not perturb neuronal development. Electrophysiological studies show γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs respond to GABA and exhibit positive modulation upon stimulation with the benzodiazepine diazepam. Imaging studies using γ2 pH FAP-transfected neurons and MG dyes show time-dependent receptor accumulation into intracellular vesicles, revealing constitutive endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. Simultaneous analysis of synaptic, surface and lysosomal receptors using the γ2 pH FAP-MG dye approach reveals enhanced GABA A R turnover following a bicucculine-induced seizure paradigm, a finding not detected by standard surface receptor measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the FAP-MG dye system in neurons, demonstrating the versatility to study nearly all phases of GABA A R trafficking. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors: Zooming in on ligand-induced intracellular trafficking and its functional implications

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    Verzijl, Dennis; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory processes including receptor phosphorylation and intracellular trafficking, also referred to as receptor internalization, are important processes to terminate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Compelling evidence now indicates that internalization of a receptor is not

  13. Rapid glutamate receptor 2 trafficking during retinal degeneration

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    Lin Yanhua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa (RP, are characterized by photoreceptor loss and anomalous remodeling of the surviving retina that corrupts visual processing and poses a barrier to late-stage therapeutic interventions in particular. However, the molecular events associated with retinal remodeling remain largely unknown. Given our prior evidence of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR reprogramming in retinal degenerations, we hypothesized that the edited glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2 subunit and its trafficking may be modulated in retinal degenerations. Results Adult albino Balb/C mice were exposed to intense light for 24 h to induce light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD. We found that prior to the onset of photoreceptor loss, protein levels of GluR2 and related trafficking proteins, including glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1 and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, were rapidly increased. LIRD triggered neuritogenesis in photoreceptor survival regions, where GluR2 and its trafficking proteins were expressed in the anomalous dendrites. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed interaction between KIF3A and GRIP1 as well as PSD-95, suggesting that KIF3A may mediate transport of GluR2 and its trafficking proteins to the novel dendrites. However, in areas of photoreceptor loss, GluR2 along with its trafficking proteins nearly vanished in retracted retinal neurites. Conclusions All together, LIRD rapidly triggers GluR2 plasticity, which is a potential mechanism behind functionally phenotypic revisions of retinal neurons and neuritogenesis during retinal degenerations.

  14. Estradiol-induced estrogen receptor-alpha trafficking.

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    Bondar, Galyna; Kuo, John; Hamid, Naheed; Micevych, Paul

    2009-12-02

    Estradiol has rapid actions in the CNS that are mediated by membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) and activate cell signaling pathways through interaction with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling increases the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) that stimulates the synthesis of neuroprogesterone in astrocytes. We used surface biotinylation to demonstrate that ERalpha has an extracellular portion. In addition to the full-length ERalpha [apparent molecular weight (MW), 66 kDa], surface biotinylation labeled an ERalpha-immunoreactive protein (MW, approximately 52 kDa) identified by both COOH- and NH(2)-directed antibodies. Estradiol treatment regulated membrane levels of both proteins in parallel: within 5 min, estradiol significantly increased membrane levels of the 66 and 52 kDa ERalpha. Internalization, a measure of membrane receptor activation, was also increased by estradiol with a similar time course. Continuous treatment with estradiol for 24-48 h reduced ERalpha levels, suggesting receptor downregulation. Estradiol also increased mGluR1a trafficking and internalization, consistent with the proposed ERalpha-mGluR1a interaction. Blocking ER with ICI 182,780 or mGluR1a with LY 367385 prevented ERalpha trafficking to and from the membrane. Estradiol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) flux was also significantly increased at the time of peak ERalpha activation/internalization. These results demonstrate that ERalpha is present in the membrane and has an extracellular portion. Furthermore, membrane levels and internalization of ERalpha are regulated by estradiol and mGluR1a ligands. The pattern of trafficking into and out of the membrane suggests that the changing concentration of estradiol during the estrous cycle regulates ERalpha to augment and then terminate membrane-initiated signaling.

  15. Estradiol-induced estrogen receptortrafficking

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    Bondar, Galyna; Kuo, John; Hamid, Naheed; Micevych, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol has rapid actions in the central nervous system, which are mediated by membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) and activate cell signaling pathways through interaction with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling increases the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that stimulates the synthesis of neuroprogesterone in astrocytes. We used surface biotinylation to demonstrate that ERα has an extracellular portion. In addition to the full length ERα (apparent M.W. 66 kDa), surface biotinylation labeled an ERα-immunoreactive protein (M.W. ~ 52 kDa) identified by both COOH- and NH2-directed antibodies. Estradiol treatment regulated membrane levels of both proteins in parallel: within 5 min, estradiol significantly increased membrane levels of the 66 kDa and 52 kDa ERα. Internalization, a measure of membrane receptor activation, was also increased by estradiol with a similar time course. Continuous treatment with estradiol for 24–48 hr reduced ERα levels, suggesting receptor down-regulation. Estradiol also increased mGluR1a trafficking and internalization, consistent with the proposed ERα-mGluR1a interaction. Blocking ER with ICI 182,780 or mGluR1a with LY 367385 prevented ERα trafficking to and from the membrane. Estradiol-induced [Ca2+]i flux was also significantly increased at the time of peak ERα activation/internalization. These results demonstrate that ERα is present in the membrane and has an extracellular portion. Furthermore, membrane levels and internalization of ERα are regulated by estradiol and mGluR1a ligands. The pattern of trafficking into and out of the membrane suggests that the changing concentration of estradiol during the estrous cycle regulates ERα to augment and then terminate membrane-initiated signaling. PMID:19955385

  16. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking by Protein Ubiquitination

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    Jocelyn Widagdo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the strength and connectivity of excitatory synapses have been studied extensively for the past few decades and remain the most attractive cellular models of learning and memory. One of the major mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity is the dynamic adjustment of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA-type glutamate receptor content on the neuronal plasma membrane. The expression of surface AMPA receptors (AMPARs is controlled by the delicate balance between the biosynthesis, dendritic transport, exocytosis, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of the receptors. These processes are dynamically regulated by AMPAR interacting proteins as well as by various post-translational modifications that occur on their cytoplasmic domains. In the last few years, protein ubiquitination has emerged as a major regulator of AMPAR intracellular trafficking. Dysregulation of AMPAR ubiquitination has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we review recent advances in the field and provide insights into the role of protein ubiquitination in regulating AMPAR membrane trafficking and function. We also discuss how aberrant ubiquitination of AMPARs contributes to the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, chronic stress and epilepsy.

  17. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

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    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  18. Functional Consequences of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Cross-talk and Trafficking

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    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Wismann, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The signaling capacity of seven-transmembrane/G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) can be regulated through ligand-mediated receptor trafficking. Classically, the recycling of internalized receptors is associated with resensitization, whereas receptor degradation terminates signaling. We have......) and glucagon (GCGR) receptors. The interaction and cross-talk between coexpressed receptors is a wide phenomenon of the 7TM/GPCR superfamily. Numerous reports show functional consequences for signaling and trafficking of the involved receptors. On the basis of the high structural similarity and tissue...... coexpression, we here investigated the potential cross-talk between GLP-1R and GIPR or GCGR in both trafficking and signaling pathways. Using a real-time time-resolved FRET-based internalization assay, we show that GLP-1R, GIPR, and GCGR internalize with differential properties. Remarkably, upon coexpression...

  19. In silico investigation of ADAM12 effect on TGF-β receptors trafficking

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    LeMeur Nolwenn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor beta is known to have pleiotropic effects, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The regulation and effect of TGF-β signaling is complex and highly depends on specific protein context. In liver, we have recently showed that the disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 interacts with TGF-β receptors and modulates their trafficking among membranes, a crucial point in TGF-β signaling and development of fibrosis. The present study aims to better understand how ADAM12 impacts on TGF-β receptors trafficking and TGF-β signaling. Findings We extracted qualitative biological observations from experimental data and defined a family of models producing a behavior compatible with the presence of ADAM12. We computationally explored the properties of this family of models which allowed us to make novel predictions. We predict that ADAM12 increases TGF-β receptors internalization rate between the cell surface and the endosomal membrane. It also appears that ADAM12 modifies TGF-β signaling shape favoring a permanent response by removing the transient component observed under physiological conditions. Conclusion In this work, confronting differential models with qualitative biological observations, we obtained predictions giving new insights into the role of ADAM12 in TGF-β signaling and hepatic fibrosis process.

  20. Differential trafficking of AMPA receptors following activation of NMDA receptors and mGluRs

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    Sanderson Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The removal of AMPA receptors from synapses is a major component of long-term depression (LTD. How this occurs, however, is still only partially understood. To investigate the trafficking of AMPA receptors in real-time we previously tagged the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors with ecliptic pHluorin and studied the effects of NMDA receptor activation. In the present study we have compared the effect of NMDA receptor and group I mGluR activation, using GluA2 tagged with super ecliptic pHluorin (SEP-GluA2 expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Surprisingly, agonists of the two receptors, which are both able to induce chemical forms of LTD, had clearly distinct effects on AMPA receptor trafficking. In agreement with our previous work we found that transient NMDA receptor activation results in an initial decrease in surface GluA2 from extrasynaptic sites followed by a delayed reduction in GluA2 from puncta (putative synapses. In contrast, transient activation of group I mGluRs, using DHPG, led to a pronounced but more delayed decrease in GluA2 from the dendritic shafts. Surprisingly, there was no average change in the fluorescence of the puncta. Examination of fluorescence at individual puncta, however, indicated that alterations did take place, with some puncta showing an increase and others a decrease in fluorescence. The effects of DHPG were, like DHPG-induced LTD, prevented by treatment with a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor. The electrophysiological correlate of the effects of DHPG in the SEP-GluA2 infected cultures was a reduction in mEPSC frequency with no change in amplitude. The implications of these findings for the initial mechanisms of expression of both NMDA receptor- and mGluR-induced LTD are discussed.

  1. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

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    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Wismann, Pernille; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2014-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 incretin receptor (GLP-1R) of family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a major drug target in type-2-diabetes due to its regulatory effect on post-prandial blood-glucose levels. The mechanism(s) controlling GLP-1R mediated signaling are far from fully understood....... A fundamental mechanism controlling the signaling capacity of GPCRs is the post-endocytic trafficking of receptors between recycling and degradative fates. Here, we combined microscopy with novel real-time assays to monitor both receptor trafficking and signaling in living cells. We find that the human GLP-1R...

  2. Tracking Drug-induced Changes in Receptor Post-internalization Trafficking by Colocalizational Analysis.

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    Ong, Edmund; Cahill, Catherine

    2015-07-03

    The intracellular trafficking of receptors is a collection of complex and highly controlled processes. Receptor trafficking modulates signaling and overall cell responsiveness to ligands and is, itself, influenced by intra- and extracellular conditions, including ligand-induced signaling. Optimized for use with monolayer-plated cultured cells, but extendable to free-floating tissue slices, this protocol uses immunolabelling and colocalizational analysis to track changes in intracellular receptor trafficking following both chronic/prolonged and acute interventions, including exogenous drug treatment. After drug treatment, cells are double-immunolabelled for the receptor and for markers for the intracellular compartments of interest. Sequential confocal microscopy is then used to capture two-channel photomicrographs of individual cells, which are subjected to computerized colocalizational analysis to yield quantitative colocalization scores. These scores are normalized to permit pooling of independent replicates prior to statistical analysis. Representative photomicrographs may also be processed to generate illustrative figures. Here, we describe a powerful and flexible technique for quantitatively assessing induced receptor trafficking.

  3. Role of LRRK2 in the regulation of dopamine receptor trafficking.

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    Mauro Rassu

    Full Text Available Mutations in LRRK2 play a critical role in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. Up to date, the role of LRRK2 in PD onset and progression remains largely unknown. However, experimental evidence highlights a critical role of LRRK2 in the control of vesicle trafficking that in turn may regulate different aspects of neuronal physiology. We have analyzed the role of LRRK2 in regulating dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1 and D2 (DRD2 trafficking. DRD1 and DRD2 are the most abundant dopamine receptors in the brain. They differ in structural, pharmacological and biochemical properties, as well as in localization and internalization mechanisms. Our results indicate that disease-associated mutant G2019S LRRK2 impairs DRD1 internalization, leading to an alteration in signal transduction. Moreover, the mutant forms of LRRK2 affect receptor turnover by decreasing the rate of DRD2 trafficking from the Golgi complex to the cell membrane. Collectively, our findings are consistent with the conclusion that LRRK2 influences the motility of neuronal vesicles and the neuronal receptor trafficking. These findings have important implications for the complex role that LRRK2 plays in neuronal physiology and the possible pathological mechanisms that may lead to neuronal death in PD.

  4. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

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    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid......Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  5. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression

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    Matsuda, Shinji; Kakegawa, Wataru; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) underlies learning and memory in various brain regions. Although postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking mediates LTD, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A in hippocampal neurons, depending on its phosphorylation state. Inhibiting the stargazin-AP-2 interaction disrupts NMDA-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis, and inhibiting that of stargazin-AP-3A abrogates the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, thereby upregulating receptor recycling to the cell surface. Similarly, stargazin’s interaction with AP-2 or AP-3A is necessary for low-frequency stimulus-evoked LTD in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Thus, stargazin has a crucial role in NMDA-dependent LTD by regulating two trafficking pathways of AMPA receptors—transport from the cell surface to early endosomes and from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes—through its sequential binding to AP-2 and AP-3A.

  6. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor in Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit Aquaporin 5 Trafficking

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    Lee, Byung Ha; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Perez, Geidys; Park, Yun-jong; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Kawai, Toshihisa; Cha, Seunghee

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS. PMID:23382834

  7. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed an accumulation of adiponectin in Rab11-positive endosomes. Plasma adiponectin deficiency of Arfrp1iAT−/− mice resulted in deteriorated hepatic insulin sensitivity, increased gluconeogenesis and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Additionally, the insulin receptor, undergoing endocytic recycling after ligand binding, was less abundant at the plasma membrane of adipocytes lacking Arfrp1. This had detrimental effects on adipose insulin signaling, followed by insufficient suppression of basal lipolytic activity and impaired adipose tissue expansion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adiponectin secretion and insulin receptor surface targeting utilize the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways that are essential for an appropriate systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Adiponectin, ARFRP1, Exocytosis, Insulin receptor, trans-Golgi

  8. Inter-domain tagging implicates caveolin-1 in insulin receptor trafficking and Erk signaling bias in pancreatic beta-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Boothe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role and mechanisms of insulin receptor internalization remain incompletely understood. Previous trafficking studies of insulin receptors involved fluorescent protein tagging at their termini, manipulations that may be expected to result in dysfunctional receptors. Our objective was to determine the trafficking route and molecular mechanisms of functional tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods: We generated functional insulin receptors tagged with pH-resistant fluorescent proteins between domains. Confocal, TIRF and STED imaging revealed a trafficking pattern of inter-domain tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors detected with antibodies. Results: Surprisingly, interdomain-tagged and endogenous insulin receptors in beta-cells bypassed classical Rab5a- or Rab7-mediated endocytic routes. Instead, we found that removal of insulin receptors from the plasma membrane involved tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1, prior to trafficking within flotillin-1-positive structures to lysosomes. Multiple methods of inhibiting caveolin-1 significantly reduced Erk activation in vitro or in vivo, while leaving Akt signaling mostly intact. Conclusions: We conclude that phosphorylated caveolin-1 plays a role in insulin receptor internalization towards lysosomes through flotillin-1-positive structures and that caveolin-1 helps bias physiological beta-cell insulin signaling towards Erk activation. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Insulin receptor internalization, Insulin resistance, Pancreatic islet beta-cells, Autocrine insulin signaling

  9. Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Williamson, Celia; Perdue, Tasha

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry ( N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

  10. Drug Trafficking into Macrophages via the Endocytotic Receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2015-01-01

    for cytotoxic or phenotype-modulating drugs in the treatment of inflammatory and cancerous diseases. Such targeting of macrophages has been tried using the natural propensity of macrophages to non-specifically phagocytose circulating foreign particulate material. In addition, the specific targeting...... of macrophage-expressed receptors has been used in order to obtain a selective uptake in macrophages and reduce adverse effects of off-target delivery of drugs. CD163 is a highly expressed macrophage-specific endocytic receptor that has been studied for intracellular delivery of small molecule drugs...... to macrophages using targeted liposomes or antibody drug conjugates. This review will focus on the biology of CD163 and its potential role as a target for selective macrophage targeting compared with other macrophage targeting approaches....

  11. PTP1B regulates Eph receptor function and trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Nievergall, Eva; Janes, Peter W.; Stegmayer, Carolin; Vail, Mary E.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Teng, Shyh Wei; Neel, Benjamin G.; Bastiaens, Philippe I.; Lackmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Eph receptors orchestrate cell positioning during normal and oncogenic development. Their function is spatially and temporally controlled by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and the identity of most regulatory PTPs are unknown. We demonstrate here that PTP1B governs signaling and biological activity of EphA3. Changes in PTP1B expression significantly affect duration and amplitude of EphA3 phosphorylation and biological function, whereas confocal ...

  12. Altered trafficking and unfolded protein response induction as a result of M3 muscarinic receptor impaired N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Garriga, Pere

    2011-12-01

    The human M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is present in both the central and peripheral nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. We suggested a possible N-glycosylation map for the M(3) muscarinic receptor expressed in COS-7 cells. Here, we examined the role that N-linked glycans play in the folding and in the cell surface trafficking of this receptor. The five potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites in the muscarinic receptor were mutated and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The elimination of N-glycan attachment sites did not affect the cellular expression levels of the receptor. However, proper receptor localization to the plasma membrane was affected as suggested by reduced [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine binding. Confocal microscopy confirmed this observation and showed that the nonglycosylated receptor was primarily localized in the intracellular compartments. The mutant variant showed an increase in phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryote initiation factor 2, and other well-known endoplasmic reticulum stress markers of the unfolded protein response pathway, which further supports the proposal of the improper intracellular accumulation of the nonglycosylated receptor. The receptor devoid of glycans showed more susceptibility to events that culminate in apoptosis reducing cell viability. Our findings suggest up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and cleavage of caspase-3 effectors. Collectively, our data provide experimental evidence of the critical role that N-glycan chains play in determining muscarinic receptor distribution, localization, as well as cell integrity. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Gating characteristics control glutamate receptor distribution and trafficking in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Astrid G; Lee, Yü-Hien; Khorramshahi, Omid; Reynolds, Eric; Plested, Andrew J R; Herzel, Hanspeter; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2014-09-08

    Glutamate-releasing synapses dominate excitatory release in the brain. Mechanisms governing their assembly are of major importance for circuit development and long-term plasticity underlying learning and memory. AMPA/Kainate-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that open their ion-conducting pores in response to binding of the neurotransmitter. Changes in subunit composition of postsynaptic GluRs are highly relevant for plasticity and development of glutamatergic synapses [1-4]. To date, posttranslational modifications, mostly operating via the intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) of GluRs, are presumed to be the major regulator of trafficking [5]. In recent years, structural and electrophysiological analyses have improved our understanding of GluR gating mechanism [6-11]. However, whether conformational changes subsequent to glutamate binding may per se be able to influence GluR trafficking has remained an unaddressed question. Using a Drosophila system allowing for extended visualization of GluR trafficking in vivo, we here provide evidence that mutations changing the gating behavior alter GluR distribution and trafficking. GluR mutants associated with reduced charge transfer segregated from coexpressed wild-type GluRs on the level of individual postsynaptic densities. Segregation was lost upon blocking of evoked glutamate release. Photobleaching experiments suggested increased mobility of mutants with reduced charge transfer, which accumulated prematurely during early steps of synapse assembly, but failed to further increase their level in accordance with assembly of the presynaptic scaffold. In summary, gating characteristics seem to be a new variable for the understanding of GluR trafficking relevant to both development and plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormonal regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen J Krugers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans and rodents retain memories for stressful events very well. The facilitated retention of these memories is normally very useful. However, in susceptible individuals a variety of pathological conditions may develop in which memories related to stressful events remain inappropriately present, such as in post-traumatic stress disorder. The memory enhancing effects of stress are mediated by hormones, such as norepinephrine and glucocorticoids which are released during stressful experiences. Here we review recently identified molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of stress hormones on synaptic efficacy and learning and memory. We discuss AMPA receptors as major target for stress hormones and describe a model in which norepinephrine and glucocorticoids are able to strengthen and prolong different phases of stressful memories.

  15. Structures of human folate receptors reveal biological trafficking states and diversity in folate and antifolate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Ardian S; Singh, Mirage; Reeder, Kristen M; Carter, Joshua J; Kovach, Alexander R; Meng, Wuyi; Ratnam, Manohar; Zhang, Faming; Dann, Charles E

    2013-09-17

    Antifolates, folate analogs that inhibit vitamin B9 (folic acid)-using cellular enzymes, have been used over several decades for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Cellular uptake of the antifolates in clinical use occurs primarily via widely expressed facilitative membrane transporters. More recently, human folate receptors (FRs), high affinity receptors that transport folate via endocytosis, have been proposed as targets for the specific delivery of new classes of antifolates or folate conjugates to tumors or sites of inflammation. The development of specific, FR-targeted antifolates would be accelerated if additional biophysical data, particularly structural models of the receptors, were available. Here we describe six distinct crystallographic models that provide insight into biological trafficking of FRs and distinct binding modes of folate and antifolates to these receptors. From comparison of the structures, we delineate discrete structural conformations representative of key stages in the endocytic trafficking of FRs and propose models for pH-dependent conformational changes. Additionally, we describe the molecular details of human FR in complex with three clinically prevalent antifolates, pemetrexed (also Alimta), aminopterin, and methotrexate. On the whole, our data form the basis for rapid design and implementation of unique, FR-targeted, folate-based drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  16. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABA A R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABA A Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABA A R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABA A Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABA A R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABA A R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 238-270, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Ziff, Edward B

    2005-08-04

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

  18. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-08-18

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR-VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome-lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR-VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. © 2015 Authors.

  19. PDZ Protein Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Trafficking and Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Henry A; Ferguson, Stephen S G

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contribute to the regulation of every aspect of human physiology and are therapeutic targets for the treatment of numerous diseases. As a consequence, understanding the myriad of mechanisms controlling GPCR signaling and trafficking is essential for the development of new pharmacological strategies for the treatment of human pathologies. Of the many GPCR-interacting proteins, postsynaptic density protein of 95 kilodaltons, disc large, zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins appear most abundant and have similarly been implicated in disease mechanisms. PDZ proteins play an important role in regulating receptor and channel protein localization within synapses and tight junctions and function to scaffold intracellular signaling protein complexes. In the current study, we review the known functional interactions between PDZ domain-containing proteins and GPCRs and provide insight into the potential mechanisms of action. These PDZ domain-containing proteins include the membrane-associated guanylate-like kinases [postsynaptic density protein of 95 kilodaltons; synapse-associated protein of 97 kilodaltons; postsynaptic density protein of 93 kilodaltons; synapse-associated protein of 102 kilodaltons; discs, large homolog 5; caspase activation and recruitment domain and membrane-associated guanylate-like kinase domain-containing protein 3; membrane protein, palmitoylated 3; calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase; membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (MAGI)-1, MAGI-2, and MAGI-3], Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor proteins (NHERFs) (NHERF1, NHERF2, PDZ domain-containing kidney protein 1, and PDZ domain-containing kidney protein 2), Golgi-associated PDZ proteins (Gα-binding protein interacting protein, C-terminus and CFTR-associated ligand), PDZ domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) 1 and 2, regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-homology-RhoGEFs (PDZ domain-containing RhoGEF and

  20. Spatio-temporal dependence of the signaling response in immune-receptor trafficking networks regulated by cell density: a theoretical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar García-Peñarrubia

    Full Text Available Cell signaling processes involve receptor trafficking through highly connected networks of interacting components. The binding of surface receptors to their specific ligands is a key factor for the control and triggering of signaling pathways. In most experimental systems, ligand concentration and cell density vary within a wide range of values. Dependence of the signal response on cell density is related with the extracellular volume available per cell. This dependence has previously been studied using non-spatial models which assume that signaling components are well mixed and uniformly distributed in a single compartment. In this paper, a mathematical model that shows the influence exerted by cell density on the spatio-temporal evolution of ligands, cell surface receptors, and intracellular signaling molecules is developed. To this end, partial differential equations were used to model ligand and receptor trafficking dynamics through the different domains of the whole system. This enabled us to analyze several interesting features involved with these systems, namely: a how the perturbation caused by the signaling response propagates through the system; b receptor internalization dynamics and how cell density affects the robustness of dose-response curves upon variation of the binding affinity; and c that enhanced correlations between ligand input and system response are obtained under conditions that result in larger perturbations of the equilibrium ligand + surface receptor [Please see text] ligand - receptor complex. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained by considering that the above components are well mixed in a single compartment.

  1. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  2. Factors Contributing to Human Trafficking, Contexts of Vulnerability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking has recently emerged as an exceedingly intricate international crime. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most vulnerable region from which a substantial amount of victims has been recruited for both continental and intercontinental transaction. This also holds true for Ethiopian men, women and children who have ...

  3. Antihypertensive drug Valsartan promotes dendritic spine density by altering AMPA receptor trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Young In; Lee, Nathanael J.; Chung, Andrew; Saavedra, Juan M.; Turner, R. Scott; Pak, Daniel T. S.; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the antihypertensive drug Valsartan improved spatial and episodic memory in mouse models of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and human subjects with hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism by which Valsartan can regulate cognitive function is still unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Valsartan on dendritic spine formation in primary hippocampal neurons, which is correlated with learning and memory. Interestingly, we found that Valsartan promotes spinogenesis in developing and mature neurons. In addition, we found that Valsartan increases the puncta number of PSD-95 and trends toward an increase in the puncta number of synaptophysin. Moreover, Valsartan increased the cell surface levels of AMPA receptors and selectively altered the levels of spinogenesis-related proteins, including CaMKIIα and phospho-CDK5. These data suggest that Valsartan may promote spinogenesis by enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity signaling. PMID:24012668

  4. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. Methods A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM social workers and, if they gave informed consented to participate in the study, interviewed by the research team. At 2–12 months post-return to Moldova, a psychiatrist assessed DSM-IV mental disorders blind to information about women’s pre-trafficking and post-trafficking experiences using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). A backwards stepwise selection procedure was used to create a multivariable regression model of risk factors for DSM-IV mental disorder measured at an average of 6 months post-return. Results 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At an average of 6 months post-return, 54% met criteria for any DSM-IV mental disorder: 35.8% of women had PTSD (alone or co-morbid), 12.5% had depression without PTSD and 5.8% had another anxiety disorder. Multivariable regression analysis found that childhood sexual abuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.68, 95% CI 1.04-20.92), increased number of post-trafficking unmet needs (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28-2.52) and post-trafficking social support (AOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52-0.79) were independent risk factors for mental disorder, and that duration of trafficking showed a borderline association with mental disorder (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.29). Conclusions Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and

  5. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Prince, Martin; Gorceag, Viorel I; Trigub, Carolina; Oram, Siân

    2013-08-03

    Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM social workers and, if they gave informed consented to participate in the study, interviewed by the research team. At 2-12 months post-return to Moldova, a psychiatrist assessed DSM-IV mental disorders blind to information about women's pre-trafficking and post-trafficking experiences using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). A backwards stepwise selection procedure was used to create a multivariable regression model of risk factors for DSM-IV mental disorder measured at an average of 6 months post-return. 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At an average of 6 months post-return, 54% met criteria for any DSM-IV mental disorder: 35.8% of women had PTSD (alone or co-morbid), 12.5% had depression without PTSD and 5.8% had another anxiety disorder. Multivariable regression analysis found that childhood sexual abuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.68, 95% CI 1.04-20.92), increased number of post-trafficking unmet needs (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28-2.52) and post-trafficking social support (AOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52-0.79) were independent risk factors for mental disorder, and that duration of trafficking showed a borderline association with mental disorder (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.29). Assessment for mental disorders should be part of re-integration follow-up care for women survivors of human trafficking. Mental disorders at that time, most commonly PTSD and depression, are likely to be influenced by a range of predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. Care plans for survivors of

  6. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  7. Risk factors for domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R

    2015-01-01

    Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is an important social and public health problem, but it has received little attention from healthcare professionals in research, practice, and policy. Prevention and early victim identification efforts for this population are severely limited or entirely absent. The aim of this study was to integrate evidence on risk factors for DMST and critically appraise the quality and quantity of nursing literature on DMST. This literature review was reported using PRISMA criteria. Three databases (CINAHL, PsychInfo, and PubMed) were searched using various terms for (a) human trafficking, (b) risk factors, and (c) children. Demographic factors were not important predictors of DMST. Childhood maltreatment trauma and running away from home were the most important risk factors for trafficking victimization. There was little nursing literature on the topic of DMST. Nurses and other healthcare professionals must engage in confronting DMST by improving early identification of victims and conducting high-quality research to inform practice.

  8. Genetically Targeted Ratiometric and Activated pH Indicator Complexes (TRApHIC) for Receptor Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Lydia A; Yan, Qi; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Kolodieznyi, Dmytro; Saurabh, Saumya; Larsen, Mads Breum; Watkins, Simon C; Kremer, Laura; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2018-02-06

    Fluorescent protein-based pH sensors are useful tools for measuring protein trafficking through pH changes associated with endo- and exocytosis. However, commonly used pH-sensing probes are ubiquitously expressed with their protein of interest throughout the cell, hindering our ability to focus on specific trafficking pools of proteins. We developed a family of excitation ratiometric, activatable pH responsive tandem dyes, consisting of a pH sensitive Cy3 donor linked to a fluorogenic malachite green acceptor. These cell-excluded dyes are targeted and activated upon binding to a genetically expressed fluorogen-activating protein and are suitable for selective labeling of surface proteins for analysis of endocytosis and recycling in live cells using both confocal and superresolution microscopy. Quantitative profiling of the endocytosis and recycling of tagged β2-adrenergic receptor (B2AR) at a single-vesicle level revealed differences among B2AR agonists, consistent with more detailed pharmacological profiling.

  9. LRRK2 affects vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter extracellular level and membrane receptor localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Migheli

    Full Text Available The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene was found to play a role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 encodes a large multi-domain protein that is expressed in different tissues. To date, the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2 are not clearly defined. In this study we have explored the role of LRRK2 in controlling vesicle trafficking in different cellular or animal models and using various readouts. In neuronal cells, the presence of LRRK2(G2019S pathological mutant determines increased extracellular dopamine levels either under basal conditions or upon nicotine stimulation. Moreover, mutant LRRK2 affects the levels of dopamine receptor D1 on the membrane surface in neuronal cells or animal models. Ultrastructural analysis of PC12-derived cells expressing mutant LRRK2(G2019S shows an altered intracellular vesicle distribution. Taken together, our results point to the key role of LRRK2 to control vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells.

  10. Financial Capability and Sociodemographic Factors among Survivors of Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David; McGarity, Stephen Vandiver; Hansen, Nathan; Burns, Abigail C; Howard, Waylon

    2018-01-01

    Improving the economic well-being of the girls and women is a key to reducing re-trafficking and in providing stability that survivors can use to rebuild their lives. The study looks at how various sociodemographic traits affected the financial capability of n = 144 women and girls who received intervention at a residential care facility in Ghana, West Africa. Three domain of financial capability are assessed in this, i.e., financial risk, financial planning, and financial saving. A scaled likelihood ratio test (chi-square difference test) was used to evaluate the significance of each direct covariate effect(%). Each of the overall goodness-of-fit indices suggested that the initial CFA model fit the data well, χ 2 (19, N = 144)  = 31.45, p = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.067 (90% CI: 0.017-0.108), TLI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948. Older women reported lower levels of financial savings than younger women. We found that women with secondary school education or higher reported significantly higher financial risk than women with less education. Women with children reported lower levels of financial saving than women without children. Married women indicated significantly more financial saving than single women. There was a significant negative effect of time spent in trafficking conditions on financial saving, indicating the highest average level of financial savings at intervention and decreased thereafter. Programs and policies in resource-scarce contexts that aim to assist trafficking survivors must go beyond providing psychosocial counseling and focus also on economic development opportunities.

  11. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  12. Glucose-dependent trafficking of 5-HT3 receptors in rat gastrointestinal vagal afferent neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Tanja; Troy, Amanda E; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal glucose induces gastric relaxation via vagally mediated sensory-motor reflexes. Glucose can alter the activity of gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent (sensory) neurons directly, via closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, as well as indirectly, via the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from mucosal enteroendocrine cells. We hypothesized that glucose may also be able to modulate the ability of GI vagal afferent neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, via regulation of neuronal 5-HT3 receptors. Methods Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from acutely dissociated GI-projecting vagal afferent neurons exposed to equiosmolar Krebs’ solution containing different concentrations of D-glucose (1.25–20mM) and the response to picospritz application of 5-HT assessed. The distribution of 5-HT3 receptors in neurons exposed to different glucose concentrations was also assessed immunohistochemically. Key Results Increasing or decreasing extracellular D-glucose concentration increased or decreased, respectively, the 5-HT-induced inward current as well as the proportion of 5-HT3 receptors associated with the neuronal membrane. These responses were blocked by the Golgi-disrupting agent Brefeldin-A (5µM) suggesting involvement of a protein trafficking pathway. Furthermore, L-glucose did not mimic the response of D-glucose implying that metabolic events downstream of neuronal glucose uptake are required in order to observe the modulation of 5-HT3 receptor mediated responses. Conclusions & Inferences These results suggest that, in addition to inducing the release of 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, glucose may also increase the ability of GI vagal sensory neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, providing a means by which the vagal afferent signal can be amplified or prolonged. PMID:22845622

  13. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis.

  14. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Variant p.Tyr157Cys Reduces Platelet Functional Responses and Alters Receptor Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Cunningham, Margaret R; Jones, Matthew L; Walker, Mary E; Westbury, Sarah K; Sessions, Richard B; Mundell, Stuart J; Mumford, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is a key regulator of platelet reactivity and is encoded by F2RL3, which has abundant rare missense variants. We aimed to provide proof of principle that rare F2LR3 variants potentially affect platelet reactivity and responsiveness to PAR1 antagonist drugs and to explore underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified 6 rare F2RL3 missense variants in 236 cardiac patients, of which the variant causing a tyrosine 157 to cysteine substitution (Y157C) was predicted computationally to have the greatest effect on PAR4 structure. Y157C platelets from 3 cases showed reduced responses to PAR4-activating peptide and to α-thrombin compared with controls, but no reduction in responses to PAR1-activating peptide. Pretreatment with the PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar caused lower residual α-thrombin responses in Y157C platelets than in controls, indicating greater platelet inhibition. HEK293 cells transfected with a PAR4 Y157C expression construct had reduced PAR4 functional responses, unchanged total PAR4 expression but reduced surface expression. PAR4 Y157C was partially retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and displayed an expression pattern consistent with defective N-glycosylation. Mutagenesis of Y322, which is the putative hydrogen bond partner of Y157, also reduced PAR4 surface expression in HEK293 cells. Reduced PAR4 responses associated with Y157C result from aberrant anterograde surface receptor trafficking, in part, because of disrupted intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Characterization of PAR4 Y157C establishes that rare F2RL3 variants have the potential to markedly alter platelet PAR4 reactivity particularly after exposure to therapeutic PAR1 antagonists. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Functional Proteomics Defines the Molecular Switch Underlying FGF Receptor Trafficking and Cellular Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T.G.; Emdal, Kristina B

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with distinct FGF ligands generates specific cellular responses. However, the mechanisms underlying this paradigm have remained elusive. Here, we show that FGF-7 stimulation leads to FGFR2b degradation and, ultimately, cell proliferation...

  16. RABA Members Act in Distinct Steps of Subcellular Trafficking of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 Receptor[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-won; Tamaki, Takayuki; Ebine, Kazuo; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface proteins play critical roles in the perception of environmental stimuli at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuing signal transduction. Intracellular localization of such proteins must be strictly regulated, which requires elaborate integration of exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), a receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, also depends on membrane trafficking. However, our understanding about the mechanisms involved is still limited. In this study, we visualized ligand-induced endocytosis of FLS2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FLS2 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Upon treatment with the flg22 peptide, internalized FLS2-GFP from the PM was transported to a compartment with properties intermediate between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular endosome. This compartment gradually discarded the TGN characteristics as it continued along the trafficking pathway. We further found that FLS2 endocytosis involves distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroups at different steps. Moreover, we demonstrated that transport of de novo–synthesized FLS2 to the PM also involves a distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroup. Our results demonstrate the complex regulatory system for properly localizing FLS2 and functional differentiation in RABA members in endo- and exocytosis. PMID:23532067

  17. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit σ1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  18. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  19. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  20. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  1. P2X7 receptors regulate multiple types of membrane trafficking responses and non-classical secretion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Dubyak, George R

    2009-06-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) triggers a remarkably diverse array of membrane trafficking responses in leukocytes and epithelial cells. These responses result in altered profiles of cell surface lipid and protein composition that can modulate the direct interactions of P2X7R-expressing cells with other cell types in the circulation, in blood vessels, at epithelial barriers, or within sites of immune and inflammatory activation. Additionally, these responses can result in the release of bioactive proteins, lipids, and large membrane complexes into extracellular compartments for remote communication between P2X7R-expressing cells and other cells that amplify or modulate inflammation, immunity, and responses to tissue damages. This review will discuss P2X7R-mediated effects on membrane composition and trafficking in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular organelles, as well as actions of P2X7R in controlling various modes of non-classical secretion. It will review P2X7R regulation of: (1) phosphatidylserine distribution in the PM outer leaflet; (2) shedding of PM surface proteins; (3) release of PM-derived microvesicles or microparticles; (4) PM blebbing; (5) cell-cell fusion resulting in formation of multinucleate cells; (6) phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes; (7) permeability of endosomes with internalized pathogen-associated molecular patterns; (8) permeability/integrity of mitochondria; (9) exocytosis of secretory lysosomes; and (10) release of exosomes from multivesicular bodies.

  2. The FTLD risk factor TMEM106B and MAP6 control dendritic trafficking of lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Benjamin M; Lang, Christina M; Hogl, Sebastian; Tahirovic, Sabina; Orozco, Denise; Rentzsch, Kristin; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Capell, Anja; Haass, Christian; Edbauer, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    TMEM106B is a major risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology. TMEM106B localizes to lysosomes, but its function remains unclear. We show that TMEM106B knockdown in primary neurons affects lysosomal trafficking and blunts dendritic arborization. We identify microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) as novel interacting protein for TMEM106B. MAP6 over-expression inhibits dendritic branching similar to TMEM106B knockdown. MAP6 knockdown fully rescues the dendritic phenotype of TMEM106B knockdown, supporting a functional interaction between TMEM106B and MAP6. Live imaging reveals that TMEM106B knockdown and MAP6 overexpression strongly increase retrograde transport of lysosomes in dendrites. Downregulation of MAP6 in TMEM106B knockdown neurons restores the balance of anterograde and retrograde lysosomal transport and thereby prevents loss of dendrites. To strengthen the link, we enhanced anterograde lysosomal transport by expressing dominant-negative Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), which also rescues the dendrite loss in TMEM106B knockdown neurons. Thus, TMEM106B/MAP6 interaction is crucial for controlling dendritic trafficking of lysosomes, presumably by acting as a molecular brake for retrograde transport. Lysosomal misrouting may promote neurodegeneration in patients with TMEM106B risk variants. PMID:24357581

  3. Relevant Etiological Factors Involved in Human Trafficking in order to Practice Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boroi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know first the causes and conditions that generate human beings trafficking. Analysis of case studies and police statistics allowed the structuring of categories of causes and conditions that generate and sustain the phenomenon of traffickingin order to practice prostitution.

  4. The PDZ protein GIPC regulates trafficking of the LPA1 receptor from APPL signaling endosomes and attenuates the cell's response to LPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Varsano

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA mediates diverse cellular responses through the activation of at least six LPA receptors--LPA(1-6, but the interacting proteins and signaling pathways that mediate the specificity of these receptors are largely unknown. We noticed that LPA(1 contains a PDZ binding motif (SVV identical to that present in two other proteins that interact with the PDZ protein GIPC. GIPC is involved in endocytic trafficking of several receptors including TrkA, VEGFR2, lutropin and dopamine D2 receptors. Here we show that GIPC binds directly to the PDZ binding motif of LPA(1 but not that of other LPA receptors. LPA(1 colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with GIPC and its binding partner APPL, an activator of Akt signaling found on APPL signaling endosomes. GIPC depletion by siRNA disturbed trafficking of LPA(1 to EEA1 early endosomes and promoted LPA(1 mediated Akt signaling, cell proliferation, and cell motility. We propose that GIPC binds LPA(1 and promotes its trafficking from APPL-containing signaling endosomes to EEA1 early endosomes and thus attenuates LPA-mediated Akt signaling from APPL endosomes.

  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein by retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, A W; Anderson, H R; Gardiner, T A; Bailie, J R; Archer, D B

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigated the receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cultured retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs). Low-density lipoprotein and insulin were conjugated to 10 nm colloidal gold, and these ligands were added to cultured bovine RVECs for 20 minutes at 4 degrees C. The cultures were then warmed to 37 degrees C and fixed after incubation times between 30 seconds and 1 hour. Control cells were incubated with unconjugated gold colloid at times and concentrations similar to those of the ligands. Additional control cells were exposed to several concentrations of anti-insulin receptor antibody or a saturating solution of unconjugated insulin before incubation with gold insulin. Using transmission electron microscopy, insulin gold and LDL gold were both observed at various stages of RME. Insulin-gold particles were first seen to bind to the apical plasma membrane (PM) before clustering in clathrin-coated pits and internalization in coated vesicles. Gold was later visualized in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, corresponding to early endosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or late endosomes. In several instances, localized regions of the limiting membrane of the MVBs appeared coated, a feature of endosomal membranes not previously described. After RME at the apical PM and passage through the endosomal system, the greater part of both insulin- and LDL-gold conjugates was seen to accumulate in large lysosome-like compartments. However, a small but significant proportion of the internalized ligands was transcytosed and released as discrete membrane-associated quanta at the basal cell surface. The uptake of LDL gold was greatly increased in highly vacuolated, late-passage RVECs. In controls, anti-insulin receptor antibody and excess unconjugated insulin caused up to 89% inhibition in gold-insulin binding and internalization. These results illustrate the internalization and intracellular

  6. The binding of NCAM to FGFR1 induces a specific cellular response mediated by receptor trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Cattaneo, Paola; Berezin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    different from that elicited by FGF-2. In contrast to FGF-induced degradation of endocytic FGFR1, NCAM promotes the stabilization of the receptor, which is recycled to the cell surface in a Rab11- and Src-dependent manner. In turn, FGFR1 recycling is required for NCAM-induced sustained activation of various...

  7. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS TO BECOME VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vrubliauskaitė

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on the risk for minors to become victims of human trafficking or commercial sexual exploitation up till recently focused on socioeconomic, psychosocial and demographic factors. As findings suggest, these characteristics have different impact across different cultures, regions, etc., thus scholars are starting to raise the question on their differen timpact on individual level. They notice that, in the presence of particular combination of characteristics, adolescent girls do not always become victims of commercial sexual exploitation, and some girls who are considered to be victims do not see themselves as victims of sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to systematically overview psychological factors found through research, that are associated with the risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking. The systematic review focuses on commercial sexual exploitation of minors, particularly, girls, as the most prevalent form of human trafficking. Criteria for article selection include language of the article, the scope and methodology of the research done, sex of the participants of the research, age of being trafficked, and nature of risk factors analysed in the article. Final analysis comprised of six articles. The results show that risk of becoming victim of commercial sexual exploitation is linked with such psychological factors as low self-esteem, denigration of sexual self and others, dysfunctional attachment models, learned maladaptive problem solving strategies, and post-traumatic stress disorder, lack of reflecting abilities, etc. These psychological characteristics may emerge after traumatic experiences such as loss, sexual abuse in childhood, multiple placements in foster care or maltreatment of the child, and later lead into risky behaviours like running away from homes, living on the streets, which increase risk of their exploitation. Results and future research suggestions are discussed.

  9. Importance of constitutive activity and arrestin-independent mechanisms for intracellular trafficking of the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holliday, Nicholas D; Holst, Birgitte; Rodionova, Elena A

    2007-01-01

    . Furthermore the interaction between phosphorylated receptors and beta-arrestin adaptor proteins has been examined. Replacement of the FLAG-tagged GhrelinR C tail with the equivalent GPR39 domain (GhR-39 chimera) preserved G(q) signaling. However in contrast to the GhrelinR, GhR-39 receptors exhibited no basal......,9), Leu(11)] substance P and a naturally occurring mutant GhrelinR (A204E) with eliminated constitutive activity inhibited basal GhrelinR internalization. Surprisingly, we found that noninternalizing GPR39 was highly phosphorylated and that basal and agonist-induced phosphorylation of the GhR-39 chimera......, but the high levels of GPR39 phosphorylation, and of the GhR-39 chimera, are not sufficient to drive endocytosis. In addition, basal GhrelinR internalization occurs independently of beta-arrestins....

  10. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  11. New hyperekplexia mutations provide insight into glycine receptor assembly, trafficking, and activation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Anna; Wood, Sian-Elin; Mullins, Jonathan G L

    2013-01-01

    Hyperekplexia is a syndrome of readily provoked startle responses, alongside episodic and generalized hypertonia, that presents within the first month of life. Inhibitory glycine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels with a definitive and clinically well stratified linkage...... a structural mechanism for channel activation. Receptors incorporating p.P230S (which is heterozygous with p.R65W) desensitized much faster than wild type receptors and represent a new TM1 site capable of modulating desensitization. The recessive mutations p.R72C, p.R218W, p.L291P, p.D388A, and p.E375X...... precluded cell surface expression unless co-expressed with α1 wild type subunits. The recessive p.E375X mutation resulted in subunit truncation upstream of the TM4 domain. Surprisingly, on the basis of three independent assays, we were able to infer that p.E375X truncated subunits are incorporated...

  12. Safety, tumor trafficking and immunogenicity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells specific for TAG-72 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Kristen M; Bergsland, Emily K; Fisher, George A; Nemunaitis, John J; Warren, Robert S; McArthur, James G; Lin, Andy A; Schlom, Jeffrey; June, Carl H; Sherwin, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined. Here we report results of the first human trials of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors performed in the 1990s. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) were treated in two phase 1 trials with first-generation retroviral transduced CAR-T cells targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 and including a CD3-zeta intracellular signaling domain (CART72 cells). In trial C-9701 and C-9702, CART72 cells were administered in escalating doses up to 10 10 total cells; in trial C-9701 CART72 cells were administered by intravenous infusion. In trial C-9702, CART72 cells were administered via direct hepatic artery infusion in patients with colorectal liver metastases. In both trials, a brief course of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) was given with each CART72 infusion to upregulate expression of TAG-72. Fourteen patients were enrolled in C-9701 and nine in C-9702. CART72 manufacturing success rate was 100% with an average transduction efficiency of 38%. Ten patients were treated in CC-9701 and 6 in CC-9702. Symptoms consistent with low-grade, cytokine release syndrome were observed in both trials without clear evidence of on target/off tumor toxicity. Detectable, but mostly short-term (≤14 weeks), persistence of CART72 cells was observed in blood; one patient had CART72 cells detectable at 48 weeks. Trafficking to tumor tissues was confirmed in a tumor biopsy from one of three patients. A subset of patients had 111 Indium-labeled CART72 cells injected, and trafficking could be detected to liver, but T cells appeared largely excluded from large metastatic deposits. Tumor biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and TAG-72 were measured in serum; there was a precipitous decline of TAG-72, but not CEA, in some patients due to induction of an interfering antibody to the TAG-72

  13. The kinesin-3 family motor KLP-4 regulates anterograde trafficking of GLR-1 glutamate receptors in the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Michael I; Ahlawat, Shikha; Kowalski, Jennifer R; Malkin, Emily; Koushika, Sandhya P; Juo, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The transport of glutamate receptors from the cell body to synapses is essential during neuronal development and may contribute to the regulation of synaptic strength in the mature nervous system. We previously showed that cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK-5) positively regulates the abundance of GLR-1 glutamate receptors at synapses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we identify a kinesin-3 family motor klp-4/KIF13 in a cdk-5 suppressor screen for genes that regulate GLR-1 trafficking. klp-4 mutants have decreased abundance of GLR-1 in the VNC. Genetic analysis of klp-4 and the clathrin adaptin unc-11/AP180 suggests that klp-4 functions before endocytosis in the ventral cord. Time-lapse microscopy indicates that klp-4 mutants exhibit decreased anterograde flux of GLR-1. Genetic analysis of cdk-5 and klp-4 suggests that they function in the same pathway to regulate GLR-1 in the VNC. Interestingly, GLR-1 accumulates in cell bodies of cdk-5 but not klp-4 mutants. However, GLR-1 does accumulate in klp-4-mutant cell bodies if receptor degradation in the multivesicular body/lysosome pathway is blocked. This study identifies kinesin KLP-4 as a novel regulator of anterograde glutamate receptor trafficking and reveals a cellular control mechanism by which receptor cargo is targeted for degradation in the absence of its motor.

  14. Receptor trafficking via the perinuclear recycling compartment accompanied by cell division is necessary for permanent neurotensin cell sensitization and leads to chronic mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Cortes, Catherine Llorens; Beaudet, Alain; Rostène, William; Forgez, Patricia

    2004-03-26

    Most G protein-coupled receptors are internalized after interaction with their respective ligand, a process that subsequently contributes to cell desensitization, receptor endocytosis, trafficking, and finally cell resensitization. Although cellular mechanisms leading to cell desensitization have been widely studied, those responsible for cell resensitization are still poorly understood. We examined here the traffic of the high affinity neurotensin receptor (NT1 receptor) following prolonged exposure to high agonist concentration. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy of Chinese hamster ovary, human neuroblastoma (CHP 212), and murine neuroblastoma (N1E-115) cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged NT1 receptor revealed that under prolonged treatment with saturating concentrations of neurotensin (NT) agonist, NT1 receptor and NT transiently accumulated in the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC). During this cellular event, cell surface receptors remained markedly depleted as detected by both confocal microscopy and (125)I-NT binding assays. In dividing cells, we observed that following prolonged NT agonist stimulation, NT1 receptors were removed from the PNRC, accumulated in dispersed vesicles inside the cytoplasm, and subsequently reappeared at the cell surface. This NT binding recovery allowed for constant cell sensitization and led to a chronic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42 and p44. Under these conditions, the constant activation of NT1 receptor generates an oncogenic regulation. These observations support the potent role for neuropeptides, such as NT, in cancer progression.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances GABA transport by modulating the trafficking of GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) from the plasma membrane of rat cortical astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz, Sandra H; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    /MAPK pathway and requires active adenosine A(2A) receptors. Transport through GAT-3 is not affected by BDNF. To elucidate if BDNF affects trafficking of GAT-1 in astrocytes, we generated and infected astrocytes with a functional mutant of the rat GAT-1 (rGAT-1) in which the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope...

  16. Live Cell Imaging and 3D Analysis of Angiotensin Receptor Type 1a Trafficking in Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney Cells Using Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Parnika; McAllister, Ryan; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Sandberg, Kathryn; Mueller, Susette C

    2017-03-27

    Live-cell imaging is used to simultaneously capture time-lapse images of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR) and intracellular compartments in transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK) cells following stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II). HEK cells are transiently transfected with plasmid DNA containing AT1aR tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Lysosomes are identified with a red fluorescent dye. Live-cell images are captured on a laser scanning confocal microscope after Ang II stimulation and analyzed by software in three dimensions (3D, voxels) over time. Live-cell imaging enables investigations into receptor trafficking and avoids confounds associated with fixation, and in particular, the loss or artefactual displacement of EGFP-tagged membrane receptors. Thus, as individual cells are tracked through time, the subcellular localization of receptors can be imaged and measured. Images must be acquired sufficiently rapidly to capture rapid vesicle movement. Yet, at faster imaging speeds, the number of photons collected is reduced. Compromises must also be made in the selection of imaging parameters like voxel size in order to gain imaging speed. Significant applications of live-cell imaging are to study protein trafficking, migration, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and protein-protein interaction and dynamics, to name but a few.

  17. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greune, Lilo; Jarosch, Kevin-André; Steil, Daniel; Zhang, Wenlan; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Fruth, Angelika; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157 OMVs carry a cocktail of key virulence factors of EHEC O157 including Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a), cytolethal distending toxin V (CdtV), EHEC hemolysin, and flagellin. The toxins are internalized by cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and differentially separate from vesicles during intracellular trafficking. Stx2a and CdtV-B, the DNase-like CdtV subunit, separate from OMVs in early endosomes. Stx2a is trafficked, in association with its receptor globotriaosylceramide within detergent-resistant membranes, to the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum from where the catalytic Stx2a A1 fragment is translocated to the cytosol. CdtV-B is, after its retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, translocated to the nucleus to reach DNA. CdtV-A and CdtV-C subunits remain OMV-associated and are sorted with OMVs to lysosomes. EHEC hemolysin separates from OMVs in lysosomes and targets mitochondria. The OMV-delivered CdtV-B causes cellular DNA damage, which activates DNA damage responses leading to G2 cell cycle arrest. The arrested cells ultimately die of apoptosis induced by Stx2a and CdtV via caspase-9 activation. By demonstrating that naturally secreted EHEC O157 OMVs carry and deliver into cells a cocktail of biologically active virulence factors, thereby causing cell death, and by performing first comprehensive analysis of intracellular trafficking of OMVs and OMV-delivered virulence factors

  18. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  19. Highly specific detection of muscarinic M3 receptor, G protein interaction and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor using Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt-Paetz, Mandy; Herbst, Luise; Weimann, Annett; Gonsior, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e.g. altered intracellular receptor trafficking, could explain those differences. In addition, alternative G protein (GP) coupling could add to the pathophysiology via modulation of muscarinic signaling. In our proof-of-principle study, we addressed these questions in situ. We established PLA in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3D object reconstruction for highly specific detection and analysis of muscarinic 3 receptors (M3), G protein (GP) coupling and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor samples. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed bladder tissue (FFPE) of BPS/IC patients receiving transurethral biopsy were examined by Cy3-PLA for M3 expression, coupling of M3 to GPs (G αq/11 , G αs , G αi ) and interaction of M3 with endocytic regulator proteins. Membranes were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor ® 488, nuclei were stained with DAPI. Object density and co-localization were analyzed in 3D-reconstruction of high resolution confocal z-stacks. Confocal image stack processing resulted in well demarcated objects. Calculated receptor densities correlated significantly with existing confocal expression data, while significantly improved specificity of M3 detection by PLA was verified using bladder tissue samples from transgenic mice. 50-60% of the M3 receptor complexes were plasma membrane associated in human bladder detrusor. Application of PLA for M3 and GPs allowed visualization of M3-GP interactions and revealed individual GP

  20. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  1. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  2. Rebooting Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Villiers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While popular psychology and appeals to emotion have unfortunately dominated discussions of ‘sex trafficking’, this article suggests that feminist psychoanalytic film theory and theories of affect are still useful for making sense of the appeal of sensational exposés like Lifetime Television’s Human Trafficking (2005. The dynamic of identification with (and impersonation of a human trafficking ‘victim’ by the rescuing Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent (Mira Sorvino is particularly worthy of scrutiny. Film theory about the ‘rebooting’ of film franchises (iconic brands like Batman also helps explain the preponderance of similar programming—Sex Slaves (2005, Selling the Girl Next Door (2011, Trafficked (2016—and the way contemporary discourses of human trafficking have effectively rebranded the myth of ‘white slavery’.

  3. Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

    2007-05-01

    We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system.

  4. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  5. Cholesterol trafficking and raft-like membrane domain composition mediate scavenger receptor class B type 1-dependent lipid sensing in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Etienne; Ghezzal, Sara; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Demignot, Sylvie; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W; Leturque, Armelle; Rousset, Monique; Carrière, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    Scavenger receptor Class B type 1 (SR-B1) is a lipid transporter and sensor. In intestinal epithelial cells, SR-B1-dependent lipid sensing is associated with SR-B1 recruitment in raft-like/ detergent-resistant membrane domains and interaction of its C-terminal transmembrane domain with plasma membrane cholesterol. To clarify the initiating events occurring during lipid sensing by SR-B1, we analyzed cholesterol trafficking and raft-like domain composition in intestinal epithelial cells expressing wild-type SR-B1 or the mutated form SR-B1-Q445A, defective in membrane cholesterol binding and signal initiation. These features of SR-B1 were found to influence both apical cholesterol efflux and intracellular cholesterol trafficking from plasma membrane to lipid droplets, and the lipid composition of raft-like domains. Lipidomic analysis revealed likely participation of d18:0/16:0 sphingomyelin and 16:0/0:0 lysophosphatidylethanolamine in lipid sensing by SR-B1. Proteomic analysis identified proteins, whose abundance changed in raft-like domains during lipid sensing, and these included molecules linked to lipid raft dynamics and signal transduction. These findings provide new insights into the role of SR-B1 in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and suggest molecular links between SR-B1-dependent lipid sensing and cell cholesterol and lipid droplet dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Androgen receptor regulates nuclear trafficking and nuclear domain residency of corepressor HDAC7 in a ligand-dependent fashion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, Ulla; Jaenne, Olli A.; Palvimo, Jorma J.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to chromosomal proteins, histone deacetylases (HDACs) target transcription factors in transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the class II HDAC family member HDAC7 is an efficient corepressor of the androgen receptor (AR). HDAC7 resided in the cytoplasm in the absence of AR or a cognate ligand, but hormone-occupancy of AR induced nuclear transfer of HDAC7. Nuclear colocalization pattern of AR and HDAC7 was dependent on the nature of the ligand. In the presence of testosterone, a portion of HDAC7 localized to pearl-like nuclear domains, whereas AR occupied with antagonistic ligands cyproterone acetate- or casodex (bicalutamide) recruited HDAC7 from these domains to colocalize with the receptor in speckles and nucleoplasm in a more complete fashion. Ectopic expression of PML-3 relieved the repressive effect of HDAC7 on AR function by sequestering HDAC7 to PML-3 domains. AR acetylation at Lys630/632/633 was not the target of HDAC7 repression, since repression of AR function was independent of these acetylation sites. Moreover, the deacetylase activity of HDAC7 was in part dispensable in the repression of AR function. In sum, our results identify HDAC7 as a novel AR corepressor whose subcellular and subnuclear compartmentalization can be regulated in an androgen-selective manner

  7. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira-Cunha, Melissa; Newman, William G.; Siriwardena, Ajith K.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  9. TIM-1 glycoprotein binds the adhesion receptor P-selectin and mediates T cell trafficking during inflammation and autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiari, Stefano; Donnarumma, Tiziano; Rossi, Barbara; Dusi, Silvia; Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Della Bianca, Vittorina; Toffali, Lara; Piacentino, Gennj; Budui, Simona; Rennert, Paul; Xiao, Sheng; Laudanna, Carlo; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Constantin, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Selectins play a central role in leukocyte trafficking by mediating tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces. Here we have reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. We have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper-1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. Th1 and Th17 cells lacking the TIM-1 mucin domain showed reduced rolling in thrombin-activated mesenteric venules and inflamed brain microcirculation. Inhibition of TIM-1 had no effect on naive T cell homing, but reduced T cell recruitment in a skin hypersensitivity model and blocked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Uniquely, the TIM-1 IgV domain was also required for P-selectin binding. Our data demonstrate that TIM-1 is a major P-selectin ligand with a specialized role in T cell trafficking during inflammatory responses and the induction of autoimmune disease. PMID:24703780

  10. Structure and function of the Juxta membrane domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Carlin, Cathleen; Sonnichsen, Frank D.

    2005-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Its juxta membrane domain (JX), the region located between the transmembrane and kinase domains, plays important roles in receptor trafficking since both basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells and lysosomal sorting signals are identified in this region. In order to understand the regulation of these signals, we characterized the structural properties of recombinant JX domain in dodecyl phosphocholine detergent (DPC) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In DPC micelles, structures derived from NMR data showed three amphipathic, helical segments. Two equivalent average structural models on the surface of micelles were obtained that differ only in the relative orientation between the first and second helices. Our data suggests that the activity of sorting signals may be regulated by their membrane association and restricted accessibility in the intact receptor

  11. ARF6 and GASP-1 are post-endocytic sorting proteins selectively involved in the intracellular trafficking of dopamine D2 receptors mediated by GRK and PKC in transfected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, DI; Zheng, M; Min, C; Kwon, KJ; Shin, CY; Choi, HK; Kim, KM

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose GPCRs undergo both homologous and heterologous regulatory processes in which receptor phosphorylation plays a critical role. The protein kinases responsible for each pathway are well established; however, other molecular details that characterize each pathway remain unclear. In this study, the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in the functional roles and intracellular trafficking between homologous and PKC-mediated heterologous internalization pathways for the dopamine D2 receptor were investigated. Experimental Approach All of the S/T residues located within the intracellular loops of D2 receptor were mutated, and the residues responsible for GRK- and PKC-mediated internalization were determined in HEK-293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. The functional role of receptor internalization and the cellular components that determine the post-endocytic fate of internalized D2 receptors were investigated in the transfected cells. Key Results T134, T225/S228/S229 and S325 were involved in PKC-mediated D2 receptor desensitization. S229 and adjacent S/T residues mediated the PKC-dependent internalization of D2 receptors, which induced down-regulation and desensitization. S/T residues within the second intracellular loop and T225 were the major residues involved in GRK-mediated internalization of D2 receptors, which induced receptor resensitization. ARF6 mediated the recycling of D2 receptors internalized in response to agonist stimulation. In contrast, GASP-1 mediated the down-regulation of D2 receptors internalized in a PKC-dependent manner. Conclusions and Implications GRK- and PKC-mediated internalizations of D2 receptors occur through different intracellular trafficking pathways and mediate distinct functional roles. Distinct S/T residues within D2 receptors and different sorting proteins are involved in the dissimilar regulation of D2 receptors by GRK2 and PKC. PMID:23082996

  12. Plectin regulates the signaling and trafficking of the HIV-1 co-receptor CXCR4 and plays a role in HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yun; Zhang Li; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Wang Ziqing; Liu Bingdong; Zhang Jingwu; Fan Guohuang

    2008-01-01

    The CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 play an important role in inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cancer metastasis. The signal transduction and intracellular trafficking of CXCR4 are involved in these functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the CXCR4 formed a complex with the cytolinker protein plectin in a ligand-dependent manner in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CXCR4 C-terminal fusion proteins co-precipitated with the full-length and the N-terminal fragments of plectin isoform 1 but not with the N-terminal deletion mutants of plectin isoform 1, thereby suggesting an interaction between the N-terminus of plectin and the C-terminus of CXCR4. This interaction was confirmed by confocal microscopic reconstructions showing co-distribution of these two proteins in the internal vesicles after ligand-induced internalization of CXCR4 in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. Knockdown of plectin with RNA interference (RNAi) significantly inhibited ligand-dependent CXCR4 internalization and attenuated CXCR4-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4 and of Jurkat T cells was inhibited by the plectin RNAi. Moreover, CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 infection in MAGI (HeLa-CD4-LTR-Gal) cells was inhibited by the RNAi of plectin. Thus, plectin appears to interact with CXCR4 and plays an important role in CXCR4 signaling and trafficking and HIV-1 infection

  13. Ligand-induced internalization of neurotensin in transfected COS-7 cells: differential intracellular trafficking of ligand and receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, F; Nouel, D; Vincent, J P; Mazella, J; Beaudet, A

    2000-09-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is known to be internalized in a receptor-mediated fashion into its target cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this process, we monitored in parallel the migration of the NT1 neurotensin receptor subtype and a fluorescent analog of NT (fluo-NT) in COS-7 cells transfected with a tagged NT1 construct. Fluo-NT internalization was prevented by hypertonic sucrose, potassium depletion and cytosol acidification, demonstrating that it proceeded via clathrin-coated pits. Within 0-30 minutes, fluo-NT accumulated together with its receptor in Acridine Orange-positive, acidic organelles. These organelles concentrated transferrin and immunostained positively for rab 5A, therefore they were early endosomes. After 30-45 minutes, the ligand and its receptor no longer colocalized. Fluo-NT was first found in rab 7-positive late endosomes and later in a nonacidic juxtanuclear compartment identified as the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) by virtue of its staining for syntaxin 6. This juxtanuclear compartment also stained positively for rab 7 and for the TGN/pericentriolar recycling endosome marker rab 11, suggesting that the ligand could have been recruited to the TGN from either late or recycling endosomes. By that time, internalized receptors were detected in Lamp-1-immunoreactive lysosomes. These results demonstrate that neurotensin/NT1 receptor complexes follow a recycling cycle that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptors studied to date, and provide the first evidence for the targeting of a nonendogenous protein from endosomes to the TGN.

  14. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Mechanoactivation Involves RGS5 (Regulator of G Protein Signaling 5) in Skeletal Muscle Arteries: Impaired Trafficking of RGS5 in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwangseok; Li, Min; Nourian, Zahra; Meininger, Gerald A; Hill, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Studies suggest that arteriolar pressure-induced vasoconstriction can be initiated by GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), including the AT 1 R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor). This raises the question, are such mechanisms regulated by negative feedback? The present studies examined whether RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells are colocalized with the AT 1 R when activated by mechanical stress or angiotensin II and whether this modulates AT 1 R-mediated vasoconstriction. To determine whether activation of the AT 1 R recruits RGS5, an in situ proximity ligation assay was performed in primary cultures of cremaster muscle arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells treated with angiotensin II or hypotonic solution in the absence or presence of candesartan (an AT 1 R blocker). Proximity ligation assay results revealed a concentration-dependent increase in trafficking/translocation of RGS5 toward the activated AT 1 R, which was attenuated by candesartan. In intact arterioles, knockdown of RGS5 enhanced constriction to angiotensin II and augmented myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure. Myogenic constriction was attenuated to a higher degree by candesartan in RGS5 siRNA-transfected arterioles, consistent with RGS5 contributing to downregulation of AT 1 R-mediated signaling. Further, translocation of RGS5 was impaired in vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats. This is consistent with dysregulated (RGS5-mediated) AT 1 R signaling that could contribute to excessive vasoconstriction in hypertension. In intact vessels, candesartan reduced myogenic vasoconstriction to a greater extent in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with controls. Collectively, these findings suggest that AT 1 R activation results in translocation of RGS5 toward the plasma membrane, limiting AT 1 R-mediated vasoconstriction through its role in G q/11 protein-dependent signaling. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Nuclear pre-mRNA compartmentalization: Trafficking of released transcripts to splicing factor reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melčák, Ivo; Cermanová, Štěpánka; Jirsová, Kateřina; Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Raška, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2000), s. 497-510 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA302/99/0587; GA ČR GA304/00/1481; GA MŠk VS96129 Grant - others:Wellcome grant(XX) 049949/Z/97/Z/JMW/JPS/CG Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.482, year: 2000

  16. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  17. Molecular analysis of the nerve growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempstead, B.; Patil, N.; Olson, K.; Chao, M.

    1988-01-01

    An essential molecule in the translocation of information by nerve growth factor (NGF) to responsive cells is the cell-surface receptor for NGF. This paper presents information on the genomic structure of the NGF receptor gene, NGF receptor models, and transfection of NGF receptors. Equilibrium binding of [ 125 I]NGF to cells reveals two distinct affinity states for the NGF receptor. The human NGF receptor gene is a single-copy gene, consisting of six exons that span 23 kb. The receptor gene is capable of being transferred to fibroblast cells from human genomic DNA and expressed at high levels. The constitutive nature of the receptor promoter sequence is a partial explanation of why this tissue-specific gene is expressed efficiently in a variety of nonneuronal cells after genomic gene transfer. The two kinetic forms of the NGF receptor appear to be encoded by the same protein, which is the product of a single gene

  18. Interaction of epidermal growth factor receptors with the cytoskeleton is related to receptor clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, N.; Spaargaren, M.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently it has been established that cytoskeleton-associated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are predominantly of the high-affinity class and that EGF induces a recruitment of low-affinity receptors to the cytoskeleton. The nature of this EGF-induced receptor-cytoskeleton interaction,

  19. The SRC homology 2 domain of Rin1 mediates its binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor and regulates receptor endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M Alejandro; Kong, Chen; Chen, Pin-I; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Stahl, Philip D

    2003-08-22

    Activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) recruit intracellular proteins that mediate receptor signaling and endocytic trafficking. Rin1, a multifunctional protein, has been shown to regulate EGFR internalization (1). Here we show that EGF stimulation induces a specific, rapid, and transient membrane recruitment of Rin1 and that recruitment is dependent on the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Rin1. Immunoprecipitation of EGFR is accompanied by co-immunoprecipitation of Rin1 in a time- and ligand-dependent manner. Association of Rin1 and specifically the SH2 domain of Rin1 with the EGFR was dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the EGFR. The recruitment of Rin1, observed by light microscopy, indicated that although initially cytosolic, Rin1 was recruited to both plasma membrane and endosomes following EGF addition. Moreover, the expression of the SH2 domain of Rin1 substantially impaired the internalization of EGF without affecting internalization of transferrin. Finally, we found that Rin1 co-immunoprecipitated with a number of tyrosine kinase receptors but not with cargo endocytic receptors. These results indicate that Rin1 provides a link via its SH2 domain between activated tyrosine kinase receptors and the endocytic pathway through the recruitment and activation of Rab5a.

  20. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.

  1. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins’ key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins. PMID:28416660

  2. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-05-02

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins' key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins.

  3. Phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of plasma membrane proteins in animal and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Remko; Huang, Fang

    2013-09-01

    In both unicellular and multicellular organisms, transmembrane (TM) proteins are sorted to and retained at specific membrane domains by endomembrane trafficking mechanisms that recognize sorting signals in the these proteins. The trafficking and distribution of plasma membrane (PM)-localized TM proteins (PM proteins), especially of those PM proteins that show an asymmetric distribution over the PM, has received much attention, as their proper PM localization is crucial for elementary signaling and transport processes, and defects in their localization often lead to severe disease symptoms or developmental defects. The subcellular localization of PM proteins is dynamically regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. These modificaitons mostly occur on sorting signals that are located in the larger cytosolic domains of the cargo proteins. Here we review the effects of phosphorylation of PM proteins on their trafficking, and present the key examples from the animal field that have been subject to studies for already several decades, such as that of aquaporin 2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Our knowledge on cargo trafficking in plants is largely based on studies of the family of PIN FORMED (PIN) carriers that mediate the efflux of the plant hormone auxin. We will review what is known on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of PIN proteins, with a focus on how this is modulated by phosphorylation, and identify and discuss analogies and differences in trafficking with the well-studied animal examples. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Heterozygous Null Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutations Promote SRC Kinase-dependent Caveolar Trafficking Defects and Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Allison R.; Ghose, Sampa; Frump, Andrea L.; Datta, Arumima; Austin, Eric D.; Kenworthy, Anne K.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of the pulmonary vasculature. The majority of HPAH patients inherit mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2), but how these promote pulmonary vascular disease is unclear. HPAH patients have features of pulmonary endothelial cell (PEC) dysfunction including increased vascular permeability and perivascular inflammation associated with decreased PEC barrier function. Recently, frameshift mutations in the caveolar structural protein gene Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were identified in two patients with non-BMPR2-associated HPAH. Because caveolae regulate endothelial function and vascular permeability, we hypothesized that defects in caveolar function might be a common mechanism by which BMPR2 mutations promote pulmonary vascular disease. To explore this, we isolated PECs from mice carrying heterozygous null Bmpr2 mutations (Bmpr2+/−) similar to those found in the majority of HPAH patients. We show that Bmpr2+/− PECs have increased numbers and intracellular localization of caveolae and caveolar structural proteins CAV-1 and Cavin-1 and that these defects are reversed after blocking endocytosis with dynasore. SRC kinase is also constitutively activated in Bmpr2+/− PECs, and localization of CAV-1 to the plasma membrane is restored after treating Bmpr2+/− PECs with the SRC kinase inhibitor 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2). Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells isolated from HPAH patients show similar increased activation of SRC kinase. Moreover, Bmpr2+/− PECs have impaired endothelial barrier function, and barrier function is restored after treatment with PP2. These data suggest that heterozygous null BMPR2 mutations promote SRC-dependent caveolar trafficking defects in PECs and that this may contribute to pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction in HPAH patients. PMID:25411245

  5. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), tissue factor (TF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Kiss, Katalin; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor-specific biomarkers are a prerequisite for the development of targeted imaging and therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR), Tissue Factor (TF) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) are three biomarkers that exhib...... with a reduced survival. uPAR seems to be a prognostic biomarker in oral cancer....

  6. PX-RICS-deficient mice mimic autism spectrum disorder in Jacobsen syndrome through impaired GABAA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Arima-Yoshida, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Matsuura, Ken; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N; Grossfeld, Paul D; Manabe, Toshiya; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-03-16

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. A subset of patients exhibit social behavioural problems that meet the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. PX-RICS is located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in JBS patients with autistic-like behaviour. Here we report that PX-RICS-deficient mice exhibit ASD-like social behaviours and ASD-related comorbidities. PX-RICS-deficient neurons show reduced surface γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) levels and impaired GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission. PX-RICS, GABARAP and 14-3-3ζ/θ form an adaptor complex that interconnects GABAAR and dynein/dynactin, thereby facilitating GABAAR surface expression. ASD-like behavioural abnormalities in PX-RICS-deficient mice are ameliorated by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission with a GABAAR agonist. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of PX-RICS in cognition and suggest a causal link between PX-RICS deletion and ASD-like behaviour in JBS patients.

  7. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deberne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in

  8. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun's most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked--purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun's recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in "one-gun-a-month" laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (>or=2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to 4

  9. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Assembly of γ-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH 2 -terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with γ-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  10. Dissecting Bacterial Cell Wall Entry and Signaling in Eukaryotic Cells: an Actin-Dependent Pathway Parallels Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Lip Nam; Gao, Geli; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2017-01-03

    The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall (CW) peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex is released into the host environment during bacterial metabolism or death. It is a highly inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to recapitulate pathological features of pneumonia and meningitis. We report that an actin-dependent pathway is involved in the internalization of the CW by epithelial and endothelial cells, in addition to the previously described platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr)-dependent uptake pathway. Unlike the PAFr-dependent pathway, which is mediated by clathrin and dynamin and does not lead to signaling, the alternative pathway is sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and engenders Rac1, Cdc42, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Upon internalization by this macropinocytosis-like pathway, CW is trafficked to lysosomes. Intracellular CW trafficking is more complex than previously recognized and suggests multiple points of interaction with and without innate immune signaling. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen infecting the respiratory tract and brain. It is an established model organism for understanding how infection injures the host. During infection or bacterial growth, bacteria shed their cell wall (CW) into the host environment and trigger inflammation. A previous study has shown that CW enters and crosses cell barriers by interacting with a receptor on the surfaces of host cells, termed platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr). In the present study, by using cells that are depleted of PAFr, we identified a second pathway with features of macropinocytosis, which is a receptor-independent fluid uptake mechanism by cells. Each pathway contributes approximately the same amount of cell wall trafficking, but the PAFr pathway is silent, while the new pathway appears to contribute to the host inflammatory response to CW insult. Copyright © 2017

  11. Steroid hormone and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, D J; Goldsmith, K G; Ricciardelli, C; Skinner, J M; Tilley, W D; Marshall, V R

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study of steroid hormone and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in 57 meningiomas is presented. Scatchard analysis of radioligand binding identified 20% of meningiomas as expressing classical oestrogen receptors (ER) at levels below that normally accepted for positivity, the remainder being negative. ER could not be visualized in any meningioma using immunocytochemistry. Alternatively, 74% of meningiomas demonstrated the presence of progesterone receptors (PR) by Scatchard analysis, the specificity of which could not be attributed to glucocorticoid or androgen receptors. Confirmation of classical PR presence was determined by immunocytochemical staining. The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was demonstrated in 100% of meningiomas using immunocytochemical staining. These data are reviewed in the context of previously reported results and are discussed in relation to the potential for medical therapy as an adjunct to surgery.

  12. Investigating Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Simon R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    for signal transduction. One of the major mechanisms for GPCR regulation involves their endocytic trafficking, which serves to internalize the receptors from the plasma membrane and thereby attenuate G protein-dependent signaling. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that GPCRs can signal...... independently of G proteins, as well as from intracellular compartments including endosomes. It is in this context that receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking have attracted renewed interest within the GPCR field. In this chapter, we will review the current understanding and methodologies...

  13. Signal transduction by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.T.; Escobedo, J.A.; Keating, M.T.; Coughlin, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are mediated by the PDGF receptor. The mouse PDGF receptor was recently purified on the basis of its ability to become tyrosine phosphorylated in response to the A-B human platelet form of PDGF, and the receptor amino acid sequence was determined from a full-length cDNA clone. Both the human and mouse receptor cDNA sequences have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast (CHO) cells that normally lack PDGF receptors. This paper summarizes recent results using this system to study signal transduction by the PDGF receptor. Some of the findings show that the KI domain of the PDGF receptor plays an important role in the stimulation of DNA synthesis by PDGF. Surprisingly, the kinase insert region is not essential for PDGF stimulation of PtdIns turnover, pH change, increase in cellular calcium, and receptor autophosphorylation. In addition, PDGF stimulates a conformational change in the receptor

  14. Intracellular trafficking of LET-756, a fibroblast growth factor of C. elegans, is controlled by a balance of export and nuclear signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovici, Cornel; Fallet, Mathieu; Marguet, Didier; Birnbaum, Daniel; Roubin, Regine

    2006-01-01

    The superfamily of fibroblast growth factors (FGF), which counts 22 members in humans, exerts many functions during animal development and adult life. LET-756 is one of the two FGFs of the nematode C. elegans. Re-introduction of LET-756 in a null mutant strain restores viability, allowing the study of structural requirements for LET-756 trafficking and function. LET-756 protein has several regions and motifs, including a non-classical internal motif required for secretion. We show here that a main difference in the wild-type LET-756 molecule and a truncated molecule that mimics a partial loss-of-function mutant lies on subnuclear expression. Using Cos-1 cells and rescue activity we show that: (i) nuclear localization is due to various redundant NLS, one of them acting as a nucleolar localization signal; (ii) nuclear LET-756 is addressed to the speckles by a stretch of glutamine residues; (iii) nuclear LET-756 is trafficking between speckles and nucleoli; (iv) in the nucleolus, LET-756 is associated with proteins of the rRNA splicing compartment; (v) changing LET-756 secretion signal prevents its nuclear localization. We propose that LET-756 exerts its functions through a balance between secreted and nuclear forms due to two opposite addressing signals (i) synergy of several NLS and (ii) attenuated secretion signal

  15. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -8 M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these 125 I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by 125 I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors

  16. Assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Anastasia; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors play important roles in the development and function of both neuronal and glial elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Their functional diversity is in part based on their ability to interact with alternative complexes of receptor molecules. This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern the assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes. The realization that many, if not the majority, of these complexes exist in a preassembled form at the plasma membrane has forced the revision of classical ligand-mediated oligomerization models, and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of receptor activation and generation of signaling diversity which are likely to be shared by many different classes of receptors.

  17. Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3β in the DRG in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Shu, Ruichen; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyun; Li, Nan; Wang, Guolin

    2014-07-01

    Although NMDAR trafficking mediated by GSK-3β involvement in transmission of pronociceptive messages in the spinal cord has been confirmed by our previous studies, whether NMDAR trafficking is implicated in peripheral sensitization remains equivocal. It is demonstrated that inflammation is associated with spinal NMDAR-containing nociceptive neurons activation and the maintenance of opioid induced pain hypersensitivity. However, whether and how hydrogen-rich saline, as an effective anti-inflammatory drug, could prevent hyperalgesia through affecting peripheral sensitization caused by NMDAR activation remains to be explored. To test these effects, hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after remifentanil infusion, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 was administrated intravenously before remifentanil infusion in rats. We examined time course of hydrogen concentration in blood after hydrogen-rich saline administration. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by measuring PWT and PWL for 48 post-infusion hours, respectively. Western blotting and real-time qPCR assay were applied to analyze the NR1 membrane trafficking, GSK-3β expression and activity in DRG. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expressions in DRG were also analyzed. We found that NR1 membrane trafficking in DRG increased, possibly due to GSK-3β activation after remifentanil infusion. We also discovered that hydrogen-rich saline not 2.5 ml/kg but 5 and 10 ml/kg could dose-dependently attenuate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting baseline nociceptive threshold, reduce expressions of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and decrease NR1 trafficking mediated by GSK-3β, and minimal effective concentration was observed to be higher than 10 μmol/L, namely peak concentration in arterial blood after administration of HRS 2.5 ml/kg without any influence on hyperalgesia. Our results indicated that

  18. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena J Steinle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jena J SteinleDepartments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USAAbstract: Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferation through actions of the TrkA receptor or promote apoptosis through receptor p75NTR. This understanding has led to novel interest in the role of NGF for diseases of the posterior eye. The role of β-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists for treatments of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and their potential mechanisms of action, are still under investigation. This review discusses the current knowledge and applications of topical NGF and adrenergic receptor drugs for ocular disease.Keywords: NGF, β-adrenergic receptor agents, α-adrenergic receptor agents, retina, cornea, glaucoma

  19. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  20. Smuggled or trafficked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bhabha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

  1. Getting out of the game: desistance from drug trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Howard; Hansen, Tobin

    2012-11-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border, the centre of the western hemispheric illicit drugs trade. It examines factors that encouraged or discouraged drug traffickers to "get out of the game" (a common slang reference to leaving the drug business). In-depth, life history interviews were conducted of thirty ex-traffickers in the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez area. Participants discussed their experiences exiting drug trafficking and their retrospective, often conflicted, feelings about the trade. Although leaving drug trafficking is a complex and multi-faceted process, the principle factors for study participants were (1) punishment (by authorities or other traffickers), (2) self-image and identity, (3) social ties, (4) life course changes and (5) drug use/abuse. Traffickers often want to quit, but their divided self-identities make it difficult to relinquish the power and exhilaration they derive from the illicit drugs business. Harm reduction policies are needed that address the embeddedness of trafficker identities in dense webs of family, community, street gangs and transnational cartels, and the larger society, as well as the seductive appeal of Hollywood and pro-cartel narco-media. Traffickers need pathways that allow them to exit the illicit drugs business without surrendering their identity. Prison sentences are not enough to encourage traffickers to stop-also needed are culturally sensitive policies that help traffickers get out of the game and stay out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Valencia, Julio; Goodman, Kaija; Otegui, Marisa S

    2016-04-29

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex. Proteins that are targeted for degradation through ubiquitination are sorted into endosomal vesicles by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery for degradation in the vacuole. Endocytic and endosomal trafficking regulates many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes, including cellular polarization, hormone transport, metal ion homeostasis, cytokinesis, pathogen responses, and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that mediate the recognition and sorting of endocytic and endosomal cargos, the vesiculation processes that mediate their trafficking, and their connection to cellular and physiological responses in plants.

  3. Secretion of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1/sFlt1 requires Arf1, Arf6, and Rab11 GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Joon Jung

    Full Text Available The soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1/sFlt1 is generated by alternative splicing of the FLT1 gene. Secretion of sFlt1 from endothelial cells plays an important role in blood vessel sprouting and morphogenesis. However, excess sFlt1 secretion is associated with diseases such as preeclampsia and chronic kidney disease. To date, the secretory transport process involved in the secretion of sFlt1 is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the itinerary of sFlt1 trafficking along the secretory pathway. To understand the timecourse of sFlt1 secretion, endothelial cells stably expressing sFlt1 were metabolically radiolabeled with [(35S]-methionine and cysteine. Our results indicate that after initial synthesis the levels of secreted [(35S]-sFlt1 in the extracellular medium peaks at 8 hours. Treatment with brefeldin A (BFA, a drug which blocks trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the Golgi complex, inhibited extracellular release of sFlt1 suggesting that ER to Golgi and intra-Golgi trafficking of sFlt1 are essential for its secretion. Furthermore, we show that ectopic expression of dominant-negative mutant forms of Arf1, Arf6, and Rab11 as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of these GTPases block secretion of sFlt1 during normoxic and hypoxic conditions suggesting role for these small GTPases. This work is the first to report role of regulatory proteins involved in sFlt1 trafficking along the secretory pathway and may provide insights and new molecular targets for the modulation of sFlt-1 release during physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.A.; Steele-Perkins, G.; Hari, J.; Stover, C.; Pierce, S.; Turner, J.; Edman, J.C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin is a member of a family of structurally related hormones with diverse physiological functions. In humans, the best-characterized members of this family include insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II. Each of these three polypeptide hormones has its own distinct receptor. The structures of each of these receptors have now been deduced from analyses of isolated cDNA clones. To study further the responses mediated through these three different receptors, the authors have been studying cells expressing the proteins encoded by these three cDNAs. The isolated cDNAs have been transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the resulting transfected cell lines have been characterized as to the ligand-binding activities and signal-transducing activities of the expressed proteins

  5. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.; Hauger, R.L.; Catt, K.J.; Aguilera, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and properties of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) were analyzed in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys. Binding of [ 125 I]tyrosine-labeled ovine CRF to frontal cortex and amygdala membrane-rich fractions was saturable, specific, and time- and temperature-dependent, reaching equilibrium in 30 min at 23 0 C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated one class of high-affinity sites with a K/sub d/ of 1 nM and a concentration of 125 fmol/mg. As in the rat pituitary and brain, CRF receptors in monkey cerebral cortex and amygdala were coupled to adenylate cyclase. Autoradiographic analysis of specific CRF binding in brain sections revealed that the receptors were widely distributed in the cerebral cortex and limbic system. Receptor density was highest in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary and throughout the cerebral cortex, specifically in the prefrontal, frontal, orbital, cingulate, insular, and temporal areas, and in the cerebellar cortex. A low binding density was present in the superior colliculus, locus coeruleus, substantia gelatinosa, preoptic area, septal area, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data demonstrate that receptors for CRF are present within the primate brain at areas related to the central control of visceral function and behavior, suggesting that brain CRF may serve as a neurotransmitter in the coordination of endocrine and neural mechanisms involved in the response to stress

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  7. Difference in trafficking of brain-derived neurotrophic factor between axons and dendrites of cortical neurons, revealed by live-cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohara Keigo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is sorted into a regulated secretory pathway of neurons, is supposed to act retrogradely through dendrites on presynaptic neurons or anterogradely through axons on postsynaptic neurons. Depending on which is the case, the pattern and direction of trafficking of BDNF in dendrites and axons are expected to be different. To address this issue, we analyzed movements of green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged BDNF in axons and dendrites of living cortical neurons by time-lapse imaging. In part of the experiments, the expression of BDNF tagged with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was compared with that of nerve growth factor (NGF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP, to see whether fluorescent protein-tagged BDNF is expressed in a manner specific to this neurotrophin. Results We found that BDNF tagged with GFP or CFP was expressed in a punctated manner in dendrites and axons in about two-thirds of neurons into which plasmid cDNAs had been injected, while NGF tagged with GFP or YFP was diffusely expressed even in dendrites in about 70% of the plasmid-injected neurons. In neurons in which BDNF-GFP was expressed as vesicular puncta in axons, 59 and 23% of the puncta were moving rapidly in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. On the other hand, 64% of BDNF-GFP puncta in dendrites did not move at all or fluttered back and forth within a short distance. The rest of the puncta in dendrites were moving relatively smoothly in either direction, but their mean velocity of transport, 0.47 ± 0.23 (SD μm/s, was slower than that of the moving puncta in axons (0.73 ± 0.26 μm/s. Conclusion The present results show that the pattern and velocity of the trafficking of fluorescence protein-tagged BDNF are different between axons and dendrites, and suggest that the anterograde transport in axons may be the dominant stream of BDNF to release sites.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  9. Role of N-glycosylation sites and CXC motifs in trafficking of Medicago trunculata Nod Factor Perception protein to the plasma membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefebvre, B.; Klaus-Heisen, D.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Hervé, M.; Camut, S.; Auriac, M.C.; Gasciolli, V.; Nurisso, A.; Gadella, T.W.; Cullimore, J.

    2012-01-01

    The lysin motif receptor like kinase, NFP, is a key protein in the legume Medicago truncatula for the perception of lipochitooligosaccharidic Nod Factors, which are secreted bacterial signals essential for establishing the nitrogen-fixing legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Predicted structural and genetic

  10. Sex for Sale: Globalization and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Annmarie

    2009-01-01

    The practice of trafficking has many different facets; drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking complete the top three illegal trafficking practices today. Human trafficking may be the third highest illegal trafficking practice, however there is inadequate mainstream information on the affects of the trade and horrifying issues that incorporate trafficking in human beings. This paper will discuss how the globalized world has been enabling trafficking in human beings with a con...

  11. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  12. Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    people Burmese Lu kon ku de Trade in people French La traite des personnes The trade of people Japanese Jinshin bai bai The buying and selling of...commercial sex among young men. In 2008, the government partially funded an NGO to conduct an anti-trafficking awareness campaign in cinemas and in...A significant number of Japanese women and girls have also been reported as sex trafficking victims. During the last year, a number of Paraguayan

  13. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Jena

    2010-01-01

    Jena J SteinleDepartments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USAAbstract: Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferati...

  14. VEGFR2 Trafficking, Signaling and Proteolysis is Regulated by the Ubiquitin Isopeptidase USP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) regulates many aspects of vascular function. VEGF-A binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) stimulates endothelial signal transduction and regulates multiple cellular responses. Activated VEGFR2 undergoes ubiquitination but the enzymes that regulate this post-translational modification are unclear. In this study, the de-ubiquitinating enzyme, USP8, is shown to regulate VEGFR2 trafficking, de-ubiquitination, proteolysis and signal transduction. USP8-depleted endothelial cells displayed altered VEGFR2 ubiquitination and production of a unique VEGFR2 extracellular domain proteolytic fragment caused by VEGFR2 accumulation in the endosome-lysosome system. In addition, perturbed VEGFR2 trafficking impaired VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction in USP8-depleted cells. Thus, regulation of VEGFR2 ubiquitination and de-ubiquitination has important consequences for the endothelial cell response and vascular physiology. © 2015 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Involvement of AMPA receptor GluR2 and GluR3 trafficking in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1/C2 neurons in acute-facial inflammatory pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Miyamoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the involvement of trafficking of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR GluR2 and GluR3 subunits in an acute inflammatory orofacial pain, we analyzed nocifensive behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK and Fos expression in Vi/Vc, Vc and C1/C2 in GluR2 delta7 knock-in (KI, GluR3 delta7 KI mice and wild-type mice. We also studied Vc neuronal activity to address the hypothesis that trafficking of GluR2 and GluR3 subunits plays an important role in Vi/Vc, Vc and C1/C2 neuronal activity associated with orofacial inflammation in these mice. Late nocifensive behavior was significantly depressed in GluR2 delta7 KI and GluR3 delta7 KI mice. In addition, the number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR cells was significantly decreased bilaterally in the Vi/Vc, Vc and C1/C2 in GluR2 delta7 KI and GluR3 delta7 KI mice compared to wild-type mice at 40 min after formalin injection, and was also significantly smaller in GluR3 delta7 KI compared to GluR2 delta7 KI mice. The number of Fos protein-IR cells in the ipsilateral Vi/Vc, Vc and C1/C2 was also significantly smaller in GluR2 delta7 KI and GluR3 delta7 KI mice compared to wild-type mice 40 min after formalin injection. Nociceptive neurons functionally identified as wide dynamic range neurons in the Vc, where pERK- and Fos protein-IR cell expression was prominent, showed significantly lower spontaneous activity in GluR2 delta7 KI and GluR3 delta7 KI mice than wild-type mice following formalin injection. These findings suggest that GluR2 and GluR3 trafficking is involved in the enhancement of Vi/Vc, Vc and C1/C2 nociceptive neuronal excitabilities at 16-60 min following formalin injection, resulting in orofacial inflammatory pain.

  16. Multiple autophosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor receptor are essential for receptor kinase activity and internalization. Contrasting significance of tyrosine 992 in the native and truncated receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorkin, A; Helin, K; Waters, C M

    1992-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor autophosphorylation sites in the regulation of receptor functions has been studied using cells transfected with mutant EGF receptors. Simultaneous point mutation of 4 tyrosines (Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, Y1173) to phenylalanine, as well as removal of ...

  17. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  18. Barcoding of GPCR trafficking and signaling through the various trafficking roadmaps by compartmentalized signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahouth, Suleiman W; Nooh, Mohammed M

    2017-08-01

    Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes. Given the vast number of diverse sequences in GPCR, several trafficking mechanisms for endosomal GPCR have been described. The majority of recycling GPCR, are sorted out of endosomes in a "sequence-dependent pathway" anchored around a type-1 PDZ-binding module found in their C-tails. For a subset of these GPCR, a second "barcode" imprinted onto specific GPCR serine/threonine residues by compartmentalized kinase networks was required for their efficient recycling through the "sequence-dependent pathway". Mutating the serine/threonine residues involved, produced dramatic effects on GPCR trafficking, indicating that they played a major role in setting the trafficking itinerary of these GPCR. While endosomal SNX27, retromer/WASH complexes and actin were required for efficient sorting and budding of all these GPCR, additional proteins were required for GPCR sorting via the second "barcode". Here we will review recent developments in GPCR trafficking in general and the human β 1 -adrenergic receptor in particular across the various trafficking roadmaps. In addition, we will discuss the role of GPCR trafficking in regulating endosomal GPCR signaling, which promote biochemical and physiological effects that are distinct from those generated by the GPCR signal transduction

  19. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV cap...

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berasain, Carmen; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xueyan; Hu Guoqiang; Tian Keli; Wang Mingyun

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125 I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g -1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g -1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  2. Tyrosine 769 of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor is required for receptor signaling but not endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceridono, Mara; Belleudi, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Simona; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on epithelial cells which belongs to the family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Following ligand binding, KGFR is rapidly autophosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain, recruits substrate proteins, and is rapidly internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The role of different autophosphorylation sites in FGFRs, and in particular the role of the tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, first identified as PLCγ binding site, has been extensively studied. We analyzed here the possible role of the tyrosine 769 in KGFR, corresponding to tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, in the regulation of KGFR signal transduction and MAPK activation as well as in the control of the endocytic process of KGFR. A mutant KGFR in which tyrosine 769 was substituted by phenylalanine was generated and transfected in NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Our results indicate that tyrosine 769 is required for the binding to KGFR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ as well as for the full activation of MAPKs and for cell proliferation through the regulation of FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that this residue represents a key regulator of KGFR signal transduction. Our data also show that tyrosine 769 is not involved in the regulation of the endocytic process of KGFR

  3. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  4. Trafficking in women in Serbia and neighboring countries: Scope, characteristics and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper scope, characteristics and causes of sex trafficking in women are analyzed. The analysis considers trafficking in women in Serbia and in its direct and indirect surrounding. Available data about distribution and channels of trafficking in women, as well as about methods of recruitment, transfer and victimization of women are analyzed. Also, some of characteristics of traffickers are considered. The special chapter deals with factors that contribute to sex trafficking in women. These factors are classified in three groups: push factors, pull factors and facilitating factors. In the conclusion, the author points out the importance of data exposed in this paper for building efficient system of struggle against as well as prevention of trafficking of human beings in general, and, of sex trafficking in women, in particular.

  5. Epidermal growth factor and its receptors in human pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.F.; Pan, G.Z.; Hou, X.; Liu, T.H.; Chen, J.; Yanaihara, C.; Yanaihara, N.

    1990-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in oncogenesis and progression of malignant tumors is a subject of vast interest. In this study, radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay of EGF were established. EGF contents in malignant and benign pancreatic tumors, in normal pancreas tissue, and in culture media of a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line were determined. EGF receptor binding studies were performed. It was shown that EGF contents in pancreatic carcinomas were significantly higher than those in normal pancreas or benign pancreatic tumors. EGF was also detected in the culture medium of a pancreatic carcinoma cell line. The binding of 125I-EGF to the pancreatic carcinoma cells was time and temperature dependent, reversible, competitive, and specific. Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant of EGF receptor was 2.1 X 10(-9) M, number of binding sites was 1.3 X 10(5) cell. These results indicate that there is an over-expression of EGF/EGF receptors in pancreatic carcinomas, and that an autocrine regulatory mechanism may exist in the growth-promoting effect of EGF on tumor cells

  6. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...... hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the carcinomas expressed positive EGF-R immunoreactivity. In general, staining was most prominent...

  7. Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Young Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 70 push and 63 pull factors suggested in the literature. In doing so, I employ an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 153 countries during the period of 1995–2010. My results show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking both in destination and origin countries. Income level also has a robust impact, suggesting that the cause of human trafficking shares that of economic migration. Law enforcement matters more in origin countries than destination countries. Interestingly, a very low level of gender equality may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflow, possibly because gender discrimination limits female mobility that is necessary for the occurrence of human trafficking.

  8. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session's development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

  9. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session’s development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. Abbreviations: HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care PMID:29228882

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, B R; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a growth factor receptor that induces cell differentiation and proliferation upon activation through the binding of one of its ligands. The receptor is located at the cell surface, where the binding of a ligand activates a tyrosine kinase in the intr...... aspects of therapeutic targeting of EGFR....

  11. The viral G protein-coupled receptor ORF74 hijacks β-arrestins for endocytic trafficking in response to human chemokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Munnik, Sabrina M.; Kooistra, Albert J.; Van Offenbeek, Jody; Nijmeijer, Saskia; de Graaf, C.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob; Vischer, Henry F.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected cells express the virally encoded G protein-coupled receptor ORF74. Although ORF74 is constitutively active, it binds human CXC chemokines that modulate this basal activity. ORF74-induced signaling has been demonstrated to underlie the development of

  12. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  13. Factors Affecting a Recently Purchased Handgun’s Risk for Use in Crime under Circumstances That Suggest Gun Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun’s most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked—purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun’s recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun’s most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in “one-gun-a-month” laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (≥2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to

  14. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the α-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor

  15. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in pig enterocytes: trafficking from the brush border to lipid droplets during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is known to mediate cellular uptake of cholesterol from high density lipoprotein particles and is particularly abundant in liver and steroidogenic tissues. In addition, SR-BI expression in the enterocyte brush border has also been reported...... but its role in the small intestine remains unclear. AIM AND METHODS: To gain insight into the possible function of pig SR-BI during uptake of dietary fat, its localisation in enterocytes was studied in the fasting state and during fat absorption by immunogold electron microscopy and subcellular...... fat, SR-BI is endocytosed from the enterocyte brush border and accumulates in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Internalisation of the receptor occurs mainly by clathrin coated pits rather than by a caveolae/lipid raft based mechanism....

  16. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) on Brucella abortus infection: implications for manipulating the phagocytic strategy of B. abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Lee, Hu Jang; Min, Wongi; Her, Moon; Rhee, Man Hee; Watarai, Masahisa; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-21

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen which can infect and persist in host cells through multiple interactions. Above all, its interaction to host cell receptor is important to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of B. abortus. Accordingly, we demonstrated that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) affects host cell response against B. abortus infection. First of all, B. abortus infection to macrophage induces secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is a PAFR agonist. The stimulation of PAFR by PAF remarkably increases B. abortus uptake into macrophages. It induces Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and p38α phosphorylation, indicating that PAFR-mediated activation of JAK2 signaling leads to enhanced uptake of B. abortus. Moreover, the dynamics of F-actin polymerization revealed that PAFR-mediated B. abortus uptake is related with the reorganization of F-actin and JAK2. Upon B. abortus phagocytosis, reduced PAFR in the membrane and subsequently increased levels of PAFR colocalization with endosomes were observed which indicate that B. abortus uptake into macrophages allowed PAFR trafficking to endosomes. This study demonstrated that PAFR has a compelling involvement in B. abortus uptake as a promoter of phagocytosis, which is associated with JAK2 activation. Thus, our findings establish a novel insight into a receptor-related phagocytic mechanism of B. abortus.

  18. Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor A, in rooster testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Wang, Chunqiang; Su, Yuhong; Tian, Yumin; Zhu, Hongyan

    2015-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), which is required for the survival and differentiation of the nervous system, is also thought to play an important role in the development of mammalian reproductive tissues. To explore the function of NGF in the male reproductive system of non-mammalian animals, we determined the presence of NGF and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA), in rooster testes and investigated the regulation of NGF and TrkA expression by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The mRNA and protein levels of NGF and TrkA in 6-week-old rooster testes were lower than those in 12-, 16- or 20-week age groups; levels were highest in the 16-week group. Immunohistochemistry showed that NGF and TrkA were both detected in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. NGF immunoreactivity was observed in Leydig cells and strong TrkA signals were present in Sertoli cells. Meanwhile, FSH increased TrkA transcript levels in rooster testes in a dose-dependent manner. We present novel evidence for the developmental and FSH-regulated expression of the NGF/TrkA system, and our findings suggest that the NGF/TrkA system may play a prominent role in chicken spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Personalized Radiation Oncology: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Krause, Mechthild; McKenna, W Gillies; Baumann, Michael

    Molecular biomarkers are currently evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies in order to establish predictors for treatment decisions in radiation oncology. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are described in the following text. Among them, the most data are available for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that plays a major role for prognosis of patients after radiotherapy, but seems also to be involved in mechanisms of radioresistance, specifically in repopulation of tumour cells between radiotherapy fractions. Monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR improve locoregional tumour control and survival when applied during radiotherapy, however, the effects are heterogeneous and biomarkers for patient selection are warranted. Also other RTK´s such as c-Met and IGF-1R seem to play important roles in tumour radioresistance. Beside the potential to select patients for molecular targeting approaches combined with radiotherapy, studies are also needed to evluate radiotherapy adaptation approaches for selected patients, i.e. adaptation of radiation dose, or, more sophisticated, of target volumes.

  20. Nerve growth factor receptor immunostaining suggests an extrinsic origin for hypertrophic nerves in Hirschsprung's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, H; O'Briain, D S; Puri, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nerve growth factor receptor in colon from 20 patients with Hirshsprung's disease and 10 controls was studied immunohistochemically. The myenteric and submucous plexuses in the ganglionic bowel and hypertrophic nerve trunks in the aganglionic bowel displayed strong expression of nerve growth factor receptor. The most important finding was the identical localisation of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on the perineurium of both hypertrophic nerve trunks in Hirshs...

  1. Antibody-induced dimerization activates the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, M.; Defize, L. H.; Boonstra, J.; de Laat, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) protein tyrosine kinase activation and ligand-induced receptor dimerization was investigated using several bivalent anti-EGF-R antibodies directed against various receptor epitopes. In A431 membrane preparations and permeabilized

  2. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  3. Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Cheryl S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels, and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2 phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively. Results All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are

  4. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system.

  5. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R.

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system

  6. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  7. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  8. Differential effects of EGFR ligands on endocytic sorting of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Kirstine; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Henriksen, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic...... trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor...

  9. War Zone Acapulco: Urban Drug Trafficking in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Acapulco epitomises the (insecurity of urban zones in the Americas whose geographical, political and economic divisions are exacerbated by the political economy and geopolitics of drug trafficking, as well as by militarised attempts to fight it. Various geographic, political, and economic factors in the Acapulco Metropolitan Zone (AMZ have impacted drug trafficking and organised crime and contributed to high levels of violence. As a result, Acapulco now ranks among the 50 most violent cities in the world. This article analyses the trends in drug trafficking and organised crime in the AMZ, and highlights the lessons for scholars and policy-makers.

  10. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Su Zhao

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1, is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  11. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Su; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chien, Winnie W Y; Li, Zhen; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC)-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1), is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  12. Analysis of receptor signaling pathways by mass spectrometry: identification of vav-2 as a substrate of the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Podtelejnikov, A V; Blagoev, B

    2000-01-01

    Oligomerization of receptor protein tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by their cognate ligands leads to activation of the receptor. Transphosphorylation of the receptor subunits is followed by the recruitment of signaling molecules containing src homology 2 (SH2...

  13. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Human Trafficking and National Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DI PIETRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that national morality is an important variable for explaining national anti-trafficking policy. It uses cross country regression analysis to see whether or not empirically national morality is a determinant of anti-trafficking policy. The findings of the paper are consistent with the notion that improved levels of national morality lead to better national anti-trafficking policy. National morality is found to be statistically relevant for national anti-trafficking policy when controlling for the extent of democracy, the share of the private sector in the economy, and the degree of globalization.

  15. Development of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor expression in equine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hughes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor system (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and six insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and insulin are essential to muscle metabolism and most aspects of male and female reproduction. Insulin-like growth factor and insulin play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and the maintenance of cell differentiation in mammals. In order to better understand the local factors that regulate equine physiology, such as muscle metabolism and reproduction (e.g., germ cell development and fertilisation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for quantification of equine insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were developed. The assays were sensitive: 192 copies/µLand 891 copies/µL for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, messenger ribonucleic acid and insulin receptor respectively (95%limit of detection, and efficient: 1.01 for the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor assay and 0.95 for the insulin receptor assay. The assays had a broad linear range of detection (seven logs for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and six logs for insulin receptor. This allowed for analysis of very small amounts of messenger ribonucleic acid. Low concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were detected in endometrium, lung and spleen samples, whilst high concentrations were detected in heart, muscle and kidney samples, this was most likely due to the high level of glucose metabolism and glucose utilisation by these tissues. The assays developed for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression have been shown to work on equine tissue and will contribute to the understanding of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1

  16. An Ecological Approach Toward Prevention and Care of Victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario V; Pacquiao, Dula F

    Sex trafficking is a widespread form of human trafficking that exists globally. The forced sexual exploitation of young women for profit at the hands of traffickers is a human rights violation. Sex trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery where youths are sold as a commodity. It is difficult to determine the wide range of negative health outcomes associated with domestic minor sex trafficking due to the hidden nature of the crime and its lack of statistical data to determine prevalence. Viewing domestic minor sex trafficking through an ecological lens assists in the understanding of the multiple complex interactions between victims, their relationships, and environments that influence their health. Forensic nurses are poised as experts in the healthcare of vulnerable populations and possess the knowledge to understand that social determinants of vulnerability depend on the distinct setting or environment where victims of sex trafficking reside and how different factors affect their victimology, resilience, and well-being.

  17. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T; Zachary, Ian C; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-05-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A-VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The metal-ion-dependent adhesion site in the Von Willebrand factor-A domain of α2δ subunits is key to trafficking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantí, C.; Nieto-Rostro, M.; Foucault, I.; Heblich, F.; Wratten, J.; Richards, M. W.; Hendrich, J.; Douglas, L.; Page, K. M.; Davies, A.; Dolphin, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    All auxiliary α2δ subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels contain an extracellular Von Willebrand factor-A (VWA) domain that, in α2δ-1 and -2, has a perfect metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Modeling of the α2δ-2 VWA domain shows it to be highly likely to bind a divalent cation. Mutating the three key MIDAS residues responsible for divalent cation binding resulted in a MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 subunit that was still processed and trafficked normally when it was expressed alone. However, unlike WT α2δ-2, the MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 subunit did not enhance and, in some cases, further diminished CaV1.2, -2.1, and -2.2 currents coexpressed with β1b by using either Ba2+ or Na+ as a permeant ion. Furthermore, expression of the MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 reduced surface expression and strongly increased the perinuclear retention of CaVα1 subunits at the earliest time at which expression was observed in both Cos-7 and NG108–15 cells. Despite the presence of endogenous α2δ subunits, heterologous expression of α2δ-2 in differentiated NG108–15 cells further enhanced the endogenous high-threshold Ca2+ currents, whereas this enhancement was prevented by the MIDAS mutations. Our results indicate that α2δ subunits normally interact with the CaVα1 subunit early in their maturation, before the appearance of functional plasma membrane channels, and an intact MIDAS motif in the α2δ subunit is required to promote trafficking of the α1 subunit to the plasma membrane by an integrin-like switch. This finding provides evidence for a primary role of a VWA domain in intracellular trafficking of a multimeric complex, in contrast to the more usual roles in binding extracellular ligands in other exofacial VWA domains. PMID:16061813

  19. Glycosylation as a Main Regulator of Growth and Death Factor Receptors Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Gomes Ferreira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we provide a thorough picture of the mechanisms bywhich glycosylation affects the activity of growth and death factor receptors in normal and pathological conditions. Glycosylation affects receptor activity through three non-mutually exclusive basic mechanisms: (1 by directly regulating intracellular transport, ligand binding, oligomerization and signaling of receptors; (2 through the binding of receptor carbohydrate structures to galectins, forming a lattice thatregulates receptor turnover on the plasma membrane; and (3 by receptor interaction with gangliosides inside membrane microdomains. Some carbohydrate chains, for example core fucose and β1,6-branching, exert a stimulatory effect on all receptors, while other structures exert opposite effects on different receptors or in different cellular contexts. In light of the crucial role played by glycosylation in the regulation of receptor activity, the development of next-generation drugs targeting glyco-epitopes of growth factor receptors should be considered a therapeutically interesting goal.

  20. Combating Human Trafficking with Deep Multimodal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Edmund; Zadeh, Amir; Jones, Cara; Morency, Louis-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global epidemic affecting millions of people across the planet. Sex trafficking, the dominant form of human trafficking, has seen a significant rise mostly due to the abundance of escort websites, where human traffickers can openly advertise among at-will escort advertisements. In this paper, we take a major step in the automatic detection of advertisements suspected to pertain to human trafficking. We present a novel dataset called Trafficking-10k, with more than 10,00...

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Liu, Lina; Li, Mei; Wang, Zhaohui; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Qiuping; Cheng, Shihua; Lu, Shen

    2011-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten-RAS (KRAS) mutations have been identified as predictors of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer. We aimed to screen the mutations of both genes in gastric carcinoma to detect the suitability of EGFR TKIs for patients with gastric carcinoma. We screened EGFR mutation in exons 19-21 and KRAS mutation in exon 2 in 58 gastric adenocarcinomas from China using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA). Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Three EGFR missense mutations (5.2%) and 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, Q787Q, 37.9%) were identified. To our knowledge, we report for the first time three mutation patterns of EGFR, Y801C, L858R and G863D, in gastric carcinoma. Two samples with EGFR mutation were mucinous adenocarcinoma. These three samples were collected from male patients aged over 75 years old. The frequency of KRAS mutation was 10.3% (6/58). The exclusiveness of EGFR and KRAS mutations was proven for the first time in gastric cancer. Gastric carcinoma of the mucinous adenocarcinoma type collected from older male patients may harbour EGFR mutations. The small subset of gastric adenocarcinoma patients may respond to EGFR TKIs.

  2. Association of coatomer proteins with the beta-receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Rönnstrand, L; Rorsman, C

    1997-01-01

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src binds to and is activated by the beta-receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The interaction leads to Src phosphorylation of Tyr934 in the kinase domain of the receptor. In the course of the functional characterization of this phosphorylation, we...... of intracellular vesicle transport. In order to explore the functional significance of the interaction between alpha- and beta'-COP and the PDGF receptor, a receptor mutant was made in which the conserved histidine residue 928 was mutated to an alanine residue. The mutant receptor, which was unable to bind alpha...

  3. An Evaluation of Law Enforcement Application of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act 3P Strategy from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    For example, drugs and arms trafficking follow the same principles. Transnational criminal organizations and human traffickers exploit victims to...part of the problem is obvious. As with the drug trade, traffickers are feeding a demand driven by consumers, which are the pull factor. The...Report (TIP Report), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s (UNODC) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014, The Attorney 35 General’s Annual

  4. Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Scams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Trafficking Scams are situations where the scam artist(s) offer something (material or information) that is not what he/she/they represent it to be. Example of a scam is when attempt is made to sell fake nuclear material. The offered material may not be nuclear material or may be of a lower grade. The offered material may not actually exist . Radioactive material may be offered as nuclear material. A small sample of actual nuclear material may be offered, but the bulk material may be something else.

  5. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  6. A transcription factor active on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, R.; Merlino, G.T.; Pastan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have developed an in vitro transcription system for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene by using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce EGFR. They found that a nuclear factor, termed EGFR-specific transcription factor (ETF), specifically stimulated EGFR transcription by 5- to 10-fold. In this report, ETF, purified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, is shown by renaturing material eluted from a NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel to be a protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. ETF binds to the promoter region, as measured by DNase I footprinting and gel-mobility-shift assays, and specifically stimulates the transcription of the EGFR gene in a reconstituted in vitro transcription system. These results suggest that ETF could play a role in the overexpression of the cellular oncogene EGFR

  7. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-05-07

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.

  8. Host factors that modify Plasmodium falciparum adhesion to endothelial receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Attaher, Oumar; Swihart, Bruce; Barry, Amadou; Diarra, Bacary S; Kanoute, Moussa B; Cisse, Kadidia B; Dembele, Adama B; Keita, Sekouba; Gamain, Benoît; Gaoussou, Santara; Issiaka, Djibrilla; Dicko, Alassane; Duffy, Patrick E; Fried, Michal

    2017-10-24

    P. falciparum virulence is related to adhesion and sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IE) in deep vascular beds, but the endothelial receptors involved in severe malaria remain unclear. In the largest ever study of clinical isolates, we surveyed adhesion of freshly collected IE from children under 5 years of age in Mali to identify novel vascular receptors, and examined the effects of host age, hemoglobin type, blood group and severe malaria on levels of IE adhesion to a panel of endothelial receptors. Several novel molecules, including integrin α3β1, VE-cadherin, ICAM-2, junctional adhesion molecule-B (JAM-B), laminin, and cellular fibronectin, supported binding of IE from children. Severe malaria was not significantly associated with levels of IE adhesion to any of the 19 receptors. Hemoglobin AC, which reduces severe malaria risk, reduced IE binding to the receptors CD36 and integrin α5β1, while hemoglobin AS did not modify IE adhesion to any receptors. Blood groups A, AB and B significantly reduced IE binding to ICAM-1. Severe malaria risk varies with age, but age significantly impacted the level of IE binding to only a few receptors: IE binding to JAM-B decreased with age, while binding to CD36 and integrin α5β1 significantly increased with age.

  9. HUMAN TRAFFICKING DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND THE DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Gerry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Australia and Indonesia have made commitments to combatting human trafficking.  Through the experience of Mary Jane Veloso it can be seen that it is most often the vulnerable ‘mule’ that is apprehended by law enforcement and not the powerful leaders of crime syndicates. It is unacceptable that those vulnerable individuals may face execution for acts committed under threat of force, coercion, fraud, deception or abuse of power. For this reason it is vital that a system of victim identification is developed, including better training for law enforcement, legal representatives and members of the judiciary. This paper builds on submissions by authors for Australian Parliamentary Inquiry into Human Trafficking, and focusses on issues arising in the complex cross section of human trafficking, drug trafficking, and the death penalty with particular attention on identifying victims and effective reporting mechanisms in both Australia and Indonesia. It concludes that, in the context of human trafficking both countries could make three main improvements to law and policy, among others, 1 enactment of laws that create clear mandatory protection for human trafficking victims; 2 enactment of criminal laws that provides complete defence for victim of human trafficking; 3 enactment of corporate reporting mechanisms. Systemic protection and support is not sufficiently available without clear legislative protection as this paper suggests together with standardised referral mechanisms and effective financial reporting mechanisms. The implementation can be achieved through collaborative responses and inter-agency coordination with data collection and properly trained specialists.

  10. Splicing Factor Prp8 Interacts With NES(AR) and Regulates Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Nguyen, Minh M; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Singh, Prabhpreet; Jing, Yifeng; O'Malley, Katherine; Dar, Javid A; Dhir, Rajiv; Wang, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in the development of primary as well as advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Previous work in our lab identified a novel nuclear export signal (NES) (NES(AR)) in AR ligand-binding domain essential for AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. By characterizing the localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged NES(AR), we designed and executed a yeast mutagenesis screen and isolated 7 yeast mutants that failed to display the NES(AR) export function. One of those mutants was identified as the splicing factor pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8). We further showed that Prp8 could regulate NES(AR) function using short hairpin RNA knockdown of Prp8 coupled with a rapamycin export assay in mammalian cells and knockdown of Prp8 could induce nuclear accumulation of GFP-tagged AR in PC3 cells. Prp8 expression was decreased in castration-resistant LuCaP35 xenograft tumors as compared with androgen-sensitive xenografts. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR showed Prp8 mRNA levels were decreased in human prostate cancer specimens with high Gleason scores. In prostate cancer cells, coimmunoprecipitation and deletion mutagenesis revealed a physical interaction between Prp8 and AR mainly mediated by NES(AR). Luciferase assay with prostate specific antigen promoter-driven reporter demonstrated that Prp8 regulated AR transcription activity in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, Prp8 knockdown also increased polyubiquitination of endogenous AR. This may be 1 possible mechanism by which it modulates AR activity. These results show that Prp8 is a novel AR cofactor that interacts with NES(AR) and regulates AR function in prostate cancer cells.

  11. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  12. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol 125 I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function

  13. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  14. Napsin A and Thyroid Transcription Factor-1-Positive Cerebellar Tumor with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare case of cerebellar metastasis of unknown origin, in which a primary lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by pathological examination of a cerebellar metastatic tumor, using immunohistochemical markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation of primary lung cancer. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a hemorrhagic cerebellar tumor and multiple small brain tumors. She underwent cerebellar tumor resection. On pathological examination, the tumor was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. However, the primary tumor site was unidentifiable even with several imaging inspections. On immunohistochemical analysis, the resected tumor was positive for napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1. In addition, an EGFR mutation was detected in the tumor. Therefore, primary lung cancer was diagnosed and the patient was started on gefitinib (250 mg/day therapy.

  15. New approaches for solving old problems in neuronal protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashley M; Bowen, Aaron B; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2018-04-10

    Fundamental cellular properties are determined by the repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the cell surface. As such, the trafficking mechanisms for establishing and maintaining the surface proteome must be tightly regulated for cells to respond appropriately to extracellular cues, yet plastic enough to adapt to ever-changing environments. Not only are the identity and abundance of surface proteins critical, but in many cases, their regulated spatial positioning within surface nanodomains can greatly impact their function. In the context of neuronal cell biology, surface levels and positioning of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors play essential roles in establishing important properties, including cellular excitability and synaptic strength. Here we review our current understanding of the trafficking pathways that control the abundance and localization of proteins important for synaptic function and plasticity, as well as recent technological advances that are allowing the field to investigate protein trafficking with increasing spatiotemporal precision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncoordinated (UNC)119: coordinating the trafficking of myristoylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Ryan; Zhang, Houbin; Gerstner, Cecilia D; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2012-12-15

    The mechanism by which myristoylated proteins are targeted to specific subcellular membrane compartments is poorly understood. Two novel acyl-binding proteins, UNC119A and UNC119B, have been shown recently to function as chaperones/co-factors in the transport of myristoylated G protein α-subunits and src-type tyrosine kinases. UNC119 polypeptides feature an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold that forms a hydrophobic pocket capable of binding lauroyl (C12) and myristoyl (C14) side chains. UNC119A in rod photoreceptors facilitates the transfer of transducin α subunits (Tα) from inner segment to outer segment membranes by forming an intermediate diffusible UNC119-Tα complex. Similar complexes are formed in other sensory neurons, as the G proteins ODR-3 and GPA-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans unc-119 mutants traffic inappropriately. UNC119B knockdown in IMCD3 cells prevents trafficking ofmyristoylated nephrocystin-3 (NPHP3), a protein associated with nephronophthisis, to cilia. Further, UNC119A was shown to transport myristoylated src-type tyrosine kinases to cell membranes and to affect T-cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin-5 receptor (IL-5R) activities. These interactions establish UNC119 polypeptides as novel lipid-binding chaperones with specificity for a diverse subset of myristoylated proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxygen dependency of epidermal growth factor receptor binding and DNA synthesis of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Tetsuro; Terajima, Hiroaki; Yamauchi, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Background/Aims: Changes in oxygen availability modulate replicative responses in several cell types, but the effects on hepatocyte replication remain unclear. We have studied the effects of transient nonlethal hypoxia on epidermal growth factor receptor binding and epidermal growth factor-induced DNA synthesis of rat hepatocytes. Methods: Lactate dehydrogenase activity in culture supernatant, intracellular adenosine triphosphate content, 125 I-epidermal growth factor specific binding, epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression, and 3 H-thymidine incorporation were compared between hepatocytes cultured in hypoxia and normoxia. Results: Hypoxia up to 3 h caused no significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture supernatant, while intracellular adenosine triphosphate content decreased time-dependently and was restored to normoxic levels by reoxygenation (nonlethal hypoxia). Concomitantly, 125 I-epidermal growth factor specific binding to hepatocytes decreased time-dependently (to 54.1% of normoxia) and was restored to control levels by reoxygenation, although 125 I-insulin specific binding was not affected. The decrease in 125 I-epidermal growth factor specific binding was explained by the decrease in the number or available epidermal growth factor receptors (21.37±3.08 to 12.16±1.42 fmol/10 5 cells), while the dissociation constant of the receptor was not affected. The change in the number of available receptors was not considered to be due to receptor degradation-resynthesis, since immuno-detection of the epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the receptor protein expression did not change during hypoxia and reoxygenation, and since neither actinomycin D nor cycloheximide affected the recovery of 125 I-epidermal growth factor binding by reoxygenation. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced DNA synthesis after hypoxia (to 75.4% of normoxia by 3 h hypoxia) paralleled the decrease in 125 I-epidermal growth factor binding

  18. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in human lung emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Joëlle

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung samples from 3 groups of patients: emphysema; smokers without emphysema and non-smokers without emphysema. Methods Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor proteins were analysed by immunoassay and western blot; mRNA expression was measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor mRNA levels were similar in emphysema and non-emphysema patients. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlated negatively with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio both in emphysema patients and in smokers with or without emphysema. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor protein concentrations were similar in all patients' groups. Conclusion The expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors is preserved in patients with lung emphysema as compared to patients without emphysema. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlates with the severity of airflow obstruction in smokers.

  19. Receptores do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos do robalo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Adriano Guiomar de

    2010-01-01

    O receptor do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos, também conhecido como receptor do factor estimulante de colónias-1 (CSF1R), é um receptor de um factor de crescimento hematopoiético que é especificamente expresso em células do sistema fagocítico-mononuclear e desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento e regulação destas células. O CSF1R já foi descrito em vários mamíferos e a sua biologia tem sido exaustivamente caracterizada nestes vertebrados mas o conheci...

  20. Multistep change in epidermal growth factor receptors during spontaneous neoplastic progression in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakshull, E.; Kraemer, P.M.; Wharton, W.

    1985-01-01

    Whole Chinese hamster embryo lineages have been shown to undergo multistep spontaneous neoplastic progression during serial passage in culture. The authors have studied the binding, internalization, and degradation of 125 I-labeled epidermal growth factor at four different stages of transformation. The whole Chinese hamster embryo cells lost cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors gradually during the course of neoplastic progression until only 10% of the receptor number present in the early-passage cells (precrisis) were retained in the late-passage cells (tumorigenic). No differences in internalization rates, chloroquine sensitivity, or ability to degrade hormone between the various passage levels were seen. No evidence for the presence in conditioned medium of transforming growth factors which might mask or down-regulate epidermal growth factor receptor was obtained. These results suggest that a reduction in cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor might be an early event during spontaneous transformation in whole Chinese hamster embryo cells

  1. Hierarchical classification strategy for Phenotype extraction from epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cao (Lu); M. Graauw (Marjo de); K. Yan (Kuan); L.C.J. Winkel (Leah C.J.); F.J. Verbeek (Fons)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Endocytosis is regarded as a mechanism of attenuating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and of receptor degradation. There is increasing evidence becoming available showing that breast cancer progression is associated with a defect in EGFR endocytosis. In

  2. Targeting of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily for cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand and cognate TNF receptor superfamilies constitute an important regulatory axis that is pivotal for immune homeostasis and correct execution of immune responses. TNF ligands and receptors are involved in diverse biological processes ranging from the selective

  3. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ling; Hausmann, Martin; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Kellermeier, Silvia; Pesch, Theresa; Stieber-Gunckel, Manuela; Lippert, Elisabeth; Klebl, Frank; Rogler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab

  4. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellermeier Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Methods Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor, HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3 were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1. The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. Results EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml, with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D. HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. Conclusion CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.

  5. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnen Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC. NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor (EGFR. Methods HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068, total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and α-tubulin. Results EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. Conclusion These results suggest that

  6. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  7. Internalization and trafficking mechanisms of coxsackievirus B3 in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Ku; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Park, Sang-Ick; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is nonenveloped and has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. CVB3 induces myocarditis and ultimately dilated cardiomyopathy. Although there are mounting evidences of an interaction between CVB3 particles and the cellular receptors, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), very little is known about the mechanisms of internalization and trafficking. In the present study, we used the CVB3 H3 strain, which is CAR-dependent but DAF-independent Woodruff variant and found that during entry, CVB3 particles were colocalized in clathrin, after interacting primarily with CAR, which was not recycled to the plasma membrane. We also found that CVB3 internalization was dependent on the function of dynamin, a large GTPase that has an essential role in endocytosis. Heat-shock cognate protein, Hsc70, which acts as a chaperone in the release of coat proteins from clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV), played a role in CVB3 trafficking processes. Moreover, endosomal acidification was crucial for CVB3 endocytosis. Finally, CVB3 was colocalized in early endosome autoantigen 1 (EEA1) molecules, which are involved in endosome-endosome tethering and fusion. In conclusion, these data together indicate that CVB3 uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is transcytosed to early endosomes

  8. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145 promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes.

  9. EphA2 is a functional receptor for the growth factor progranulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Thomas; Buraschi, Simone; Goyal, Atul; Sharpe, Catherine; Natkanski, Elizabeth; Schaefer, Liliana; Morrione, Andrea; Iozzo, Renato V

    2016-12-05

    Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found an autoregulatory mechanism of progranulin whereby a feed-forward loop occurred in an EphA2-dependent manner that was independent of the endocytic receptor sortilin. The discovery of a functional signaling receptor for progranulin offers a new avenue for understanding the underlying mode of action of progranulin in cancer progression, tumor angiogenesis, and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 Neill et al.

  10. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation-based signaling events happening within the first minute of receptor stimulation have so far only been analyzed by classical cell biological approaches like live-cell microscopy. The development of a quench flow system with a time resolution of one second coupled to a read...

  11. Tumor necrosis factor receptor- associated factor 6 (TRAF6) regulation of development, function, and homeostasis of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C; Lee, JangEun; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adapter protein that mediates a wide array of protein-protein interactions via its TRAF domain and a RING finger domain that possesses non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. First identified nearly two decades ago as a mediator of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-mediated activation of NFκB, TRAF6 has since been identified as an actor downstream of multiple receptor families with immunoregulatory functions, including members of the TNFR superfamily, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, tumor growth factorreceptors (TGFβR), and T-cell receptor (TCR). In addition to NFκB, TRAF6 may also direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and interferon regulatory factor pathways. In the context of the immune system, TRAF6-mediated signals have proven critical for the development, homeostasis, and/or activation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, as well as for organogenesis of thymic and secondary lymphoid tissues. In multiple cellular contexts, TRAF6 function is essential not only for proper activation of the immune system but also for maintaining immune tolerance, and more recent work has begun to identify mechanisms of contextual specificity for TRAF6, involving both regulatory protein interactions, and messenger RNA regulation by microRNAs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) regulation of development, function, and homeostasis of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C.; Lee, JangEun; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein that mediates a wide array of protein-protein interactions via its TRAF domain and a RING finger domain that possesses non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. First identified nearly two decades ago as a mediator of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-mediated activation of NFκB, TRAF6 has since been identified as an actor downstream of multiple receptor families with immunoregulatory functions, including members of the TNFR superfamily, the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, tumor growth factorreceptors (TGFβR), and T cell receptor (TCR). In addition to NFκB, TRAF6 may also direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathways. In the context of the immune system, TRAF6-mediated signals have proven critical for the development, homeostasis, and/or activation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, as well as for organogenesis of thymic and secondary lymphoid tissues. In multiple cellular contexts, TRAF6 function is essential not only for proper activation of the immune system, but also for maintaining immune tolerance, and more recent works have begun to identify mechanisms of contextual specificity for TRAF6, involving both regulatory protein interactions, and messenger RNA regulation by microRNAs. PMID:26085208

  13. Key roles of Arf small G proteins and biosynthetic trafficking for animal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco F; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-04-14

    Although biosynthetic trafficking can function constitutively, it also functions specifically for certain developmental processes. These processes require either a large increase to biosynthesis or the biosynthesis and targeted trafficking of specific players. We review the conserved molecular mechanisms that direct biosynthetic trafficking, and discuss how their genetic disruption affects animal development. Specifically, we consider Arf small G proteins, such as Arf1 and Sar1, and their coat effectors, COPI and COPII, and how these proteins promote biosynthetic trafficking for cleavage of the Drosophila embryo, the growth of neuronal dendrites and synapses, extracellular matrix secretion for bone development, lumen development in epithelial tubes, notochord and neural tube development, and ciliogenesis. Specific need for the biosynthetic trafficking system is also evident from conserved CrebA/Creb3-like transcription factors increasing the expression of secretory machinery during several of these developmental processes. Moreover, dysfunctional trafficking leads to a range of developmental syndromes.

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  16. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita COCHINTU; Laura TUTUNARU; Narcisa Mihaela STOICU; Daniela Cristina VALEA

    2011-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings, a phenomenon with global dimensions constitutes a serious violation of human rights, dignity and freedom, a social phenomenon with negative consequences for the entire society. Countries have been concerned over the time to find the most effective policy measures to combat and prevent human trafficking, and in this regard the United Nations, the European Union and the Council of Europe have developed a series of international documents which established an interna...

  17. Etiological Aspects of Human Trafficking in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Abdyli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious criminal offences, which is presented as a contemporary form of slavery and which implies the most brutal violation of basic human rights, which are guaranteed by international and law and national law. The phenomenon of human trafficking is present in many countries in transition (such as Kosovo, namely in those countries which were affected by internal political, economic, social, educational, etc. changes, and in such situations the perpetrators of this offense are in a very favorable position to victimize society. Therefore, this paper will focus on external criminogenic factors that influence the growth of this negative phenomenon, including the difficult economic situation, poverty and unemployment, poor housing, migration of people, domestic violence, the impact of mass media in society, lack of border control and insufficient effectiveness of institutions to deal with law enforcement. The paper is based on literature review, statistical data and interviews by treating the subject theoretically, legislatively and practically. To successfully fight against human trafficking, relevant authorities should more closely approach the etiological treatment of this negative phenomenon.

  18. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  19. Dynamics of Corticosteroid Receptors: Lessons from Live Cell Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Adrenal corticosteroids (cortisol in humans or corticosterone in rodents) exert numerous effects on the central nervous system that regulates the stress response, mood, learning and memory, and various neuroendocrine functions. Corticosterone (CORT) actions in the brain are mediated via two receptor systems: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). It has been shown that GR and MR are highly colocalized in the hippocampus. These receptors are mainly distributed in the cytoplasm without hormones and translocated into the nucleus after treatment with hormones to act as transcriptional factors. Thus the subcellular dynamics of both receptors are one of the most important issues. Given the differential action of MR and GR in the central nervous system, it is of great consequence to clarify how these receptors are trafficked between cytoplasm and nucleus and their interactions are regulated by hormones and/or other molecules to exert their transcriptional activity. In this review, we focus on the nucleocytoplasmic and subnuclear trafficking of GR and MR in neural cells and non-neural cells analyzed by using molecular imaging techniques with green fluorescent protein (GFP) including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and discuss various factors affecting the dynamics of these receptors. Furthermore, we discuss the future directions of in vivo molecular imaging of corticosteroid receptors at the whole brain level

  20. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  1. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  2. Immunoautoradiographic analysis of epidermal growth factor receptors: a sensitive method for the in situ identification of receptor proteins and for studying receptor specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Pol, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of an immunoautoradiographic system for the detection and analysis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors in human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells is reported. By utilizing this technique, the interaction between EGF and its membrane receptor in A-431 cells can be rapidly visualized. The procedure is simple, rapid, and very sensitive, and it provides conclusive evidence that the 150K dalton protein is the receptor fo EGF in A-431 cells. In summary, the immunoautoradiographic procedure brings to the analysis of hormone rceptor proteins the power that the radioimmunoassay technique has brought to the analysis of hormones. Thus, this assay system is potentially applicable in a wide spectrum in many fields of nuclear medicine and biology

  3. Altered [125I]epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that [ 125 I]EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers

  4. Hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dehui; Hu, Li; Liu, Quan; Sun, Xicai

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrated that juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) express high levels of hormone receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with normal nasal mucosa. The interaction between hormone receptors and VEGF may be involved in the initiation and growth of JNA. JNA is a rare benign tumor that occurs almost exclusively in male adolescents. Although generally regarded as a hormone-dependent tumor, this has not been proven in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hormone receptors in JNA and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Standard immunohistochemical microarray analysis was performed on 70 JNA samples and 10 turbinate tissue samples. Specific antibodies for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and VEGF were examined, and the relationships of receptor expression with age, tumor stage, and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS showed that JNA expressed ER-α (92.9%), ER-β (91.4%), AR (65.7%), PR (12.8%), and VEGF (95.7%) at different levels. High level of VEGF was linked to elevated ER-α and ER-β. There was no significant relationship between hormonal receptors and age at diagnosis, tumor stage or bleeding. However, overexpression of ER-α was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis (p = 0.031).

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in cultured rat hepatocytes: regulation by cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.D.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptors in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were characterized and their regulation by cell density examined. In hepatocytes cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells per 3.8 cm2 plate [ 125 I]IGF-II bound to specific, high affinity receptors (Ka = 4.4 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) l/mol). Less than 1% cross-reactivity by IGF-I and no cross-reactivity by insulin were observed. IGF-II binding increased when cells were permeabilized with 0.01% digitonin, suggesting the presence of an intracellular receptor pool. Determined by Scatchard analysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity labeling, the higher binding was due solely to an increase in binding sites present on 220 kDa type II IGF receptors. In hepatocytes cultured at low densities, the number of cell surface receptors increased markedly, from 10-20,000 receptors per cell at a culture density of 6 X 10(5) cells/well to 70-80,000 receptors per cell at 0.38 X 10(5) cells/well. The increase was not due simply to the exposure of receptors from the intracellular pool, as a density-related increase in receptors was also seen in cells permeabilized with digitonin. There was no evidence that IGF binding proteins, either secreted by hepatocytes or present in fetal calf serum, had any effect on the measurement of receptor concentration or affinity. We conclude that rat hepatocytes in primary culture contain specific IGF-II receptors and that both cell surface and intracellular receptors are regulated by cell density

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of pigeon (Columba livia) tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Kang, Xilong; Xiong, Dan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zheng, Huijuan; Xu, Ying; Guo, Yaxin; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) plays a key antiviral role by promoting type I interferon production. We cloned the pigeon TRAF3 gene (PiTRAF3) according to its predicted mRNA sequence to investigate its function. The 1704-bp full-length open reading frame encodes a 567-amino acid protein. One Ring finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, one Coiled coil, and one MATH domain were inferred. RT-PCR showed that PiTRAF3 was expressed in all tissues, with relatively weak expression in the heart and liver. In HEK293T cells, over-expression of wild-type, △Ring, △Zinc finger, and △Coiled coil PiTRAF3, but not a △MATH form, significantly increased IFN-β promoter activity. Zinc finger and Coiled coil domains were essential for NF-κB activation. In chicken HD11 cells, PiTRAF3 increased IFN-β promoter activity and four domains were all contributing. R848 stimulation of pigeon peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes significantly increased expression of PiTRAF3 and the inflammatory cytokine genes CCL5, IL-8, and IL-10. These data demonstrate TRAF3's innate immune function and improve understanding of its involvement in poultry antiviral defense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of murine α4β1δ GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Inge S; Wellendorph, Petrine; Smart, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GABAA receptor subunit composition has a profound effect on the receptor's physiological and pharmacological properties. The receptor β subunit is widely recognised for its importance in receptor assembly, trafficking and post-translational modifications, but its influence on extrasyn......BACKGROUND: GABAA receptor subunit composition has a profound effect on the receptor's physiological and pharmacological properties. The receptor β subunit is widely recognised for its importance in receptor assembly, trafficking and post-translational modifications, but its influence...

  8. Distinct phosphotyrosines on a growth factor receptor bind to specific molecules that mediate different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Martin, G A; Turck, C W; del Rosario, M; McCormick, F; Williams, L T

    1992-05-01

    The receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binds two proteins containing SH2 domains, GTPase activating protein (GAP) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). The sites on the receptor that mediate this interaction were identified by using phosphotyrosine-containing peptides representing receptor sequences to block specifically binding of either PI3-kinase or GAP. These results suggested that PI3-kinase binds two phosphotyrosine residues, each located in a 5 aa motif with an essential methionine at the fourth position C-terminal to the tyrosine. Point mutations at these sites caused a selective elimination of PI3-kinase binding and loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Mutation of the binding site for GAP prevented the receptor from associating with or phosphorylating GAP, but had no effect on PI3-kinase binding and little effect on DNA synthesis. Therefore, GAP and PI3-kinase interact with the receptor by binding to different phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs.

  9. Editorial: How is the money to combat human trafficking spent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2014-09-01

    This edition of the Anti-Trafficking Review explores what happens to the money that is allocated by governments and private donors to stop human trafficking and to assist people who have been trafficked. It has been an honour to play the role of guest editor, though it has not been easy to steer a route between amazement (at the sums apparently involved, concern (at the lack of real insight into how money is allocated and spent and cynicism (at what appear to be rather modest achievements. It was challenging for potential authors to choose a method of analysing anti-trafficking spending. Should they simply describe what money is available and the drawbacks of the ways which donors make it available to organisations to use? Some authors take this descriptive approach. Should articles be about the efficiency and effectiveness of aid flows in general, in which case the shortcomings in anti-trafficking funding may mirror the generic flaws in aid flows? Only one author (Ucnikova has tackled this. Or, should studies focus on the way the purse strings are controlled by a small number of donors who appear poorly informed about the needs of trafficked persons or the factors that cause them to be trafficked? Several of the articles touch on this (e.g. those of Hoff and Nwogu. Early on, it became apparent to the editorial team that people working for large organisations with anti-trafficking programmes were wary of contributing articles on this topic. In this sense, although the Anti-Trafficking Review aims to promote public debate, we have not yet found the best way of opening up a debate about funding, for practitioners evidently fear that writing about their own sources of funding could result in the tap being turned off! So, it is mainly the Debate section that tackles the question of funding strategies. Even these contributions do not make assessments of the various actors involved (donors and the organisations they fund in as full and frank a way as is needed. The

  10. Growth factor receptors as molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth factor receptors are of great interest as molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Growth factor receptors are frequently over expressed on malignant cell populations since many cellular oncogenes encode either growth factors of their receptors. The wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor has a molecular weight of 170 kD and is over expressed on gliomas, bladder tumors, squamous cells carcinomas and breast carcinomas. Another growth factor oncogene, c-erb B-2, encodes a 185-kD glycoprotein found on the surface of gliomas, breast and ovarian cancers as well as other carcinomas of epithelial origin. In addition to causing over expression, oncogenic transformation also can result in genomic re-arrangements. An important example from the perspective of targeting is EGFRvIII, a deletion mutant which lacks amino acids 6-273 in the extracellular domain of the epiderma growth factor receptor. The EGFRvIII molecule (145 kD) may be of great value for targeting because it appears to be tumor-specific. Antibodies have been developed with specific reactivity with these growth factor receptors. Since these antibodies are internalized into the cell after receptor binding, it is necessary to use radiolabeling methods which residualize the radioactivity in the tumor cell after intracellular catabolism. To investigate this problem they have evaluated the effect of radioiodination method on the in vitro an in vivo properties of an anti-EGFRvIII antibody. Methods studied were Iodogen, tyramine-cellobiose, and N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridine-carboxylate with the last offering optimal localization in a human xenograft model

  11. Trafficking (in Representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutvica Andrijasevic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Representations of trafficking and forced labour are pervasive within media, policymaking, and humanitarian debates, discourses and interventions. The terms exploitation and trafficking are increasingly used to characterise the work that migrants do in the sex industry and other irregular employment sectors. Of late, the notion of ‘modern slavery’ is on show in campaigns aiming to raise awareness about trafficking and funds for anti-trafficking initiatives among corporations and local enterprises as well as the general public. Celebrity interventions, militant documentaries, artistic works and fiction films have all become powerful vectors of the global distribution of the trafficking and ‘modern slavery’ rhetoric. These offer simplistic solutions to complex issues without challenging the structural and causal factors of inequality. Through fictional and narrow representations of ideal victims they tend to entrench racialised narratives and conflate all sex work with trafficking, which legitimates criminalising policies and interventions exacerbating the social vulnerability of sex workers. It is because of the under-researched role of representation in the development of anti-trafficking policies and initiatives that the Anti-Trafficking Review decided to devote a thematic issue on trafficking representations.

  12. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  13. Compounds that correct F508del-CFTR trafficking can also correct other protein trafficking diseases: an in vitro study using cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many genetic diseases are due to defects in protein trafficking where the mutant protein is recognized by the quality control systems, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and degraded by the proteasome. In many cases, the mutant protein retains function if it can be trafficked to its proper cellular location. We have identified structurally diverse correctors that restore the trafficking and function of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, F508del-CFTR. Most of these correctors do not act directly as ligands of CFTR, but indirectly on other pathways to promote folding and correction. We hypothesize that these proteostasis regulators may also correct other protein trafficking diseases. Methods To test our hypothesis, we used stable cell lines or transient transfection to express 2 well-studied trafficking disease mutations in each of 3 different proteins: the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2, also known as V2R, the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (KCNH2, also known as hERG, and finally the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (ABCC8, also known as SUR1. We treated cells expressing these mutant proteins with 9 structurally diverse F508del-CFTR correctors that function through different cellular mechanisms and assessed whether correction occurred via immunoblotting and functional assays. Results were deemed significantly different from controls by a one-way ANOVA (p  Results Here we show that F508del-CFTR correctors RDR1, KM60 and KM57 also correct some mutant alleles of other protein trafficking diseases. We also show that one corrector, the cardiac glycoside ouabain, was found to alter the glycosylation of all mutant alleles tested. Conclusions Correctors of F508del-CFTR trafficking might have broader applications to other protein trafficking diseases.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor: an independent predictor of survival in astrocytic tumors given definitive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhu; Shaeffer, James; Leslie, Susan; Kolm, Paul; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein was predictive of patient survival independently of other prognostic factors in astrocytic tumors. Methods and Materials: Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of 55 glioblastoma multiforme, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 2 astrocytomas given definitive irradiation. We evaluated the relationship of EGFR protein expression and tumor grade, histologic features, age at diagnosis, sex, patient survival, and recurrence-free survival. Results: The percentage of tumor cells which were EGFR positive related to reduced survival by Cox regression analysis in both univariate (p = 0.0424) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0016). Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was the only 1 of 11 clinical and histological variables associated with decreased recurrence-free survival by either univariate (p = 0.0353) or multivariate (p = 0.0182) analysis. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was not related to patient age, sex, or histologic features. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was a significant and independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and recurrence-free survival for irradiated patients with astrocytic gliomas

  15. Inhibition of the release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in experimental endotoxemia by an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; ten Cate, H.; Gallati, H.; ten Cate, J. W.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in endotoxemia was investigated. The appearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors was assessed in four healthy volunteers following an intravenous injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  16. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. ATAR, a novel tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, signals through TRAF2 and TRAF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H; Solovyev, I; Colombero, A; Elliott, R; Kelley, M; Boyle, W J

    1997-05-23

    Members of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family signal largely through interactions with death domain proteins and TRAF proteins. Here we report the identification of a novel TNFR family member ATAR. Human and mouse ATAR contain 283 and 276 amino acids, respectively, making them the shortest known members of the TNFR superfamily. The receptor is expressed mainly in spleen, thymus, bone marrow, lung, and small intestine. The intracellular domains of human and mouse ATAR share only 25% identity, yet both interact with TRAF5 and TRAF2. This TRAF interaction domain resides at the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Like most other TRAF-interacting receptors, overexpression of ATAR activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Co-expression of ATAR with TRAF5, but not TRAF2, results in synergistic activation of NF-kappaB, suggesting potentially different roles for TRAF2 and TRAF5 in post-receptor signaling.

  18. The development of epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoliang; Wang Hao; Shi Peiji; Liu Jianfeng; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy has great potential for cancer diagnosis and the evaluation of curative effects. Enhancement of EGFR-targeted therapy needs a reliable quantitative molecular imaging method which could enable monitoring of receptor drug binding and receptor occupancy in vivo, and identification of the mutation in EGFR. PET or SPECT is the most advanced molecular imaging technology of non-invasively selecting responders, predicting therapeutic outcome and monitoring EGFR-targeted treatment. This review analyzed the present situation and research progress of molecular imaging agents. (authors)

  19. Functional and structural stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor in detergent micelles and phospholipid nanodiscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Li-Zhi; Grey, Michael J; Nishida, Noritaka

    2008-01-01

    Cellular signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays an important role in regulating normal and oncogenic cellular physiology. While structures of isolated EGFR extracellular domains and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase...... differential functional stability in Triton X-100 versus dodecyl maltoside. Furthermore, the kinase activity can be significantly stabilized by reconstituting purified EGF-bound EGFR dimers in phospholipid nanodiscs or vesicles, suggesting that the environment around the hydrophobic transmembrane...

  20. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, A.; Funa, K.; Vassbotn, F. S.; Beausang-Linder, M.; af Ekenstam, F.; Heldin, C. H.; Westermark, B.; Nistér, M.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protei...

  1. A receptor model for urban aerosols based on oblique factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Sørensen, Morten S.; Pind, Niels

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for the construction of receptor models of urban aerosols, based on factor analysis. The advantage of the procedure is that the covariation of source impacts is included in the construction of the models. The results are compared with results obtained by other receptor......-modelling procedures. It was found that procedures based on correlating sources were physically sound as well as in mutual agreement. Procedures based on non-correlating sources were found to generate physically obscure models....

  2. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in solid tumor malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Mette K; Hedegaard, Chris J; Poulsen, Hans S

    2012-01-01

    been proposed as valid targets in many cancer therapy settings. Different strategies have been developed in order to either inhibit EGFR/EGFRvIII activity or to ablate EGFR/EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. Drugs that inhibit these receptors include monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind...... to the extracellular part of EGFR, blocking the binding sites for the EGFR ligands, and intracellular tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that block the ATP binding site of the tyrosine kinase domain. Besides an EGFRvIII-targeted vaccine, conjugated anti-EGFR mAbs have been used in different settings to deliver lethal...... agents to the EGFR/EGFRvIII-positive cells; among these are radio-labelled mAbs and immunotoxins. This article reviews the current status and efficacy of EGFR/EGFRvIII-targeted therapies....

  3. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  4. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99m Tc as a radionuclide. We developed 99m Tc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99m Tc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67 Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99m Tc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  5. Mechanisms of integrin-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor cross-activation in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H; Feng, Weiyi; Reddy, Kumar; Plow, Edward F; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2007-09-14

    The functional responses of endothelial cells are dependent on signaling from peptide growth factors and the cellular adhesion receptors, integrins. These include cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, which, in turn, are essential for more complex processes such as formation of the endothelial tube network during angiogenesis. This study identifies the molecular requirements for the cross-activation between beta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase receptor 2 for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR-2) on endothelium. The relationship between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin appears to be synergistic, because VEGFR-2 activation induces beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which, in turn, is crucial for VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2. We demonstrate here that adhesion- and growth factor-induced beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are directly mediated by c-Src. VEGF-stimulated recruitment and activation of c-Src and subsequent beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are critical for interaction between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin. Moreover, c-Src mediates growth factor-induced beta3 integrin activation, ligand binding, beta3 integrin-dependent cell adhesion, directional migration of endothelial cells, and initiation of angiogenic programming in endothelial cells. Thus, the present study determines the molecular mechanisms and consequences of the synergism between 2 cell surface receptor systems, growth factor receptor and integrins, and opens new avenues for the development of pro- and antiangiogenic strategies.

  6. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Jeon

    2012-04-01

    The respiratory (tracheal system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs, Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr tyrosine kinase (TK. Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways.

  7. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Shrestha

    Full Text Available Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August-September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes.Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8% of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51-4.55, parents' occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58-9.58, and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99-9.54 were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55-0.79 and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49-4.80 were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards

  8. Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Schwarz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking justice centers on the “Three Ps” model of prevention, protection, and prosecution. While protection and prosecution efforts have been moderately successful, prevention remains elusive, as “upstream” structural fac-tors—class, gender, and sexuality inequalities—remain difficult to target. Individuals who are affected by these factors are not fully served within linear service frameworks. Based on a 12-month study in Kansas City, we find that service providers recognize the limitations of a “one-size-fits all” approach. Using a public health model, our research team con-ducted a public health surveillance, explored risk and protective factors, and facilitated organizational self-assessments of services. Our findings support a prevention approach that supports a survivor-centered model, which creates new, non-linear or queered avenues of agency and community for trafficking survivors. This model allows survivors to make use of services in moments of vulnerability and opt out of others in moments of resilience. Given the systematic cuts in funding that have affected service providers, this research contends that prevention is cheaper, more effective, and more ethical than relying on prosecutions to curb trafficking. Developing a model that fosters survivor empowerment is a key step toward individual justice and survivor resilience for vulnerable and marginalized populations.

  9. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  10. Security Implications of Human-Trafficking Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    to those security concerns. Background How is Human Trafficking Carried Out? While trafficking victims are often found in sweatshops , domestic...labor. This type of trafficking is often found in agricultural labor, the production of goods (typically called sweatshops ) and construction labor

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Stephan; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist....... Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown...... fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  13. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; An, Hiromi; Naruto, Takuya; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2010-04-01

    It is clear that inflammation plays an important role in developing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. The purpose of the present study is to investigate changes of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 levels over time in infants with chronic lung disease. The serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 were measured after delivery, and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age in 10 infants with chronic lung disease and in 18 infants without chronic lung disease. The serum level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was significantly higher in infants with chronic lung disease than in infants without chronic lung disease after delivery. The differences between these two groups remained up to 28 days of age. Prenatal inflammation with persistence into postnatal inflammation may be involved in the onset of chronic lung disease.

  14. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  15. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  16. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... demonstrated that the cells bound between 3 and 52 fmol/mg protein with a KD ranging from 0.5 x 10(-10) to 2.7 x 10(-10) M. EGF binding to the receptor was confirmed by affinity-labeling EGF to the EGF receptor. The cross-linked complex had a M(r) of 170,000-180,000. Northern blotting showed the expression...

  17. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  18. Organ economy: organ trafficking in Moldova and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Organ trafficking is an illegal means of meeting the shortage of transplants. The activity flourishes for several interacting reasons, such as medical needs, poverty and criminality. Other factors are fundamental conceptual structures such as the dream of the regenerative body as well as the view of the body as an object of utility and an object of value. The article aims to go behind the normative discussions that usually surround organ trafficking. Why this is happening, and what the societal consequences are, is examined through ethnographic fieldwork. The focus is on the shadow economies that govern existence and in which people, goods, weapons, money, bodies, etc. constitute components of the global market.

  19. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  20. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  1. Peptides derived from specific interaction sites of the fibroblast growth factor 2 - FGF receptor complexes induce receptor activation and signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfè, Valentina; Kochoyan, Artur; Bock, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    J. Neurochem. (2010) 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06718.x Abstract Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2, bFGF) is the most extensively studied member of the FGF family and is involved in neurogenesis, differentiation, neuroprotection, and synaptic plasticity in the CNS. FGF2 executes its pleiotropic...... biologic actions by binding, dimerizing, and activating FGF receptors (FGFRs). The present study reports the physiologic impact of various FGF2-FGFR1 contact sites employing three different synthetic peptides, termed canofins, designed based on structural analysis of the interactions between FGF2 and FGFR1...

  2. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid nuclear receptors: specific ligand-activated transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by both the thyroid hormone and the vitamin A-derived 'retinoid hormones' is a critical component in controlling many aspects of higher vertebrate development and metabolism. Their functions are mediated by nuclear receptors, which comprise a large super-family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Both the thyroid hormone and the retinoids are involved in a complex arrangement of physiological and development responses in many tissues of higher vertebrates. The functions of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), the thyromimetically active metabolite of thyroxine as well as all-trans retinoic acid, the biologically active vitamin A metabolite are mediated by nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid hormone receptor family. The functions of all members of the receptor super family are discussed. (authors)

  3. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...

  4. Human Trafficking: A Security Challenge in Nigeria. | Tor-Anyiin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines human trafficking, which is today rated as the third world organized crime after drugs and arms. The concept of the trade, which crosses internal and international borders, has also been discussed. The factors that facilitate the trade like poverty, personal and social are equally identified and discussed.

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, their transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by ~68% and ~74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which leads to ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:18834608

  6. Trafficking of plant plasma membrane aquaporins: multiple regulation levels and complex sorting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Adrien S; Chaumont, François

    2015-05-01

    Aquaporins are small channel proteins which facilitate the diffusion of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes. Compared with animals, plant genomes encode numerous aquaporins, which display a large variety of subcellular localization patterns. More specifically, plant aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily were first described as plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, but recent research has demonstrated that the trafficking and subcellular localization of these proteins are complex and highly regulated. In the past few years, PIPs emerged as new model proteins to study subcellular sorting and membrane dynamics in plant cells. At least two distinct sorting motifs (one cytosolic, the other buried in the membrane) are required to direct PIPs to the PM. Hetero-oligomerization and interaction with SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptors) also influence the subcellular trafficking of PIPs. In addition to these constitutive processes, both the progression of PIPs through the secretory pathway and their dynamics at the PM are responsive to changing environmental conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Routledge handbook of human trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbe Heide

    2017-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings (THB) has been described as modern slavery. It is a serious criminal activity that has significant ramifications for the human rights of the victims. It poses major challenges to the state, society and individual victims. THB is not a static given but a constantly

  8. Anti-Human Trafficking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a significant number of programs and policies have been developed and implemented to prevent and combat human trafficking. At the international, regional and national levels, government, and international, and nongovernment organizations have established plans of action, conducted training, developed policy tools, and…

  9. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion: Post-Palade Era Researchers Win the Nobel Prize. Riddhi Atul Jani Subba Rao Gangi Setty. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 421-445 ...

  10. Type-I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF1R)-Estrogen Receptor (ER) Crosstalk Contributes to Antiestrogen Therapy Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    vitro have downregulated J GF1R making antibodies directed agai nst th is receptor ineffective. Inhlbition of IH may be necessary to manage ...monoclonal antibody to insulin-like growth factor receptor 1. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:580Q-7. 31. Drury s. Detre s. Leary A, Salter J, Reis-Filho J

  11. Up-regulation of proproliferative genes and the ligand/receptor pair placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao X; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Shackel, Nicholas A; Gorrell, Mark D

    2007-09-01

    Cirrhosis can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-diseased liver and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis with or without HCC were compared. Proliferation pathway genes, immune response genes and oncogenes were analysed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. Real-time RT-PCR showed up-regulation of genes in HCV cirrhosis including the proliferation-associated genes bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), placental growth factor 3 (PGF3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and soluble VEGFR1, the oncogene FYN, and the immune response-associated genes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4). Expressions of TLR2 and the oncogenes B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and PIM2 were decreased in HCV cirrhosis. In addition, PIM2 and TLR2 were increased in HCV cirrhosis with HCC compared with HCV cirrhosis. The ligand/receptor pair PGF and VEGFR1 was intensely expressed by the portal tract vascular endothelium. VEGFR1 was expressed in reactive biliary epithelial structures in fibrotic septum and in some stellate cells and macrophages. PGF and VEGFR1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the neovascular response in cirrhosis.

  12. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF-beta signaling through interaction with the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atfi, Azeddine; Dumont, Emmanuelle; Colland, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological processes through two types of Ser/Thr transmembrane receptors: the TGF-beta type I receptor and the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII). Upon ligand binding, TGF-beta type I receptor activated by TbetaRII propagat......RII protein presumably by suppressing the association of TbetaRII with Smad7. These results define ADAM12 as a new partner of TbetaRII that facilitates its trafficking to early endosomes in which activation of the Smad pathway is initiated....

  13. Characterization of receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human placental membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyer, R.A.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) were identified on membranes prepared from full term human placenta. Highly purified rhTNF-alpha iodinated by the iodogen method was found to bind placental membranes in a displaceable manner with an approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 1.9 nM. The membrane bound TNF-alpha receptor could be solubilized by several detergents with optimum extraction being obtained with 1% Triton X-100. The binding of 125I-rhTNF-alpha to the solubilized receptor was found to be time and temperature dependent, yielding maximum binding within 1 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C, respectively. However, the maximum binding obtainable at 4 degrees C was only 40% of that at 37 degrees C. The binding 125I-rhTNF-alpha to solubilized placental membrane extracts was displaceable by unlabeled rhTNF-alpha, but not by a related protein recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-beta (rhTNF-beta; previously called lymphotoxin). This is similar to the behavior of TNF-alpha receptors derived from detergent-solubilized cell extracts, although on intact cells, both rhTNF-alpha and rhTNF-beta bind with equal affinity to TNF receptors. The Scatchard analysis of the binding data of the solubilized receptor revealed high affinity binding sites with a KD of approximately 0.5 nM and a receptor concentration of about 1 pmole/mg protein. Gel filtration of the solubilized receptor-ligand complexes on Sephacryl S-300 revealed two different peaks of radioactivity at approximate molecular masses of 50,000 Da and 400,000 Da. The 400,000 dalton peak corresponded to the receptor-ligand complex. Overall, our results suggest that high affinity receptors for TNF-alpha are present on human placental membranes and provide evidence that these receptors may be different from that of rhTNF-beta

  14. Membrane trafficking pathways and their roles in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Ueda, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Membrane trafficking functions in the delivery of proteins that are newly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to their final destinations, such as the plasma membrane (PM) and the vacuole, and in the internalization of extracellular components or PM-associated proteins for recycling or degradative regulation. These trafficking pathways play pivotal roles in the rapid responses to environmental stimuli such as challenges by microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of plant membrane trafficking and its roles in plant-microbe interactions. Although there is little information regarding the mechanism of pathogenic modulation of plant membrane trafficking thus far, recent research has identified many membrane trafficking factors as possible targets of microbial modulation.

  15. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  16. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs.

  17. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.

  18. Kemiskinan sebagai Penyebab Strategis Praktik Humman Trafficking di Kawasan Perbatasan Jagoi Babang (Indonesia-Malaysia) Kalimantan Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Niko, Nikodemus

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the poverty phenomenon is the cause of the Human Trafficking practice in the border area Jagoi Babang, Bengkayang District West Kalimantan. The fact that it happens that the border area is still very vulnerable to the illegal smuggling. Poverty has become factor's falling border residents in a circle phenomenon of trafficking, either as perpetrators or as victims. In fact, women and children are particularly vulnerable groups are victims of trafficking in the borde...

  19. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF II) receptor from rat brain is of lower apparent molecular weight than the IGF II receptor from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElduff, A.; Poronnik, P.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The binding subunits of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF I) receptors from rat brain are of lower molecular weight than the corresponding receptor in rat liver, possibly due to variations in sialic acid content. We have compared the IGF II receptor from rat brain and rat liver. The brain receptor is of smaller apparent mol wt (about 10 K) on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This size difference is independent of ligand binding as it persists in iodinated and specifically immunoprecipitated receptors. From studies of wheat germ agglutinin binding and the effect of neuraminidase on receptor mobility, we conclude that this difference is not simply due to variations in sialic acid content. Treatment with endoglycosidase F results in reduction in the molecular size of both liver and brain receptors and after this treatment the aglycoreceptors are of similar size. We conclude that in rat brain tissue the IGF II receptor like the binding subunits of the insulin and IGF I receptors is of lower molecular size than the corresponding receptors in rat liver. This difference is due to differences in N-linked glycosylation

  20. Self-phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor: evidence for a model of intermolecular allosteric activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, Y.; Schlessinger, J.

    1987-01-01

    The membrane receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 170,000 dalton glycoprotein composed of an extracellular EGF-binding domain and a cytoplasmic kinase domain connected by a stretch of 23 amino acids traversing the plasma membrane. The binding of EGF to the extracellular domain activates the cytoplasmic kinase function even in highly purified preparations of EGF receptor, suggesting that the activation occurs exclusively within the EGF receptor moiety. Conceivably, kinase activation may require the transfer of a conformational change through the single transmembrane region from the ligand binding domain to the cytoplasmic kinase region. Alternatively, ligand-induced receptor-receptor interactions may activate the kinase and thus bypass this requirement. Both mechanisms were contrasted by employing independent experimental approaches. On the basis of these results, an allosteric aggregation model is formulated for the activation of the cytoplasmic kinase function of the receptor by EGF. This model may be relevant to the mechanism by which the mitogenic signal of EGF is transferred across the membrane

  1. Sperm Impairment by Sperm Agglutinating Factor Isolated from Escherichia coli: Receptor Specific Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier work done in our laboratory, we have been able to isolate a sperm agglutinating strain of Escherichia coli from the semen sample of a male attending infertility clinic. Further, factor responsible for sperm agglutination (SAF was isolated and purified, and, using SAF as a tool, corresponding SAF binding receptor from human spermatozoa has been purified. Characterization of SAF and SAF binding receptor using MALDI-TOF showed homology to glutamate decarboxylase and MHC class I molecule, respectively. Coincubation of SAF with spermatozoa not only resulted in spermagglutination but could also compromise other sperm parameters, namely, Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity and apoptosis. Intravaginal administration of SAF could lead to infertility in Balb/c mice. SAF induced impairment of sperm parameters, and infertility was observed to be due to interaction of SAF with sperm surface receptor component as, when purified receptor was introduced, receptor completely inhibited all the detrimental effects induced by SAF. From these results, it could be concluded that interaction of SAF with spermatozoa is receptor mediated.

  2. The under-appreciated promiscuity of the epidermal growth factor receptor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Kennedy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Each member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family plays a key role in normal development, homeostasis and a variety of pathophysiological conditions, most notably in cancer. According to the prevailing dogma, these four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3 and ERBB4 function exclusively through the formation of homodimers and heterodimers within the EGFR family. These combinatorial receptor interactions are known to generate increased interactome diversity and therefore influence signalling output, subcellular localization and function of the heterodimer. This molecular plasticity is also thought to play a role in the development of resistance towards targeted cancer therapies aimed at these known oncogenes. Interestingly, many studies now challenge this dogma and suggest that the potential for EGFR family receptors to interact with more distantly related RTKs is much greater than currently appreciated. Here we discuss how the promiscuity of these oncogenic receptors may lead to the formation of many unexpected receptor pairings and the significant implications for the efficiency of many targeted cancer therapies.

  3. Association of nerve growth factor receptors with the triton X-100 cytoskeleton of PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, R.D.; Ignatius, M.J.; Shooter, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Triton X-100 solubilizes membranes of PC12 cells and leaves behind a nucleus and an array of cytoskeletal filaments. Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors are associated with this Triton X-100-insoluble residue. Two classes of NGF receptors are found on PC12 cells which display rapid and slow dissociating kinetics. Although rapidly dissociating binding is predominant (greater than 75%) in intact cells, the majority of binding to the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton is slowly dissociating (greater than 75%). Rapidly dissociating NGF binding on intact cells can be converted to a slowly dissociating form by the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). This lectin also increases the number of receptors which associate with the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton by more than 10-fold. 125 I-NGF bound to receptors can be visualized by light microscopy autoradiography in Triton X-100-insoluble residues of cell bodies, as well as growth cones and neurites. The WGA-induced association with the cytoskeleton, however, is not specific for the NGF receptor. Concentrations of WGA which change the Triton X-100 solubility of membrane glycoproteins are similar to those required to alter the kinetic state of the NGF receptor. Both events may be related to the crossbridging of cell surface proteins induced by this multivalent lectin

  4. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research.

  5. Characterization of cell-surface receptors for monoclonal-nonspecific suppressor factor (MNSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal-nonspecific suppressor factor (MNSF) is a lymphokine derived from murine T cell hybridoma. The target tissues are both LPS-stimulated B cells and Con A-stimulated T cells. Since the action of MNSF may be mediated by its binding to specific cell surface receptors, we characterized the mode of this binding. The purified MNSF was labeled with 125 I, using the Bolton-Hunter reagent. The labeled MNSF bound specifically to a single class of receptor (300 receptors per cell) on mitogen-stimulated murine B cells or T cells with an affinity of 16 pM at 24 degrees C, in the presence of sodium azide. Competitive experiments showed that MNSF bound to the specific receptor and that the binding was not shared with IL2, IFN-gamma, and TNF. Various cell types were surveyed for the capacity to specifically bind 125 I-MNSF. 125 I-MNSF bound to MOPC-31C (a murine plasmacytoma line) and to EL4 (a murine T lymphoma line). The presence of specific binding correlates with the capacity of the cells to respond to MNSF. These data support the view that like other polypeptide hormones, the action of MNSF is mediated by specific cell surface membrane receptor protein. Identification of these receptors will provide insight into the apparently diverse activities of MNSF

  6. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor as markers of disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E. E.; van der Poll, T.; Mevissen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFRs) were measured before and after antimony therapy in 25 Sudanese patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Both sTNFR types I and II were significantly elevated in patients with VL compared with healthy controls from

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  8. Changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression during chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab, may potentially improve outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high EGFR expression. The EGFR expression may be heterogeneously distributed within tumors, and small biopsies may thus...

  9. Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hariry, Iman; Powles, Thomas; Lau, Mike R

    2010-01-01

    Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may be of prognostic value in renal cell cancer (RCC). Gene amplification of EGFR was investigated in a cohort of 315 patients with advanced RCC from a previously reported randomised study. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, only 2...

  10. Localization and functional roles of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 in the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gounko, Natalia V.; Gramsbergen, Albert; van der Want, Johannes J. L.

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 receptor has three splice variants alpha, beta, and gamma. In the rodent brain only CRF-R2 alpha is present. In the cerebellum, CRF-R2 alpha has two different isoforms: a full-length form (fl) and truncated (tr). Both forms CRF-R2 have a unique

  11. Orphan nuclear receptor TR4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 in metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is achieved, in part, through the coordinated activities of members of the Nuclear Receptor (NR) family, a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors (TFs) that mediate responses to a wide range of lipophilic signaling molecules including lipids, steroids, retinoids,

  12. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartucci, Monica

    2001-01-01

    .... Our goal was to study the role of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in breast cancer. The IGF-IR is a multifunctional tyrosine kinase that has been recently implicated in breast tumor development and progression...

  13. Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Morita

    Full Text Available Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2 protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.

  14. Neomycin is a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist that allows discrimination of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor signals in cells expressing both receptor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Siegbahn, A; Holmsen, H; Heldin, C H

    1992-08-05

    The aminoglycoside neomycin has recently been found to affect certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) responses in C3H/10T1/2 C18 fibroblasts. Using porcine aortic endothelial cells transfected with PDGF alpha- or beta-receptors, we explored the possibility that neomycin interferes with the interaction between the different PDGF isoforms and their receptors. We found that neomycin (5 mM) inhibited the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the alpha-receptor with only partial effect on the binding of 125I-PDGF-AA; in contrast, the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the beta-receptor was not affected by the aminoglycoside. Scatchard analyses showed that neomycin (5 mM) decreased the number of binding sites for PDGF-BB on alpha-receptor-expressing cells by 87%. Together with cross-competition studies with 125I-labeled PDGF homodimers, the effect of neomycin indicates that PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB bind to both common and unique structures on the PDGF alpha-receptor. Neomycin specifically inhibited the autophosphorylation of the alpha-receptor by PDGF-BB, with less effect on the phosphorylation induced by PDGF-AA and no effect on the phosphorylation of the beta-receptor by PDGF-BB. Thus, neomycin is a PDGF isoform- and receptor-specific antagonist that provides a possibility to compare the signal transduction pathways of alpha- and beta-receptors in cells expressing both receptor types. This approach was used to show that activation of PDGF beta-receptors by PDGF-BB mediated a chemotactic response in human fibroblasts, whereas activation of alpha-receptors by the same ligand inhibited chemotaxis.

  15. Linking γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor to epidermal growth factor receptor pathways activation in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weijuan; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Brame, Lacy S; Cao, Amy; Fang, Yu-Ting; Shih, Pin-Tsen; Kropp, Bradley P; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2014-03-05

    Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation has been attributed to the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Growth factor pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling have been implicated in the development of NE features and progression to a castration-resistant phenotype. However, upstream molecules that regulate the growth factor pathway remain largely unknown. Using androgen-insensitive bone metastasis PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive lymph node metastasis LNCaP cells derived from human prostate cancer (PCa) patients, we demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R) ligand (GABA) and agonist (isoguvacine) stimulate cell proliferation, enhance EGF family members expression, and activate EGFR and a downstream signaling molecule, Src, in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Inclusion of a GABA(A)R antagonist, picrotoxin, or an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib (ZD1839 or Iressa), blocked isoguvacine and GABA-stimulated cell growth, trans-phospohorylation of EGFR, and tyrosyl phosphorylation of Src in both PCa cell lines. Spatial distributions of GABAAR α₁ and phosphorylated Src (Tyr416) were studied in human prostate tissues by immunohistochemistry. In contrast to extremely low or absence of GABA(A)R α₁-positive immunoreactivity in normal prostate epithelium, elevated GABA(A)R α₁ immunoreactivity was detected in prostate carcinomatous glands. Similarly, immunoreactivity of phospho-Src (Tyr416) was specifically localized and limited to the nucleoli of all invasive prostate carcinoma cells, but negative in normal tissues. Strong GABAAR α₁ immunoreactivity was spatially adjacent to the neoplastic glands where strong phospho-Src (Tyr416)-positive immunoreactivity was demonstrated, but not in adjacent to normal glands. These results suggest that the GABA signaling is linked to the EGFR pathway and may work through autocrine or paracine mechanism to promote CRPC progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  16. Wnt signalling via the epidermal growth factor receptor: a role in breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    Recent data have suggested the epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) as a point of convergence for several different classes of receptor. Civenni and colleagues have now demonstrated crosstalk between Wnt signalling and the EGFR, showing that in breast epithelial cells Wnts activate downstream targets of the EGFR, including cyclin D1. Given the role of members of these pathways in the aetiology of breast cancer and as markers of outcome and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer, this observation has a number of potential implications important for both the basic biology of breast cancer and the clinical management of the disease

  17. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it.

  18. Differential Regulation of Smad3 and of the Type II Transforming Growth FactorReceptor in Mitosis: Implications for Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF

  19. The diminished expression of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcers of cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Peng, Yen-Ling; Hou, Ming-Chih; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Huang, Hui-Chun; Wang, Ying-Wen; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the higher occurrence of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is complex. Platelets can stimulate angiogenesis and promote gastric ulcer healing. We compared the expressions of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the gastric ulcer margin between cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia and those of non-cirrhotic patients to elucidate possible mechanisms. Eligible cirrhotic patients (n = 55) and non-cirrhotic patients (n = 55) who had gastric ulcers were enrolled. Mucosa from the gastric ulcer margin and non-ulcer areas were sampled and the mRNA expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) and their receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2) were measured and compared. Platelet count and the expressions of these growth factors and their receptors were correlated with each other. The two groups were comparable in terms of gender, ulcer size and infection rate of Helicobacter pylori. However, the cirrhotic group were younger in age, had a lower platelet count than those in the non-cirrhotic group (pexpressions of PDGFB, VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 in gastric ulcer margin when compared with those of the non-cirrhotic patients (pexpressions of PDGFB and VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 were well correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia in these cirrhotic patients (ρ>0.5, pimplied that diminished activity of proangiogenic factors and their receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in cirrhotic patients.

  20. Two signaling molecules share a phosphotyrosine-containing binding site in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Li, W; Kashishian, A; Mondino, A; Zhou, M; Cooper, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-11-01

    Autophosphorylation sites of growth factor receptors with tyrosine kinase activity function as specific binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of signaling molecules. This interaction appears to be a crucial step in a mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases relay signals to downstream signaling pathways. Nck is a widely expressed protein consisting exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains, the overexpression of which causes cell transformation. It has been shown that various growth factors stimulate the phosphorylation of Nck and its association with autophosphorylated growth factor receptors. A panel of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor mutations at tyrosine residues has been used to identify the Nck binding site. Here we show that mutation at Tyr-751 of the PDGF beta-receptor eliminates Nck binding both in vitro and in living cells. Moreover, the Y751F PDGF receptor mutant failed to mediate PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Nck in intact cells. A phosphorylated Tyr-751 is also required for binding of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase to the PDGF receptor. Hence, the SH2 domains of p85 and Nck share a binding site in the PDGF receptor. Competition experiments with different phosphopeptides derived from the PDGF receptor suggest that binding of Nck and p85 is influenced by different residues around Tyr-751. Thus, a single tyrosine autophosphorylation site is able to link the PDGF receptor to two distinct SH2 domain-containing signaling molecules.

  1. IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) was established in 1995 as a unique network of points of contact connecting 100 states and several international organizations. Information collected from official sources supplemented by open-source reports. The 1994 - GC 38, resolution intensifies the activities through which the Agency is currently supporting Member States in this field. Member states were notified of completed database in 1995 and invited to participate. The purpose of the I TDB is to facilitate exchange of authoritative information among States on incidents of illicit trafficking and other related unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; to collect, maintain and analyse information on such incidents with a view to identifying common threats, trends, and patterns; use this information for internal planning and prioritisation and provide this information to member states and to provide a reliable source of basic information on such incidents to the media, when appropriate

  2. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons

  3. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...... and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides...... of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates...

  4. FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carol J.E.; Sampson, Heidi M.; Hlousek, Daniela; Percival-Smith, Anthony; Copeland, John W.R.; Simmonds, Andrew J.; Krause, Henry M.

    2001-01-01

    To activate transcription, most nuclear receptor proteins require coactivators that bind to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). The Drosophila FTZ-Factor1 (FTZ-F1) protein is a conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, but was previously thought to lack an AF2 motif, a motif that is required for ligand and coactivator binding. Here we show that FTZ-F1 does have an AF2 motif and that it is required to bind a coactivator, the homeodomain-containing protein Fushi tarazu (FTZ). We also show that FTZ contains an AF2-interacting nuclear receptor box, the first to be found in a homeodomain protein. Both interaction motifs are shown to be necessary for physical interactions in vitro and for functional interactions in developing embryos. These unexpected findings have important implications for the conserved homologs of the two proteins. PMID:11157757

  5. Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor associated with cytoskeletons of A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) have been shown to be associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton of A431 cells, where they retained both a functional ligand-binding domain and tyrosine kinase activity. In the present study we have characterized the tyrosine kinase and ligand binding activities of this cytoskeletally associated EGF-R. The tyrosine kinase activity of the cytoskeletally associated EGF-R was stimulated by EGF treatment of intact cells as evidenced by increased autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate angiotensin II (AII). The kinetic behavior of the EGF-R associated with cytoskeletons of EGF-treated cells was similar to that of purified receptors. The stimulation of the receptor kinase activity required EGF treatment of intact cells prior to Triton extraction. If cytoskeletons were prepared from untreated cells and then incubated with EGF, there was no stimulation of the detergent-insoluble receptor kinase activity, indicating that the immobilized receptor was unable to undergo EGF-stimulated activation. Comparison of peptide maps from soluble and cytoskeletally associated EGF-R revealed qualitatively similar patterns; however, they are distinguished by a prominent 46 kD band in digests of the cytoskeletal EGF-R. Saturable binding of 125I-EGF to A431 cytoskeletons prepared from adherent and suspended cells demonstrated the presence of specific receptors on the cytoskeleton. High-affinity EGF-R were preferentially retained upon detergent extraction of adherent cells, whereas both low- and high-affinity receptors were solubilized from the cytoskeletons of suspended cells. Suspension of cells resulted in the solubilization of an additional 15% of the EGF-R to that solubilized in adherent cells, indicating that EGF-R can reversibly associate with the structural elements of the cell

  6. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A; Funa, K; Vassbotn, F S; Beausang-Linder, M; af Ekenstam, F; Heldin, C H; Westermark, B; Nistér, M

    1992-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protein was found in the malignant tumors, and also in some benign lesions, such as dermatofibroma. In all these cases, benign as well as malignant, the PDGF B-chain mRNA, and less clearly, the PDGF A-chain mRNA, were coexpressed with the beta-receptor. In contrast, high expression of PDGF alpha-receptor mRNA was only found in fully malignant lesions, i.e., malignant fibrous histiocytoma. These data indicate that an autocrine growth stimulation via the PDGF beta-receptor could occur in an early phase of tumorigenesis, and may be a necessary but insufficient event for the progression into fully malignant human connective tissue lesions.

  7. A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Panagiotis F; Duxbury, Zane; Huh, Sung Un; Ma, Yan; Segonzac, Cécile; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Cevik, Volkan; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Saucet, Simon B; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Menke, Frank L H; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2015-05-21

    Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain and forms a receptor complex with RPS4, another NB-LRR protein. This complex detects the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 or PopP2 and then activates defense. Both bacterial proteins interact with the RRS1 WRKY domain, and PopP2 acetylates lysines to block DNA binding. PopP2 and AvrRps4 interact with other WRKY domain-containing proteins, suggesting these effectors interfere with WRKY transcription factor-dependent defense, and RPS4/RRS1 has integrated a "decoy" domain that enables detection of effectors that target WRKY proteins. We propose that NB-LRR receptor pairs, one member of which carries an additional protein domain, enable perception of pathogen effectors whose function is to target that domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex trafficking of adolescents and young adults in the United States: healthcare provider's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Tonya; English, Abigail

    2015-10-01

    Sex trafficking of adolescents and young adults is both a human rights violation and a public health problem, globally and in the United States. Healthcare providers, including obstetricians and gynecologists, interact with victims, often while they remain under their traffickers' control, but because of providers' lack of training in identification and response many victims go unrecognized and unaided. This review provides an overview of the definitions of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, contributing factors, health consequences, recruitment of victims, and identification and response by healthcare providers. The literature on definitions and risk factors associated with sex trafficking is growing; however, literature on healthcare providers' role in addressing sex trafficking remains more limited. It is increasingly recognized that healthcare providers have an important role in victim identification and response and as advocates, collaborating with national, regional, and local agencies to increase awareness of sex trafficking as a public health problem and to address the needs of adolescent and young adult victims and survivors globally and in the United States. As professionals who interact with adolescent and young adult victims of sex trafficking, healthcare providers have an important role: in collaboration with other professionals and agencies they can help to identify, respond to, extricate, protect, and advocate for victims and survivors.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor II: complexity of biosynthesis and receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, S; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, F C

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) belongs to the insulin family of peptides and acts as a growth factor in many fetal tissues and tumors. The gene expression of IGF-II is initiated at three different promoters which gives rise to multiple transcripts. In a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line......, Man-6-P induces cellular responses. We have studied rat brain neuronal precursor cells where Man-6-P acted as a mitogen suggesting that phosphomannosylated proteins may act as growth factors via the Man-6-P/IGF-II receptor. In conclusion, the gene expression and mechanism of action of IGF-II is very...

  10. Role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlinski, Rafal; Pedersen, Brian; Schabbauer, Gernot; Tencati, Michael; Holscher, Todd; Boisvert, William; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Frank, Rolf Dario; Mackman, Nigel

    2004-02-15

    Sepsis is associated with a systemic activation of coagulation and an excessive inflammatory response. Anticoagulants have been shown to inhibit both coagulation and inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we used both genetic and pharmacologic approaches to analyze the role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in coagulation and inflammation in a mouse endotoxemia model. We used mice expressing low levels of the procoagulant molecule, tissue factor (TF), to analyze the effects of TF deficiency either in all tissues or selectively in hematopoietic cells. Low TF mice had reduced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality compared with control mice. Similarly, a deficiency of TF expression by hematopoietic cells reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality. Inhibition of the down-stream coagulation protease, thrombin, reduced fibrin deposition and prolonged survival without affecting inflammation. Deficiency of either protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) or protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) alone did not affect inflammation or survival. However, a combination of thrombin inhibition and PAR-2 deficiency reduced inflammation and mortality. These data demonstrate that hematopoietic cells are the major pathologic site of TF expression during endotoxemia and suggest that multiple protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation.

  11. The political aspects of human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Lukach

    2014-01-01

    The negative international results of human trafficking are researched by the author. Namely, problems of governance organization that are created by powerful criminal groups of human traffickers and smugglers, mass stay of a significant number of non­citizens in the country; formation of the negative international image of the origin, destination or transit country as the state which is unable to counter effectively illegal migration and human trafficking.

  12. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    felons, drug traffickers, and juvenile gang members from acquiring firearms from gun traffickers. These criminals often acquire firearms from persons...renounced their U.S. citizenship; (8) persons restrained under a court-order from harassing, stalking , or threatening an intimate partner or child of... gang members from acquiring firearms from gun traffickers. These criminals often acquire firearms from a person who otherwise is not prohibited to

  13. Organized crime-trafficking with human being

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...

  14. Human Trafficking in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ronak B; Ahn, Roy; Burke, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking continues to persist, affecting up to 200 million people worldwide. As clinicians in emergency departments commonly encounter victims of intimate partner violence, some of these encounters will be with trafficking victims. These encounters provide a rare opportunity for healthcare providers to intervene and help. This case report of a human trafficking patient from a teaching hospital illustrates the complexity in identifying these victims. Clinicians can better identify pot...

  15. Human organ trafficking in the cyber space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletić Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated growth of the information-communication technology use brought about cyber crime as a new form of crime connected with the misuse of computer network. Human trafficking and human organ trafficking are changing in line with the state-of-art technological achievements i.e. becoming more and more characteristic of cyber space. Passing appropriate regulations at both national and international levels presents an important step in solving the problem of human organ trafficking through Internet.

  16. Emerging growth factor receptor antagonists for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Haris; Rini, Brian I

    2016-12-01

    The landscape of systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has dramatically changed with the introduction of targeted agents including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Recently, multiple new agents including growth factor receptor antagonists and a checkpoint inhibitor were approved for the treatment of refractory metastatic RCC based on encouraging benefit shown in clinical trials. Areas covered: The background and biological rationale of existing treatment options including a brief discussion of clinical trials which led to their approval, is presented. This is followed by reviewing the limitations of these therapeutic options, medical need to develop new treatments and major goals of ongoing research. We then discuss two recently approved growth factor receptor antagonists i.e. cabozantinib and lenvatinib, and a recently approved checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, and issues pertaining to drug development, and future directions in treatment of metastatic RCC. Expert opinion: Recently approved growth factor receptor antagonists have shown encouraging survival benefit but associated drug toxicity is a major issue. Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, has similarly shown survival benefit and is well tolerated. With multiple options now available in this patient population, the right sequence of these agents remains to be determined.

  17. Cognitive disorder and changes in cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiliang Zhao; Dezhi Kang; Yuanxiang Lin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Learning and memory damage is one of the most permanent and the severest symptoms of traumatic brain injury; it can seriously influence the normal life and work of patients. Some research has demonstrated that cognitive disorder is closely related to nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the cognitive disorder and changes in nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following brain injury. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: A computer-based online search was conducted in PUBMED for English language publications containing the key words "brain injured, cognitive handicap, acetylcholine, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, brain-derived neurotrophic factor" from January 2000 to December 2007. There were 44 papers in total. Inclusion criteria: ① articles about changes in nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following brain injury; ② articles in the same researching circle published in authoritative journals or recently published. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles.LITERATURE EVALUATION: References were mainly derived from research on changes in these four factors following brain injury. The 20 included papers were clinical or basic experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: After craniocerebral injury, changes in these four factors in brain were similar to those during recovery from cognitive disorder, to a certain degree. Some data have indicated that activation of nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor could greatly improve cognitive disorder following brain injury. However, there are still a lot of questions remaining; for example, how do these

  18. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor: Evidence for more than one receptor class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronwald, R.G.K.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Hart, C.E.; O'Hara, P.J.; Hagen, F.S.; Ross, R.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Murray, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is presented. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that codes for a protein of 1106 amino acids. Comparison to the mouse PDGF receptor reveals an overall amino acid sequence identity of 86%. This sequence identity rises to 98% in the cytoplasmic split tyrosine kinase domain. RNA blot hybridization analysis of poly(A) + RNA from human dermal fibroblasts detects a major and a minor transcript using the cDNA as a probe. Baby hamster kidney cells, transfected with an expression vector containing the receptor cDNA, express an ∼ 190-kDa cell surface protein that is recognized by an anti-human PDGF receptor antibody. The recombinant PDGF receptor is functional in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells as demonstrated by ligand-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Binding properties of the recombinant PDGF receptor were also assessed with pure preparations of BB and AB isoforms of PDGF. Unlike human dermal fibroblasts, which bind both isoforms with high affinity, the transfected baby hamster kidney cells bind only the BB isoform of PDGF with high affinity. This observation is consistent with the existence of more than one PDGF receptor class

  19. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-1 gene expression is differently regulated by BDNF in rat primary cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna V; Klein, Anders B; El-Sayed, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and plasticity. Incorporation of matured receptor proteins is an integral part of synapse formation. However, whether BDNF increases synthesis and integration of receptors in functional synapses directly is unclear. We...... are particularly interested in the regulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A R). This receptor form a functional complex with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) and is recruited to the cell membrane by the corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1). The effect of BDNF on gene...... expression for all these receptors, as well as a number of immediate-early genes, was pharmacologically characterized in primary neurons from rat frontal cortex. BDNF increased CRF-R1 mRNA levels up to fivefold, whereas mGluR2 mRNA levels were proportionally downregulated. No effect on 5-HT2A R mRNA was seen...

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  1. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  2. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response.

  3. From mucolipidosis type IV to Ebola: TRPML and two-pore channels at the crossroads of endo-lysosomal trafficking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Christian; Butz, Elisabeth; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Biel, Martin

    2017-11-01

    What do lysosomal storage disorders such as mucolipidosis type IV have in common with Ebola, cancer cell migration, or LDL-cholesterol trafficking? LDL-cholesterol, certain bacterial toxins and viruses, growth factors, receptors, integrins, macromolecules destined for degradation or secretion are all sorted and transported via the endolysosomal system (ES). There are several pathways known in the ES, e.g. the degradation, the recycling, or the retrograde trafficking pathway. The ES comprises early and late endosomes, lysosomes and recycling endosomes as well as autophagosomes and lysosome related organelles. Contact sites between the ES and the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus may also be considered part of it. Dysfunction of this complex intracellular machinery can cause or contribute to the development of a number of diseases ranging from neurodegenerative, infectious, or metabolic diseases to retinal and pigmentation disorders as well as cancer and autophagy-related diseases. Endolysosomal ion channels such as mucolipins (TRPMLs) and two-pore channels (TPCs) play an important role in intracellular cation/calcium signaling and homeostasis and appear to critically contribute to the proper function of the endolysosomal trafficking network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin-Insulin-like Growth Factors Hybrids as Molecular Probes of Hormone:Receptor Binding Specificity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, Květoslava; Chrudinová, Martina; Povalová, Anna; Selicharová, Irena; Collinsová, Michaela; Vaněk, Václav; Brzozowski, A. M.; Jiráček, Jiří; Žáková, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 21 (2016), s. 2903-2913 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19018S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alanine scanning mutagenesis * high-affinity binding * type 1 IGF receptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00140

  5. Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Baby or the Bathwater?

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The success of targeted therapies for cancer is undisputed; strong preclinical evidence has resulted in the approval of several new agents for cancer treatment. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) appeared to be one of these promising new targets. Substantial population and preclinical data have all pointed toward this pathway as an important regulator of tumor cell biology. Although early results from clinical trials that targeted the IGF1R showed some evidence of response...

  6. Optimal Therapeutic Strategy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Mutated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong SHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs have been widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, it is still controversial about how to combine EGFR-TKI with chemotherapy and other targeted drugs. We have made a summary on the current therapeutic models of EGFR-TKI combined with chemotherapy/bevacizumab in this review and aimed to find the optimal therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation.

  7. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  8. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui, E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 40 cells mL{sup −1} was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 10{sup 5} with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor enhances death receptor-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Fan, Xing; Goodwin, C Rory; Laterra, John; Xia, Shuli

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-MET are commonly expressed in malignant gliomas and embryonic neuroectodermal tumors including medulloblastoma and appear to play an important role in the growth and dissemination of these malignancies. Dependent on cell context and the involvement of specific downstream effectors, both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of HGF have been reported. Human medulloblastoma cells were treated with HGF for 24–72 hours followed by death receptor ligand TRAIL (Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) for 24 hours. Cell death was measured by MTT and Annexin-V/PI flow cytometric analysis. Changes in expression levels of targets of interest were measured by Northern blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot analysis as well as immunoprecipitation. In this study, we show that HGF promotes medulloblastoma cell death induced by TRAIL. TRAIL alone triggered apoptosis in DAOY cells and death was enhanced by pre-treating the cells with HGF for 24–72 h prior to the addition of TRAIL. HGF (100 ng/ml) enhanced TRAIL (10 ng/ml) induced cell death by 36% (P < 0.001). No cell death was associated with HGF alone. Treating cells with PHA-665752, a specific c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the enhancement of TRAIL-induced cell death by HGF, indicating that its death promoting effect requires activation of its canonical receptor tyrosine kinase. Cell death induced by TRAIL+HGF was predominately apoptotic involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways as evidenced by the increased activation of caspase-3, 8, 9. Promotion of apoptosis by HGF occurred via the increased expression of the death receptor DR5 and enhanced formation of death-inducing signal complexes (DISC). Taken together, these and previous findings indicate that HGF:c-Met pathway either promotes or inhibits medulloblastoma cell death via pathway and context specific mechanisms

  10. Identification of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 as a protein receptor for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte P S Jacky

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A causes transient muscle paralysis by entering motor nerve terminals (MNTs where it cleaves the SNARE protein Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25206 to yield SNAP25197. Cleavage of SNAP25 results in blockage of synaptic vesicle fusion and inhibition of the release of acetylcholine. The specific uptake of BoNT/A into pre-synaptic nerve terminals is a tightly controlled multistep process, involving a combination of high and low affinity receptors. Interestingly, the C-terminal binding domain region of BoNT/A, HC/A, is homologous to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, making it a possible ligand for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs. Here we present data supporting the identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3 as a high affinity receptor for BoNT/A in neuronal cells. HC/A binds with high affinity to the two extra-cellular loops of FGFR3 and acts similar to an agonist ligand for FGFR3, resulting in phosphorylation of the receptor. Native ligands for FGFR3; FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9 compete for binding to FGFR3 and block BoNT/A cellular uptake. These findings show that FGFR3 plays a pivotal role in the specific uptake of BoNT/A across the cell membrane being part of a larger receptor complex involving ganglioside- and protein-protein interactions.

  11. Identifying Human Trafficking Victims on a Psychiatry Inpatient Service: a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong T; Lamkin, Joanna; Coverdale, John H; Scott, Samuel; Li, Karen; Gordon, Mollie R

    2018-06-01

    Human trafficking is a serious and prevalent human rights violation that closely intersects with mental health. Limited empirical attention has been paid to the presentations and identification of trafficking victims in psychiatric settings. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the varied presentations of trafficking victims on an urban inpatient psychiatric unit. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant empirical articles to inform our examination of cases. Adult inpatient cases meeting criteria for known or possible human trafficking were systematically identified and illustrative cases were described. Six cases were identified including one male and five females. Two had been labor trafficked and four were suspected or confirmed to have been sex trafficked. The cases demonstrated a tremendous diversity of demographic and psychiatric identifying factors. These cases indicate the importance of routinely screening for trafficking victims in inpatient psychiatry settings. Identification of cases is a requisite step in providing informed and evidence-based treatments and enabling the secondary prevention of re-exploitation. Additional research is warranted given the limited current empirical research on this topic area.

  12. Advocates' Experiences With Media and the Impact of Media on Human Trafficking Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Soibatian, Christina; Shattell, Mona M

    2017-02-01

    The present qualitative study explores advocates' opinions of misinformation about human trafficking in the media and describes advocates' strategies to counter the misinformation presented by the media. Thus, 15 advocates who work against human trafficking in Chicago-based nonprofit organizations participated in semistructured interviews about their opinions and strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The present study identifies specific misperceptions of human trafficking in the media, highlights advocates' opinions of this misinformation, and discusses advocates' strategies to counteract inaccurate media, adding support to the role of media advocacy. Advocates note how media images shape and perpetuate stereotypes of trafficking through glamorizing sex work and sensationalizing stories that are most often international depictions of trafficking. Advocates report media generally shares only a piece of the story, simplifying the stories of survivors and the issue of human trafficking. Advocates critique media perpetuating these misperceptions for how they may contribute to policies and programs which fail to address structural factors that create vulnerabilities to be trafficked and the multisystem needs of survivors. However, advocates also note misperceptions can be counteracted by producing sensitive, informed media through social platforms. Advocates share their strategies counteracting misinformation through engaging in informative conversations, utilizing social media to educate, and promoting media messages of survivor agency. Research, clinical, and policy implications are also discussed. The present study emphasizes the importance of decision makers and service providers being critical consumers of media and to assess how media portrayals may (or may not) inform their understanding and response to the issue.

  13. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor, Tissue Factor, and VEGF-R Bound VEGF in Human Breast Cancer In Loco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Sierko, Ewa; Skalij, Piotr; Kamińska, Magda; Zimnoch, Lech; Brekken, Ralf A; Thorpe, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin and docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens used in breast cancer patients are associated with high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) are recommended for both treating and preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Increased thrombosis incidence in G-CSF treated patients was reported; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The principal activator of blood coagulation in cancer is tissue factor (TF). It additionally contributes to cancer progression and stimulates angiogenesis. The main proangiogenic factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the study was to evaluate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), tissue factor (TF) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) bound VEGF in human breast cancer in loco. G-CSFR, TF and VEGFR bound VEGF (VEGF: VEGFR) were assessed in 28 breast cancer tissue samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methodologies according to ABC technique and double staining IHC procedure were employed utilizing antibodies against G-CSFR, TF and VEGF associated with VEGFR (VEGF: VEGFR). Expression of G-CSFR was demonstrated in 20 breast cancer tissue specimens (71%). In 6 cases (21%) the expression was strong (IRS 9-12). Strong expression of TF was observed in all investigated cases (100%). Moreover, expression of VEGF: VEGFR was visualized in cancer cells (IRS 5-8). No presence of G-CSFR, TF or VEGF: VEGFR was detected on healthy breast cells. Double staining IHC studies revealed co-localization of G-CSFR and TF, G-CSFR and VEGF: VEGFR, as well as TF and VEGF: VEGFR on breast cancer cells and ECs. The results of the study indicate that GCSFR, TF and VEGF: VEGFR expression as well as their co-expression might influence breast cancer biology, and may increase thromboembolic adverse events incidence.

  14. Selective binding and oligomerization of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor by a low molecular weight, nonpeptidyl ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael L; Tian, Shin-Shay; Miller, Stephen G; Kessler, Linda; Baker, Audrey E; Brigham-Burke, Michael R; Dillon, Susan B; Duffy, Kevin J; Keenan, Richard M; Lehr, Ruth; Rosen, Jon; Schneeweis, Lumelle A; Trill, John; Young, Peter R; Luengo, Juan I; Lamb, Peter

    2003-03-14

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor regulates neutrophil production by binding to a specific receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, expressed on cells of the granulocytic lineage. Recombinant forms of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are used clinically to treat neutropenias. As part of an effort to develop granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mimics with the potential for oral bioavailability, we previously identified a nonpeptidyl small molecule (SB-247464) that selectively activates murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signal transduction pathways and promotes neutrophil formation in vivo. To elucidate the mechanism of action of SB-247464, a series of cell-based and biochemical assays were performed. The activity of SB-247464 is strictly dependent on the presence of zinc ions. Titration microcalorimetry experiments using a soluble murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor construct show that SB-247464 binds to the extracellular domain of the receptor in a zinc ion-dependent manner. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies demonstrate that SB-247464 induces self-association of the N-terminal three-domain fragment in a manner that is consistent with dimerization. SB-247464 induces internalization of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor on intact cells, consistent with a mechanism involving receptor oligomerization. These data show that small nonpeptidyl compounds are capable of selectively binding and inducing productive oligomerization of cytokine receptors.

  15. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([ 125 I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

  16. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  17. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. [ 3 H]PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 μM. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRPγS and GDPβS, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)

  18. Structural analysis of the receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanazono, Y.; Hosoi, T.; Kuwaki, T.; Matsuki, S.; Miyazono, K.; Miyagawa, K.; Takaku, F.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptors on neutrophils from three patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase, in comparison with four normal volunteers. Because we experienced some difficulties in radioiodinating intact recombinant human G-CSF, we developed a new derivative of human G-CSF termed YPY-G-CSF. It was easy to iodinate this protein using the lactoperoxidase method because of two additional tyrosine residues, and its radioactivity was higher than that previously reported. The biological activity of YPY-G-CSF as G-CSF was fully retained. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that CML neutrophils had a single class of binding sites (1400 +/- 685/cell) with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 245 +/- 66 pM. The number of sites and Kd value of CML neutrophils were not significantly different from those of normal neutrophils (p greater than 0.9). Cross-linking studies revealed two specifically labeled bands of [125I]YPY-G-CSF-receptor complexes with apparent molecular masses of 160 and 110 kd on both normal and CML neutrophils. This is the first report describing two receptor proteins on neutrophils. According to the analyses of the proteolytic process of these cross-linked complexes and proteolytic mapping, we assume that alternative splicing or processing from a single gene may generate two distinct receptor proteins that bind specifically to G-CSF but have different fates in intracellular metabolism

  19. Targeting of liposomes to cells bearing nerve growth factor receptors mediated by biotinylated NGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies of liposome targeting have concentrated on immunological systems, the use of ligand-receptor interactions has received little attention. The protein hormone beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) was modified by biotinylation via carboxyl group substitution (C-bio-NGF) under reaction conditions that yielded an average of 3 biotin additions per NGF subunit. NGF was also biotinylated through amino group substitution to produce derivatives with ratios of 1, 2 and 4 biotin moieties per NGF subunit (N-bio-NGF). These derivatives were compared with native NGF for their ability to compete with 125 I-NGF for binding to NGF receptors on rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells at 4 0 C. C-bio-NGF was as effective as native NGF in binding to NGF receptors, while N-bio-NGF containing 1 biotin per NGF subunit was only 28% as active in binding as native NGF. C-bio-NGF, but not N-bio-NGF, mediated the specific binding of 125 I-streptavidin to PC12 cells. Biocytin-NGF, a derivative of C-bio-NGF with an extended spacer chain, was also synthesized and retained full biological and receptor binding activities. C-bio-NGF and biocytin-NGF were as effective as native NGF in a bioassay involving induction of neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells

  20. Molecular Recognition of Corticotropin releasing Factor by Its G protein-coupled Receptor CRFR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel)

    2009-01-15

    The bimolecular interaction between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide, and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is crucial for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress, and has been a target of intense drug design for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and related disorders. As a class B GPCR, CRFR1 contains an N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) that provides the primary ligand binding determinants. Here we present three crystal structures of the human CRFR1 ECD, one in a ligand-free form and two in distinct CRF-bound states. The CRFR1 ECD adopts the alpha-beta-betaalpha fold observed for other class B GPCR ECDs, but the N-terminal alpha-helix is significantly shorter and does not contact CRF. CRF adopts a continuous alpha-helix that docks in a hydrophobic surface of the ECD that is distinct from the peptide-binding site of other class B GPCRs, thereby providing a basis for the specificity of ligand recognition between CRFR1 and other class B GPCRs. The binding of CRF is accompanied by clamp-like conformational changes of two loops of the receptor that anchor the CRF C terminus, including the C-terminal amide group. These structural studies provide a molecular framework for understanding peptide binding and specificity by the CRF receptors as well as a template for designing potent and selective CRFR1 antagonists for therapeutic applications.

  1. Imbalance of tumor necrosis factor receptors during progression in bovine leukemia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, Satoru; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ikeda, Manabu; Kohara, Junko; Hirata, Toh-ichi; Okada, Kosuke; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we found an up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α and an imbalance of TNF receptors in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In order to investigate the different TNF-α-induced responses, in this study we examined the TNF-α-induced proliferative response and the expression levels of two distinct TNF receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from BLV-uninfected cattle and BLV-infected cattle that were aleukemic (AL) or had persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The proliferative response of PBMC isolated from those cattle with PL in the presence of recombinant bovine TNF-α (rTNF-α) was significantly higher than those from AL cattle and uninfected cattle and the cells from PL cattle expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of TNF receptor type II (TNF-RII) than those from AL and BLV-uninfected cattle. No difference was found in TNF-RI mRNA levels. Most cells expressing TNF-RII in PL cattle were CD5 + or sIgM + cells and these cells showed resistance to TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in provirus load and TNF-RII mRNA levels, and TNF-α-induced proliferation and TNF-RII mRNA levels. These data suggest that imbalance in the expression of TNF receptors could at least in part contribute to the progression of lymphocytosis in BLV infection

  2. Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Eleonora; Governa, Valeria; Garzon, Jesus Francisco Glaus; Mele, Valentina; Amicarella, Francesca; Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Trella, Emanuele; Galati-Fournier, Virginie; Oertli, Daniel; Däster, Silvio Raffael; Droeser, Raoul A; Weixler, Benjamin; Bolli, Martin; Rosso, Raffaele; Nitsche, Ulrich; Khanna, Nina; Egli, Adrian; Keck, Simone; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Terracciano, Luigi M; Zajac, Paul; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Borsig, Lubor; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2018-02-06

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing. CRC infiltration by distinct T cell subsets was associated with defined chemokine gene signatures, including CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 for cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T-helper (Th)1 cells; CCL17, CCL22 and CXCL12 for Th1 and regulatory T cells; CXCL13 for follicular Th cells; and CCL20 and CCL17 for interleukin (IL)-17-producing Th cells. These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Their expression was significantly higher in intracecal than in intraperitoneal xenografts and was dramatically reduced by antibiotic treatment of tumour-bearing mice. In clinical samples, abundance of defined bacteria correlated with high chemokine expression, enhanced T cell infiltration and improved survival. Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jijun; Xu, Jie; Ruf, Wolfram; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.

  5. Design and characteristics of cytotoxic fibroblast growth factor 1 conjugate for fibroblast growth factor receptor-targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlachcic A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Szlachcic, Malgorzata Zakrzewska, Michal Lobocki, Piotr Jakimowicz, Jacek Otlewski Department of Protein Engineering, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are attractive candidate cancer therapy targets as they are overexpressed in multiple types of tumors, such as breast, prostate, bladder, and lung cancer. In this study, a natural ligand of FGFR, an engineered variant of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1V, was conjugated to a potent cytotoxic drug, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE, and used as a targeting agent for cancer cells overexpressing FGFRs, similar to antibodies in antibody–drug conjugates. The FGF1V–valine–citrulline–MMAE conjugate showed a favorable stability profile, bound FGFRs on the cell surface specifically, and efficiently released the drug (MMAE upon cleavage by the lysosomal protease cathepsin B. Importantly, the conjugate showed a prominent cytotoxic effect toward cell lines expressing FGFR. FGF1V–vcMMAE was highly cytotoxic at concentrations even an order of magnitude lower than those found for free MMAE. This effect was FGFR-specific as cells lacking FGFR did not show any increased mortality. Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, FGF receptor, targeted cancer therapy, cytotoxic conjugates, FGFR-dependent cancer, MMAE, auristatin

  6. Human trafficking and severe mental illness: an economic analysis of survivors' use of psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Maria; Oram, Siân; Howard, Louise M; Trevillion, Kylee; Byford, Sarah

    2016-07-19

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of human trafficking. European countries are required to assist trafficked people in their psychological recovery, but there are no rigorous data on the costs of doing so. The objectives of this study were to quantify the use of secondary mental health services by survivors of human trafficking; to estimate the cost of survivors' use of secondary mental health services provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS); and to identify factors that predict higher costs of mental health service provision. Historical cohort study of psychiatric patients who had experienced human trafficking. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS) database was used to identify anonymised full patient records of patients who had experienced human trafficking and who had accessed SLaM mental health services between 2007 and 2012. Data were extracted on socio-demographic and trafficking characteristics and contacts with mental health services. Total costs were calculated by multiplying each resource use item by an appropriate unit cost. Factors that predicted high mental health service costs were analysed using regression models. One hundred nineteen patients were included in the analysis. Mean total mental health service costs per patient were £27,293 (sd 80,985) and mean duration of contact with services was 1490 (sd 757) days (approximately 4 years). Regression analysis showed that higher costs were associated with diagnosis of psychotic disorder (p trafficking violence (p = 0.06). Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders cost approximately £32,635 more than patients with non-psychotic disorders/psychological distress but no formal diagnosis and patients whose clinical notes documented pre-trafficking violence cost £88,633 more than patients for whom pre-trafficking violence was not

  7. In-vivo fluorescence detection of breast cancer growth factor receptors by fiber-optic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Gilbert; Wang, Bingzhi; DeLuna, Frank; Sun, LuZhe; Ye, Jing Yong

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer treatment options often include medications that target the overexpression of growth factor receptors, such as the proto-oncogene human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to suppress the abnormal growth of cancerous cells and induce cancer regression. Although effective, certain treatments are toxic to vital organs, and demand assurance that the pursued receptor is present at the tumor before administration of the drug. This requires diagnostic tools to provide tumor molecular signatures, as well as locational information. In this study, we utilized a fiber-optic probe to characterize in vivo HER2 and EGFR overexpressed tumors through the fluorescence of targeted dyes. HER2 and EGFR antibodies were conjugated with ICG-Sulfo-OSu and Alexa Fluor 680, respectively, to tag BT474 (HER2+) and MDA-MB-468 (EGFR+) tumors. The fiber was inserted into the samples via a 30-gauge needle. Different wavelengths of a supercontinuum laser were selected to couple into the fiber and excite the corresponding fluorophores in the samples. The fluorescence from the dyes was collected through the same fiber and quantified by a time-correlated single photon counter. Fluorescence at different antibody-dye concentrations was measured for calibration. Mice with subcutaneous HER2+ and/or EGFR+ tumors received intravenous injections of the conjugates and were later probed at the tumor sites. The measured fluorescence was used to distinguish between tumor types and to calculate the concentration of the antibody-dye conjugates, which were detectable at levels as low as 40 nM. The fiber-optic probe presents a minimally invasive instrument to characterize the molecular signatures of breast cancer in vivo.

  8. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, and its proto-oncogene-encoded receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, C.J.; Rettenmier, C.W.; Roussel, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, or M-CSF, is one of a family of hematopoietic growth factors that stimulates the proliferation of monocytes, macrophages, and their committed bone marrow progenitors. Unlike pluripotent hemopoietins such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3 or multi-CSF), which affect the growth of myeloid cells of several different hematopoietic lineages, CSF-1 acts only on cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series to stimulate their growth and enhance their survival. Retroviral transduction of the feline c-fms gene in the Susan McDonough and Hardy Zuckerman-5 (HZ-5) strains of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) led to genetic alterations that endowed the recombined viral oncogene (v-fms) with the ability to transform cells in culture morphologically and to induce firbrosarcomas and hematopoietic neoplasms in susceptible animals. The v-fms oncogene product differs from the normal CSF-1 receptor in certain of its cardinal biochemical properties, most notably in exhibiting constitutively high basal levels of tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of its ligand. Comparative studies of the c-fms and v-fms genes coupled with analyses of engineered mutants and receptor chimeras have begun to pinpoint pertinent genetic alterations in the normal receptor gene that unmask its latent oncogenic potential. In addition, the availability of biologically active c-fms, v-fms, and CSF-1 cDNAs has allowed these genes to be mobilized and expressed in naive cells, thereby facilitating assays for receptor coupling with downstream components of the mitogenic pathway in diverse cell types

  9. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  10. KSHV Entry and Trafficking in Target Cells—Hijacking of Cell Signal Pathways, Actin and Membrane Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi’s sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS, integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5, and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R. This review summarizes the accumulated studies demonstrating that KSHV manipulates the host signal pathways to enter and traffic in the cytoplasm of the target cells, to deliver the viral genome into the nucleus, and initiate viral gene expression. KSHV interactions with the cell surface receptors is the key platform for the manipulations of host signal pathways which results in the simultaneous induction of FAK, Src, PI3-K, Rho-GTPase, ROS, Dia-2, PKC ζ, c-Cbl, CIB1, Crk, p130Cas and GEF-C3G signal and adaptor molecules that play critical roles in the modulation of membrane and actin dynamics, and in the various steps of the early stages of infection such as entry and trafficking towards the nucleus. The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT proteins are also recruited to assist in viral entry and trafficking. In addition, KSHV interactions with the cell surface receptors also induces the host transcription factors NF-κB, ERK1/2, and Nrf2 early during infection to initiate and modulate viral and host gene expression. Nuclear delivery of the viral dsDNA genome is immediately followed by the host innate responses such as the DNA damage response (DDR, inflammasome and interferon responses. Overall, these studies form the initial framework for further studies of

  11. Antibody-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase requires the presence of detergent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, M.; Defize, L. H.; de Laat, S. W.; Boonstra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) tyrosine kinase was investigated in membrane preparations as well as intact A431 cells, using anti-EGF-R antibodies directed against extra- and intracellular receptor domains. In vitro assay conditions were mimicked on whole cells by a mild

  12. Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptors chemosensitizes breast cancer cells through up-regulation of Bnip3L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Real, PJ; Benito, A; Cuevas, J; Berciano, MT; de Juan, A; Coffer, P; Gomez-Roman, J; Lafarga, M; Lopez-Vega, JM; Fernandez-Luna, JL

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR) and EGFR-2 (HER2) have become major targets for cancer treatment. Blocking antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors are being used to silence the activity of these receptors in different tumors with varying efficacy. Thus, a better knowledge on the signaling

  13. Prognostic factors in advanced breast cancer: Race and receptor status are significant after development of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong; Li, Yufeng; Shen, Tiansheng; Hameed, Omar; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic factors are well established in early-stage breast cancer (BC), but less well-defined in advanced disease. We analyzed 323 BC patients who had distant relapse during follow-up from 1997 to 2010 to determine the significant clinicopathologic factors predicting survival outcomes. By univariate analysis, race, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and HER2 status were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and post-metastasis survival (PMS). Applying a Cox regression model revealed that all these factors remained significant for PMS, while race, tumor grade and HER2 were independent factors for OS. Tumor grade was the only significant factor for metastasis-free survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. Our findings demonstrated that being Caucasian, hormonal receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) were all associated with a decreased hazard of death and that patients with HR+/HER2+ tumors had superior outcomes to those with HR+/HER2- disease. Further, PR status held a prognostic value over ER, thus reflecting the biologic mechanism of the importance of the functional ER pathway and the heterogeneity in the response to endocrine therapy. These observations indicate that the patients' genetic makeup and the intrinsic nature of the tumor principally govern BC progression and prognosticate the long-term outcomes in advanced disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, PhuongThao D

    2017-03-01

    Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural schemas. The findings underscore the importance of considering contextual factors such as cultural norms and societal values in efforts to assist trafficked survivors reintegrate into their communities.

  15. The Palermo Protocol: Trafficking Takes it All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palermo Protocol is the outcome of bargain and lobbying with global institutions, NGOs and government representatives embattling to enforce their interests. The outcome is the concept of trafficking that embraces the struggles against prostitution, slavery and child labour. This broad concept has allowed various local cultural practices and survival strategies of those who live under difficult conditions to become classified as trafficking. While such definition may facilitate fundraising there are adverse consequences to be considered. Firstly, hazardous conditions of children that obviously are not trafficking tend to become ignored. Second, the victims of “real” trafficking become invisible by the excessive number of children allegedly trafficked. Third, the broad definition of trafficking has contributed to criminalization of whole communities and consequent conflicts between NGOs engaged in anti-trafficking activities and the communities involved. Such a situation is not in the best interest of the children involved. Rather than spending huge amount of resources on the conventional anti-trafficking measures there is a need to address the root causes of whatsoever unacceptable condition a child is suffering from.

  16. 78 FR 40619 - Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... derivative parts and products (together known as ``wildlife trafficking'') represent an international crisis... trafficking in accordance with the following objectives: (a) in appropriate cases, the United States shall... Quality; (xii) the Office of Science and Technology Policy; (xiii) the Office of Management and Budget...

  17. Human Trafficking. Ministering to The 'Invisible' Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Colleen; Krausa, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Human trafficking is modern-day slavery - an insidious, criminal industry that gener- ates billions of dollars in labor trafficking alone. It knows no boundary of continent, country, race or class; it is a shattering, impartial predator that robs individuals of their basic human dignity.

  18. TRACE-ing human trafficking : Project Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billion-dollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  19. A Proteomics Approach to Membrane Trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Lilley, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Membrane trafficking, including that of integral membrane proteins as well as peripherally associated proteins, appears to be a vital process common to all eukaryotes. An important element of membrane trafficking is to determine the protein composition of the various endomembrane compartments. A

  20. Intensifying Insecurities: The impact of climate change on vulnerability to human trafficking in the Indian Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Molinari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite an enormous amount of attention paid to the factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking, such as poverty and a lack of economic opportunity, the debate of evidence for what enables these factors to exist in the first place is relatively less explored. Presently, discussions of the relationship between climate change and human insecurity have been marginal to broader debates about vulnerability to trafficking. This paper argues that this signifies a gap in our understanding of the underlying drivers that push individuals and communities into situations where vulnerability to trafficking amplifies, but also that increase the pull of risky migration pathways and exploitative work situations. This paper proceeds by examining and problematising dominant conceptualisations of vulnerability in human trafficking and climate change discourses. Next, it presents a case study of the Sundarbans region of India to highlight how climate change impacts compound and exacerbate the same factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking—including environmental degradation, loss of livelihood, destitution, and forced migration. Lastly, it argues for enhanced attention to climate change-related insecurity as evidence of vulnerability to trafficking and outlines what such insights can bring to anti-trafficking efforts.

  1. Differential role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in mouse brain inflammatory responses in cryolesion brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Albert; Giralt, Mercedes; Rojas, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the mediators dramatically increased after traumatic brain injury that leads to the activation, proliferation, and hypertrophy of mononuclear, phagocytic cells and gliosis. Eventually, TNF-alpha can induce both apoptosis and necrosis via intracell......Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the mediators dramatically increased after traumatic brain injury that leads to the activation, proliferation, and hypertrophy of mononuclear, phagocytic cells and gliosis. Eventually, TNF-alpha can induce both apoptosis and necrosis via...... intracellular signaling. This cytokine exerts its functions via interaction with two receptors: type-1 receptor (TNFR1) and type-2 receptor (TNFR2). In this work, the inflammatory response after a freeze injury (cryolesion) in the cortex was studied in wild-type (WT) animals and in mice lacking TNFR1 (TNFR1 KO...... signaling also affected the expression of apoptosis/cell death-related genes (Fas, Rip, p53), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP9, MMP12), and their inhibitors (TIMP1), suggesting a role of TNFR1 in extracellular matrix remodeling after injury. However, GDNF, NGF, and BDNF expression were not affected...

  2. Expression, purification, and characterization of a diabody against the most important angiogenesis cell receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Behdani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivative fragments have long been used as tools in a variety of applications, in fundamental research work, biotechnology, diagnosis, and therapy. Camels produce single heavy-chain antibodies (VHH in addition to usual antibodies. These minimal-sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. Vascular endothelial growth factor recepror-2 (VEGFR2 is an important tumor-associated receptor that blockade of its signaling can lead to the inhibition of neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the construction, expression, and purification VEGFR2-specific Diabody. Two variable fragments of a same camel anti-VEGFR2 antibody were linked together by the upper hinge segment of antibody to make a diabody. We showed the ability of diabody to recognition of VEGFR2 on the cell surface by FACS. Diabodies can be produced in the low-cost prokaryotic expression system, so they are suitable molecules for diagnostic and therapeutic issues.

  3. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shoji; Itaya, Harutaka; Nakazawa, Osamu; Fukuda, Morimichi.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B 12 -sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B 12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B 12 -sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B 12 -bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B 12 -sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B 12 -sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B 12 -sepharose which was made by coupling B 12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B 12 -sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B 12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  5. Was Trafficking in Persons Really Criminalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Kangaspunta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the successes and setbacks in the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons. While today, the majority of countries have passed specific legislation criminalising human trafficking in response to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, there are still very few convictions of trafficking. Using currently available knowledge, this paper discusses four possible reasons for low conviction rates. Further, the paper suggests that due to the heavy dependency on victim testimonies when prosecuting trafficking in persons crimes, members of criminal organisations that are easily identifiable by victims may face criminal charges more frequently than other members of the criminal group, particularly those in positions of greater responsibility who profit the most from the criminal activities. In this context, the exceptionally high number of women among convicted offenders is explored.

  6. Flow cytometric detection of growth factor receptors in autografts and analysis of growth factor concentrations in autologous stem cell transplantation: possible significance for platelet recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, I; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Kjaersgaard, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve prediction of hematopoietic recovery, we conducted a pilot study, analyzing the significance of growth factor receptor expression in autografts as well as endogenous growth factor levels in blood before, during and after stem cell transplantation. Three early acting (stem cell......-CSF receptor positive, CD34+ progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in the leukapheresis product used for transplantation in a subgroup of 15 patients (NHL, n = 8, MM, n = 7). Three factors were identified as having a significant impact on platelet recovery. First, the level of Tpo in blood...... at the time of the nadir (day +7). Second, the percentage of re-infused thrombopoietin receptor positive progenitors and finally, the percentage of Flt3 receptor positive progenitors. On the other hand, none of the analyzed factors significantly predicted myeloid or erythroid recovery. These findings need...

  7. Medical tourism and organ trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of medical tourism in developing nations has not only helped the local economies but also has assisted patients from the developed world to seek treatment at a lower cost. However, the expansion of the sector has been stigmatized by the growth of organ trafficking that facilitates organ transplantation to those who can afford it. Although developing countries have been taking measures to prohibit the sale of organs, the large gap between demand and supply has fuelled a black market that involves the "brokers", the medical personnel and the poor whose abuse and exploitation is fuelled by the expansion of the sector and the illegitimate opportunities it creates on the side. The problem is exacerbated by the low supply in developed countries, where living potential donors appear to be misinformed about the process and hesitate to register as donors. The need for a nationwide campaign of awareness is urgently needed as the expansion of medical tourism has the potential of encouraging a further rise in organ trafficking.

  8. Munc13-4 Is a Rab11-binding Protein That Regulates Rab11-positive Vesicle Trafficking and Docking at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; He, Jing; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Kiosses, William B; Zhang, Jinzhong; Catz, Sergio D

    2016-02-12

    The small GTPase Rab11 and its effectors control trafficking of recycling endosomes, receptor replenishment and the up-regulation of adhesion and adaptor molecules at the plasma membrane. Despite recent advances in the understanding of Rab11-regulated mechanisms, the final steps mediating docking and fusion of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane are not fully understood. Munc13-4 is a docking factor proposed to regulate fusion through interactions with SNAREs. In hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, Munc13-4 regulates exocytosis in a Rab27a-dependent manner, but its possible regulation of other GTPases has not been explored in detail. Here, we show that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11 and regulates the trafficking of Rab11-containing vesicles. Using a novel Time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) assay, we demonstrate that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11a but not to dominant negative Rab11a. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the specificity of the interaction between Munc13-4 and Rab11, and super-resolution microscopy studies support the interaction of endogenous Munc13-4 with Rab11 at the single molecule level in neutrophils. Vesicular dynamic analysis shows the common spatio-temporal distribution of Munc13-4 and Rab11, while expression of a calcium binding-deficient mutant of Munc13-4 significantly affected Rab11 trafficking. Munc13-4-deficient neutrophils showed normal endocytosis, but the trafficking, up-regulation, and retention of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane was significantly impaired. This correlated with deficient NADPH oxidase activation at the plasma membrane in response to Rab11 interference. Our data demonstrate that Munc13-4 is a Rab11-binding partner that regulates the final steps of Rab11-positive vesicle docking at the plasma membrane. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. A Premature Termination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcription in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihene Elloumi-Mseddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our success in producing an active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli encouraged us to express the full-length receptor in the same host. Despite its large size, we were successful at producing the full-length EGFR protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST that was detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, we obtained a majoritarian truncated GST-EGFR form detectable by gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This truncated protein was purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to belong to the N-terminal extracellular region of the EGFR fused to GST. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts suggesting the occurrence of a transcriptional arrest.

  10. Recent Advances of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) Kinase and Its Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Al-Ameen, Shahad K; Al-Koumi, Dania M; Hamad, Mawadda G; Jalal, Nouran A; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2018-01-17

    Colony stimulation factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is also known as FMS kinase, plays an important role in initiating inflammatory, cancer, and bone disorders when it is overstimulated by its ligand, CSF-1. Innate immunity, as well as macrophage differentiation and survival, are regulated by the stimulation of the CSF-1R. Another ligand, interlukin-34 (IL-34), was recently reported to activate the CSF-1R receptor in a different manner. The relationship between CSF-1R and microglia has been reviewed. Both CSF-1 antibodies and small molecule CSF-1R kinase inhibitors have now been tested in animal models and in humans. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of CSF-1 and IL-34 in producing cancer, bone disorders, and inflammation. We also review the newly discovered and improved small molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies that have shown potent activity toward CSF-1R, reported from 2012 until 2017.

  11. Mactosylceramide Prevents Glial Cell Overgrowth by Inhibiting Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdøe-Kristensen, Stine; Lund, Viktor K; Wandall, Hans H

    2017-01-01

    , in which the mannosyltransferase Egghead controls conversion of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) to mactosylceramide (MacCer). Lack of elongated GSL in egghead (egh) mutants causes overgrowth of subperineurial glia (SPG), largely due to aberrant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, to what...... of the Drosophila Insulin Receptor (InR) and the FGFR homolog Heartless (Htl) in wild type SPG, and is suppressed by inhibiting Htl and InR activity in egh. Knockdown of GlcCer synthase in the SPG fails to suppress glial overgrowth in egh nerves, and slightly promotes overgrowth in wild type, suggesting that RTK...... hyperactivation is caused by absence of MacCer and not by GlcCer accumulation. We conclude that an early product in GSL biosynthesis, MacCer, prevents inappropriate activation of Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Drosophila glia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Detection and Quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Primary Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Proteins differ widely in their pattern of expression depending on organism, tissue, and regulation in response to changing conditions. In the mammalian vasculature, the endothelium responds to vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) via membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) to modulate many aspects of vascular physiology including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and blood pressure. Studies on VEGFR biology are thus dependent on detecting expression levels in different cell types and evaluating how changes in protein levels correlate with changing conditions including circulating VEGF levels. Here, we present a robust immunoblot-based protocol for detecting and quantifying VEGFRs in human endothelial cells. Using internal and external standards, we can rapidly evaluate receptor copy number and assess how this is altered in response to the cellular environment.

  13. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II: autoradiographic localization in rat brain and comparison to receptors for insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesniak, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Kiess, W.; Rojeski, M.; Pert, C.B.; Roth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in rat brain were visualized using autoradiography with [125I]IGF-I. The binding of the labeled peptide was competed for fully by high concentrations of unlabeled IGF-I. At intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptide the binding of [125I]IGF-I was competed for by unlabeled IGF-I more effectively than by IGF-II or insulin, which is typical of receptors for IGF-I. Essentially every brain section shows specific binding of IGF-I, and the pattern of binding of IGF-I to its receptors correlated well with the cytoarchitectonic structures. In parallel studies we showed that [125I]IGF-II was bound to tissue sections of rat brain and that the binding was competed for by an excess of unlabeled IGF-II. However, intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptides gave inconclusive results. To confirm that the binding of [125I]IGF-II was to IGF-II receptors, we showed that antibodies specific for the IGF-II receptor inhibited the binding of labeled IGF-II. Furthermore, the binding of the antibody to regions of the brain section, visualized by the application of [125I]protein-A, gave patterns indistinguishable from those obtained with [125I]IGF-II alone. Again, the binding was very widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, and the patterns of distribution corresponded well to the underlying neural structures. Densitometric analysis of the receptors enabled us to compare the distribution of IGF-I receptors with that of IGF-II receptors as well as retrospectively with that of insulin receptors

  14. Characterization of Leptin Intracellular Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Walum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is produced by adipose tissue, and its concentration in plasma is related to the amount of fat in the body. The leptin receptor (OBR is a member of the class I cytokine receptor family and several different isoforms, produced by alternative mRNA splicing are found in many tissues, including the hypothalamus. The two predominant isoforms includes a long form (OBRl with an intracellular domain of 303 amino acids and a shorter form (OBRs with an intracellular domain of 34 amino acids. Since OBRl is mainly expressed in the hypotalamus, it has been suggested to be the main signalling form. The peripheral production of leptin by adipocyte tissue and its effects as a signal of satiety in the central nervous system imply that leptin gains access to regions of the brain regulating in energy balance by crossing the blood-brain barrier. In an attempt to characterize the intracellular transport of leptin, we have followed binding internalization and degradation of leptin in HEK293 cells. We have also monitored the intracellular transport pathway of fluorescent conjugated leptin in HEK293 cells. Phenylarsine oxide, a general inhibitor of endocytosis, as well as incubation at mild hypertonic conditions, prevented the uptake of leptin, confirming a receptor-mediated internalization process. When internalized, 125I-leptin was rapidly accumulated inside the cells and reached a maximum after 10 min. After 70 minutes about 40-50% of total counts in each time point were found in the medium as TCA-soluble material. Leptin sorting, at the level of early endosomes, did not seem to involve recycling endosomes, since FITC-leptin was sorted from Cy3- transferrin containing compartments at 37°C. At 45 minutes of continuos internalization, FITC-leptin appeared mainly accumulated in late endocytic structures colocalizing with internalized rhodamine coupled epidermial growth factor (EGF and the lysosomal marker protein lamp-1. The transport of leptin was also shown

  15. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  16. Advanced Research of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan PU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is severely threatening human health. In recent years, the treatment for lung adenocarcinoma has made a great progress, targeted therapy has been widely applied in clinic, and benefits amount of patients. However, in squamous cell lung cancer, the incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutant and ALK fusion gene are low,and targeted therapy like Tarceva and crizotinib, can hardly work. Since the fibroblast growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, FGF pathway is considered to be related to tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, more and more researches proved the amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR in squamous cell lung cancer. Experiments in vivo and in vitro found that blocking FGF pathway could reduce the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit metastasis. The FGF pathway might be a new target for treatment of squamous cell lung cancer. This article reviews the effect of FGFR in tumorigenesis,as well as the prospect as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

  17. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells by a serum factor(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, J.L.; Brown, C.; Cooper, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 by serum components was examined. Incubation of dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells with fresh medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FM) produced a time-dependent increase in LDL receptor activity. Uptake and degradation of 125I-LDL was stimulated two- to four-fold, as compared with that of Hep-G2 cells cultured in the same media in which they had been grown to confluence (CM); the maximal 125I-LDL uptake plus degradation increased from 0.2 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h to 0.8 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h. In addition, a two-fold increase in cell surface binding of 125I-LDL to Hep-G2 cells was observed when binding was measured at 4 degrees C. There was no change in the apparent Kd. The stimulation of LDL receptor activity was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of cholesterol, as LDL, to the cell medium. In contrast to the stimulation of LDL receptor activity, FM did not affect the uptake or degradation of 125I-asialoorosomucoid. Addition of FM increased the protein content per dish, and DNA synthesis was stimulated approximately five-fold, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; however, the cell number did not change. Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis was also stimulated by FM; [14C]acetate incorporation into unesterified and esterified cholesterol was increased approximately five-fold. Incubation of Hep-G2 cells with high-density lipoproteins (200 micrograms protein/ml) or albumin (8.0 mg/ml) in the absence of the serum factor did not significantly increase the total processed 125I-LDL. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity was dependent on a heat-stable, nondialyzable serum component that eluted in the inclusion volume of a Sephadex G-75 column

  18. Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.; Barrett, K.; Chantry, D.; Turner, M.; Feldmann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extracellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10 -9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ)

  19. People for sale: the need for a multidisciplinary approach towards human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, K

    2000-01-01

    The article addresses the question of how to develop appropriate measures to tackle trafficking in women, based on the findings of a study of trafficking between the Philippines and Belgium. It argues that there is no easy or unidimensional solution to human trafficking, since it is influenced by a complex set of factors, often working in combination with one another. It concludes that control measures alone cannot stop the flow of trafficking in women and that a legal approach which relies solely on one type of legislation would be too narrow. An effective strategy must combine and balance punitive measures with protection of human rights, stricter border control and the removal of the root causes of irregular movements. Measures must be agreed and coordinated between origin, transit and receiving countries.

  20. Novel targeted approaches to treating biliary tract cancer: the dual epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEE788 is more efficient than the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Marcus; Feisthammel, Jürgen; Blüthner, Thilo; Tannapfel, Andrea; Kamenz, Thomas; Kluge, Annett; Mössner, Joachim; Caca, Karel

    2006-08-01

    Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is frequently observed in neoplasia, notably in tumors of epithelial origin. Attempts to treat such tumors with epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists resulted in remarkable success in recent studies. Little is known, however, about the efficacy of this therapy in biliary tract cancer. Protein expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 was assessed in seven human biliary tract cancer cell lines by immunoblotting. In addition, histological sections from 19 patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were analyzed for epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we sequenced the cDNA products representing the entire epidermal growth factor receptor coding region of the seven cell lines, and searched for genomic epidermal growth factor receptor amplifications and polysomy by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Cell growth inhibition by gefitinib erlotinib and NVP-AEE788 was studied in vitro by automated cell counting. In addition, the anti-tumoral effect of erlotinib and NVP-AEE788 was studied in a chimeric mouse model. The anti-tumoral drug mechanism in this model was assessed by MIB-1 antibody staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling assay, von Willebrand factor staining, and immunoblotting for p-p42/44 (p-Erk1/2, p-MAPK) and p-AKT. Immunoblotting revealed expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in all biliary tract cancer cell lines. EGFR was detectable in six of 19 (32%) extrahepatic human cholangiocarcinoma tissue samples, ErbB-2 in 16 of 19 (84%), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in nine of 19 (47%). Neither epidermal growth factor receptor mutations nor amplifications or polysomy were found in the seven biliary tract cancer

  1. Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Dysregulates Epidermal Growth Factor and Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors To Mediate Constitutive Myc Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Kathleen; Kumar, Manish; Taruishi, Midori; Javier, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    The E4-ORF1 protein encoded by human adenovirus stimulates viral replication in human epithelial cells by binding and activating cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) at the plasma membrane and cellular Myc in the nucleus. In this study, we showed that E4-ORF1 hijacks the tyrosine kinase activities of cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin receptor (InsR)/insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), as well as the lipid kinase activity of PI3K, to mediate const...

  2. Mammary tumors that become independent of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor express elevated levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Craig I

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted therapies are becoming an essential part of breast cancer treatment and agents targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR are currently being investigated in clinical trials. One of the limitations of targeted therapies is the development of resistant variants and these variants typically present with unique gene expression patterns and characteristics compared to the original tumor. Results MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice, with inducible overexpression of the IGF-IR were used to model mammary tumors that develop resistance to IGF-IR targeting agents. IGF-IR independent mammary tumors, previously shown to possess characteristics associated with EMT, were found to express elevated levels of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. Furthermore, these receptors were shown to be inversely expressed with the IGF-IR in this model. Using cell lines derived from IGF-IR-independent mammary tumors (from MTB-IGFIR mice, it was demonstrated that PDGFRα and to a lesser extent PDGFRβ was important for cell migration and invasion as RNAi knockdown of PDGFRα alone or PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in combination, significantly decreased tumor cell migration in Boyden chamber assays and suppressed cell migration in scratch wound assays. Somewhat surprisingly, concomitant knockdown of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ resulted in a modest increase in cell proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis. Conclusion During IGF-IR independence, PDGFRs are upregulated and function to enhance tumor cell motility. These results demonstrate a novel interaction between the IGF-IR and PDGFRs and highlight an important, therapeutically relevant pathway, for tumor cell migration and invasion.

  3. Tracking Traffickers. The IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive material is missing from a hospital. Contaminated metal is found in a scrap yard. Smugglers try to peddle nuclear- weapon-usable material. These different scenarios illustrate the risks that these materials can pose to human safety and security. To assess those risks and to develop strategies to reduce them, States must understand the implications and the scope of such incidents that are occurring around the world. To better understand and respond to these events, the IAEA maintains an Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) which collects information from 122 participating States and some select international organizations. They are asked to share data on a voluntary basis about incidents in which nuclear and other radioactive material has fallen ''out of regulatory control.'' This could mean reporting cases of material that has gone missing, or discoveries of material where none was expected. The cases range from the innocent misplacement of industrial radioactive sources to criminal smuggling efforts which could aid terrorist acts. This information is shared among ITDB participants, and IAEA analysts try to identify trends and characteristics that could help prevent the misuse of these potentially dangerous materials. ''The ITDB has become an internationally recognized tool for States to study the extent and nature of these incidents,'' said John Hilliard, head of the Information Management and Coordination Section that administers the database. ''We've learned a lot by studying them, and we hope the information helps us prevent accidents or crimes in the future.'' The IAEA established the database in 1995 after States became alarmed by a growing number of trafficking incidents in the early 1990s. The service was originally operated by the Department of Safeguards, but later moved to the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, where the Office of Nuclear Security now administers all the data collection and analysis

  4. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Li; Li Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, their transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by ∼ 68% and ∼ 74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which results from ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy

  5. Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells requires insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and ERBB2 receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Schulz, Thomas C.; Sherrer, Eric S.; Dauphin, Derek S.; Shin, Soojung; Nelson, Angelique M.; Ware, Carol B.; Zhan, Mei; Song, Chao-Zhong; Chen, Xiaoji; Brimble, Sandii N.; McLean, Amanda; Galeano, Maria J.; Uhl, Elizabeth W.; D'Amour, Kevin A.; Chesnut, Jonathan D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite progress in developing defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures, little is known about the cell-surface receptors that are activated under conditions supportive of hESC self-renewal. A simultaneous interrogation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in hESCs following stimulation with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium (CM) revealed rapid and prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R); less prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including ERBB2 and ERBB3; and trace phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Intense IGF1R and IR phosphorylation occurred in the absence of MEF conditioning (NCM) and was attributable to high concentrations of insulin in the proprietary KnockOut Serum Replacer (KSR). Inhibition of IGF1R using a blocking antibody or lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced hESC self-renewal and promoted differentiation, while disruption of ERBB2 signaling with the selective inhibitor AG825 severely inhibited hESC proliferation and promoted apoptosis. A simple defined medium containing an IGF1 analog, heregulin-1β (a ligand for ERBB2/ERBB3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and activin A supported long-term growth of multiple hESC lines. These studies identify previously unappreciated RTKs that support hESC proliferation and self-renewal, and provide a rationally designed medium for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent hESCs. PMID:17761519

  6. Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Vincent; Kindt, Nadège; Decaestecker, Christine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Laurent, Guy; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Saussez, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its receptor CD74 appear to be involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated, by immunohistochemical staining, the tissue expression and distribution of MIF and CD74 in serial sections of human invasive breast cancer tumor specimens. The serum MIF level was also determined in breast cancer patients. We showed a significant increase in serum MIF average levels in breast cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. MIF tissue expression, quantified by a modified Allred score, was strongly increased in carcinoma compared to tumor-free specimens, in the cancer cells and in the peritumoral stroma, with fibroblasts the most intensely stained. We did not find any significant correlation with histoprognostic factors, except for a significant inverse correlation between tumor size and MIF stromal positivity. CD74 staining was heterogeneous and significantly decreased in cancer cells but increased in the surrounding stroma, namely in lymphocytes, macrophages and vessel endothelium. There was no significant variation according to classical histoprognostic factors, except that CD74 stromal expression was significantly correlated with triple-negative receptor (TRN) status and the absence of estrogen receptors. In conclusion, our data support the concept of a functional role of MIF in human breast cancer. In addition to auto- and paracrine effects on cancer cells, MIF could contribute to shape the tumor microenvironment leading to immunomodulation and angiogenesis. Interfering with MIF effects in breast tumors in a therapeutic perspective remains an attractive but complex challenge. Level of co-expression of MIF and CD74 could be a surrogate marker for efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly in TRN breast cancer tumor.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) participates in anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) gene expression in mud crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xu; Wan, Wei-Song; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wen, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Huai-Ping; Zhang, Yue-Ling; Li, Sheng-Kang

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. The full-length 2492 bp TRAF6 (Sp-TRAF6) from Scylla paramamosain contains 1800 bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding 598 amino acids, including an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers and a conserved C-terminal meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. Multiple alignment analysis shows that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-TRAf6 has highest identity of 88% with Pt-TRAF6 from Portunus trituberculatus, while the similarity of Sp-TRAF6 with other crustacean sequences was 54-55%. RT-PCR analysis indicated that Sp-TRAF6 transcripts were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach, whereas it was barely detected in the heart and hemocytes in our study. Moreover, Sp-TRAF6 transcripts were significantly up-regulated after Vibrio parahemolyticus and LPS challenges. RNA interference assay was carried out used by siRNA to investigate the genes expression patterns regulated by Sp-TRAF6. The qRT-PCR results showed that silencing Sp-TRAF6 gene could inhibit SpALF1, SpALF2, SpALF5 and SpALF6 expression in hemocytes, while inhibit SpALF1, SpALF3, SpALF4, SpALF5 and SpALF6 expression in hepatopancreas. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the inhibition of SpALFs gene expression indicate that Sp-TRAF6 plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasions via regulation of ALF gene expression in S. paramamosain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-04-11

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis.

  9. Orexin–Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area as Targets for Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A.; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.

    2015-01-01

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R–OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R–OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R–CRF1R–OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A–CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. PMID:25926444

  10. Orexin-corticotropin-releasing factor receptor heteromers in the ventral tegmental area as targets for cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; McCormick, Peter J

    2015-04-29

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R-OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R-OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R-CRF1R-OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A-CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356639-15$15.00/0.

  11. Receptors for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in the rat kidney glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, J.F.; Pillion, D.J.; Meezan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Renal glomeruli were isolated by a technique involving renal perfusion with a solution containing magnetic iron oxide particles, followed by homogenization, sieving and isolation over a strong magnet. Isolated glomeruli were treated with 1% Triton X-100 to solubilize plasma membrane components while insoluble basement membrane components were removed by centrifugation. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) binding to this preparation was competitively inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabelled IGF-II, with 50% inhibition of binding observed at an IGF-II concentration of 1 ng/ml. [ 125 I]IGF-II was covalently cross-linked to its receptor with disuccinimidyl suberate in two tissues known to contain IGF-II receptors, the rat chondrosarcoma chondrocyte and the rat kidney tubule, as well as in rat renal glomeruli. In all three cases, a specific high-molecular weight (Mr = 255,000) band could be identified on autoradiograms of dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. These results indicate that the rat glomerulus contains a high-affinity receptor for IGF-II. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-II plays a role in glomerular growth and differentiation

  12. Specific, high affinity receptors for insulin-like growth factor II in the rat kidney glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, J.F.; Pillion, D.J.; Meezan, E.

    1988-01-01

    Rat renal glomeruli were isolated by a technique involving kidney perfusion with a solution containing magnetic iron oxide particles, followed by homogenization, sieving, and concentration over a strong magnet. Isolated glomeruli were treated with 1% Triton X-100 to solubilize plasma membrane components, while insoluble basement membrane components were removed by centrifugation. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) binding to this preparation was competitively inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabeled IGF-II, with 50% inhibition at an IGF-II concentration of 1 ng/ml. [ 125 I]IGF-II was covalently cross-linked with disuccinimidyl suberate to its receptor in rat renal glomeruli and a specific high mol wt (255,000) band could be identified on autoradiograms of dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. [ 125 I]IGF-II binding and cross-linking to this band was inhibited by a polyclonal antibody against the type II IGF receptor. These results demonstrate for the first time that the isolated rat renal glomerulus contains a high affinity receptor for IGF-II

  13. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M. Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P.; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis. PMID:16581912

  14. Human trafficking and the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael G

    2012-05-01

    "Human trafficking" is a term for a modern form of slavery. It is a criminal human rights violation and a significant health issue. Dental professionals can assist in recognizing victims of trafficking. The author conducted a PubMed search of the English-language literature through May 2011, which yielded no articles meeting the search criteria "dentistry" and "human trafficking prostitution." Given these results, the author reviewed articles published in medical journals, reports from both governmental and nongovernmental agencies and lay literature. The author examines the present state of human trafficking and provides information--including specific questions to ask--to help dentists identify victims. In addition, the author suggests means of notifying authorities and assisting trafficking victims. He also examines the health care needs of these patients. Human trafficking is a global problem, with thousands of victims in the United States, including many women and children. Dentists have a responsibility to act for the benefit of others, which includes detecting signs of abuse and neglect. Dental professionals are on the front lines with respect to encountering and identifying potential victims who seek dental treatment. Dentists can combat human trafficking by becoming informed and by maintaining vigilance in their practices.

  15. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in the bone loss developed in this disease. PMID:23559954

  16. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-α, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway

  17. Eps15 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation and localizes to components of the endocytic pathway during receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, M R; Lotti, L V; Belleudi, F

    1999-01-01

    Eps15 is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is characterized by the presence of a novel protein:protein interaction domain, the EH domain. Eps15 also stably binds the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. Previous work demonstrated an essential...

  18. Divergent effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression on prognosis of estrogen receptor positive versus triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; Horlings, Hugo M; van der Vegt, Bert; Kreike, Bas; Ajouaou, Abderrahim; van de Vijver, Marc J; Boezen, Hendrika; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Graaf, Wilhelmina; Wesseling, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in progression of breast cancer and resistance to systemic treatment. Targeting IGF1R signaling may, therefore, be beneficial in systemic treatment. We report the effect of IGF1R expression on prognosis in invasive ductal breast

  19. P55 tumour necrosis factor receptor in bone marrow-derived cells promotes atherosclerosis development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthoulea, Sofia; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; van der Made, Ingeborg; Mujcic, Hilda; Thelen, Melanie; Vergouwe, Monique N.; Ambagts, Matheus H. C.; Hofker, Marten H.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokine with a clear pathogenic role in many chronic inflammatory diseases, and p55 TNF receptor (TNFR) mediates the majority of TNF responses. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of p55 TNFR expression in bone

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha differentially modulate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 transactivation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Raymond; Matthews, Jason, E-mail: jason.matthews@utoronto.ca

    2013-07-15

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2; NFE2L2) plays an important role in mediating cellular protection against reactive oxygen species. NRF2 signaling is positively modulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) but inhibited by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In this study we investigated the crosstalk among NRF2, AHR and ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the NRF2 activator sulforaphane (SFN), a dual AHR and ERα activator, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 17β-estradiol (E2). SFN-dependent increases in NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) mRNA levels were significantly reduced after co-treatment with E2. E2-dependent repression of NQO1 and HMOX1 was associated with increased ERα but reduced p300 recruitment and reduced histone H3 acetylation at both genes. In contrast, DIM + SFN or TCDD + SFN induced NQO1 and HMOX1 mRNA expression to levels higher than SFN alone, which was prevented by RNAi-mediated knockdown of AHR. DIM + SFN but not TCDD + SFN also induced recruitment of ERα to NQO1 and HMOX1. However, the presence of AHR at NQO1 and HMOX1 restored p300 recruitment and histone H3 acetylation, thereby reversing the ERα-dependent repression of NRF2. Taken together, our study provides further evidence of functional interplay among NRF2, AHR and ERα signaling pathways through altered p300 recruitment to NRF2-regulated target genes. - Highlights: • We examined crosstalk among ERα, AHR, and NRF2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • AHR enhanced the mRNA expression levels of two NRF2 target genes – HMOX1 and NQO1. • ERα repressed HMOX1 and NQO1 expression via decreased histone acetylation. • AHR prevented ERα-dependent repression of HMOX1 and NQO1.

  1. Lack of Evidence for a Direct Interaction of Progranulin and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-2 From Cellular Binding Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Lang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is a secreted anti-inflammatory protein which can be processed by neutrophil proteases to various granulins. It has been reported that at least a significant portion of the anti-inflammatory effects of PGRN is due to direct high affinity binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1 and TNFR2 and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-induced TNFR1/2 signaling. Two studies failed to reproduce the interaction of TNFR1 and TNFR2 with PGRN, but follow up reports speculated that this was due to varying experimental circumstances and/or the use of PGRN from different sources. However, even under consideration of these speculations, there is still a striking discrepancy in the literature between the concentrations of PGRN needed to inhibit TNF signaling and the concentrations required to block TNF binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2. While signaling events induced by 0.2–2 nM of TNF have been efficiently inhibited by low, near to equimolar concentrations (0.5–2.5 nM of PGRN in various studies, the reported inhibitory effects of PGRN on TNF-binding to TNFR1/2 required a huge excess of PGRN (100–1,000-fold. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PGRN on TNF binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 in highly sensitive cellular binding studies. Unlabeled TNF inhibited >95% of the specific binding of a Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpL fusion protein of TNF to TNFR1 and TNFR2 and blocked binding of soluble GpL fusion proteins of TNFR1 and TNFR2 to membrane TNF expressing cells to >95%, too. Purified PGRN, however, showed in both assays no effect on TNF–TNFR1/2 interaction even when applied in huge excess. To rule out that tags and purification- or storage-related effects compromise the potential ability of PGRN to bind TNF receptors, we directly co-expressed PGRN, and as control TNF, in TNFR1- and TNFR2-expressing cells and looked for binding of GpL-TNF. While expression of TNF strongly inhibited binding of GpL-TNF to TNFR1/2, co

  2. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha differentially modulate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 transactivation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Raymond; Matthews, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2; NFE2L2) plays an important role in mediating cellular protection against reactive oxygen species. NRF2 signaling is positively modulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) but inhibited by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In this study we investigated the crosstalk among NRF2, AHR and ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the NRF2 activator sulforaphane (SFN), a dual AHR and ERα activator, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 17β-estradiol (E2). SFN-dependent increases in NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) mRNA levels were significantly reduced after co-treatment with E2. E2-dependent repression of NQO1 and HMOX1 was associated with increased ERα but reduced p300 recruitment and reduced histone H3 acetylation at both genes. In contrast, DIM + SFN or TCDD + SFN induced NQO1 and HMOX1 mRNA expression to levels higher than SFN alone, which was prevented by RNAi-mediated knockdown of AHR. DIM + SFN but not TCDD + SFN also induced recruitment of ERα to NQO1 and HMOX1. However, the presence of AHR at NQO1 and HMOX1 restored p300 recruitment and histone H3 acetylation, thereby reversing the ERα-dependent repression of NRF2. Taken together, our study provides further evidence of functional interplay among NRF2, AHR and ERα signaling pathways through altered p300 recruitment to NRF2-regulated target genes. - Highlights: • We examined crosstalk among ERα, AHR, and NRF2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • AHR enhanced the mRNA expression levels of two NRF2 target genes – HMOX1 and NQO1. • ERα repressed HMOX1 and NQO1 expression via decreased histone acetylation. • AHR prevented ERα-dependent repression of HMOX1 and NQO1.

  3. Co-inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 enhances radiosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ping; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Zhang, Qing; Li, Zhao-bin; Xu, Wen-cai; Fu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been shown to closely correlate with radioresistance of breast cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the impact of co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R on the radiosensitivity of two breast cancer cells with different profiles of EGFR and IGF-1R expression. The MCF-7 (EGFR +/−, IGF-1R +++) and MDA-MB-468 (EGFR +++, IGF-1R +++) breast cancer cell lines were used. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry. Phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk1/2 were quantified by western blot. In vivo studies were conducted using MDA-MB-468 cells xenografted in nu/nu mice. In MDA-MB-468 cells, the inhibition of IGF-1R upregulated the p-EGFR expression. Either EGFR (AG1478) or IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) radiosensitized MDA-MB-468 cells. In MCF-7 cells, radiosensitivity was enhanced by AG1024, but not by AG1478. Synergistical radiosensitizing effect was observed by co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R only in MDA-MB-468 cells with a DMF 10% of 1.90. The co-inhibition plus irradiation significantly induced more apoptosis and arrested the cells at G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-468 cells. Only co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically diminished the expression of p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 in MDA-MB-468 cells. In vivo studies further verified the radiosensitizing effects by co-inhibition of both pathways in a MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. Our data suggested that co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically radiosensitized breast cancer cells with both EGFR and IGF-1R high expression. The approach may have an important therapeutic implication in the treatment of breast cancer patients with high expression of EGFR and IGF-1R

  4. Update: What Nurses Need to Know about Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Joy

    Nurses are key people who interact with victims of human trafficking in healthcare and other settings. This article provides a current overview of human trafficking, explains legal definitions, elements for protocols in healthcare settings when trafficking is suspected, nursing roles and responses, interview tools, resources, public health recommendations, and nursing education approaches to address human trafficking.

  5. Regulation of the ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongbing; Panina, Svetlana; Kaur, Amandeep

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is the major component of calcium signaling pathways mediating the action of various effectors. Transient increases in the intracellular calcium level triggered by a variety of stimuli lead to the formation of Ca2+/CaM complexes, which interact with and activate target proteins....... In the present study the role of Ca2+/CaM in the regulation of the ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been examined in living cells. We show that addition of different cell permeable CaM antagonists to cultured cells or loading cells with a Ca2+ chelator inhibited...

  6. Regulation of Neuronal Protein Trafficking and Translocation by SUMOylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Henley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of proteins are essential for cell function. Covalent modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier plays a role in multiple cell processes, including transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, protein localization and trafficking. Factors affecting protein localization and trafficking are particularly crucial in neurons because of their polarization, morphological complexity and functional specialization. SUMOylation has emerged as a major mediator of intranuclear and nucleo-cytoplasmic translocations of proteins involved in critical pathways such as circadian rhythm, apoptosis and protein degradation. In addition, SUMO-regulated re-localization of extranuclear proteins is required to sustain neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Thus, SUMOylation is a key arbiter of neuronal viability and function. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of regulation of neuronal protein localization and translocation by SUMO and highlight exciting areas of ongoing research.

  7. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  8. Methods of analysis of the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takahide; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    The transferrin receptor (TfR) is responsible for iron uptake through its trafficking between the plasma membrane and recycling endosomes, and as a result it has become a well-known marker for recycling endosomes. Although the molecular basis of the TfR recycling pathway has been thoroughly investigated, the TfR degradation mechanism has been poorly understood. Exposure of cultured cells to two drugs, the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1, recently showed that TfR is not only recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis but is constitutively transported to lysosomes for degradation. The results of genome-wide screening of mouse Rab small GTPases (common regulators of membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes) have indicated that Rab12 regulates TfR trafficking to lysosomes independently of the known membrane trafficking pathways, for example, the conventional endocytic pathway and recycling pathway. This chapter summarizes the methods that the authors used to analyze the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes that is specifically regulated by Rab12. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors in Benign Vascular Lesions of the Orbit: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Elizabeth A; Garrity, James A; Castillo, Francisco; Engman, Steven J; Couch, Steven M; Salomão, Diva R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the orbit, although not malignant, can cause morbidity because of their location near critical structures in the orbit. For the same reason, they can be challenging to remove surgically. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are increasingly being used to treat diseases with prominent angiogenesis. Our study aimed to determine to what extent VEGF receptors and their subtypes are expressed on selected vascular lesions of the orbit. Retrospective case series of all orbital vascular lesions removed by one of the authors (JAG) at the Mayo Clinic. A total of 52 patients who underwent removal of vascular orbital lesions. The pathology specimens from the patients were retrieved, their pathologic diagnosis was confirmed, demographic and clinical information were gathered, and sections from vascular tumors were stained with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 3 (VEGFR3). The existence and pattern of staining with VEGF and its subtypes on these lesions. There were 28 specimens of venous malformations, 4 capillary hemangiomas, 7 lymphatic malformations, and 6 lymphaticovenous malformations. All samples stained with VEGF, 55% stained with VEGFR1, 98% stained with VEGFR2, and 96% stained with VEGFR3. Most (94%) of the VEGFR2 staining was diffuse. Most orbital vascular lesions express VEGF receptors, which may suggest a future target for nonsurgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for the treatment of solid tumors: Defining the challenges and next steps☆

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Gregory L.; O’Hara, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promise in CD19 expressing hematologic malignancies, but how to translate this success to solid malignancies remains elusive. Effective translation of CAR T cells to solid tumors will require an understanding of potential therapeutic barriers, including factors that regulate CAR T cells expansion, persistence, trafficking, and fate within tumors. Herein, we describe the current state of CAR T cells in solid tumors; define key barriers t...

  11. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. How to Use a Trafficked Woman. The Alliance between Political and Criminal Trafficking Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Davies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal argument of this paper is that migrant women with secure mobility rights and supportive social networks can avoid or mitigate many trafficking harms. However the paper contends that some actors have conspired to prevent such circumstances so as to pursue diverse political agendas at the expense of migrant women. The paper’s analysis restructures the trafficking contest from organised criminals versus law enforcement agencies to principally a contest between migrant women and those political agents who benefit from the moral panic associated with trafficking. It is then argued that it is these more sophisticated political actors rather than organised criminals and the clients of sex workers are the most important stakeholders in sustaining or exploiting trafficking harm. Therefore, it is concluded that resolving many trafficking harms in the EEA could be achieved by subverting political traffickers through improving migration policy rather than fighting organised crime.

  13. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor 21, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, and β-Klotho expression in bovine growth hormone transgenic and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole E; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Henry, Brooke E; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    Although growth hormone (GH) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have a reported relationship, FGF21 and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and cofactor β-Klotho (KLB), have not been analyzed in chronic states of altered GH action. The objective of this study was to quantify circulating FGF21 and tissue specific expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb in mice with modified GH action. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice will be FGF21 resistant and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice will have normal FGF21 action. Seven-month-old male bGH mice (n=9) and wild type (WT) controls (n=10), and GHR-/- mice (n=8) and WT controls (n=8) were used for all measurements. Body composition was determined before dissection, and tissue weights were measured at the time of dissection. Serum FGF21 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb mRNA in white adipose tissue (AT), brown AT, and liver were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. As expected, bGH mice had increased body weight (p=3.70E -8 ) but decreased percent fat mass (p=4.87E -4 ). Likewise, GHR-/- mice had decreased body weight (p=1.78E -10 ) but increased percent fat mass (p=1.52E -9 ), due to increased size of the subcutaneous AT depot when normalized to body weight (p=1.60E -10 ). Serum FGF21 levels were significantly elevated in bGH mice (p=0.041) and unchanged in GHR-/- mice (p=0.88). Expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb mRNA in white AT and liver were downregulated or unchanged in both bGH and GHR-/- mice. The only exception was Fgf21 expression in brown AT of GHR-/-, which trended toward increased expression (p=0.075). In accordance with our hypothesis, we provide evidence that circulating FGF21 is increased in bGH animals, but remains unchanged in GHR-/- mice. Downregulation or no change in Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb expression are seen in white AT, brown AT, and liver of bGH and GHR-/- mice when compared to their

  15. Nuclear trafficking latest statistics released

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Countries reported 121 incidents to the IAEA in 2004 of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, newly released statistics from the Agency's Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) show. The ITDB report also shows that one incident was reported since 2003 that involved fissile material - highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium - that is needed to make a nuclear weapon. It occurred in June 2003 when an individual was arrested in possession of 170 grams of HEU, attempting to illegally transport it across the border. During the two-year period 2003-2004, the number of incidents reported by States substantially increased compared with previous years. 'Improved reporting may in part account for it,' the report said. 'The majority of the incidents reported in 2003-2004 showed no evidence of criminal activity.' The Past Twelve Years: 1993 - 2004 Nuclear Weapons Grade Material. Since the database started in 1993, there have been eighteen confirmed incidents involving trafficking in HEU and plutonium. A few of these incidents involved seizures of kilogram quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material but most involved very small quantities. In some of the cases the seized material was allegedly a sample of larger quantities available for illegal sale or at risk of theft. More than two dozens incidents involved trace amounts of plutonium sources. Table can be viewed: Incidents involving HEU and Pu confirmed to the ITDB (1993-2004). Nuclear Materials. In the past twelve years, 220 incidents involved nuclear materials. The majority of confirmed cases with nuclear materials involved low-grade nuclear materials, mostly in the form of reactor fuel pellets, and natural uranium, depleted uranium and thorium. While the quantities of these materials have been rather small to be significant for nuclear proliferation or use in a terrorist nuclear explosive device, these cases are indicative of gaps in the control

  16. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  17. Europium-labeled epidermal growth factor and neurotensin: novel probes for receptor-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Ohad; Hillairet de Boisferon, Marc; Lombet, Alain; Gruaz-Guyon, Anne; Gayer, Batya; Skrzydelsky, Delphine; Kohen, Fortune; Forgez, Patricia; Scherz, Avigdor; Rostene, William; Salomon, Yoram

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the possibility of labeling two biologically active peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neurotensin (NT), with europium (Eu)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. More specifically, we tested them as probes in studying receptor binding using time-resolved fluorescence of Eu3+. The relatively simple synthesis yields ligands with acceptable binding characteristics similar to isotopically labeled derivatives. The binding affinity (Kd) of labeled Eu-EGF to human A431 epidermal carcinoid cells was 3.6 +/- 1.2 nM, similar to the reported Kd values of EGF, whereas the Kd of Eu-NT to human HT29 colon cancer cells (7.4 +/- 0.5 nM) or to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the high-affinity NT receptor (CHO-NT1) were about 10-fold higher than the Kd values of NT. The bioactivity of the Eu-labeled EGF as determined by stimulation of cultured murine D1 hematopoietic cell proliferation was nearly the same as that obtained with native EGF. The maximal stimulation of Ca2+ influx with NT and Eu-NT in CHO-NT1 cells was similar, but the respective K0.5 values were 20 pM and 1 nM, corresponding to differences in the binding affinities previously described. The results of these studies indicate that Eu labeling of peptide hormones and growth factor molecules ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) Da can be conveniently accomplished. Importantly, the Eu-labeled products are stable for approximately 2 years and are completely safe for laboratory use compared to the biohazardous radioligands. Thus, Eu-labeled peptides present an attractive alternative for commonly used radiolabeled ligands in biological studies in general and in receptor assays in particular.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 regulates tumor invasion by coupling fibroblast growth factor signaling to extracellular matrix degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Nami; Varjosalo, Markku; Meller, Pipsa

    2010-01-01

    /stroma border and tumor invasion front. The strongest overall coexpression was found in prostate carcinoma. Studies with cultured prostate carcinoma cell lines showed that the FGFR4-R388 variant, which has previously been associated with poor cancer prognosis, increased MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion......Aberrant expression and polymorphism of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been linked to tumor progression and anticancer drug resistance. We describe here a novel mechanism of tumor progression by matrix degradation involving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response...... to membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14) induction at the edge of tumors expressing the FGFR4-R388 risk variant. Both FGFR4 and MT1-MMP were upregulated in tissue biopsies from several human cancer types including breast adenocarcinomas, where they were partially coexpressed at the tumor...

  19. Perdagangan Orang (Trafficking) sebagai Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia

    OpenAIRE

    Munthe, Riswan

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is garbage of civilization which is hard to be fought. This sentence provide an invasion for all that human trafficking is a common enemy. Human trafficking is often done by agent who has national even international network, has power, strong physically and arrogance. Due to the victim of human trafficking is the group in the lower class of economy and education. Generally the victim of human trafficking is everyone without exception. Since Indonesian independence, it is con...

  20. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-07

    lucrative business of international trafficking; ! the high demand, worldwide, for trafficked women and children as sex workers, cheap sweatshop labor , and...raid brothels, women are often detained and punished, subjected to human rights abuses in jail, and swiftly deported. Few steps have been taken to...of trafficking. Many countries have no specific laws aimed at trafficking in humans . Traffickers and Their Victims Chinese, Asian, Mexican, Central

  1. The concept of exploitation in international human trafficking law

    OpenAIRE

    von der Pütten, Tuija Kaarina

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is commonly known as a criminal practice that takes place in the framework of sex trade: women and children are trafficked within a state, or from one state to another, for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Similarly, the early 20th century international conventions aimed to tackle ‘white slave traffic’, trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. However, it is misleading to see trafficking only within this context. People are trafficked so that they can be...

  2. Development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Liu; Qing, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family are a series of important cancer therapeutic targets involved in cancer biology. These genes play an important role in tumor biological characteristics including angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion and glucose metabolism. In recent years, progresses have been achieved upon the cellular and molecular biological characteristics of EGFR and its role in cancer development based on the study of tumor specimens and experimental animal model. EGFR(HER1/ErbB) is overexpressed in over sixty percent of triple-negative breast cancers and occurs in pancreatic, bladder, lung and head-and-neck cancers. Up to now, EGFR inhibitors have been applied in various of cancer, such as lung, breast, bladder and head and neck cancers etc., in which the combination of EGFR inhibitors plus chemotherapeutic agents is now seen as the standard of care for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer. For these reasons, EGFR inhibitors and their therapeutic effect for pancreatic cancer is becoming the focus in Laboratory and clinical research. In this paper, research progress of the development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer is introduced.

  3. Therapies based on inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor: enclosing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Arlhee; Lage, Agustin

    2007-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is considered an important target for rational drug design due to its key role in numerous tumors. Potential contribution of EGFR-related signaling pathways to promote tumorigenic processes, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis has been well established. Two classes of anti-EGFR agents in late-stage clinical testing include monoclonal antibodies against extracellular EGFR domain (Cetuximab, Nimotuzumab) and small molecules tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which inhibit the receptor enzyme activity (Gefitinib, Erlotinib). A considerable body of evidence has emerged since its introduction in the treatment of cancer patients. However, important questions such as reliable surrogate markers to predict response to the treatment, or optimal sequence and combination of these agents with conventional therapies remain to be addressed. Identify and validate predictive factors to select patients likely to respond to EGFR inhibitors, such as mutations that confer resistance versus those associated with sensitivity is required. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with antitumor activity will useful to predict the interaction of these agents with other therapies in order to avoid antagonisms or overlapping effects resulting in no adding effects. Finally, the benefits derived from EGFR inhibitors as first-line therapy in selected populations, and the optimal doses and ways to delivery to the tumor site resulting in optimal target modulation should be established by the ongoing investigation. (Author)

  4. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910

  5. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 μM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure

  6. Stepwise Progress in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Radiation Studies for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of four new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for cancer therapy (cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib) over the last 3 years is a remarkable milestone in oncology. Indeed, molecular inhibition of EGFR signaling represents one of the most promising current arenas for the development of molecular-targeted cancer therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors from both the monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor class have demonstrated clinical activity in the treatment of a broad spectrum of common human malignancies. For the discipline of radiation oncology, the 2006 report of a phase III trial demonstrating a survival advantage for advanced head and neck cancer patients with the addition of weekly cetuximab during a 7-week course of radiation is particularly gratifying. Indeed, this is the first phase III trial to confirm a survival advantage with the addition of a molecular-targeted agent to radiation. Furthermore, this result seems to have been achieved with only a modest increment in overall treatment toxicity and with very high compliance to the prescribed treatment regimen. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned regarding the rational integration of EGFR inhibitors into cancer treatment regimens, as well as methods to optimize the selection of patients most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitor strategies

  7. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.

  8. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Marquèze-Pouey

    Full Text Available Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer. In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  9. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquèze-Pouey, Béatrice; Mailfert, Sébastien; Rouger, Vincent; Goaillard, Jean-Marc; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer). In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar) concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibitors: baby or the bathwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Douglas

    2012-07-03

    The success of targeted therapies for cancer is undisputed; strong preclinical evidence has resulted in the approval of several new agents for cancer treatment. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) appeared to be one of these promising new targets. Substantial population and preclinical data have all pointed toward this pathway as an important regulator of tumor cell biology. Although early results from clinical trials that targeted the IGF1R showed some evidence of response, larger randomized phase III trials have not shown clear clinical benefit of targeting this pathway in combination with conventional strategies. These disappointing results have resulted in the discontinuation of several anti-IGF1R programs. However, the conduct of these trials has brought to the forefront several important factors that need to be considered in the conduct of future clinical trials. The need to develop biomarkers, a clearer understanding of insulin receptor function, and defining rational combination regimens all require further consideration. In this commentary, the current state of IGF1R inhibitors in cancer therapy is reviewed.

  11. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-dependent lung adenocarcinoma with a human monoclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Yin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 have been identified in multiple types of human cancer and in congenital birth defects. In human lung cancer, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9, a high-affinity ligand for FGFR3, is overexpressed in 10% of primary resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC specimens. Furthermore, in a mouse model where FGF9 can be induced in lung epithelial cells, epithelial proliferation and ensuing tumorigenesis is dependent on FGFR3. To develop new customized therapies for cancers that are dependent on FGFR3 activation, we have used this mouse model to evaluate a human monoclonal antibody (D11 with specificity for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of FGFR3, that recognizes both human and mouse forms of the receptor. Here, we show that D11 effectively inhibits signaling through FGFR3 in vitro, inhibits the growth of FGFR3-dependent FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma in mice, and reduces tumor-associated morbidity. Given the potency of FGF9 in this mouse model and the absolute requirement for signaling through FGFR3, this study validates the D11 antibody as a potentially useful and effective reagent for treating human cancers or other pathologies that are dependent on activation of FGFR3.

  12. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in radiation-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, N A; Haley, P J; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    Increased levels of epidermal growth factor receptor have been reported in a variety of tumors, including pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas in man. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased levels of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) were present in lung tumors from Beagle dogs that had been exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}- Using immunohistochemical techniques, sections from 17 lung tumors were examined for the presence of EGFR. Seven of the tumors were strongly positive for EGFR; the remainder of the tumors and the normal lung sections were negative. The positive immunostaining could not be correlated with the histologic phenotype of the tumors. Work is in progress to determine the level of EGFR in preneoplastic, proliferative epithelial foci in the Iung. (author)

  14. Sex, Receptors and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S Macdonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel, intranasal oxytocin (IN OT is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provides a review of three: (1 sex and hormonal status; (2 genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e. OT receptors; and (3 attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT's role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments.

  15. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Ma, Hong [Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Griendling, Kathy K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nishiyama, Akira [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  16. Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, J; Gulyas, J; Kirby, D; Low, W; Perrin, M H; Kunitake, K; DiGruccio, M; Vaughan, J; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Koerber, S C; Martinez, V; Wang, L; Taché, Y; Vale, W

    2002-10-10

    We present evidence that members of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family assume distinct structures when interacting with the CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors. Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure-activity relationship studies have suggested that CRF, its family members, and competitive antagonists such as astressin [cyclo(30-33)[DPhe(12),Nle(21),Glu(30),Lys(33),Nle(38)]hCRF((12-41))] assume an alpha-helical conformation when interacting with their receptors. We had shown that alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) and sauvagine showed some selectivity for CRF receptors other than that responsible for ACTH secretion(1) and later for CRF2.(2) More recently, we suggested the possibility of a helix-turn-helix motif around a turn encompassing residues 30-33(3) that would confer high affinity for both CRF(1) and CRF(2)(2,4) in agonists and antagonists of all members of the CRF family.(3) On the other hand, the substitutions that conferred ca. 100-fold CRF(2) selectivity to the antagonist antisauvagine-30 [[DPhe(11),His(12)]sauvagine((11-40))] did not confer such property to the corresponding N-terminally extended agonists. We find here that a Glu(32)-Lys(35) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in hCRF and the corresponding Glu(31)-Lys(34) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in sauvagine yield potent ligands that are selective for CRF(2). Additionally, we introduced deletions and substitutions known to increase duration of action to yield antagonists such as cyclo(31-34)[DPhe(11),His(12),C(alpha)MeLeu(13,39),Nle(17),Glu(31),Lys(34)]Ac-sauvagine((8-40)) (astressin(2)-B) with CRF(2) selectivities greater than 100-fold. CRF receptor autoradiography was performed in rat tissue known to express CRF(2) and CRF(1) in order to confirm that astressin(2)-B could indeed bind to established CRF(2) but not CRF(1) receptor-expressing tissues. Extended duration of action of astressin(2)-B vs that of antisauvagine-30 is demonstrated in

  17. Coagulation factor VII is regulated by androgen receptor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is widely expressed in breast cancer; however, there is limited information on the key molecular functions and gene targets of AR in this disease. In this study, gene expression data from a cohort of 52 breast cancer cell lines was analyzed to identify a network of AR co-expressed genes. A total of 300 genes, which were significantly enriched for cell cycle and metabolic functions, showed absolute correlation coefficients (|CC|) of more than 0.5 with AR expression across the dataset. In this network, a subset of 35 "AR-signature" genes were highly co-expressed with AR (|CC|>0.6) that included transcriptional regulators PATZ1, NFATC4, and SPDEF. Furthermore, gene encoding coagulation factor VII (F7) demonstrated the closest expression pattern with AR (CC=0.716) in the dataset and factor VII protein expression was significantly associated to that of AR in a cohort of 209 breast tumors. Moreover, functional studies demonstrated that AR activation results in the induction of factor VII expression at both transcript and protein levels and AR directly binds to a proximal region of F7 promoter in breast cancer cells. Importantly, AR activation in breast cancer cells induced endogenous factor VII activity to convert factor X to Xa in conjunction with tissue factor. In summary, F7 is a novel AR target gene and AR activation regulates the ectopic expression and activity of factor VII in breast cancer cells. These findings have functional implications in the pathobiology of thromboembolic events and regulation of factor VII/tissue factor signaling in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development.

  19. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis

  20. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  1. Barriers to Combating Human Trafficking in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    citizens and potential delinquents must perceive that the detention and punishment of offenders is likely,” but that “penal institutions in Latin...America are unable to apprehend dangerous delinquents efficiently, which means that the deterrence does not work well in that region.”84 Likewise, “lack...monitor statistics on trafficking cases, including victim information “to help determine areas where Colombians are vulnerable to being trafficked

  2. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2018-04-01

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

  3. Nature and regulation of the receptors for insulin-like growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechler, M.M.; Nissley, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two subtypes of IGF receptors have been identified. Type I IGF receptors have a Mr greater than 300,000 and are composed of disulfide-linked 130,000-dalton (alpha) and approximately 90,000-dalton (beta) subunits. Type I receptors preferentially bind IGF-I but also bind IGF-II and, more weakly, insulin. Type II IGF receptors consist of a 250,000-dalton protein that contains internal disulfide bonds but is not linked to other membrane components. Type II receptors bind IGF-II with higher affinity than IGF-I. They do not interact with even very high concentrations of insulin. Type I IGF receptors and insulin receptors are homologous structures. Type II IGF receptors do not appear to be homologous to type I receptors. Type II receptors do not appear to be downregulated. Insulin acutely upregulates type II IGF receptors in intact rat adipose cells by effecting a redistribution of receptors cycling between a large intracellular pool and the plasma membrane. Insulin and the IGFs elicit the same biological responses, either by cross-reacting with one of the receptors for the heterologous ligand or by concurrent activation of convergent effector pathways by binding to the homologous receptor. Which mechanism is utilized appears to depend more on the tissue than on the biological response. Insulin desensitizes rat hepatoma cells to the actions of insulin and IGFs, mediated by both insulin and IGF receptors, by mechanisms distal to hormone binding and possibly common to IGF and insulin effector pathways

  4. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates 125I-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular 125 I-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody

  5. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H.

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host–parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host–parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  6. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  7. Two signaling molecules share a phosphotyrosine-containing binding site in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, R; Li, W; Kashishian, A; Mondino, A; Zhou, M; Cooper, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    Autophosphorylation sites of growth factor receptors with tyrosine kinase activity function as specific binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of signaling molecules. This interaction appears to be a crucial step in a mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases relay signals to downstream signaling pathways. Nck is a widely expressed protein consisting exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains, the overexpression of which causes cell transformation. It has been shown that various growth fac...

  8. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  9. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 beta in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon

    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2

  10. Expression of receptors for putative anabolic growth factors in human intervertebral disc: implications for repair and regeneration of the disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maitre, Christine L; Richardson, Stephen M A; Baird, Pauline; Freemont, Anthony J; Hoyland, Judith A

    2005-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common, debilitating and economically important disorder. Current evidence implicates loss of intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix consequent upon 'degeneration' as a major cause of LBP. Degeneration of the IVD involves increases in degradative enzymes and decreases in the extracellular matrix (ECM) component in a process that is controlled by a range of cytokines and growth factors. Studies have suggested using anabolic growth factors to regenerate the normal matrix of the IVD, hence restoring disc height and reversing degenerative disc disease. However, for such therapies to be successful it is vital that the target cells (i.e. the disc cells) express the appropriate receptors. This immunohistochemical study has for the first time investigated the expression and localization of four potentially beneficial growth factor receptors (i.e. TGFbetaRII, BMPRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI) in non-degenerate and degenerate human IVDs. Receptor expression was quantified across regions of the normal and degenerate disc and showed that cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and inner annulus fibrosus (IAF) expressed significantly higher levels of the four growth factor receptors investigated. There were no significant differences between the four growth factor expression in non-degenerate and degenerate biopsies. However, expression of TGFbetaRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI, but not BMP RII, were observed in the ingrowing blood vessels that characterize part of the disease aetiology. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the expression of the four growth factor receptors at similar levels in the chondrocyte-like cells of the NP and IAF in both non-degenerate and degenerate discs, implicating a role in normal disc homeostasis and suggesting that the application of these growth factors to the degenerate human IVD would stimulate matrix production. However, the expression of some of the growth factor receptors on ingrowing blood vessels might be problematic in a therapeutic

  11. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  12. NF-κB Protects NKT Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1-induced Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Gordy, Laura E; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Stanic, Aleksandar K; Hill, Timothy M; Boothby, Mark R; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-11-15

    Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-x L -coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas. Surprisingly, the single and combined deficiency in PKC-θ or CARMA-1-the two signal transducers at the NKT TCR proximal signalling node-only partially recapitulated the NKT cell deficiency observed in IκBΔN tg mouse. Accordingly, introgression of the Bcl2l1 transgene into PKC-θ null mouse failed to rescue NKT cell development. Instead, TNFR1-deficiency, but not the Fas-deficiency, rescued NKT cell development in IκBΔN tg mice. Consistent with this finding, treatment of thymocytes with an antagonist of the inhibitor of κB kinase -which blocks downstream NF-κB activation- sensitized NKT cells to TNF-α-induced cell death in vitro. Hence, we conclude that signal integration by NF-κB protects developing NKT cells from death signals emanating from TNFR1, but not from the NKT TCR or Fas.

  13. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Characterization of germ cell-specific expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Niederberger, C; Slaughter, G R; Cooney, A J

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear receptors, such as those for androgens, estrogens, and progesterones, control many reproductive processes. Proteins with structures similar to these receptors, but for which ligands have not yet been identified, have been termed orphan nuclear receptors. One of these orphans, germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), has been shown to be germ cell specific in the adult and, therefore, may also participate in the regulation of reproductive functions. In this paper, we examine more closely the expression patterns of GCNF in germ cells to begin to define spatio-temporal domains of its activity. In situ hybridization showed that GCNF messenger RNA (mRNA) is lacking in the testis of hypogonadal mutant mice, which lack developed spermatids, but is present in the wild-type testis. Thus, GCNF is, indeed, germ cell specific in the adult male. Quantitation of the specific in situ hybridization signal in wild-type testis reveals that GCNF mRNA is most abundant in stage VII round spermatids. Similarly, Northern analysis and specific in situ hybridization show that GCNF expression first occurs in testis of 20-day-old mice, when round spermatids first emerge. Therefore, in the male, GCNF expression occurs postmeiotically and may participate in the morphological changes of the maturing spermatids. In contrast, female expression of GCNF is shown in growing oocytes that have not completed the first meiotic division. Thus, GCNF in the female is expressed before the completion of meiosis. Finally, the nature of the two different mRNAs that hybridize to the GCNF complementary DNA was studied. Although both messages contain the DNA binding domain, only the larger message is recognized by a probe from the extreme 3' untranslated region. In situ hybridization with these differential probes demonstrates that both messages are present in growing oocytes. In addition, the coding region and portions of the 3' untranslated region of the GCNF complementary DNA are conserved in the rat.

  15. Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Shah, Zafar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2013-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The epidermal growth factor receptor as a target for gastrointestinal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Karen L; Lockhart, A Craig; Berlin, Jordan D

    2004-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the family of transmembrane protein kinase receptors known as the erbB or HER receptor family. When activated, EGFR phosphorylates and activates other intracellular proteins that affect cell signaling pathways, cellular proliferation, control of apoptosis and angiogenesis. EGFR signaling is best thought of as a network of activating and inactivating proteins with EGFR as the entry point into the network. EGFR overexpression occurs in most GI malignancies and while data are not entirely consistent, EGFR overexpression often confers a poor prognosis in those GI malignancies that have been studied. It often correlates with poorly differentiated histology, more advanced stage and other known poor prognostic markers. The EGFR is a tempting target because of its presence and overexpression on so many tumor types. However, downstream of the EGFR are several proteins that may be activated without EGFR thus allowing blockade to be overcome. Therefore, while blocking the activity of the EGFR protein appears to be a promising anticancer strategy, a simplistic strategy of blocking only EGFR is likely to only impact a minority of patients. It is time for the laboratory and clinical researchers to work closely together to develop this treatment strategy, moving back and forth from clinical to laboratory to best understand how to block this network effectively enough to produce a broader antitumor effect. While multiple methods of targeting the EGFR pathway are under development, including the inhibition of downstream proteins, only two modalities have entered clinical trials in GI malignancies: small molecule inhibitors of the intracellular kinase domain of EGFR and antibodies designed to block the extracellular ligand-binding domain of EGFR. EGFR inhibitors are still experimental in every GI malignancy with the notable exception of cetuximab that is approved for second or third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal

  17. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in radiotherapy: radiobiological mechanisms, preclinical and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a fastly developing field in preclinical and clinical cancer research. This review presents the current status of knowledge and discusses radiobiological mechanisms which may underly the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors combined with irradiation. Materials and methods: Preclinical and clinical results on combined targeting of the EGFR and irradiation from the literature and from this laboratory are reviewed. Focus is given to the radiobiological rationale of this approach and to endpoints of experimental radiotherapy. Results: Overexpression of the EGFR is associated with decreased local tumour control after radiotherapy, especially when the overall treatment time is long. Inhibition of the EGFR either alone or in combination with irradiation decreases the growth rate of tumours expressing this receptor. Preclinical data provide proof-of-principle that local tumour control may be improved by combining irradiation with C225 mAb. In a randomised phase III clinical trial, simultaneous irradiation and treatment with the EGFR antibody Cetuximab (Erbitux[reg]; C225) in head and neck cancer patients resulted in significantly improved locoregional tumour control and survival compared to curative irradiation alone. Acute skin reactions increased in the experimental arm. The underlying mechanisms of enhanced radiation effects of combined EGFR inhibition with irradiation and of the partly conflicting results in different studies are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence, that important intertumoral heterogeneity in the response to EGFR inhibition alone and combined with irradiation exists, which appears to be at least partly dependent on specific mutations of the receptor as well as of molecules that are involved in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Conclusions and outlook: Further investigations at all levels of the translational research chain exploring the mechanisms of

  18. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Kai Hung; Tan, Boon Shing; Choo, Heng Lungh; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Tan, Si Hoey; Khor, Nelson Tze Woei; Wong, Shew Fung; See, Sze-Jia; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Rosli, Rozita; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-09-06

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

  20. Association of Polymorphisms in Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes With Human Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Timothy A; Morris, Brian J; He, Qimei; Chen, Randi; Masaki, Kamal H; Allsopp, Richard C; Willcox, D Craig; Tranah, Gregory J; Parimi, Neeta; Evans, Daniel S; Flachsbart, Friederike; Nebel, Almut; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Park, Joobae; Willcox, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Growth pathways play key roles in longevity. The present study tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the connective tissue growth factor gene (CTGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) for association with longevity. Comparison of allele and genotype frequencies of 12 CTGF SNPs and 41 EGFR SNPs between 440 American men of Japanese ancestry aged ≥95 years and 374 men of average life span revealed association with longevity at the p cases, consistent with heterozygote advantage in living to extreme old age. No associations of the most significant SNPs were observed in whites or Koreans. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that genetic variation in CTGF and EGFR may contribute to the attainment of extreme old age in Japanese. More research is needed to confirm that genetic variation in CTGF and EGFR contributes to the attainment of extreme old age across human populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Novel cross-talk between IGF-IR and DDR1 regulates IGF-IR trafficking, signaling and biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Antonella; Morcavallo, Alaide; Vella, Veronica; Voci, Concetta; Spatuzza, Michela; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Iozzo, Renato V.; Vigneri, Riccardo; Morrione, Andrea; Belfiore, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), plays a key role in regulating mammalian development and growth, and is frequently deregulated in cancer contributing to tumor initiation and progression. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase, is as well frequently overexpressed in cancer and implicated in cancer progression. Thus, we investigated whether a functional cross-talk between the IGF-IR and DDR1 exists and plays any role in cancer progression. Using human breast cancer cells we found that DDR1 constitutively associated with the IGF-IR. However, this interaction was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation, which promoted rapid DDR1 tyrosine-phosphorylation and co-internalization with the IGF-IR. Significantly, DDR1 was critical for IGF-IR endocytosis and trafficking into early endosomes, IGF-IR protein expression and IGF-I intracellular signaling and biological effects, including cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. These biological responses were inhibited by DDR1 silencing and enhanced by DDR1 overexpression. Experiments in mouse fibroblasts co-transfected with the human IGF-IR and DDR1 gave similar results and indicated that, in the absence of IGF-IR, collagen-dependent phosphorylation of DDR1 is impaired. These results demonstrate a critical role of DDR1 in the regulation of IGF-IR action, and identify DDR1 as a novel important target for breast cancers that overexpress IGF-IR. PMID:25840417

  2. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.

  3. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations

  4. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  5. Emerging role of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in therapy for advanced malignancy: focus on NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Corey J.

    2004-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy regimens have emerged as the standard approach in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Meta-analyses have demonstrated a 2-month increase in median survival after platinum-based therapy vs. best supportive care, and an absolute 10% improvement in the 1-year survival rate. Just as importantly, cytotoxic therapy has produced benefits in symptom control and quality of life. Newer agents, including the taxanes, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, and irinotecan, have expanded our therapeutic options in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite their contributions, we have reached a therapeutic plateau, with response rates seldom exceeding 30-40% in cooperative group studies and 1-year survival rates stable between 30% and 40%. It is doubtful that substituting one agent for another in various combinations will lead to any further improvement in these rates. The thrust of current research has focused on targeted therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is one of the most promising clinical strategies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors currently under investigation include the small molecules gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) and erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774), as well as monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab (IMC-225, Erbitux). Agents that have only begun to undergo clinical evaluation include CI-1033, an irreversible pan-erbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and PKI166 and GW572016, both examples of dual kinase inhibitors (inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor and Her2). Preclinical models have demonstrated synergy for all these agents in combination with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy, leading to great enthusiasm regarding their ultimate contribution to lung cancer therapy. However, serious clinical challenges persist. These include the identification of the optimal dose(s); the proper integration of these agents into popular, established cytotoxic regimens; and the selection of the optimal setting(s) in which

  6. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  7. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors in the brain: physiological and pathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Haim; LeRoith, Derek

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of insulin, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) and their receptors in central nervous system development and function has been the focus of scientific interest for more than 30 years. The insulin-like peptides, both locally-produced proteins as well as those transported from the circulation into the brain via the blood-brain barrier, are involved in a myriad of biological activities. These actions include, among others, neuronal survival, neurogenes, angiogenesis, excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, regulation of food intake, and cognition. In recent years, a linkage between brain insulin/IGF1 and certain neuropathologies has been identified. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between diabetes (mainly type 2) and Alzheimer׳s disease. In addition, an aberrant decline in IGF1 values was suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer׳s disease. The present review focuses on the expression and function of insulin, IGFs and their receptors in the brain in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Feng

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  9. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Haydn T.; On, Seung T.; Dunn, Laura K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Asara, John M.; Pellegrini, Kathryn L.; Noel, Jonathan K.; Arredouani, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1612-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyonaga

    Full Text Available Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d, recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM. Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle and MCL (gpMCL. gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  11. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Kenji; Miyake, Yasunobu; Yamasaki, Sho

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  12. Regulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated granulocytic differentiation by C-mannosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Kei; Niwa, Yuki; Suzuki, Takehiro; Sato, Natsumi; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Simizu, Siro

    2018-04-06

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor (G-CSFR) is a type I cytokine receptor which is involved in hematopoietic cell maturation. G-CSFR has three putative C-mannosylation sites at W253, W318, and W446; however, it is not elucidated whether G-CSFR is C-mannosylated or not. In this study, we first demonstrated that G-CSFR was C-mannosylated at only W318. We also revealed that C-mannosylation of G-CSFR affects G-CSF-dependent downstream signaling through changing ligand binding capability but not cell surface localization. Moreover, C-mannosylation of G-CSFR was functional and regulated granulocytic differentiation in myeloid 32D cells. In conclusion, we found that G-CSFR is C-mannosylated at W318 and that this C-mannosylation has role(s) for myeloid cell differentiation through regulating downstream signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Philip A; Lutz, Manfred P

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is aggressive, chemoresistant, and characterized by complex and poorly understood molecular biology. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in pancreatic cancer; therefore, it is a rational target for new treatments. However, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib is currently the only targeted therapy to demonstrate a very modest survival benefit when added to gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. There is no molecular biomarker to predict the outcome of erlotinib treatment, although rash may be predictive of improved survival; EGFR expression does not predict the biologic activity of anti-EGFR drugs in pancreatic cancer, and no EGFR mutations are identified as enabling the selection of patients likely to benefit from treatment. Here, we review clinical studies of EGFR-targeted therapies in combination with conventional cytotoxic regimens or multitargeted strategies in advanced pancreatic cancer, as well as research directed at molecules downstream of EGFR as alternatives or adjuncts to receptor targeting. Limitations of preclinical models, patient selection, and trial design, as well as the complex mechanisms underlying resistance to EGFR-targeted agents, are discussed. Future clinical trials must incorporate translational research end points to aid patient selection and circumvent resistance to EGFR inhibitors.

  14. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor coexpression modulates susceptibility to Herceptin in HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells via specific erbB-receptor interaction and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diermeier, Simone; Horvath, Gabor; Knuechel-Clarke, Ruth; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Szoellosi, Janos; Brockhoff, Gero

    2005-01-01

    Background: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. Methods: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. Results: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and

  16. Dynamic trafficking of STAT5 depends on an unconventional nuclear localization signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ha Youn; Reich, Nancy C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is crucial for physiological processes that include hematopoiesis, liver metabolism and mammary gland development. However, aberrant continual activity of STAT5 has been causally linked to human leukemias and solid tumor formation. As a regulated transcription factor, precise cellular localization of STAT5 is essential. Conventional nuclear localization signals consist of short stretches of basic amino acids. In this study, we provide evidence that STAT5 nuclear import is dependent on an unconventional nuclear localization signal that functions within the conformation of an extensive coiled-coil domain. Both in vitro binding and in vivo functional assays reveal that STAT5 nuclear import is mediated by the importin-α3/β1 system independently of STAT5 activation by tyrosine phosphorylation. The integrity of the coiled-coil domain is essential for STAT5 transcriptional induction of the β-casein gene following prolactin stimulation as well as its ability to synergize with the glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid receptor accumulates in the nucleus in response to prolactin and this nuclear import is dependent on STAT5 nuclear import. STAT5 continually shuttles in and out of the nucleus and live cell imaging demonstrates that STAT5 nuclear export is mediated by both chromosome region maintenance 1 (Crm1)-dependent and Crm1-independent pathways. A Crm1-dependent nuclear export signal was identified within the STAT5 N-terminus. These findings provide insight into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate STAT5 nuclear trafficking and cooperation with the glucocorticoid receptor and provide a basis for clinical intervention of STAT5 function in disease. PMID:23704351

  17. Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, Eimear M

    2013-07-19

    Vitamin K-dependent proteases generated in response to vascular injury and infection enable fibrin clot formation, but also trigger distinct immuno-regulatory signaling pathways on myeloid cells. Factor Xa, a protease crucial for blood coagulation, also induces protease-activated receptor-dependent cell signaling. Factor Xa can bind both monocytes and macrophages, but whether factor Xa-dependent signaling stimulates or suppresses myeloid cell cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor activation is not known. In this study, exposure to factor Xa significantly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, THP-1 monocytic cells and murine macrophages. Furthermore, factor Xa inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B activation in THP-1 reporter cells, requiring phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for its anti-inflammatory effect. Active-site blockade, γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain truncation and a peptide mimic of the factor Xa inter-epidermal growth factor-like region prevented factor Xa inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α release. In addition, factor Xa anti-inflammatory activity was markedly attenuated by the presence of an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2, but not protease-activated receptor 1. The key role of protease-activated receptor 2 in eliciting factor Xa-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling on macrophages was further underscored by the inability of factor Xa to mediate inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release from murine bone marrow-derived protease-activated receptor 2-deficient macrophages. We also show for the first time that, in addition to protease-activated receptor 2, factor Xa requires a receptor-associated protein-sensitive low-density lipoprotein receptor to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production. Collectively, this study supports a novel function for factor Xa as an endogenous, receptor

  18. Increased Eps15 homology domain 1 and RAB11FIP3 expression regulate breast cancer progression via promoting epithelial growth factor receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Liang, Ya-Nan; Stepanova, A A; Liu, Yu; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Letian; Zhang, Fengmin; Vasilyeva, N V

    2017-02-01

    Recent research indicates that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain 1 is associated with epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated endocytosis recycling in non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Eps15 homology domain 1 gene expression in relation to phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression in patients with breast cancer. Primary breast cancer samples from 306 patients were analyzed for Eps15 homology domain 1, RAB11FIP3, and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression via immunohistochemistry. The clinical significance was assessed via a multivariate Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor were upregulated in 60.46% (185/306) and 53.92% (165/306) of tumor tissues, respectively, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical correlation analysis indicated that Eps15 homology domain 1 overexpression was positively correlated with the increases in phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor ( r = 0.242, p breast cancer for the overall survival in the total, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. However, the use of combined expression of Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor markers is more effective for the disease-free survival in the overall population, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth