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Sample records for factor receptor ligand

  1. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  2. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  3. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist....... Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown...... fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  4. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the α-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor

  6. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid nuclear receptors: specific ligand-activated transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by both the thyroid hormone and the vitamin A-derived 'retinoid hormones' is a critical component in controlling many aspects of higher vertebrate development and metabolism. Their functions are mediated by nuclear receptors, which comprise a large super-family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Both the thyroid hormone and the retinoids are involved in a complex arrangement of physiological and development responses in many tissues of higher vertebrates. The functions of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), the thyromimetically active metabolite of thyroxine as well as all-trans retinoic acid, the biologically active vitamin A metabolite are mediated by nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid hormone receptor family. The functions of all members of the receptor super family are discussed. (authors)

  7. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player in the f......Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... in the formation of memory. Hence, ligands affecting AMPARs are highly important for the study of the structure and function of this receptor, and in this regard polyamine-based ligands, particularly polyamine toxins, are unique as they selectively block Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs. Indeed, endogenous intracellular...

  8. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  9. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M.; Rodrigues, Michele A.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  10. Regulation of the ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongbing; Panina, Svetlana; Kaur, Amandeep

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is the major component of calcium signaling pathways mediating the action of various effectors. Transient increases in the intracellular calcium level triggered by a variety of stimuli lead to the formation of Ca2+/CaM complexes, which interact with and activate target proteins....... In the present study the role of Ca2+/CaM in the regulation of the ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been examined in living cells. We show that addition of different cell permeable CaM antagonists to cultured cells or loading cells with a Ca2+ chelator inhibited...

  11. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...

  12. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in the bone loss developed in this disease. PMID:23559954

  13. Interaction of cadmium with atrial natriuretic factor receptors: Ligand binding and cellular processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar, J.; Rathinavelu, A.; Isom, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    ANF is a peptide hormone secreted by the heart and produces potent diuresis and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. It is well known that Cd produces cardiovascular toxicity and is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Hence the effects of Cd on ANF receptor dynamics and ligand binding were studied in PC12 cells. Receptor internalization using 125 I-ANF as the ligand at 37 degree C displayed a decrease in endocytic rate constants (ERC) when either preincubated with Cd (500 μM for 30 min, ERC = 0.183/min) or coincubated with Cd (500 μM, ERC = 0.196) when compared to control value (ERC = 0.259/min). Ligand binding ( 125 I-ANF) was changed by Cd as reflected by a decrease in the number of binding sites/cell in both Cd preincubated (Kd = 3.81 x 10 -10 M, B max = 1 x 10 -10 M, binding sites/cell = 9333) and coincubated cells (Kd = 1.76 x 10 -10 M, B max = 3.92 x 10 -11 M, binding sites/cell = 5960) from control (Kd = 3.87 x 10 -10 M, B max = 9.58 x 10 -11 M, binding sites/cell = 12141). Photoaffinity labelling with 125 I-ANF as the ligand was used to measure receptor subtype binding. Coincubation of cells with Cd (500 μM) and ligand decreased both high and low mol. wt. receptor binding, whereas preincubation with Cd (500μM) for 60 min produced a slight decrease in binding of both receptor subtypes. These results indicate that the cardiovascular toxicity of Cd may be partially mediated by altered ANF receptor function

  14. A novel small peptide as an epidermal growth factor receptor targeting ligand for nanodelivery in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han CY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cui-yan Han,1,2 Li-ling Yue,2 Ling-yu Tai,1 Li Zhou,2 Xue-yan Li,2 Gui-hua Xing,2 Xing-gang Yang,1 Ming-shuang Sun,1 Wei-san Pan1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR serves an important function in the proliferation of tumors in humans and is an effective target for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we studied the targeting characteristics of small peptides (AEYLR, EYINQ, and PDYQQD that were derived from three major autophosphorylation sites of the EGFR C-terminus domain in vitro. These small peptides were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and used the peptide LARLLT as a positive control, which bound to putative EGFR selected from a virtual peptide library by computer-aided design, and the independent peptide RALEL as a negative control. Analyses with flow cytometry and an internalization assay using NCI-H1299 and K562 with high EGFR and no EGFR expression, respectively, indicated that FITC-AEYLR had high EGFR targeting activity. Biotin-AEYLR that was specifically bound to human EGFR proteins demonstrated a high affinity for human non-small-cell lung tumors. We found that AEYLR peptide-conjugated, nanostructured lipid carriers enhanced specific cellular uptake in vitro during a process that was apparently mediated by tumor cells with high-expression EGFR. Analysis of the MTT assay indicated that the AEYLR peptide did not significantly stimulate or inhibit the growth activity of the cells. These findings suggest that, when mediated by EGFR, AEYLR may be a potentially safe and efficient delivery ligand for targeted chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and gene therapy. Keywords: EGFR, small peptide, tumor targeting, lung cancer, NLC

  15. Synthetic NCAM-derived Ligands of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine; Li, Shizhong; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) responds to cues in the external environment and transmits signals to the cell through extracellular and intracellular interactions with a number of other signal transduction molecules. One such NCAM interaction partner is the fibroblast growth factor...... various FN3 module loop regions, have been identified as FGFR ligands. All four peptides activate FGFR and differentially modulate a number of neuronal functions, such as differentiation, survival, and synaptic changes that are important for learning, memory, and neuronal regeneration....

  16. Up-regulation of proproliferative genes and the ligand/receptor pair placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao X; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Shackel, Nicholas A; Gorrell, Mark D

    2007-09-01

    Cirrhosis can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-diseased liver and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis with or without HCC were compared. Proliferation pathway genes, immune response genes and oncogenes were analysed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. Real-time RT-PCR showed up-regulation of genes in HCV cirrhosis including the proliferation-associated genes bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), placental growth factor 3 (PGF3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and soluble VEGFR1, the oncogene FYN, and the immune response-associated genes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4). Expressions of TLR2 and the oncogenes B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and PIM2 were decreased in HCV cirrhosis. In addition, PIM2 and TLR2 were increased in HCV cirrhosis with HCC compared with HCV cirrhosis. The ligand/receptor pair PGF and VEGFR1 was intensely expressed by the portal tract vascular endothelium. VEGFR1 was expressed in reactive biliary epithelial structures in fibrotic septum and in some stellate cells and macrophages. PGF and VEGFR1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the neovascular response in cirrhosis.

  17. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  18. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Marco, Ario de, E-mail: ario.demarco@ung.si [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Dept. Environmental Sciences, University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301-SI-5000, Rozna Dolina, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  19. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo; Marco, Ario de

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. → These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. → The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  20. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  1. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  2. Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Dou, Huan; Liu, Xianqin; Sun, Lingyun; Hou, Yayi

    2012-10-01

    1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ((99)Tc-MDP), an agent used in radionuclide therapy, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and explored the underlying mechanisms. 2. The murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow-derived-macrophages from C57BL/6 mice (BMM) were used as models for osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The expression of some key factors in RANKL (50 ng/mL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells was investigated by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To detect multinucleated osteoclast formation, RAW264.7 cells were induced with RANKL for 4 days, whereas BMM were induced by 50 ng/mL RANKL and 20 ng/mL macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days, before being stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. 3. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using the osteoclast markers CD51, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and cathepsin K. At 0.01 μg/mL, (99)Tc-MDP significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis without any cytotoxicity. In addition, (99)Tc-MDP abolished the appearance of multinucleated osteoclasts. 4. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor expression revealed that (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells. In addition, (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the expression of the inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. Finally, (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in RAW264.7 cells following RANKL stimulation. 5. In conclusion, (99)Tc-MDP possesses anti-osteoclastogenic activity against RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands on cell death in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatrehsamani, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud; Esfahani, Behjat A Moayedi; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Hakemi, Mazdak G; Mossahebimohammadi, Majid; Eskandari, Nahid; Adib, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to diverse outcome in various kinds of cells. AhR activation may induce apoptosis or prevent of apoptosis and cell death. Recent studies suggest that apoptosis effects of AhR can be modulated by inflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In this study, we try to investigate the possible interaction of TNF-α with the 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR, on peripheral lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation on ficoll. Isolated PBMCs were divided into four groups: Control group, TNF-α administered group, TCDD administered group, co-administered group with TCDD and TNF-α. Cells were maintained for a week in lymphocyte culture condition. Then, TNF-α was added to group 2 and 4. Finally, apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed in all samples using flowcytometry. In group 4, the mean percent of necrosis and apoptosis in TCDD treatment groups was significantly larger than other groups; (P 0.05). However, the mean percent of cell death in co-administered group with TCDD and TNF-α was significantly lower than other groups; (P < 0.05). TNF-α could significantly inhibit effects of TCDD on lymphocytes apoptosis. Combination effects of TNF-α and TCDD on lymphocyte increase cell survival.

  4. The Relationship Between Vitamin D Levels and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Ligand in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yavuzer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to analyze the relationship of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with vitamin D and osteoclastogenic markers, we investigated vitamin D, osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL levels in patients over 60 years with and without Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Methods: Eighty three female patients (49 with and 34 without Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, who attended the endocrinology and geriatrics departments between May 2013 and October 2013 were included in the study. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the levels of vitamin D, OPG and RANKL between the groups. Vitamin D was significantly correlated with OPG and RANKL in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between OPG and RANKL levels. Of the patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 33 were autoantibody-positive and 16 were negative. Vitamin D, OPG and RANKL levels were significantly lower in antibody-positive patients than in negative subjects. Conclucion: There were no differences in vitamin D, OPG and RANKL levels between patients with and without Hashimoto’s thyroidits. Autoantibody-positive Hashimoto’s thyroiditis group had statistically significantly lower vitamin D, OPG and RANKL levels. This reverse correlation suggests that autoantibodies may have an effect on osteoclastogenesis.

  5. Selective binding and oligomerization of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor by a low molecular weight, nonpeptidyl ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael L; Tian, Shin-Shay; Miller, Stephen G; Kessler, Linda; Baker, Audrey E; Brigham-Burke, Michael R; Dillon, Susan B; Duffy, Kevin J; Keenan, Richard M; Lehr, Ruth; Rosen, Jon; Schneeweis, Lumelle A; Trill, John; Young, Peter R; Luengo, Juan I; Lamb, Peter

    2003-03-14

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor regulates neutrophil production by binding to a specific receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, expressed on cells of the granulocytic lineage. Recombinant forms of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are used clinically to treat neutropenias. As part of an effort to develop granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mimics with the potential for oral bioavailability, we previously identified a nonpeptidyl small molecule (SB-247464) that selectively activates murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signal transduction pathways and promotes neutrophil formation in vivo. To elucidate the mechanism of action of SB-247464, a series of cell-based and biochemical assays were performed. The activity of SB-247464 is strictly dependent on the presence of zinc ions. Titration microcalorimetry experiments using a soluble murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor construct show that SB-247464 binds to the extracellular domain of the receptor in a zinc ion-dependent manner. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies demonstrate that SB-247464 induces self-association of the N-terminal three-domain fragment in a manner that is consistent with dimerization. SB-247464 induces internalization of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor on intact cells, consistent with a mechanism involving receptor oligomerization. These data show that small nonpeptidyl compounds are capable of selectively binding and inducing productive oligomerization of cytokine receptors.

  6. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ligand-receptor Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak. P.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today NMR spectroscopy is a method of choice for elucidation of interactions between biomolecules and the potential ligands. Knowledge on these interactions is an essential prerequisite for the rational drug design. The most important contribution of NMR to drug design a few years ago was the 3D structure determination of proteins. Besides delivering the 3D structures of the free proteins as a raw material for the modeling studies on ligand binding, NMR can directly yield valuable experimental data on the biologically important protein-ligand complexes. In addition to X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy can provide information on the internal protein dynamics ordynamics of intermolecular interactions. Changes in NMR parameters allow us to detect ("SAR by NMR" and quantitatively determine binding affinities (titration, diffusion NMR experiments, etc. of potential ligands. Also, it is possible to determine the binding site and conformations of ligands, receptors and receptor-ligand complexes with the help of NMR methods such as tr-NOESY. Epitopes or functional groups responsible for binding of ligands to the receptor can be identified by employing STD or WaterLOGSY experiments. In this review are described some of the most frequent NMR methods for the characterization of the interactions between biomolecules and ligands, together with their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Sigma-2 receptor ligands QSAR model dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rescifina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data have been obtained from the Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligands Database (S2RSLDB and refined according to the QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of 548 Sigma-2 (σ2 receptor ligands selective over Sigma-1 (σ1 receptor. The development of the QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together. Data here reported include the regression for σ2 receptor pKi QSAR models. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the σ2 receptor pKi values of the FDA approved drugs that are herewith included.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a radioiodine labeled peptidomimetic ligand for high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. H.; Kim, D. H.; Paik, J. Y.; Koh, B. H.; Bae, J. S.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Some of the obstacles for the clinical application of whole nerve growth factor (NGF) may be overcome by utilizing small molecule mimetics. We thus investigated the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a small cyclic peptide derived from NGF-[C(92-96)] with high receptor binding affinity. I-125 C(92-96) was labeled with the Bolton-Hunter method, and binding to TrkA/IgG chimeric protein was confirmed on a polyacrylamide gel after cross-linking. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in normal ICR mice intravenously injected with 0.5 MBq I-125 C(92-96) containing varying doses of C(92-96). Biodistribution studies were done at 6 h after injection. Cross-linkage analysis confirmed binding of I-125 C(92-96) to the high affinity NGF receptor, TrkA. Intravenously injected I-125 C(92-96) was cleared from the blood in a biexponential manner with an early T1/2{alpha} of 5.2 min and late T1/2{beta} of 121.3 min. Log blood-concentration decreased over time with a k-slope of 0.0025, clearance of 11.8{+-}0.5 ml/min, T1/2 of 4.1{+-}0.4 hr, and volume of distribution of 69.7{+-}4.6 ml. The pattern of elimination from the blood remained essentially unchanged regardless of the dose of added C(92-96), with dose-proportionate increases in AUCs and peak concentrations consistent with linear pharmacokinetics. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high kidney activity suggesting renal excretion of I-125 C(92-96). There were moderate levels of accumulation in the spleen, lungs and liver, followed by the myocardium and skeletal muscle, whereas brain uptake was low (< 0.2 %ID/gm). Intravenously administered C(92-96) follows linear pharmacokinetics, and is cleared from the circulation at a rate comparable to whole NGF despite its substantially smaller size. Although intravenous C(92-96) does not adequately reach brain tissue, clinically relevant doses can achieve major organ accumulation levels that may be sufficient to elicit biologic responses through NGF receptors.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a radioiodine labeled peptidomimetic ligand for high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Kim, D. H.; Paik, J. Y.; Koh, B. H.; Bae, J. S.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the obstacles for the clinical application of whole nerve growth factor (NGF) may be overcome by utilizing small molecule mimetics. We thus investigated the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a small cyclic peptide derived from NGF-[C(92-96)] with high receptor binding affinity. I-125 C(92-96) was labeled with the Bolton-Hunter method, and binding to TrkA/IgG chimeric protein was confirmed on a polyacrylamide gel after cross-linking. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in normal ICR mice intravenously injected with 0.5 MBq I-125 C(92-96) containing varying doses of C(92-96). Biodistribution studies were done at 6 h after injection. Cross-linkage analysis confirmed binding of I-125 C(92-96) to the high affinity NGF receptor, TrkA. Intravenously injected I-125 C(92-96) was cleared from the blood in a biexponential manner with an early T1/2α of 5.2 min and late T1/2β of 121.3 min. Log blood-concentration decreased over time with a k-slope of 0.0025, clearance of 11.8±0.5 ml/min, T1/2 of 4.1±0.4 hr, and volume of distribution of 69.7±4.6 ml. The pattern of elimination from the blood remained essentially unchanged regardless of the dose of added C(92-96), with dose-proportionate increases in AUCs and peak concentrations consistent with linear pharmacokinetics. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high kidney activity suggesting renal excretion of I-125 C(92-96). There were moderate levels of accumulation in the spleen, lungs and liver, followed by the myocardium and skeletal muscle, whereas brain uptake was low (< 0.2 %ID/gm). Intravenously administered C(92-96) follows linear pharmacokinetics, and is cleared from the circulation at a rate comparable to whole NGF despite its substantially smaller size. Although intravenous C(92-96) does not adequately reach brain tissue, clinically relevant doses can achieve major organ accumulation levels that may be sufficient to elicit biologic responses through NGF receptors

  11. Neurite outgrowth induced by a synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule requires fibroblast growth factor receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, L C; Doherty, P; Holm, A

    2000-01-01

    identified a neuritogenic ligand, termed the C3 peptide, of the first immunoglobulin (lg) module of NCAM using a combinatorial library of synthetic peptides. Here we investigate whether stimulation of neurite outgrowth by this synthetic ligand of NCAM involves FGFRs. In primary cultures of cerebellar neurons...... from wild-type mice, the C3 peptide stimulated neurite outgrowth. This response was virtually absent in cultures of cerebellar neurons from transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the FGFR1. Likewise, in PC12E2 cells transiently expressing a dominant-negative form of the mouse FGFR1...

  12. Repression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL but not its receptors during oral cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5 and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2 receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM, oral premalignancies (OPM, and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. Methods DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Results Normal oral epithelia constitutively expressed TRAIL, but expression was progressively lost in OPM and OSCC. Reduction in DcR2 expression levels was noted frequently in OPM and OSCC compared to respective patient-matched uninvolved oral mucosa. OSCC frequently expressed DR4, DR5 and DcR1 but less frequently DcR2. Expression levels of DR4, DR5 and DcR1 receptors were not significantly altered in OPM, primary OSCC and metastatic OSCC compared to patient-matched normal oral mucosa. Expression of proapoptotic TRAIL-receptors DR4 and DR5 in OSCC seemed to depend, at least in part, on whether or not these receptors were expressed in their parental oral epithelia. High DR5 expression in primary OSCC correlated significantly with larger tumor size. There was no significant association between TRAIL-R expression and OSSC histology grade, nodal status or apoptosis rates of tumor cells and TIL. Conclusion Loss of TRAIL expression is an early event during oral

  13. Repression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not its receptors during oral cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Baucum, Darryl C; Wu, Jean; Lou, Yahuan; Bouquot, Jerry; Muller, Susan; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5) and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2) receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral premalignancies (OPM), and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Normal oral epithelia constitutively expressed TRAIL, but expression was progressively lost in OPM and OSCC. Reduction in DcR2 expression levels was noted frequently in OPM and OSCC compared to respective patient-matched uninvolved oral mucosa. OSCC frequently expressed DR4, DR5 and DcR1 but less frequently DcR2. Expression levels of DR4, DR5 and DcR1 receptors were not significantly altered in OPM, primary OSCC and metastatic OSCC compared to patient-matched normal oral mucosa. Expression of proapoptotic TRAIL-receptors DR4 and DR5 in OSCC seemed to depend, at least in part, on whether or not these receptors were expressed in their parental oral epithelia. High DR5 expression in primary OSCC correlated significantly with larger tumor size. There was no significant association between TRAIL-R expression and OSSC histology grade, nodal status or apoptosis rates of tumor cells and TIL. Loss of TRAIL expression is an early event during oral carcinogenesis and may be involved in dysregulation of apoptosis and

  14. Non-conventional Frizzled ligands and Wnt receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Marijke; Leyns, Luc

    2008-05-01

    The Wnt family of secreted signaling factors plays numerous roles in embryonic development and in stem cell biology. In the adult, Wnt signaling is involved in tissue homeostasis and mutations that lead to the overexpression of Wnt can be linked to cancer. Wnt signaling is transduced intracellularly by the Frizzled (Fzd) family of receptors. In the canonical pathway, accumulation of beta-catenin and the subsequent formation of a complex with T cell factors (TCF) or lymphoid enhancing factors (Lef) lead to target gene activation. The identification of Ryk as an alternative Wnt receptor and the discovery of the novel Fzd ligands Norrie disease protein (NDP) and R-Spondin, changed the traditional view of Wnts binding to Fzd receptors. Mouse R-Spondin cooperates with Wnt signaling and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor related protein (LRP) to activate beta-catenin dependent gene expression and is involved in processes such as limb and placental development in the mouse. NDP is the product of the Norrie disease gene and controls vascular development in the retina, inner ear and in the female reproductive system during pregnancy. In this review a functional overview of the interactions of the different Wnt and non-Wnt ligands with the Fzd receptors is given as well as a survey of Wnts binding to Ryk and we discuss the biological significance of these interactions.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone: an ancestral ligand of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediaditakis, Iosif; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Theologidis, Ioannis; Delivanoglou, Nickoleta; Margioris, Andrew N; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), the most abundant steroid in humans, affects multiple cellular functions of the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. However, up to quite recently, no receptor has been described specifically for it, whereas most of its physiological actions have been attributed to its conversion to either androgens or estrogens. DHEA interacts and modulate a variety of membrane and intracellular neurotransmitter and steroid receptors. We have recently reported that DHEA protects neuronal cells against apoptosis, interacting with TrkA, the high-affinity prosurvival receptor of the neurotrophin, nerve growth factor. Intrigued by its pleiotropic effects in the nervous system of a variety of species, we have investigated the ability of DHEA to interact with the other two mammalian neurotrophin receptors, ie, the TrkB and TrkC, as well as their invertebrate counterparts (orthologs) in mollusks Lymnaea and Aplysia and in cephalochordate fish Amphioxus. Amazingly, DHEA binds to all Trk receptors, although with lower affinity by 2 orders of magnitude compared with that of the polypeptidic neurotrophins. DHEA effectively induced the first step of the TrkA and TrkC receptors activation (phosphorylation at tyrosine residues), including the vertebrate neurotrophin nonresponding invertebrate Lymnaea and Aplysia receptors. Based on our data, we hypothesize that early in evolution, DHEA may have acted as a nonspecific neurotrophic factor promoting neuronal survival. The interaction of DHEA with all types of neurotrophin receptors offers new insights into the largely unidentified mechanisms of its actions on multiple tissues and organs known to express neurotrophin receptors.

  16. Arctigenin suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jung Ho; Kim, Se Na; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2012-05-05

    Osteoclasts, multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, are closely associated with bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells, and their differentiation is mediated by two cytokines, including macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Previous studies have shown that arctigenin exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of arctigenin on osteoclast differentiation is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that arctigenin inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Additionally, the expression of typical marker proteins, such as NFATc1, c-Fos, TRAF6, c-Src, and cathepsin K, were significantly inhibited. Arctigenin inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, but not p38 and JNK, in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also dramatically suppressed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated costimulatory signaling molecules, including Syk and PLCγ2, and Gab2. Notably, arctigenin inhibited the activation of Syk through RANKL stimulation. Furthermore, arctigenin prevented osteoclast differentiation in the calvarial bone of mice following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our results show that arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, arctigenin may be useful for treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Somatostatin Receptor Ligands Therapies for Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Paragliola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in acromegaly, but patients with persistent disease after surgery or in whom surgery cannot be considered require medical therapy. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs octreotide (OCT, lanreotide, and the more recently approved pasireotide, characterized by a broader receptor ligand binding profile, are considered the mainstay in the medical management of acromegaly. However, in the attempt to offer a more efficacious and better tolerated medical approach, recent research has been aimed to override some limitations related to the use of currently approved drugs and novel SRLs therapies, with potential attractive features, have been proposed. These include both new formulation of older molecules and new molecules. Novel OCT formulations are aimed in particular to improve patients’ compliance and to reduce injection discomfort. They include an investigational ready-to-use subcutaneous depot OCT formulation (CAM2029, delivered via prefilled syringes and oral OCT that uses a “transient permeability enhancer” technology, which allows for OCT oral absorption. Another new delivery system is a long-lasting OCT implant (VP-003, which provide stable doses of OCT throughout a period of several months. Finally, a new SRL DG3173 (somatoprim seems to be more selective for GH secretion, suggesting possible advantages in the presence of hyperglycemia or diabetes. How much these innovations will actually be beneficial to acromegaly patients in real clinical practice remains to be seen.

  18. Substrate coated with receptor and labelled ligand for assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the procedures for assaying ligands are described. The assay consists of a polystyrene tube on which receptors are present for both the ligand to be assayed and a radioactively labelled form of the ligand. The receptors on the bottom portion of the tube are also coated with labelled ligands, thus eliminating the necessity for separate addition of the labelled ligand and sample during an assay. Examples of ligands to which this method is applicable include polypeptides, nucleotides, nucleosides and proteins. Specific examples are given in which the ligand to be assayed is digoxin, the labelled form of the ligand is 3-0-succinyl digoxyigenin tyrosine ( 125 I) and the receptor is digoxin antibody. (U.K.)

  19. Involvement of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Incomplete Cytokinesis in the Polyploidization of Osteoclasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegahara, Noriko; Kim, Hyunsoo; Mizuno, Hiroki; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Tomura, Michio; Kanagawa, Osami; Ishii, Masaru; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are specialized polyploid cells that resorb bone. Upon stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), myeloid precursors commit to becoming polyploid, largely via cell fusion. Polyploidization of osteoclasts is necessary for their bone-resorbing activity, but the mechanisms by which polyploidization is controlled remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that in addition to cell fusion, incomplete cytokinesis also plays a role in osteoclast polyploidization. In in vitro cultured osteoclasts derived from mice expressing the fluorescent ubiquitin-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), RANKL induced polyploidy by incomplete cytokinesis as well as cell fusion. Polyploid cells generated by incomplete cytokinesis had the potential to subsequently undergo cell fusion. Nuclear polyploidy was also observed in osteoclasts in vivo, suggesting the involvement of incomplete cytokinesis in physiological polyploidization. Furthermore, RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis was reduced by inhibition of Akt, resulting in impaired multinucleated osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results reveal that RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis contributes to polyploidization of osteoclasts via Akt activation. PMID:26670608

  20. Involvement of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Incomplete Cytokinesis in the Polyploidization of Osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegahara, Noriko; Kim, Hyunsoo; Mizuno, Hiroki; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Tomura, Michio; Kanagawa, Osami; Ishii, Masaru; Choi, Yongwon

    2016-02-12

    Osteoclasts are specialized polyploid cells that resorb bone. Upon stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), myeloid precursors commit to becoming polyploid, largely via cell fusion. Polyploidization of osteoclasts is necessary for their bone-resorbing activity, but the mechanisms by which polyploidization is controlled remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that in addition to cell fusion, incomplete cytokinesis also plays a role in osteoclast polyploidization. In in vitro cultured osteoclasts derived from mice expressing the fluorescent ubiquitin-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci), RANKL induced polyploidy by incomplete cytokinesis as well as cell fusion. Polyploid cells generated by incomplete cytokinesis had the potential to subsequently undergo cell fusion. Nuclear polyploidy was also observed in osteoclasts in vivo, suggesting the involvement of incomplete cytokinesis in physiological polyploidization. Furthermore, RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis was reduced by inhibition of Akt, resulting in impaired multinucleated osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results reveal that RANKL-induced incomplete cytokinesis contributes to polyploidization of osteoclasts via Akt activation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Notch 1 Receptor, Delta 1 Ligand and HES 1 Transcription Factor are Expressed in the Lining Epithelium of Periapical Cysts (Preliminary Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliou, E; Kerezoudis, Np; Tosios, Ki; Kiaris, H

    2010-07-27

    Periapical cyst is a chronic inflammatory disorder of periradicular tissues. The precise pathological mechanisms involved in periapical cyst enlargement remain unclear. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway with a regulatory role in cell fate decisions during development and in carcinogenesis. To date, there are no published data available on the expression of Notch signaling components in periapical cysts or any other jaw cyst. In this immunohistochemical study we have examined the expression of the receptor Notch 1, the ligand Delta 1 and the transcription factor HES 1 in the epithelium of well defined periapical cysts. Immunostaining reaction of Notch 1, Delta 1 and HES 1 was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane and occasionally in the nucleus in the majority of epithelial cells of all periapical cysts. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active in the epithelium of periapical cysts. It can be speculated that activation of epithelial cells of periapical cysts is associated with activation of Notch pathway and imply involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion.

  2. [The expression and significance of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin in periapical cyst and periapical granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meihua; Yu, Yunzhi; Miao, Yu

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in periapical cyst and periapical granuloma by comparison with the expression in the normal periodontal tissue as control, and to identify their functional mechanism in the bone destruction of periapical cyst and granuloma. 20 periapical cyst tissues (cyst group), 20 periapical granuloma tissues (granuloma group), and 20 normal periodontal tissues (control group) were collected respectively. Immunohistochemical technology was performed to detect the expression of RANKL and OPG in above three groups. In cyst group, granuloma group and control group, the expression of RANKL were 75.00 +/- 7.54, 68.40 +/- 6.74 and 29.40 +/- 2.46, respectively. The expression of OPG were 38.10 +/- 7.09, 47.65 +/- 13.85 and 58.60 +/- 5.88, respectively. The differences among the three groups were statistically significant (Pcysts group were negatively correlated (r=-0.56, P=0.01) and were not correlated with granuloma and control group (P>0.05). RANKL and OPG play roles in the bone absorption of periapical disease. In periapical disease, abnormal expression of RANKL and OPG are detected, RANKL significantly increase, OPG decrease, bone absorption accelerate and osteolytic lesion are observed. In periapical cyst, the bone absorption is more active compared with periapical granuloma.

  3. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  4. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  5. Apoptosis-related factors (Fas receptor, Fas ligand, FADD) in early tooth development of the field vole (Microtus agrestis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Tucker, A. S.; Míšek, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 165-169 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112; GA MŠk(CZ) 1K04101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2005

  6. Circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in polycystic ovary syndrome: relationships to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepene, Carmen Emanuela; Ilie, Ioana Rada; Marian, Ioan; Duncea, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    There is plenty of evidence that osteoprotegerin (OPG) is linked to subclinical vascular damage and predicts cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. Our aim is to investigate the relationships of OPG/free soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (sRANKL) to insulin resistance, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, impaired glucose control, and endothelial injury. A cross-sectional, observational study. Hormonal and metabolic profiles, FMD, CIMT, serum OPG, and ampli-sRANKL were assessed in 64 young PCOS patients and 20 controls of similar age. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. OPG was significantly lower in PCOS and related negatively to free testosterone and positively to estradiol (E(2)) levels. In multivariate analysis, OPG but not ampli-sRANKL correlated positively to fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity indices, and FMD. Neither OPG nor ampli-sRANKL was associated with CIMT. Significantly lower adjusted FMD values were demonstrated in women in the upper OPG quartile group (>2.65 pmol/l) compared with all other quartile groups together (P=0.012). In PCOS, multiple regression analysis retained E(2)/sex hormone-binding globulin ratio, fat mass, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as independent predictors of OPG. In PCOS, circulating OPG is related to both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, independent of obesity and androgen excess, suggesting OPG as a useful biomarker of these effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate OPG in relation to cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in PCOS.

  7. [Immunoexpression and clinical significance of interleukin-21 and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in human periapical granulomas and radicular cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juhua; Li, Qian; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to detect the immunoexpression of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and receptor activator. of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL) in periapical granulomas (PGs) and radicular cysts (RCs). The interaction of IL-21 with RANKL and its role in periapical pathogenesis were also speculated. A total of 32 PGs and 23 RCs were selected as experimental samples. Lesion size and occurrence of tenderness were recorded. Up to 10 healthy gingival tissues were collected as normal control samples. All tissues were subjected to immunohistocheincal analysis with anti-human IL-21 and RANKL polyclonal antibodies. The correlations of IL-21 with RANKL, lesion size, and the occurrence of tenderness of the PGs and RCs were evaluated. IL-21-positive cells were detected in all periapical lesion tissues but not in normal tissues. In the cyst group and granuloma group, the corresponding expression levels of IL-21 were 59.92±6.57 and 36.80± 6.81, whereas those of RANKL were 68.81±18.59 and 36.12±14.87, respectively. Moreover, t-test revealed a significantly higher expression of IL-21 and RANKL in RCs than in PGs (P<0.05). IL-21 and RANKL were positively correlated in both PGs and RCs (P<0.05). Furthermore, IL-21 was correlated with lesion size (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that IL-21 is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis lesions. A role in the exacerbation of chronic inflammation, as well as in bone resorption, is suspected. Further studies are required to elucidate the specific functions of IL-21 in periradicular inflammatory processes.

  8. Differential expression of VEGF ligands and receptors in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, David J; Opeskin, Kenneth; Coso, Sanja; Wu, Di; Baldwin, Megan E; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer disseminates to regional lymph nodes, however the molecular mechanisms responsible for lymph node metastasis are poorly understood. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand and receptor family have been implicated in the growth and spread of prostate cancer via activation of the blood vasculature and lymphatic systems. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine the expression pattern of VEGF ligands and receptors in the glandular epithelium, stroma, lymphatic vasculature and blood vessels in prostate cancer. The localization of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 was examined in cancerous and adjacent benign prostate tissue from 52 subjects representing various grades of prostate cancer. Except for VEGFR-2, extensive staining was observed for all ligands and receptors in the prostate specimens. In epithelial cells, VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 expression was higher in tumor tissue compared to benign tissue. VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 expression was significantly higher in benign tissue compared to tumor in the stroma and the endothelium of lymphatic and blood vessels. In addition, the frequency of lymphatic vessels, but not blood vessels, was lower in tumor tissue compared with benign tissue. These results suggest that activation of VEGFR-1 by VEGF-A within the carcinoma, and activation of lymphatic endothelial cell VEGFR-3 by VEGF-D within the adjacent benign stroma may be important signaling mechanisms involved in the progression and subsequent metastatic spread of prostate cancer. Thus inhibition of these pathways may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Shankaran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  10. Ligand recognition by RAR and RXR receptors: binding and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Fredy; de Lera, Angel R

    2005-10-06

    Fundamental biological functions, most notably embriogenesis, cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis, are in part regulated by a complex genomic network that starts with the binding (and activation) of retinoids to their cognate receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. We have studied ligand recognition of retinoic receptors (RXRalpha and RARgamma) using a molecular-mechanics-based docking method. The protocol used in this work is able to rank the affinity of pairs of ligands for a single retinoid receptor, the highest values corresponding to those that adapt better to the shape of the binding site and generate the optimal set of electrostatic and apolar interactions with the receptor. Moreover, our studies shed light onto some of the energetic contributions to retinoid receptor ligand selectivity. In this regard we show that there is a difference in polarity between the binding site regions that anchor the carboxylate in RAR and RXR, which translates itself into large differences in the energy of interaction of both receptors with the same ligand. We observe that the latter energy change is canceled off by the solvation energy penalty upon binding. This energy compensation is borne out as well by experiments that address the effect of site-directed mutagenesis on ligand binding to RARgamma. The hypothesis that the difference in binding site polarity might be exploited to build RXR-selective ligands is tested with some compounds having a thiazolidinedione anchoring group.

  11. Epibatidine-derivatives: ligands for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Patt, J.T.; Jankowski, K.; Bertrand, D.; Spang, J.; Schubiger, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Epibatidine, isolated from the Ecuadorian frog Epipedobates tricolar, has been synthesized. 11 C-N-methyl derivate is investigated as useful nicotinergic receptor ligand by electrophysiological methods and in vivo mice experiments. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1b and fas ligand are associated with clinical efficacy and/or acute severe infusion reactions to infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, C; Enevold, C; Ainsworth, M A

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) 1A and 1B, and Fas ligand (FASLG) genes, have been associated with responsiveness to infliximab (IFX) in Crohn's disease.......Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) 1A and 1B, and Fas ligand (FASLG) genes, have been associated with responsiveness to infliximab (IFX) in Crohn's disease....

  13. Differential effects of EGFR ligands on endocytic sorting of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Kirstine; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Henriksen, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic...... trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor...

  14. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeung Su [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young, E-mail: kimjy1014@gmail.com [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  15. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Charest-Morin

    Full Text Available The bradykinin (BK B1 receptor (B1R is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively. The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy. Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Glyn-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology.

  16. Ligand Activation of TAM Family Receptors-Implications for Tumor Biology and Therapeutic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davra, Viralkumar; Kimani, Stanley G; Calianese, David; Birge, Raymond B

    2016-11-29

    The TAM family of receptors (i.e., Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk), and their ligands Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1) contribute to several oncogenic processes, such as cell survival, invasion, migration, chemo-resistance, and metastasis, whereby expression often correlates with poor clinical outcomes. In recent years, there has been great interest in the study of TAM receptors in cancer, stemming both from their roles as oncogenic signaling receptors, as well as their roles in tumor immunology. As a result, several classes of TAM inhibitors that include small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, decoy receptors, as well as novel strategies to target TAM ligands are being developed. This paper will review the biology of TAM receptors and their ligands with a focus on cancer, as well as evidence-based data for the continued pursuit of TAM/Gas6 inhibitors in clinical practice.

  17. Single-molecule photobleaching reveals increased MET receptor dimerization upon ligand binding in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Marina S; Haße, Daniel; Ferraris, Davide M; Göhler, Antonia; Niemann, Hartmut H; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are essential during embryonic development and play an important role during cancer metastasis and tissue regeneration. In addition, it was found that MET is also relevant for infectious diseases and is the target of different bacteria, amongst them Listeria monocytogenes that induces bacterial uptake through the surface protein internalin B. Binding of ligand to the MET receptor is proposed to lead to receptor dimerization. However, it is also discussed whether preformed MET dimers exist on the cell membrane. To address these issues we used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. Our photobleaching experiments show that MET exists in dimers on the membrane of cells in the absence of ligand and that the proportion of MET dimers increases significantly upon ligand binding. Our results indicate that partially preformed MET dimers may play a role in ligand binding or MET signaling. The addition of the bacterial ligand internalin B leads to an increase of MET dimers which is in agreement with the model of ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  18. Tissue distribution of the death ligand TRAIL and its receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DC; de Vries, EG; Vellenga, E; van den Heuvel, FA; Koornstra, JJ; Wesseling, J; Hollema, H; de Jong, S

    Recombinant human (rh) TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) harbors potential as an anticancer agent. RhTRAIL induces apoptosis via the TRAIL receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in tumors and is non-toxic to nonhuman primates. Because limited data are available about TRAIL receptor

  19. Effect of lifestyle interventions with or without metformin therapy on serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand in patients with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Tutal, Esra; Sahin, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Ucan, Bekir; Ozturk, Gulfer; Cakal, Erman; Biyikli Gencturk, Zeynep; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2017-02-01

    Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance variables, osteoprotegerin, and nuclear factor-B ligand markers, carotid intima media thickness were examined at baseline for all participants. To evaluate the effect of therapy we determined the same parameters after the end of the study. Measurements of waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage and levels of fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride levels and hsCRP and carotid intima media thickness were significantly higher in patients with prediabetes (p  0.05). Patients with prediabetes were under lifestyle interventions with (group 1, n = 33) or without metformin (group 2, n = 21) therapy. Baseline anthropometric and metabolic characteristics were not found statistically different in group 1 and group 2. Mean follow up period of the patients were 7.9 ± 2.2 month (min-max: 6-12 months). After the follow up period we evaluated the same parameters and found significant differences between waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and osteoprotegerin levels (p prediabetes was associated with a significant decrease in osteoprotegerin and certain metabolic variables together with an increase in nuclear

  20. Converting Insulin-like Growth Factors 1 and 2 into High-Affinity Ligands for Insulin Receptor Isoform A by the Introduction of an Evolutionarily Divergent Mutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Kateřina; Chrudinová, Martina; Radosavljević, Jelena; Potalitsyn, Pavlo; Křížková, Květoslava; Fábry, Milan; Selicharová, Irena; Collinsová, Michaela; Brzozowski, A. M.; Žáková, Lenka; Jiráček, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 16 (2018), s. 2373-2382 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19018S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : insulin-like growth factor * insulin * receptor * analog Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2016 https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b01260

  1. Fluorescent ligands for studying neuropeptide receptors by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beaudet

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of confocal microscopy as it pertains to the identification of G-protein coupled receptors and the study of their dynamic properties in cell cultures and in mammalian brain following their tagging with specific fluorescent ligands. Principles that should guide the choice of suitable ligands and fluorophores are discussed. Examples are provided from the work carried out in the authors' laboratory using custom synthetized fluoresceinylated or BODIPY-tagged bioactive peptides. The results show that confocal microscopic detection of specifically bound fluorescent ligands permits high resolution appraisal of neuropeptide receptor distribution both in cell culture and in brain sections. Within the framework of time course experiments, it also allows for a dynamic assessment of the internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of bound fluorescent molecules. Thus, it was found that neurotensin, somatostatin and mu- and delta-selective opioid peptides are internalized in a receptor-dependent fashion and according to receptor-specific patterns into their target cells. In the case of neurotensin, this internalization process was found to be clathrin-mediated, to proceed through classical endosomal pathways and, in neurons, to result in a mobilization of newly formed endosomes from neural processes to nerve cell bodies and from the periphery of cell bodies towards the perinuclear zone. These mechanisms are likely to play an important role for ligand inactivation, receptor regulation and perhaps also transmembrane signaling.

  2. Mix-and-match: ligand-receptor pairs in stomatal development and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-12-01

    Stomata are small valves on the plant epidermis balancing gas exchange and water loss. Stomata are formed according to positional cues. In Arabidopsis, two EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides, EPF1 and EPF2, are secreted from stomatal precursors enforcing proper stomatal patterning. Here, I review recent studies revealing the ligand-receptor pairs and revising the previously predicted relations between receptors specifying stomatal patterning: ERECTA-family and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). Furthermore, EPF-LIKE9 (EPFL9/Stomagen) promotes stomatal differentiation from internal tissues. Two EPFL peptides specify inflorescence architecture, a process beyond stomatal development, as ligands for ERECTA. Thus, broadly expressed receptor kinases may regulate multiple developmental processes through perceiving different peptide ligands, each with a specialized expression pattern. TMM in the epidermis may fine-tune multiple EPF/EPFL signals to prevent signal interference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of ligand specificity in vertebrate corticosteroid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deitcher David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroid receptors include mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors. Teleost fishes have a single MR and duplicate GRs that show variable sensitivities to mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. How these receptors compare functionally to tetrapod MR and GR, and the evolutionary significance of maintaining two GRs, remains unclear. Results We used up to seven steroids (including aldosterone, cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone [DOC] to compare the ligand specificity of the ligand binding domains of corticosteroid receptors between a mammal (Mus musculus and the midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus, a teleost model for steroid regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity. Variation in mineralocorticoid sensitivity was considered in a broader phylogenetic context by examining the aldosterone sensitivity of MR and GRs from the distantly related daffodil cichlid (Neolamprologus pulcher, another teleost model for neurobehavioral plasticity. Both teleost species had a single MR and duplicate GRs. All MRs were sensitive to DOC, consistent with the hypothesis that DOC was the initial ligand of the ancestral MR. Variation in GR steroid-specificity corresponds to nine identified amino acid residue substitutions rather than phylogenetic relationships based on receptor sequences. Conclusion The mineralocorticoid sensitivity of duplicate GRs in teleosts is highly labile in the context of their evolutionary phylogeny, a property that likely led to neo-functionalization and maintenance of two GRs.

  4. Receptor-ligand binding sites and virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Davies, Matthew N; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Within the pharmaceutical industry, the ultimate source of continuing profitability is the unremitting process of drug discovery. To be profitable, drugs must be marketable: legally novel, safe and relatively free of side effects, efficacious, and ideally inexpensive to produce. While drug discovery was once typified by a haphazard and empirical process, it is now increasingly driven by both knowledge of the receptor-mediated basis of disease and how drug molecules interact with receptors and the wider physiome. Medicinal chemistry postulates that to understand a congeneric ligand series, or set thereof, is to understand the nature and requirements of a ligand binding site. Likewise, structural molecular biology posits that to understand a binding site is to understand the nature of ligands bound therein. Reality sits somewhere between these extremes, yet subsumes them both. Complementary to rules of ligand design, arising through decades of medicinal chemistry, structural biology and computational chemistry are able to elucidate the nature of binding site-ligand interactions, facilitating, at both pragmatic and conceptual levels, the drug discovery process.

  5. ALK receptor activation, ligands and therapeutic targeting in glioblastoma and in other cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fragment shows striking homology with members of the insulin receptor family and was initially identified as an oncogenic fusion protein resulting from a translocation in lymphoma and more recently in a range of cancers. The full-length ALK transmembrane receptor of ~220 kDa was identified based on this initial work. This tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligands, the growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly expressed during development of the nervous system and other organs. Each of these genes has been implicated in malignant progression of different tumor types and shown to alter phenotypes as well as signal transduction in cultured normal and tumor cells. Beyond its role in cancer, the ALK receptor pathway is thought to contribute to nervous system development, function, and repair, as well as metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of tissue regeneration. ALK receptor activity in cancer can be up-regulated by amplification, overexpression, ligand binding, mutations in the intracellular domain of the receptor and by activity of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPRz. Here we discuss the evidence for ligand control of ALK activity as well as the potential prognostic and therapeutic implications from gene expression and functional studies. An analysis of 18 published gene expression data sets from different cancers shows that overexpression of ALK, its smaller homolog LTK (leukocyte tyrosine kinase) and the ligands PTN and MK in cancer tissues from patients correlate significantly with worse course and outcome of the disease. This observation together with preclinical functional studies suggests that this pathway could be a valid therapeutic target for which complementary targeting strategies with small molecule kinase inhibitors as well as antibodies to ligands or the receptors may be used.

  6. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  7. Preliminary Molecular Dynamic Simulations of the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Ligand Binding Domain from Antagonist to Apo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Roitberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptors (ER are known as nuclear receptors. They exist in the cytoplasm of human cells and serves as a DNA binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression. However the estrogen receptor also has additional functions independent of DNA binding. The human estrogen receptor comes in two forms, alpha and beta. This work focuses on the alpha form of the estrogen receptor. The ERα is found in breast cancer cells, ovarian stroma cells, endometrium, and the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that exposure to DDE, a metabolite of DDT, and other pesticides causes conformational changes in the estrogen receptor. Before examining these factors, this work examines the protein unfolding from the antagonist form found in the 3ERT PDB crystal structure. The 3ERT PDB crystal structure has the estrogen receptor bound to the cancer drug 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The 4-hydroxytamoxifen ligand was extracted before the simulation, resulting in new conformational freedom due to absence of van der Waals contacts between the ligand and the receptor. The conformational changes that result expose the binding clef of the co peptide beside Helix 12 of the receptor forming an apo conformation. Two key conformations in the loops at either end of the H12 are produced resulting in the antagonist to apo conformation transformation. The results were produced over a 42ns Molecular Dynamics simulation using the AMBER FF99SB force field.

  8. Characterization of the structure of the erythropoietin receptor by ligand blotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Broudy, V.C.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1991-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells by binding to a specific receptor. We characterized the native Epo receptor on erythroleukemia cell lines by ligand blotting. Solubilized cell membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose, and probed with 125I-Epo. Specificity was demonstrated by inhibition of 125I-Epo binding by unlabeled excess Epo but not other peptide growth factors and by the cellular distribution of the Epo binding protein. A single membrane protein of 61 Kd ± 4 Kd was sufficient to bind 125I Epo in both human (OCIM2, K562) and murine (GM979, Rauscher, DA-1) cell lines. This finding is consistent with the predicted size of the Epo receptor from the murine cDNA clone. However, chemical crosslinking of 125I-Epo to its receptor has identified two Epo binding proteins of 105 Kd and 85 Kd. This difference may occur because the receptor is size fractionated before Epo binding in the ligand blot, but after Epo binding in crosslinking studies. Ligand blotting demonstrates that the native Epo receptor is composed of a single 61-Kd Epo binding protein, and suggests the presence of additional proteins of 20 to 25 Kd that associate with the receptor after Epo binding

  9. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  10. Ligand-independent recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators to estrogen receptor by cyclin D1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R.M.L.; Buckle, R.S.; Hijmans, E.M.; Loomans, C.J.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation of breast epithelium. Transactivation by ER depends on a leucine-rich motif, which constitutes a ligand-regulated binding site for steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs). Cyclin D1 is frequently amplified in breast

  11. Molecular dissection of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, discloses regions important for membrane association and ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Kozyraki, R; Jacobsen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    of conditioned media and cell extracts of transfected cells revealed that the N-terminal cubilin region conveys membrane association. Helical plotting of this region demonstrated a conserved amphipathic helix pattern (Lys74-Glu109) as a candidate site for hydrophobic interactions. Ligand affinity chromatography...

  12. Molecular modeling of ligand-receptor interactions in the OR5 olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M S; Shepherd, G M

    1994-06-02

    Olfactory receptors belong to the superfamily of seven transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors. In order to begin analysis of mechanisms of receptor activation, a computer model of the OR5 olfactory receptor has been constructed and compared with other members of this superfamily. We have tested docking of the odor molecule lyral, which is known to activate the OR5 receptor. The results point to specific ligand-binding residues on helices III through VII that form a binding pocket in the receptor. Some of these residues occupy sequence positions identical to ligand-binding residues conserved among other superfamily members. The results provide new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of odor recognition and suggest hypotheses to guide future experimental studies using site-directed mutagenesis.

  13. 5D-QSAR for spirocyclic sigma1 receptor ligands by Quasar receptor surface modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdorf, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas J; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Based on a contiguous and structurally as well as biologically diverse set of 87 sigma(1) ligands, a 5D-QSAR study was conducted in which a quasi-atomistic receptor surface modeling approach (program package Quasar) was applied. The superposition of the ligands was performed with the tool Pharmacophore Elucidation (MOE-package), which takes all conformations of the ligands into account. This procedure led to four pharmacophoric structural elements with aromatic, hydrophobic, cationic and H-bond acceptor properties. Using the aligned structures a 3D-model of the ligand binding site of the sigma(1) receptor was obtained, whose general features are in good agreement with previous assumptions on the receptor structure, but revealed some novel insights since it represents the receptor surface in more detail. Thus, e.g., our model indicates the presence of an H-bond acceptor moiety in the binding site as counterpart to the ligands' cationic ammonium center, rather than a negatively charged carboxylate group. The presented QSAR model is statistically valid and represents the biological data of all tested compounds, including a test set of 21 ligands not used in the modeling process, with very good to excellent accuracy [q(2) (training set, n=66; leave 1/3 out) = 0.84, p(2) (test set, n=21)=0.64]. Moreover, the binding affinities of 13 further spirocyclic sigma(1) ligands were predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean deviation in pK(i) approximately 0.8). Thus, in addition to novel insights into the requirements for binding of spirocyclic piperidines to the sigma(1) receptor, the presented model can be used successfully in the rational design of new sigma(1) ligands. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, B R; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a growth factor receptor that induces cell differentiation and proliferation upon activation through the binding of one of its ligands. The receptor is located at the cell surface, where the binding of a ligand activates a tyrosine kinase in the intr...... aspects of therapeutic targeting of EGFR....

  15. A python-based docking program utilizing a receptor bound ligand shape: PythDock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Cho, Seung Joo; Hah, Jung-Mi

    2011-09-01

    PythDock is a heuristic docking program that uses Python programming language with a simple scoring function and a population based search engine. The scoring function considers electrostatic and dispersion/repulsion terms. The search engine utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A grid potential map is generated using the shape information of a bound ligand within the active site. Therefore, the searching area is more relevant to the ligand binding. To evaluate the docking performance of PythDock, two well-known docking programs (AutoDock and DOCK) were also used with the same data. The accuracy of docked results were measured by the difference of the ligand structure between x-ray structure, and docked pose, i.e., average root mean squared deviation values of the bound ligand were compared for fourteen protein-ligand complexes. Since the number of ligands' rotational flexibility is an important factor affecting the accuracy of a docking, the data set was chosen to have various degrees of flexibility. Although PythDock has a scoring function simpler than those of other programs (AutoDock and DOCK), our results showed that PythDock predicted more accurate poses than both AutoDock4.2 and DOCK6.2. This indicates that PythDock could be a useful tool to study ligand-receptor interactions and could also be beneficial in structure based drug design.

  16. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  17. Dendrobium moniliforme Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Both Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Mediated Osteoclast Differentiation in Vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Erosion in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yang, Miyoung; Oh, Jaemin; Choi, Min Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) is a well-known plant-derived extract that is widely used in Oriental medicine. DM and its chemical constituents have been reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities; however, no reports discuss the beneficial effects of DM on bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, we investigated the relationship between DM and osteoclasts, cells that function in bone resorption. We found that DM significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast formation; DM directly induced the down-regulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) without affecting other RANKL-dependent transduction pathways. In the later stages of osteoclast maturation, DM negatively regulated the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), resulting in impaired bone-resorbing activity by the mature osteoclasts. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) analysis of the murine model revealed that DM had a beneficial effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated bone erosion. Histological analysis showed that DM attenuated the degradation of trabecular bone matrix and formation of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in bone tissues. These results suggest that DM is a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis.

  18. Ebselen Is a Potential Anti-Osteoporosis Agent by Suppressing Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Bone Destruction In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2016-01-01

    Ebselen is a non-toxic seleno-organic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that is currently being examined in clinical trials to prevent and treat various diseases, including atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. However, no reports are available for verifying the pharmacological effects of ebselen on major metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we observed that ebselen suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture by regulating the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin secreted by osteoblasts. In addition, ebselen treatment in the early stage of osteoclast differentiation inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of IκB, PI3K, and Akt in early signaling pathways and by subsequently inducing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. Further, ebselen induced apoptosis of osteoclasts in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, ebselen treatment suppressed filamentous actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Reflecting these in vitro effects, administration of ebselen recovered bone loss and its µ-CT parameters in lipopolysaccharide-mediated mouse model. Histological analysis confirmed that ebselen prevented trabecular bone matrix degradation and osteoclast formation in the bone tissues. Finally, it was proved that the anti-osteoclastogenic action of ebselen is achieved through targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These results indicate that ebselen is a potentially safe drug for treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

  19. Progress on the application of ligand receptor binding assays in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xue; Qian Jinping; Kong Aiying; Zhu Lin

    2010-01-01

    Receptor binding assay is an important drug screening method, which can quickly and inexpensively study the interactions between the targeted receptor and the potential ligands in vitro and provide the information of the relative binding affinity of ligand-receptor. The imaging of many radiopharmaceuticals is based on highly selective radioligand-receptor binding. The technique plays an important role in the design and screening of receptor-targeting radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  20. Prenatal exposure of mice to diethylstilbestrol disrupts T-cell differentiation by regulating Fas/Fas ligand expression through estrogen receptor element and nuclear factor-κB motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to DES on thymocyte differentiation involving apoptotic pathways. Prenatal DES exposure caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and up-regulation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in thymocytes. To examine the mechanism underlying DES-mediated regulation of Fas and FasL, we performed luciferase assays using T cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing full-length Fas or FasL promoters. There was significant luciferase induction in the presence of Fas or FasL promoters after DES exposure. Further analysis demonstrated the presence of several cis-regulatory motifs on both Fas and FasL promoters. When DES-induced transcription factors were analyzed, estrogen receptor element (ERE), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), and activator protein-1 motifs on the Fas promoter, as well as ERE, NF-κB, and NF-AT motifs on the FasL promoter, showed binding affinity with the transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were performed to verify the binding affinity of cis-regulatory motifs of Fas or FasL promoters with transcription factors. There was shift in mobility of probes (ERE or NF-κB2) of both Fas and FasL in the presence of nuclear proteins from DES-treated cells, and the shift was specific to DES because these probes failed to shift their mobility in the presence of nuclear proteins from vehicle-treated cells. Together, the current study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES triggers significant alterations in apoptotic molecules expressed on thymocytes, which may affect T-cell differentiation and cause long-term effects on the immune functions.

  1. Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennick Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hotspots are defined as the minimal functional domains involved in protein:protein interactions and sufficient to induce a biological response. Results Here we describe the use of complex and high diversity phage display libraries to isolate peptides (called Hotspot Ligands or HSPLs which sub-divide the ligand binding domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2; p75 into multiple hotspots. We have shown that these libraries could generate HSPLs which not only subdivide hotspots on protein and non-protein targets but act as agonists or antagonists. Using this approach, we generated peptides which were specific for human TNFR2, could be competed by the natural ligands, TNFα and TNFβ and induced an unexpected biological response in a TNFR2-specific manner. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the dissection of the TNFR2 into biologically active hotspots with the concomitant identification of a novel and unexpected biological activity.

  2. Effects of coumestrol on lipid and glucose metabolism as a farnesoid X receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Yashiro, Takuya; Kondo, Hidehiko; Murase, Takatoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-01-01

    In the course of an effort to identify novel agonists of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), coumestrol was determined to be one such ligand. Reporter and in vitro coactivator interaction assays revealed that coumestrol bound and activated FXR. Treatment of Hep G2 cells with coumestrol stimulated the expression of FXR target genes, thereby regulating the expression of target genes of the liver X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α. Through these actions, coumestrol is expected to exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism

  3. MIPs are ancestral ligands for the sex peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Bartalska, Katarina; Audsley, Neil; Yamanaka, Naoki; Yapici, Nilay; Lee, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yong-Chul; Markovic, Milica; Isaac, Elwyn; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Dickson, Barry J

    2010-04-06

    Upon mating, females of many animal species undergo dramatic changes in their behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, postmating behaviors are triggered by sex peptide (SP), which is produced in the male seminal fluid and transferred to female during copulation. SP modulates female behaviors via sex peptide receptor (SPR) located in a small subset of internal sensory neurons that innervate the female uterus and project to the CNS. Although required for postmating responses only in these female sensory neurons, SPR is expressed broadly in the CNS of both sexes. Moreover, SPR is also encoded in the genomes of insects that lack obvious SP orthologs. These observations suggest that SPR may have additional ligands and functions. Here, we identify myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs) as a second family of SPR ligands that is conserved across a wide range of invertebrate species. MIPs are potent agonists for Drosophila, Aedes, and Aplysia SPRs in vitro, yet are unable to trigger postmating responses in vivo. In contrast to SP, MIPs are not produced in male reproductive organs, and are not required for postmating behaviors in Drosophila females. We conclude that MIPs are evolutionarily conserved ligands for SPR, which are likely to mediate functions other than the regulation of female reproductive behaviors.

  4. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors and their Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik N.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Natural killer (NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes comprising around 10% of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Due to their role in the innate response, NK cells provide a ‘first line of defense’ against infectious agents and cancer and are also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR are regulatory surface molecules, found on NK cells and on a subset of T lymphocytes. The genes for KIR are present on chromosome 19 in the leukocyte receptor complex and show a major difference for both the type and number of KIR genes present among different ethnic groups. They have been divided into two groups of 2D or 3D, depending on the number of external immunoglobulin domains. The presence of a long cytoplasmic tail with two immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM allows the transduction of inhibitory signals and characterizes the inhibitory KIRs (2DL and 3DL, whereas the presence of short cytoplasmic tails corresponds to the activating KIR receptors (2DS and 3DS.These polymorphic receptors interact with specific motifs on human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules, modulate NK cytolytic activity. Some KIRs are known to interact with HLA-C molecules of target cells, HLA-Bw4 molecules and HLA-A3/11. For some KIRs the corresponding ligands are still unknown.

  5. Involvement of direct inhibition of NMDA receptors in the effects of sigma-receptor ligands on glutamate neurotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, H; Hashino, A; Kume, T; Katsuki, H; Kaneko, S; Akaike, A

    2000-09-15

    This study was performed to examine the roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/phencyclidine (PCP) channel complex in the protective effects of sigma-receptor ligands against glutamate neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons derived from fetal rats. A 1-h exposure of cultures to glutamate caused a marked loss of viability, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion. This acute neurotoxicity of glutamate was prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. Expression of sigma(1) receptor mRNA in cortical cultures was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). sigma Receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptor channels including the PCP site, such as (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047), haloperidol, and R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane ((-)-PPAP), prevented glutamate neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, other sigma-receptor ligands without affinity for NMDA receptors, such as carbetapentane and R(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine ((+)-3-PPP), did not show neuroprotective effects. Putative endogenous sigma receptor ligands such as pregnenolone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone did not affect glutamate neurotoxicity. The protective effects of (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol, and (-)-PPAP were not affected by the sigma(1) receptor antagonist rimcazole. These results suggested that a direct interaction with NMDA receptors but not with sigma receptors plays a crucial role in the neuroprotective effects of sigma receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptors.

  6. Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Adan, R.A.H.; Szklarczyk, A.W.; Oosterom, J.; Brakkee, J.H.; Nijenhuis, W.A.; Schaaper, W.M.; Meloen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the melanocortin MC3 and melanocortin MC4 receptors are the main melanocortin receptor subtypes expressed in rat brain, we characterized the activity and affinity of nine melanocortin receptor ligands using these receptors in vitro, as well as their activity in a well-defined

  7. Ligands specify estrogen receptor alpha nuclear localization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caze-Subra Stéphanie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα is found predominately in the nucleus, both in hormone stimulated and untreated cells. Intracellular distribution of the ERα changes in the presence of agonists but the impact of different antiestrogens on the fate of ERα is a matter of debate. Results A MCF-7 cell line stably expressing GFP-tagged human ERα (SK19 cell line was created to examine the localization of ligand-bound GFP-ERα. We combined digitonin-based cell fractionation analyses with fluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy to determine the intracellular distribution of ligand-bound ERα and/or GFP-ERα. Using fluorescence- and electron microscopy we demonstrate that both endogenous ERα and GFP-ERα form numerous nuclear focal accumulations upon addition of agonist, 17β-estradiol (E2, and pure antagonists (selective estrogen regulator disruptor; SERD, ICI 182,780 or RU58,668, while in the presence of partial antagonists (selective estrogen regulator modulator; SERM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT or RU39,411, diffuse nuclear staining persisted. Digitonin based cell fractionation analyses confirmed that endogenous ERα and GFP-ERα predominantly reside in the nuclear fraction. Overall ERα protein levels were reduced after estradiol treatment. In the presence of SERMs ERα was stabilized in the nuclear soluble fraction, while in the presence of SERDs protein levels decreased drastically and the remaining ERα was largely found in a nuclear insoluble fraction. mRNA levels of ESR1 were reduced compared to untreated cells in the presence of all ligands tested, including E2. E2 and SERDs induced ERα degradation occurred in distinct nuclear foci composed of ERα and the proteasome providing a simple explanation for ERα sequestration in the nucleus. Conclusions Our results indicate that chemical structure of ligands directly affect the nuclear fate and protein turnover of the estrogen receptor alpha independently of their impact on

  8. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  9. The future of type 1 cannabinoid receptor allosteric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Laprairie, Robert B

    2018-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) holds great therapeutic potential. This is because allosteric modulators do not possess intrinsic efficacy, but instead augment (positive allosteric modulation) or diminish (negative allosteric modulation) the receptor's response to endogenous ligand. Consequently, CB1R allosteric modulators have an effect ceiling which allows for the tempering of CB1R signaling without the desensitization, tolerance, dependence, and psychoactivity associated with orthosteric compounds. Pain, movement disorders, epilepsy, obesity are all potential therapeutic targets for CB1R allosteric modulation. Several challenges exist for the development of CB1R allosteric modulators, such as receptor subtype specificity, translation to in vivo systems, and mixed allosteric/agonist/inverse agonist activity. Despite these challenges, elucidation of crystal structures of CB1R and compound design based on structure-activity relationships will advance the field. In this review, we will cover recent progress for CB1R allosteric modulators and discuss the future promise of this research.

  10. Tyrosine Kinase Ligand-Receptor Pair Prediction by Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yarimizu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases are essential proteins involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in vivo and are heavily involved in allergic diseases, diabetes, and onset/proliferation of cancerous cells. Identifying the interacting partner of this protein, a growth factor ligand, will provide a deeper understanding of cellular proliferation/differentiation and other cell processes. In this study, we developed a method for predicting tyrosine kinase ligand-receptor pairs from their amino acid sequences. We collected tyrosine kinase ligand-receptor pairs from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP and UniProtKB, filtered them by removing sequence redundancy, and used them as a dataset for machine learning and assessment of predictive performance. Our prediction method is based on support vector machines (SVMs, and we evaluated several input features suitable for tyrosine kinase for machine learning and compared and analyzed the results. Using sequence pattern information and domain information extracted from sequences as input features, we obtained 0.996 of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. This accuracy is higher than that obtained from general protein-protein interaction pair predictions.

  11. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  12. Identification of VDR Antagonists among Nuclear Receptor Ligands Using Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Teske

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we described the development of two virtual screens to identify new vitamin D receptor (VDR antagonists among nuclear receptor (NR ligands. Therefore, a database of 14330 nuclear receptor ligands and their NR affinities was assembled using the online available “Binding Database.” Two different virtual screens were carried out in conjunction with a reported VDR crystal structure applying a stringent and less stringent pharmacophore model to filter docked NR ligand conformations. The pharmacophore models were based on the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl functionalities of VDR's natural ligands 1,25(OH2D3 and 25(OH2D3. The first virtual screen identified 32 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. All but nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA are VDR ligands, which inhibited the interaction between VDR and coactivator peptide SRC2-3 with an IC50 value of 15.8 μM. The second screen identified 162 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. More than half of these ligands were developed to bind VDR followed by ERα/β ligands (26%, TRα/β ligands (7%, and LxRα/β ligands (7%. The binding between VDR and ERα ligand H6036 as well as TRα/β ligand triiodothyronine and a homoserine analog thereof was confirmed by fluorescence polarization.

  13. Novel photoaffinity ligands for the GA-receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F.; Tanaka, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) exhibit GA-like activity in a range of specific bioassays and that bioactive NSPs compete with [ 3 H]-GA 4 for soluble binding sites in cucumber homogenates. As such, these compounds may prove useful in the purification and characterization of GA receptor proteins. To this end, five azido-NSPs have been synthesized and are currently being screened for biological activity and photochemical stability. Three azido-NSPs elicit α-amylase production in barley half-seeds and stimulate tissue elongation in d 5 maize, lettuce, sunflower, and soybean. Further evaluations are in progress and these data as well as the utility of these compounds as photo-affinity ligands will be discussed

  14. Analysis of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and receptors and implications in thymus biology and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatli, Irem; Akkaya, Bahar; Uysal, Hilmi; Kahraman, Sevim; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad

    2017-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis is an autoantibody-mediated, neuromuscular junction disease, and is usually associated with thymic abnormalities presented as thymic tumors (~10%) or hyperplastic thymus (~65%). The exact role of thymus in Myasthenia Gravis development is not clear, yet many patients benefit from thymectomy. The apoptotic ligand TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand is thought to be involved in the regulation of thymocyte counts, although conflicting results are reported. We investigated differential expression profiles of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its transmembrane receptors, Nuclear Factor-kB activation status, and apoptotic cell counts in healthy thymic tissue and pathological thymus from Myasthenia Gravis patients. All tissues expressed TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its receptors, with hyperplastic tissue having the highest expression levels of death receptors DR4 and DR5. No detectable Nuclear Factor-kB activation, at least via the canonical Protein Kinase A-mediated p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, was evident in any of the tissues studied. Apoptotic cell counts were higher in MG-associated tissue compared to the normal thymus. Possible use of the TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand within the concept of an apoptotic ligand-mediated medical thymectomy in thymoma- or thymic hyperplasia-associated Myasthenia Gravis is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  16. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed

  17. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  18. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-01-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, 3 H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion ( 3 H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that 3 H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin

  19. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  20. Engineering of Olfactory Receptor OlfCc1 for Directed Ligand Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, Allison Paige

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Engineering of Olfactory Receptor OlfCc1 for Directed Ligand Sensitivityby Allison Paige Berke Joint Doctor of Philosophywith the University of California San FranciscoUniversity of California, Berkeley Professor Song Li, ChairDue to structural similarity, OlfCc1and its mammalian analogue V2R2 are hypothesized to respond to amino acid ligands in a calcium-mediated fashion. By analyzing receptor structure and making targeted mutations, the specificity and sensitivity of the receptor s...

  1. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ligand interactions: structural cross talk between ligands and the extracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham M West

    Full Text Available Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R. In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands.

  3. Divergent Ah Receptor Ligand Selectivity during Hominin Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Troy D; Murray, Iain A; Bisson, William H; Sullivan, Alexis P; Sebastian, Aswathy; Perry, George H; Jablonski, Nina G; Perdew, Gary H

    2016-10-01

    We have identified a fixed nonsynonymous sequence difference between humans (Val381; derived variant) and Neandertals (Ala381; ancestral variant) in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In an exome sequence analysis of four Neandertal and Denisovan individuals compared with nine modern humans, there are only 90 total nucleotide sites genome-wide for which archaic hominins are fixed for the ancestral nonsynonymous variant and the modern humans are fixed for the derived variant. Of those sites, only 27, including Val381 in the AHR, also have no reported variability in the human dbSNP database, further suggesting that this highly conserved functional variant is a rare event. Functional analysis of the amino acid variant Ala381 within the AHR carried by Neandertals and nonhuman primates indicate enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) binding, DNA binding capacity, and AHR mediated transcriptional activity compared with the human AHR. Also relative to human AHR, the Neandertal AHR exhibited 150-1000 times greater sensitivity to induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression by PAHs (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). The resulting CYP1A1/CYP1B1 enzymes are responsible for PAH first pass metabolism, which can result in the generation of toxic intermediates and perhaps AHR-associated toxicities. In contrast, the human AHR retains the ancestral sensitivity observed in primates to nontoxic endogenous AHR ligands (e.g., indole, indoxyl sulfate). Our findings reveal that a functionally significant change in the AHR occurred uniquely in humans, relative to other primates, that would attenuate the response to many environmental pollutants, including chemicals present in smoke from fire use during cooking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Emerging Roles for CSF-1 Receptor and its Ligands in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Nandi, Sayan; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard

    2016-01-01

    The colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase regulates tissue macrophage homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, and Paneth cell development. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that CSF-1R signaling directly controls the development and maintenance of microglia, and cell autonomously regulates neuronal differentiation and survival. While the CSF-1R-cognate ligands, CSF-1 and interleukin-34 (IL-34), compete for binding to the CSF-1R, they are expressed in a largely non-overlapping manner by mature neurons. The recent identification of a dominantly inherited, adult-onset, progressive dementia associated with inactivating mutations in the CSF-1R highlights the importance of CSF-1R signaling in the brain. We review the roles of the CSF-1R and its ligands in microglial and neural development and function, and their relevance to our understanding of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27083478

  5. Regulation of Epithelial Morphogenesis by the G-Protein Coupled Receptor Mist and its Ligand Fog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is essential for shaping organs and tissues and for establishment of the three embryonic germ layers during gastrulation. Studies of gastrulation in Drosophila have provided insight into how epithelial morphogenesis is governed by developmental patterning mechanisms. We developed an assay to recapitulate morphogenetic shape changes in individual cultured cells, and used RNAi-based screening to identify Mist, a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces signals from the secreted ligand Folded gastrulation (Fog) in cultured cells. Mist functioned in Fog-dependent embryonic morphogenesis, and the transcription factor Snail regulated expression of mist in zygotes. Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. PMID:24222713

  6. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily for cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand and cognate TNF receptor superfamilies constitute an important regulatory axis that is pivotal for immune homeostasis and correct execution of immune responses. TNF ligands and receptors are involved in diverse biological processes ranging from the selective

  8. MIBE acts as antagonist ligand of both estrogen receptor α and GPER in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Santolla, Maria Francesca; Pupo, Marco; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna; Rosano, Camillo; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2012-01-17

    The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ERα exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ERα and GPER in breast cancer cells. Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ERα and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ERα and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at the beginning and/or during tumor

  9. A response calculus for immobilized T cell receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Menné, C; Mariuzza, R A

    2001-01-01

    determine the level of T cell activation. When fitted to T cell responses against purified ligands immobilized on plastic surfaces, the 2D-affinity model adequately simulated changes in cellular activation as a result of varying ligand affinity and ligand density. These observations further demonstrated...

  10. 1,2,3-triazolyl amino acids as AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Nathan J.; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system glutamate receptors are an important target for drug discovery. Herein we report initial investigations into the synthesis and glutamate receptor activity of 1,2,3-triazolyl amino acids. Two compounds were found to be selective AMPA receptor ligands, which warrant further...

  11. Structural determinants for selective recognition of peptide ligands for endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lättig, Jens; Oksche, Alexander; Beyermann, Michael; Rosenthal, Walter; Krause, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    The molecular basis for recognition of peptide ligands endothelin-1, -2 and -3 in endothelin receptors is poorly understood. Especially the origin of ligand selectivity for ET(A) or ET(B) is not clearly resolved. We derived sequence-structure-function relationships of peptides and receptors from mutational data and homology modeling. Our major findings are the dissection of peptide ligands into four epitopes and the delineation of four complementary structural portions on receptor side explaining ligand recognition in both endothelin receptor subtypes. In addition, structural determinants for ligand selectivity could be described. As a result, we could improve the selectivity of BQ3020 about 10-fold by a single amino acid substitution, validating our hypothesis for ligand selectivity caused by different entrances to the receptors' transmembrane binding sites. A narrow tunnel shape in ET(A) is restrictive for a selected group of peptide ligands' N-termini, whereas a broad funnel-shaped entrance in ET(B) accepts a variety of different shapes and properties of ligands.

  12. Monitoring ligand-receptor interactions by photonic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeney, Sylvia [M E Mueller Institute for Structural Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, Basel, 4056 (Switzerland); Mor, Flavio; Forro, Laszlo [Laboratory of Complex Matter Physics (LPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Koszali, Roland [Institute for Information and Communication Technologies (IICT), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD), Rue Galilee 15, CH 1401 Yverdon-les-bains (Switzerland); Moy, Vincent T, E-mail: sylvia.jeney@unibas.ch, E-mail: vmoy@miami.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1600 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2010-06-25

    We introduce a method for the acquisition of single molecule force measurements of ligand-receptor interactions using the photonic force microscope (PFM). Biotin-functionalized beads, manipulated with an optical trap, and a streptavidin-functionalized coverslip were used to measure the effect of different pulling forces on the lifetime of individual streptavidin-biotin complexes. By optimizing the design of the optical trap and selection of the appropriate bead size, pulling forces in excess of 50 pN were achieved. Based on the amplitude of three-dimensional (3D) thermal position fluctuations of the attached bead, we were able to select for a bead-coverslip interaction that was mediated by a single streptavidin-biotin complex. Moreover, the developed experimental system was greatly accelerated by automation of data acquisition and analysis. In force-dependent kinetic measurements carried out between streptavidin and biotin, we observed that the streptavidin-biotin complex exhibited properties of a catch bond, with the lifetime increasing tenfold when the pulling force increased from 10 to 20 pN. We also show that silica beads were more appropriate than polystyrene beads for the force measurements, as tethers, longer than 200 nm, could be extracted from polystyrene beads.

  13. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  14. Monitoring ligand-receptor interactions by photonic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeney, Sylvia; Mor, Flavio; Forro, Laszlo; Koszali, Roland; Moy, Vincent T

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for the acquisition of single molecule force measurements of ligand-receptor interactions using the photonic force microscope (PFM). Biotin-functionalized beads, manipulated with an optical trap, and a streptavidin-functionalized coverslip were used to measure the effect of different pulling forces on the lifetime of individual streptavidin-biotin complexes. By optimizing the design of the optical trap and selection of the appropriate bead size, pulling forces in excess of 50 pN were achieved. Based on the amplitude of three-dimensional (3D) thermal position fluctuations of the attached bead, we were able to select for a bead-coverslip interaction that was mediated by a single streptavidin-biotin complex. Moreover, the developed experimental system was greatly accelerated by automation of data acquisition and analysis. In force-dependent kinetic measurements carried out between streptavidin and biotin, we observed that the streptavidin-biotin complex exhibited properties of a catch bond, with the lifetime increasing tenfold when the pulling force increased from 10 to 20 pN. We also show that silica beads were more appropriate than polystyrene beads for the force measurements, as tethers, longer than 200 nm, could be extracted from polystyrene beads.

  15. Do orphan G-protein-coupled receptors have ligand-independent functions? New insights from receptor heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Levoye, Angélique; Dam, Julie; Ayoub, Mohammed A; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important drug targets and are involved in virtually every biological process. However, there are still more than 140 orphan GPCRs, and deciphering their function remains a priority for fundamental and clinical research. Research on orphan GPCRs has concentrated mainly on the identification of their natural ligands, whereas recent data suggest additional ligand-independent functions for these receptors. This emerging concept is connected with the observ...

  16. Generation of signaling specificity in Arabidopsis by spatially restricted buffering of ligand-receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash, Emily B; Davies, Kelli A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2011-08-01

    Core signaling pathways function in multiple programs during multicellular development. The mechanisms that compartmentalize pathway function or confer process specificity, however, remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA (ER) family receptors have major roles in many growth and cell fate decisions. The ER family acts with receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and several ligands of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKE (EPFL) family, which play distinct yet overlapping roles in patterning of epidermal stomata. Here, our examination of EPFL genes EPFL6/CHALLAH (CHAL), EPFL5/CHALLAH-LIKE1, and EPFL4/CHALLAH-LIKE2 (CLL2) reveals that this family may mediate additional ER-dependent processes. chal cll2 mutants display growth phenotypes characteristic of er mutants, and genetic interactions are consistent with CHAL family molecules acting as ER family ligands. We propose that different classes of EPFL genes regulate different aspects of ER family function and introduce a TMM-based discriminatory mechanism that permits simultaneous, yet compartmentalized and distinct, function of the ER family receptors in growth and epidermal patterning.

  17. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-04-28

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand.

  18. Multiple pathways of sigma(1) receptor ligand uptakes into primary cultured neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Karasawa, J; Sagi, N; Takahashi, S; Horikomi, K; Okuyama, S; Nukada, T; Sora, I; Yamamoto, T

    2001-08-03

    Although many antipsychotics have affinities for sigma receptors, the transportation pathway of exogenous sigma(1) receptor ligands to intracellular type-1 sigma receptors are not fully understood. In this study, sigma(1) receptor ligand uptakes were studied using primary cultured neuronal cells. [(3)H](+)-pentazocine and [(3)H](R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377), used as a selective sigma(1) receptor ligands, were taken up in a time-, energy- and temperature-dependent manner, suggesting that active transport mechanisms were involved in their uptakes. sigma(1) receptor ligands taken up into primary cultured neuronal cells were not restricted to agonists, but also concerned antagonists. The uptakes of these ligands were mainly Na(+)-independent. Kinetic analysis of [(3)H](+)-pentazocine and [(3)H]MS-377 uptake showed K(m) values (microM) of 0.27 and 0.32, and V(max) values (pmol/mg protein/min) of 17.4 and 9.4, respectively. Although both ligands were incorporated, the pharmacological properties of these two ligands were different. Uptake of [(3)H](+)-pentazocine was inhibited in the range 0.4-7.1 microM by all the sigma(1) receptor ligands used, including N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100), a selective sigma(1) receptor ligand. In contrast, the inhibition of [(3)H]MS-377 uptake was potently inhibited by haloperidol, characterized by supersensitivity (IC(50), approximately 2 nM) and was inhibited by NE-100 with low sensitivity (IC(50), 4.5 microM). Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that NE-100 inhibited [(3)H]MS-377 uptake in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that NE-100 acted at a site different from the uptake sites of [(3)H]MS-377. These findings suggest that there are at least two uptake pathways for sigma(1) receptor ligands in primary cultured neuronal cells (i.e. a haloperidol-sensitive pathway and another, unclear, pathway). In

  19. Crystallographic analysis of murine constitutive androstane receptor ligand-binding domain complexed with 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Jeremy; Shan, Li; Fan, Ming; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Forman, Barry M.; Fernandez, Elias J.

    2004-01-01

    The purification and structure determination of the murine constitutive androstane receptor bound to its inverse agonist/antagonist androstenol is described. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In contrast to classical nuclear receptors, which possess small-molecule ligand-inducible activity, CAR exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity in the apparent absence of ligand. CAR is among the most important transcription factors; it coordinately regulates the expression of microsomal cytochrome P450 genes and other drug-metabolizing enzymes. The murine CAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) was coexpressed with the steroid receptor coactivator protein (SRC-1) receptor-interacting domain (RID) in Escherichia coli. The mCAR LBD subunit was purified away from SRC-1 by affinity, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, crystallized with androstenol and the structure of the complex determined by molecular replacement

  20. Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of some genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification and apoptosis is performed via the human pregnane X receptor (PXR which in turn is activated by structurally diverse agonists including steroid hormones. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, altering drug pharmacokinetics or perturbing physiological processes. Reliable computational prediction of PXR agonists would be valuable for pharmaceutical and toxicological research. There has been limited success with structure-based modeling approaches to predict human PXR activators. Slightly better success has been achieved with ligand-based modeling methods including quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR analysis, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis focused on prediction of 115 steroids for ligand binding activity towards human PXR. Six crystal structures were used as templates for docking and ligand-based modeling approaches (two-, three-, four- and five-dimensional analyses. The best success at external prediction was achieved with 5D-QSAR. Bayesian models with FCFP_6 descriptors were validated after leaving a large percentage of the dataset out and using an external test set. Docking of ligands to the PXR structure co-crystallized with hyperforin had the best statistics for this method. Sulfated steroids (which are activators were consistently predicted as non-activators while, poorly predicted steroids were docked in a reverse mode compared to 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol. Modeling of human PXR represents a complex challenge by virtue of the large, flexible ligand-binding cavity. This study emphasizes this aspect, illustrating modest success using the largest quantitative data set to date and multiple modeling approaches.

  1. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  2. Is the isolated ligand binding domain a good model of the domain in the native receptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Dustin; Cheng, Qing; Jayaraman, Vasanthi

    2003-05-16

    Numerous studies have used the atomic level structure of the isolated ligand binding domain of the glutamate receptor to elucidate the agonist-induced activation and desensitization processes in this group of proteins. However, no study has demonstrated the structural equivalence of the isolated ligand binding fragments and the protein in the native receptor. In this report, using visible absorption spectroscopy we show that the electronic environment of the antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline is identical for the isolated protein and the native glutamate receptors expressed in cells. Our results hence establish that the local structure of the ligand binding site is the same in the two proteins and validate the detailed structure-function relationships that have been developed based on a comparison of the structure of the isolated ligand binding domain and electrophysiological consequences in the native receptor.

  3. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  4. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Hildebrand

    Full Text Available The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7, and B (between TM5 and 6, respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all

  5. Comparative tissue distribution of conformationally restricted radioiodinated vesamicol receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efange, S M.N.; Khare, A B; Langason, R B

    1995-05-01

    Three conformationally restricted analogs of vesamicol, 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl]-spirol[1H-indene-1,4'- piperidine] (5), 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl]-3,4-dihydrospiro[indene-1,4'- piperidine] (6) and 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl)]-3,4-dihydrospiro[naphthalene- 1(2H),4'-piperidine] (7), were labelled with iodine-125 and evaluated as potential radioligands for mapping vesamicol receptor (VR) density and cholinergic function in vivo. All compounds showed similar kinetics in most tissues. However, differences were observed in the brain. Although comparable levels of each corresponding enantiomeric pair were obtained initially in the brain, the levels of the dextrorotatory enantiomers (+)-5, (+)-6 and (+)-7 were found to decrease by 72-82% over a period of 3 h. In contrast, the brain levels of the corresponding levorotatory isomers were maintained throughout the duration of the experiment. Among the dextrorotatory isomers, (+)-6 showed the highest brain extraction, while (+)-7 showed the lowest. In tissue dissection experiments, the levels of (+)-5, (+)-6 and (+)-7 were highest in the striatum and moderate to low in the cortex and cerebellum. Co-administration of haloperidol with (+)-6 decreased the levels of the latter in the striatum by 27%, while the levels in the cortex and cerebellum were each reduced by 60%. In addition, haloperidol failed to affect the regional distribution of (+)-7 in the brain. However, both haloperidol and spiperone increased the striatal levels of (+)-5 by 67 and 76%, respectively, suggesting that the binding of this radioligand is related to cholinergic function. Furthermore, haloperidol reduced the concentration of (+)-5 in the cortex and cerebellum by 25 and 33%, respectively, thereby implicating the sigma site as a secondary target for this ligand in the cortex.

  6. Comparative tissue distribution of conformationally restricted radioiodinated vesamicol receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Khare, A.B.; Langason, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Three conformationally restricted analogs of vesamicol, 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl]-spirol[1H-indene-1,4'- piperidine] (5), 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl]-3,4-dihydrospiro[indene-1,4'- piperidine] (6) and 1'-[1-(3-iodobenzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-3-yl)-3,4-dihydrospiro[naphthalene- 1(2H),4'-piperidine] (7), were labelled with iodine-125 and evaluated as potential radioligands for mapping vesamicol receptor (VR) density and cholinergic function in vivo. All compounds showed similar kinetics in most tissues. However, differences were observed in the brain. Although comparable levels of each corresponding enantiomeric pair were obtained initially in the brain, the levels of the dextrorotatory enantiomers (+)-5, (+)-6 and (+)-7 were found to decrease by 72-82% over a period of 3 h. In contrast, the brain levels of the corresponding levorotatory isomers were maintained throughout the duration of the experiment. Among the dextrorotatory isomers, (+)-6 showed the highest brain extraction, while (+)-7 showed the lowest. In tissue dissection experiments, the levels of (+)-5, (+)-6 and (+)-7 were highest in the striatum and moderate to low in the cortex and cerebellum. Co-administration of haloperidol with (+)-6 decreased the levels of the latter in the striatum by 27%, while the levels in the cortex and cerebellum were each reduced by 60%. In addition, haloperidol failed to affect the regional distribution of (+)-7 in the brain. However, both haloperidol and spiperone increased the striatal levels of (+)-5 by 67 and 76%, respectively, suggesting that the binding of this radioligand is related to cholinergic function. Furthermore, haloperidol reduced the concentration of (+)-5 in the cortex and cerebellum by 25 and 33%, respectively, thereby implicating the sigma site as a secondary target for this ligand in the cortex

  7. Identification of novel peptide ligands for the cancer-specific receptor mutation EFGRvIII using a mixture-based synthetic combinatorial library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denholt, Charlotte Lund; Hansen, Paul Robert; Pedersen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    We report here, the design and synthesis of a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library for the identification of novel peptide ligands targeted against the cancer-specific epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase receptor mutation variant III (EGFRvIII). This receptor is expressed in se...

  8. Complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) analysis of intermolecular saturation transfer effects in reversibly forming ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, V; Krishna, N Rama

    2002-03-01

    A couple of recent applications of intermolecular NOE (INOE) experiments as applied to biomolecular systems involve the (i) saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) method and (ii) the intermolecular cross-saturation NMR (ICS-NMR) experiment. STD-NMR is a promising tool for rapid screening of a large library of compounds to identify bioactive ligands binding to a target protein. Additionally, it is also useful in mapping the binding epitopes presented by a bioactive ligand to its target protein. In this latter application, the STD-NMR technique is essentially similar to the ICS-NMR experiment, which is used to map protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid contact surfaces in complexes. In this work, we present a complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) theory (H. N. B. Moseley et al., J. Magn. Reson. B 108, 243-261 (1995)) applicable for these two closely related experiments. As in our previous work, we show that when exchange is fast on the relaxation rate scale, a simplified CORCEMA theory can be formulated using a generalized average relaxation rate matrix. Its range of validity is established by comparing its predictions with those of the exact CORCEMA theory which is valid for all exchange rates. Using some ideal model systems we have analyzed the factors that influence the ligand proton intensity changes when the resonances from some protons on the receptor protein are saturated. The results show that the intensity changes in the ligand signals in an intermolecular NOE experiment are very much dependent upon: (1) the saturation time, (2) the location of the saturated receptor protons with respect to the ligand protons, (3) the conformation of the ligand-receptor interface, (4) the rotational correlation times for the molecular species, (5) the kinetics of the reversibly forming complex, and (6) the ligand/receptor ratio. As an example of a typical application of the STD-NMR experiment we have also simulated the STD effects for a

  9. Structural insights into human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPAR-delta selective ligand binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A H Batista

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs δ, α and γ are closely related transcription factors that exert distinct effects on fatty acid and glucose metabolism, cardiac disease, inflammatory response and other processes. Several groups developed PPAR subtype specific modulators to trigger desirable effects of particular PPARs without harmful side effects associated with activation of other subtypes. Presently, however, many compounds that bind to one of the PPARs cross-react with others and rational strategies to obtain highly selective PPAR modulators are far from clear. GW0742 is a synthetic ligand that binds PPARδ more than 300-fold more tightly than PPARα or PPARγ but the structural basis of PPARδ:GW0742 interactions and reasons for strong selectivity are not clear. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPARδ:GW0742 complex. Comparisons of the PPARδ:GW0742 complex with published structures of PPARs in complex with α and γ selective agonists and pan agonists suggests that two residues (Val312 and Ile328 in the buried hormone binding pocket play special roles in PPARδ selective binding and experimental and computational analysis of effects of mutations in these residues confirms this and suggests that bulky substituents that line the PPARα and γ ligand binding pockets as structural barriers for GW0742 binding. This analysis suggests general strategies for selective PPARδ ligand design.

  10. Endogenous ligands for C-type lectin receptors: the true regulators of immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2009-07-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have long been known as pattern-recognition receptors implicated in the recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system. However, evidence is accumulating that many CLRs are also able to recognize endogenous 'self' ligands and that this recognition event often plays an important role in immune homeostasis. In the present review, we focus on the human and mouse CLRs for which endogenous ligands have been described. Special attention is given to the signaling events initiated upon recognition of the self ligand and the regulation of glycosylation as a switch modulating CLR recognition, and therefore, immune homeostasis.

  11. A highly sensitive quantitative cytosensor technique for the identification of receptor ligands in tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, Z; Beaudet, A; Chartrel, N; De Mota, N; Irinopoulou, T; Braun, B; Vaudry, H; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2000-11-01

    Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute excellent putative therapeutic targets, functional characterization of orphan GPCRs through identification of their endogenous ligands has great potential for drug discovery. We propose here a novel single cell-based assay for identification of these ligands. This assay involves (a) fluorescent tagging of the GPCR, (b) expression of the tagged receptor in a heterologous expression system, (c) incubation of the transfected cells with fractions purified from tissue extracts, and (d) imaging of ligand-induced receptor internalization by confocal microscopy coupled to digital image quantification. We tested this approach in CHO cells stably expressing the NT1 neurotensin receptor fused to EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), in which neurotensin promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor in a dose-dependent fashion (EC(50) = 0.98 nM). Similarly, four of 120 consecutive reversed-phase HPLC fractions of frog brain extracts promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor. The same four fractions selectively contained neurotensin, an endogenous ligand of the NT1 receptor, as detected by radioimmunoassay and inositol phosphate production. The present internalization assay provides a highly specific quantitative cytosensor technique with sensitivity in the nanomolar range that should prove useful for the identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands for GPCRs.

  12. Steroid receptor coactivator 1 deficiency increases MMTV-neu mediated tumor latency and differentiation specific gene expression, decreases metastasis, and inhibits response to PPAR ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Seung; Crowe, David L

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily is activated by a variety of natural and synthetic ligands. PPARs can heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors, which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Ligand binding to PPAR/RXRs results in recruitment of transcriptional coactivator proteins such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding protein (CBP). Both SRC-1 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases, which by modifying nucleosomal histones, produce more open chromatin structure and increase transcriptional activity. Nuclear hormone receptors can recruit limiting amounts of coactivators from other transcription factor binding sites such as AP-1, thereby inhibiting the activity of AP-1 target genes. PPAR and RXR ligands have been used in experimental breast cancer therapy. The role of coactivator expression in mammary tumorigenesis and response to drug therapy has been the subject of recent studies. We examined the effects of loss of SRC-1 on MMTV-neu mediated mammary tumorigenesis. SRC-1 null mutation in mammary tumor prone mice increased the tumor latency period, reduced tumor proliferation index and metastasis, inhibited response to PPAR and RXR ligands, and induced genes involved in mammary gland differentiation. We also examined human breast cancer cell lines overexpressing SRC-1 or CBP. Coactivator overexpression increased cellular proliferation with resistance to PPAR and RXR ligands and remodeled chromatin of the proximal epidermal growth factor receptor promoter. These results indicate that histone acetyltransferases play key roles in mammary tumorigenesis and response to anti-proliferative therapies

  13. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S

    2001-01-01

    Similar to native peptide/MHC ligands, bacterial superantigens have been found to bind with low affinity to the T cell receptor (TCR). It has been hypothesized that low ligand affinity is required to allow optimal TCR signaling. To test this, we generated variants of Staphylococcus enterotoxin C3...... (SEC3) with up to a 150-fold increase in TCR affinity. By stimulating T cells with SEC3 molecules immobilized onto plastic surfaces, we demonstrate that increasing the affinity of the SEC3/TCR interaction caused a proportional increase in the ability of SEC3 to activate T cells. Thus, the potency...... correlation between ligand affinity and ligand potency indicating that it is the density of receptor-ligand complexes in the T cell contact area that determines TCR signaling strength....

  14. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  15. Free energy calculations offer insights into the influence of receptor flexibility on ligand-receptor binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jožica; Riniker, Sereina; Gaspari, Roberto; Daura, Xavier; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2011-08-01

    Docking algorithms for computer-aided drug discovery and design often ignore or restrain the flexibility of the receptor, which may lead to a loss of accuracy of the relative free enthalpies of binding. In order to evaluate the contribution of receptor flexibility to relative binding free enthalpies, two host-guest systems have been examined: inclusion complexes of α-cyclodextrin (αCD) with 1-chlorobenzene (ClBn), 1-bromobenzene (BrBn) and toluene (MeBn), and complexes of DNA with the minor-groove binding ligands netropsin (Net) and distamycin (Dist). Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that restraining of the flexibility of the receptor can have a significant influence on the estimated relative ligand-receptor binding affinities as well as on the predicted structures of the biomolecular complexes. The influence is particularly pronounced in the case of flexible receptors such as DNA, where a 50% contribution of DNA flexibility towards the relative ligand-DNA binding affinities is observed. The differences in the free enthalpy of binding do not arise only from the changes in ligand-DNA interactions but also from changes in ligand-solvent interactions as well as from the loss of DNA configurational entropy upon restraining.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of peptide and nucleic acid based Toll-like receptor ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterings, Josephus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are receptors that continuously scour their direct surroundings for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of bacterial, viral or fungal origin. TLRs can be found at cells that play a role in the immune system. Binding of the TLR with its corresponding ligand

  17. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...... that ligand-mediated regulation of receptor-PTPases may have mechanistic similarities with receptor tyrosine kinases....

  18. Analysis of receptor signaling pathways by mass spectrometry: identification of vav-2 as a substrate of the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Podtelejnikov, A V; Blagoev, B

    2000-01-01

    Oligomerization of receptor protein tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by their cognate ligands leads to activation of the receptor. Transphosphorylation of the receptor subunits is followed by the recruitment of signaling molecules containing src homology 2 (SH2...

  19. PET and Hormone Receptor Ligands in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gemignani, Mary

    2006-01-01

    .... To investigate this further, this project's objectives are: To evaluate the use of estrogen-like ligands labeled with positron emitters in preoperatively determining the ER status of breast cancer using PET...

  20. Dynamical Binding Modes Determine Agonistic and Antagonistic Ligand Effects in the Prostate-Specific G-Protein Coupled Receptor (PSGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steffen; Jovancevic, Nikolina; Gelis, Lian; Pietsch, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Gerwert, Klaus

    2017-11-22

    We analysed the ligand-based activation mechanism of the prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor (PSGR), which is an olfactory receptor that mediates cellular growth in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, it is an olfactory receptor with a known chemically near identic antagonist/agonist pair, α- and β-ionone. Using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we propose that this receptor is activated by a ligand-induced rearrangement of a protein-internal hydrogen bond network. Surprisingly, this rearrangement is not induced by interaction of the ligand with the network, but by dynamic van der Waals contacts of the ligand with the involved amino acid side chains, altering their conformations and intraprotein connectivity. Ligand recognition in this GPCR is therefore highly stereo selective, but seemingly lacks any ligand recognition via polar contacts. A putative olfactory receptor-based drug design scheme will have to take this unique mode of protein/ligand action into account.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of 17 alpha-(carboranylalkyl)estradiols as ligands for estrogen receptors alpha and beta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlák, David; Eignerová, Barbara; Dračínský, Martin; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Bartůněk, Petr; Kotora, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 747, 1.12.2013 (2013), s. 178-183 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk LM2011022; GA ČR GA204/09/1905 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : carborane * estradiol * metathesis * estrogen receptor * steroid ligand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2013

  2. Antibody-induced dimerization activates the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, M.; Defize, L. H.; Boonstra, J.; de Laat, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) protein tyrosine kinase activation and ligand-induced receptor dimerization was investigated using several bivalent anti-EGF-R antibodies directed against various receptor epitopes. In A431 membrane preparations and permeabilized

  3. Ligand-induced internalization of neurotensin in transfected COS-7 cells: differential intracellular trafficking of ligand and receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, F; Nouel, D; Vincent, J P; Mazella, J; Beaudet, A

    2000-09-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is known to be internalized in a receptor-mediated fashion into its target cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this process, we monitored in parallel the migration of the NT1 neurotensin receptor subtype and a fluorescent analog of NT (fluo-NT) in COS-7 cells transfected with a tagged NT1 construct. Fluo-NT internalization was prevented by hypertonic sucrose, potassium depletion and cytosol acidification, demonstrating that it proceeded via clathrin-coated pits. Within 0-30 minutes, fluo-NT accumulated together with its receptor in Acridine Orange-positive, acidic organelles. These organelles concentrated transferrin and immunostained positively for rab 5A, therefore they were early endosomes. After 30-45 minutes, the ligand and its receptor no longer colocalized. Fluo-NT was first found in rab 7-positive late endosomes and later in a nonacidic juxtanuclear compartment identified as the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) by virtue of its staining for syntaxin 6. This juxtanuclear compartment also stained positively for rab 7 and for the TGN/pericentriolar recycling endosome marker rab 11, suggesting that the ligand could have been recruited to the TGN from either late or recycling endosomes. By that time, internalized receptors were detected in Lamp-1-immunoreactive lysosomes. These results demonstrate that neurotensin/NT1 receptor complexes follow a recycling cycle that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptors studied to date, and provide the first evidence for the targeting of a nonendogenous protein from endosomes to the TGN.

  4. Modelling the interdependence between the stoichiometry of receptor oligomerization and ligand binding for a coexisting dimer/tetramer receptor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, X; Vivó, M; Serra, J; Roche, D; Strange, P G; Giraldo, J

    2009-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors have been shown to exist as oligomers, but the oligomerization state and the effects of this on receptor function are unclear. For some G protein-coupled receptors, in ligand binding assays, different radioligands provide different maximal binding capacities. Here we have developed mathematical models for co-expressed dimeric and tetrameric species of receptors. We have considered models where the dimers and tetramers are in equilibrium and where they do not interconvert and we have also considered the potential influence of the ligands on the degree of oligomerization. By analogy with agonist efficacy, we have considered ligands that promote, inhibit or have no effect on oligomerization. Cell surface receptor expression and the intrinsic capacity of receptors to oligomerize are quantitative parameters of the equations. The models can account for differences in the maximal binding capacities of radioligands in different preparations of receptors and provide a conceptual framework for simulation and data fitting in complex oligomeric receptor situations.

  5. Ligand-independent Thrombopoietin Mutant Receptor Requires Cell Surface Localization for Endogenous Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Caroline; Chaligné, Ronan; Lacout, Catherine; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Vainchenker, William; Villeval, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The activating W515L mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) has been identified in primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia. MPL belongs to a subset of the cytokine receptor superfamily that requires the JAK2 kinase for signaling. We examined whether the ligand-independent MPLW515L mutant could signal intracellularly. Addition of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention KDEL sequence to the receptor C terminus efficiently locked MPLW515L within its na...

  6. NNAlign: a platform to construct and evaluate artificial neural network models of receptor-ligand interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Andreatta, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Peptides are extensively used to characterize functional or (linear) structural aspects of receptor-ligand interactions in biological systems, e.g. SH2, SH3, PDZ peptide-recognition domains, the MHC membrane receptors and enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases. NNAlign is a method for the ident...... with insertions and deletions, encoding of receptor pseudo-sequences, and custom alphabets for the training sequences. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NNAlign-2.0....

  7. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  8. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, G

    2012-02-03

    Fas ligand (FasL\\/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE(2) increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E(2)-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE(2) positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE(2).

  10. A live zebrafish-based screening system for human nuclear receptor ligand and cofactor discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenbach, Jens; Moll, Pamela R; Nelson, Meryl R; Hu, Chun; Baev, Lilia; Kislinger, Thomas; Krause, Henry M

    2010-03-22

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to a superfamily of transcription factors that regulate numerous homeostatic, metabolic and reproductive processes. Taken together with their modulation by small lipophilic molecules, they also represent an important and successful class of drug targets. Although many NRs have been targeted successfully, the majority have not, and one third are still orphans. Here we report the development of an in vivo GFP-based reporter system suitable for monitoring NR activities in all cells and tissues using live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The human NR fusion proteins used also contain a new affinity tag cassette allowing the purification of receptors with bound molecules from responsive tissues. We show that these constructs 1) respond as expected to endogenous zebrafish hormones and cofactors, 2) facilitate efficient receptor and cofactor purification, 3) respond robustly to NR hormones and drugs and 4) yield readily quantifiable signals. Transgenic lines representing the majority of human NRs have been established and are available for the investigation of tissue- and isoform-specific ligands and cofactors.

  11. A live zebrafish-based screening system for human nuclear receptor ligand and cofactor discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Tiefenbach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs belong to a superfamily of transcription factors that regulate numerous homeostatic, metabolic and reproductive processes. Taken together with their modulation by small lipophilic molecules, they also represent an important and successful class of drug targets. Although many NRs have been targeted successfully, the majority have not, and one third are still orphans. Here we report the development of an in vivo GFP-based reporter system suitable for monitoring NR activities in all cells and tissues using live zebrafish (Danio rerio. The human NR fusion proteins used also contain a new affinity tag cassette allowing the purification of receptors with bound molecules from responsive tissues. We show that these constructs 1 respond as expected to endogenous zebrafish hormones and cofactors, 2 facilitate efficient receptor and cofactor purification, 3 respond robustly to NR hormones and drugs and 4 yield readily quantifiable signals. Transgenic lines representing the majority of human NRs have been established and are available for the investigation of tissue- and isoform-specific ligands and cofactors.

  12. Drosophila insulin release is triggered by adipose Stunted ligand to brain Methuselah receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Renald; Meschi, Eleonora; Agrawal, Neha; Mauri, Alessandra; Tsatskis, Yonit; McNeill, Helen; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-09-30

    Animals adapt their growth rate and body size to available nutrients by a general modulation of insulin-insulin-like growth factor signaling. In Drosophila, dietary amino acids promote the release in the hemolymph of brain insulin-like peptides (Dilps), which in turn activate systemic organ growth. Dilp secretion by insulin-producing cells involves a relay through unknown cytokines produced by fat cells. Here, we identify Methuselah (Mth) as a secretin-incretin receptor subfamily member required in the insulin-producing cells for proper nutrient coupling. We further show, using genetic and ex vivo organ culture experiments, that the Mth ligand Stunted (Sun) is a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells. Therefore, Sun and Mth define a new cross-organ circuitry that modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Interactions of ligands with active and inactive conformations of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, A; Mohell, N; Backlund Höök, B; Johansson, A M; Hacksell, U; Nordvall, G

    1998-04-10

    The affinities of 19 pharmacologically diverse dopamine D2 receptor ligands were determined for the active and inactive conformations of cloned human dopamine D2 receptors expressed in Ltk cells. The agonist [3H]quinpirole was used to selectively label the guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled, active receptor conformation. The antagonist [3H]raclopride, in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP-analogue Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions and in the absence of magnesium ions, was used to label the free inactive receptor conformation. The intrinsic activities of the ligands were determined in a forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP assay using the same cells. An excellent correlation was shown between the affinity ratios (KR/KRG) of the ligands for the two receptor conformations and their intrinsic activity (r=0.96). The ligands included eight structurally related and enantiopure 2-aminotetralin derivatives; the enantiomers of 5-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-methoxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-fluoro-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin and 2-(dipropylamino)tetralin. The (S)-enantiomers behaved as full agonists in the cyclic AMP assay and displayed a large KR/KRG ratio. The (R)-enantiomers were classified as partial agonists and had lower ratios. The structure-affinity relationships of these compounds at the active and the inactive receptor conformations were analysed separately, and used in conjunction with a homology based receptor model of the dopamine D2 receptor. This led to proposed binding modes for agonists, antagonists and partial agonists in the 2-aminotetralin series. The concepts used in this study should be of value in the design of ligands with predetermined affinity and intrinsic activity.

  14. Generating "fragment-based virtual library" using pocket similarity search of ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Raed S

    2015-01-01

    As the number of available ligand-receptor complexes is increasing, researchers are becoming more dedicated to mine these complexes to aid in the drug design and development process. We present free software which is developed as a tool for performing similarity search across ligand-receptor complexes for identifying binding pockets which are similar to that of a target receptor. The search is based on 3D-geometric and chemical similarity of the atoms forming the binding pocket. For each match identified, the ligand's fragment(s) corresponding to that binding pocket are extracted, thus forming a virtual library of fragments (FragVLib) that is useful for structure-based drug design. The program provides a very useful tool to explore available databases.

  15. Importance of the pharmacological profile of the bound ligand in enrichment on nuclear receptors: toward the use of experimentally validated decoy ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2014-10-27

    The evaluation of virtual ligand screening methods is of major importance to ensure their reliability. Taking into account the agonist/antagonist pharmacological profile should improve the quality of the benchmarking data sets since ligand binding can induce conformational changes in the nuclear receptor structure and such changes may vary according to the agonist/antagonist ligand profile. We indeed found that splitting the agonist and antagonist ligands into two separate data sets for a given nuclear receptor target significantly enhances the quality of the evaluation. The pharmacological profile of the ligand bound in the binding site of the target structure was also found to be an additional critical parameter. We also illustrate that active compound data sets for a given pharmacological activity can be used as a set of experimentally validated decoy ligands for another pharmacological activity to ensure a reliable and challenging evaluation of virtual screening methods.

  16. Structural Insights into Selective Ligand-Receptor Interactions Leading to Receptor Inactivation Utilizing Selective Melanocortin 3 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minying; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Mertz, Blake; Beck, Johannes G; Opperer, Florian; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst; Hruby, Victor J

    2017-08-15

    Systematic N-methylated derivatives of the melanocortin receptor ligand, SHU9119, lead to multiple binding and functional selectivity toward melanocortin receptors. However, the relationship between N-methylation-induced conformational changes in the peptide backbone and side chains and melanocortin receptor selectivity is still unknown. We conducted comprehensive conformational studies in solution of two selective antagonists of the third isoform of the melanocortin receptor (hMC3R), namely, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-NMe-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -Trp 9 -Lys]-NH 2 (15) and Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -NMe-Trp 9 -NMe-Lys]-NH 2 (17). It is known that the pharmacophore (His 6 -DNal 7 -Arg 8 -Trp 9 ) of the SHU-9119 peptides occupies a β II-turn-like region with the turn centered about DNal 7 -Arg 8 . The analogues with hMC3R selectivity showed distinct differences in the spatial arrangement of the Trp 9 side chains. In addition to our NMR studies, we also carried out molecular-level interaction studies of these two peptides at the homology model of hMC3R. Earlier chimeric human melanocortin 3 receptor studies revealed insights regarding the binding and functional sites of hMC3R selectivity. Upon docking of peptides 15 and 17 to the binding pocket of hMC3R, it was revealed that Arg 8 and Trp 9 side chains are involved in a majority of the interactions with the receptor. While Arg 8 forms polar contacts with D154 and D158 of hMC3R, Trp 9 utilizes π-π stacking interactions with F295 and F298, located on the transmembrane domain of hMC3R. It is hypothesized that as the frequency of Trp 9 -hMC3R interactions decrease, antagonistic activity increases. The absence of any interactions of the N-methyl groups with hMC3R suggests that their primary function is to modulate backbone conformations of the ligands.

  17. Assessment and Challenges of Ligand Docking into Comparative Models of G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, E.D.; Meiler, J.; Norn, C.

    2013-01-01

    screening and to design and optimize drug candidates. However, low sequence identity between receptors, conformational flexibility, and chemical diversity of ligands present an enormous challenge to molecular modeling approaches. It is our hypothesis that rapid Monte-Carlo sampling of protein backbone...... extracellular loop. Furthermore, these models are consistently correlated with low Rosetta energy score. To predict their binding modes, ligand conformers of the 14 ligands co-crystalized with the GPCRs were docked against the top ranked comparative models. In contrast to the comparative models themselves...

  18. TGF-beta1 signaling plays a dominant role in the crosstalk between TGF-beta1 and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand in prostate epithelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staršíchová, Andrea; Hrubá, E.; Slabáková, Eva; Pernicová, Zuzana; Procházková, Jiřina; Pěnčíková, K.; Šeda, Václav; Kabátková, Markéta; Vondráček, Jan; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.; Souček, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2012), s. 1665-1676 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : transforming growth factor-beta * aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand * prostate epithelial cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.304, year: 2012

  19. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  20. Aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted phenylalanines as AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymańska, Ewa; Chałupnik, Paulina; Johansen, Tommy Nørskov

    2017-01-01

    in radioligand binding assays at native rat ionotropic glutamate receptors. The most interesting compound in this series, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3'-hydroxy-5-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)propanoic acid 7e, showed the binding affinity of 4.6 µM for native AMPA receptors and almost 5-fold lower affinity...

  1. Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum Inhibits Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via the c-Fos/nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic 1 Signaling Pathway and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum (APE has been widely shown in herbal medicine to have a therapeutic effect on inflammatory conditions. However, there has been no evidence on whether the extract of APE is involved in the biological bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we confirmed that the administration of APE could restore normal skeletal conditions in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone loss via a decrease in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio and osteoclast number. We then investigated the effect of APE on the RANKL-induced formation and function of osteoclasts to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. APE suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive cells, as well as the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, APE attenuated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos without affecting any early signal pathway of osteoclastogenesis. Subsequently, APE significantly downregulated the expression of various genes exclusively expressed in osteoclasts. These results demonstrate that APE restores LPS-induced bone loss through a decrease of the serum RANKL/OPG ratio, and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of APE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  2. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  3. Nanoparticle-based receptors mimic protein-ligand recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardi, Laura; Gabrielli, Luca; Sun, Xiaohuan; Biasi, Federico De; Rastrelli, Federico; Mancin, Fabrizio; De Vivo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Summary The self-assembly of a monolayer of ligands on the surface of noble-metal nanoparticles dictates the fundamental nanoparticle's behavior and its functionality. In this combined computational-experimental study, we analyze the structure, organization, and dynamics of functionalized coating thiols in monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We explain how functionalized coating thiols self-organize through a delicate and somehow counterintuitive balance of interactions within the...

  4. Heart Failure Therapeutics on the Basis of a Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin-2 Type 1 Receptor Rationale and Design of the BLAST-AHF Study (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Butler, Javed; Collins, Sean P.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Soergel, David G.; Teerlink, John R.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pang, Peter S.

    The BLAST-AHF (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure) study is designed to test the efficacy and safety of TRV027, a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor, in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). AHF remains a major public health problem, and

  5. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  6. GluVII:06--a highly conserved and selective anchor point for non-peptide ligands in chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Schwartz, Thue W

    2006-01-01

    ligands and that the two peripheral chemical moieties of the ligands from this central point in the receptor structure explore each of the two halves of the main ligand binding pocket. It is envisioned that knowledge of this binding mode can be exploited in structure-based discovery and design of novel...

  7. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...

  8. Allosteric Regulation in the Ligand Binding Domain of Retinoic Acid Receptorγ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmine Chebaro

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA plays key roles in cell differentiation and growth arrest through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs, which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. While the main trigger of RAR activation is the binding of RA, phosphorylation of the receptors has also emerged as an important regulatory signal. Phosphorylation of the RARγ N-terminal domain (NTD is known to play a functional role in neuronal differentiation. In this work, we investigated the phosphorylation of RARγ ligand binding domain (LBD, and present evidence that the phosphorylation status of the LBD affects the phosphorylation of the NTD region. We solved the X-ray structure of a phospho-mimetic mutant of the LBD (RARγ S371E, which we used in molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the consequences of the S371E mutation on the RARγ structural dynamics. Combined with simulations of the wild-type LBD, we show that the conformational equilibria of LBD salt bridges (notably R387-D340 are affected by the S371E mutation, which likely affects the recruitment of the kinase complex that phosphorylates the NTD. The molecular dynamics simulations also showed that a conservative mutation in this salt bridge (R387K affects the dynamics of the LBD without inducing large conformational changes. Finally, cellular assays showed that the phosphorylation of the NTD of RARγ is differentially regulated by retinoic acid in RARγWT and in the S371N, S371E and R387K mutants. This multidisciplinary work highlights an allosteric coupling between phosphorylations of the LBD and the NTD of RARγ and supports the importance of structural dynamics involving electrostatic interactions in the regulation of RARs activity.

  9. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand acts on dendritic cells and T cells to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Francisco J.; Murugaiyan, Gopal; Farez, Mauricio F.; Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Burns, Evan J.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2010-01-01

    The ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) participates in the differentiation of FoxP3+ Treg, Tr1 cells, and IL-17–producing T cells (Th17). Most of our understanding on the role of AHR on the FoxP3+ Treg compartment results from studies using the toxic synthetic chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Thus, the physiological relevance of AHR signaling on FoxP3+ Treg in vivo is unclear. We studied mice that carry a GFP reporter in the endogenous foxp3 locus and a mutated AHR protein with reduced affinity for its ligands, and found that AHR signaling participates in the differentiation of FoxP3+ Treg in vivo. Moreover, we found that treatment with the endogenous AHR ligand 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) given parenterally or orally induces FoxP3+ Treg that suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ITE acts not only on T cells, but also directly on dendritic cells to induce tolerogenic dendritic cells that support FoxP3+ Treg differentiation in a retinoic acid-dependent manner. Thus, our work demonstrates that the endogenous AHR ligand ITE promotes the induction of active immunologic tolerance by direct effects on dendritic and T cells, and identifies nontoxic endogenous AHR ligands as potential unique compounds for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:21068375

  10. Regulation of endogenous human gene expression by ligand-inducible TALE transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Sirk, Shannon J; Lamb, Brian M; Barbas, Carlos F

    2014-10-17

    The construction of increasingly sophisticated synthetic biological circuits is dependent on the development of extensible tools capable of providing specific control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic transcription factors that activate gene expression in response to extracellular chemical stimuli. These inducible activators consist of customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins combined with steroid hormone receptor ligand-binding domains. We demonstrate that these ligand-responsive TALE transcription factors allow for tunable and conditional control of gene activation and can be used to regulate the expression of endogenous genes in human cells. Since TALEs can be designed to recognize any contiguous DNA sequence, the conditional gene regulatory system described herein will enable the design of advanced synthetic gene networks.

  11. Characterization of ligand binding to melanocortin 4 receptors using fluorescent peptides with improved kinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Reet; Veiksina, Santa; Rinken, Ago; Kopanchuk, Sergei

    2017-03-15

    Melanocortin 4 (MC 4 ) receptors are important drug targets as they regulate energy homeostasis, eating behaviour and sexual functions. The ligand binding process to these G protein-coupled receptors is subject to considerable complexity. Different steps in the complex dynamic regulation can be characterized by ligand binding kinetics. Optimization of these kinetic parameters in terms of on-rate and residence time can increase the rapid onset of drug action and reduce off-target effects. Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is one of the homogeneous fluorescence-based assays that enable continuous online monitoring of ligand binding kinetics. FA has been implemented for the kinetic study of melanocortin MC 4 receptors expressed on budded baculoviruses. However, the slow dissociation of the fluorescently labelled peptide NDP-α-MSH does not enable reaching equilibrium nor enable more in-depth study of the binding mechanisms. To overcome this problem, two novel red-shifted fluorescent ligands were designed. These cyclized heptapeptide derivatives (UTBC101 and UTBC102) exhibited nanomolar affinity toward melanocortin MC 4 receptors but had relatively different kinetic properties. The dissociation half-lives of UTBC101 (τ 1/2 =160min) and UTBC102 (τ 1/2 =7min) were shorter compared to that what was previously reported for Cy3B-NDP-α-MSH (τ 1/2 =224min). The significantly shorter dissociation half-life of UTBC102 enables equilibrium in screening assays, whereas the higher affinity of UTBC101 helps to resolve a wider range of competitor potencies. These two ligands are suitable for further kinetic screening of novel melanocortin MC 4 receptor specific ligands and could complement each other in these studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential TAM receptor-ligand-phospholipid interactions delimit differential TAM bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Erin D; Oh, Jennifer; Burrola, Patrick G; Lax, Irit; Zagórska, Anna; Través, Paqui G; Schlessinger, Joseph; Lemke, Greg

    2014-09-29

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Tyro3, Axl, and Mer regulate key features of cellular physiology, yet the differential activities of the TAM ligands Gas6 and Protein S are poorly understood. We have used biochemical and genetic analyses to delineate the rules for TAM receptor-ligand engagement and find that the TAMs segregate into two groups based on ligand specificity, regulation by phosphatidylserine, and function. Tyro3 and Mer are activated by both ligands but only Gas6 activates Axl. Optimal TAM signaling requires coincident TAM ligand engagement of both its receptor and the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PtdSer): Gas6 lacking its PtdSer-binding 'Gla domain' is significantly weakened as a Tyro3/Mer agonist and is inert as an Axl agonist, even though it binds to Axl with wild-type affinity. In two settings of TAM-dependent homeostatic phagocytosis, Mer plays a predominant role while Axl is dispensable, and activation of Mer by Protein S is sufficient to drive phagocytosis.

  13. Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: reduction of helix H12 dynamics to favour crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahoum, Virginie; Lipski, Alexandra; Quillard, Fabien; Guichou, Jean-François [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France); Boublik, Yvan [CNRS, UMR5237, Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoléculaire (CRBM), 34293 Montpellier (France); Pérez, Efrèn [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Germain, Pierre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch CEDEX (France); Lera, Angel R. de [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bourguet, William, E-mail: bourguet@cbs.cnrs.fr [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France)

    2008-07-01

    Attempts have been made to crystallize the ligand-binding domain of the human retinoid X receptor in complex with a variety of newly synthesized ligands. An inverse correlation was observed between the ‘crystallizability’ and the structural dynamics of the various receptor–ligand complexes. Crystallization trials of the human retinoid X receptor α ligand-binding domain (RXRα LBD) in complex with various ligands have been carried out. Using fluorescence anisotropy, it has been found that when compared with agonists these small-molecule effectors enhance the dynamics of the RXRα LBD C-terminal helix H12. In some cases, the mobility of this helix could be dramatically reduced by the addition of a 13-residue co-activator fragment (CoA). In keeping with these observations, crystals have been obtained of the corresponding ternary RXRα LBD–ligand–CoA complexes. In contrast, attempts to crystallize complexes with a highly mobile H12 remained unsuccessful. These experimental observations substantiate the previously recognized role of co-regulator fragments in facilitating the crystallization of nuclear receptor LBDs.

  14. LiCABEDS II. Modeling of ligand selectivity for G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Lirong; Yang, Peng; Myint, Kyaw Z; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2013-01-28

    The cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2) is a promising therapeutic target for blood cancer, pain relief, osteoporosis, and immune system disease. The recent withdrawal of Rimonabant, which targets another closely related cannabinoid receptor (CB1), accentuates the importance of selectivity for the development of CB2 ligands in order to minimize their effects on the CB1 receptor. In our previous study, LiCABEDS (Ligand Classifier of Adaptively Boosting Ensemble Decision Stumps) was reported as a generic ligand classification algorithm for the prediction of categorical molecular properties. Here, we report extension of the application of LiCABEDS to the modeling of cannabinoid ligand selectivity with molecular fingerprints as descriptors. The performance of LiCABEDS was systematically compared with another popular classification algorithm, support vector machine (SVM), according to prediction precision and recall rate. In addition, the examination of LiCABEDS models revealed the difference in structure diversity of CB1 and CB2 selective ligands. The structure determination from data mining could be useful for the design of novel cannabinoid lead compounds. More importantly, the potential of LiCABEDS was demonstrated through successful identification of newly synthesized CB2 selective compounds.

  15. Histamine H3 receptor ligands in the group of (homo)piperazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-11-23

    Since its' discovery in 1983, followed by gene cloning in 1999, the histamine H3 receptor served as an outstanding target for drug discovery. The wide spectrum of possible therapeutic implications make H3R's one of the most researched areas in the vast GPCR ligands field - started from imidazole containing ligands, through various successful imidazole replacements, with recent introduction of Wakix® to pharmaceutical market. One of such replacements is piperazine moiety, a significant versatile scaffold in rational drug design for most of the GPCR ligands. Therefore, herein we review ligands built on piperazine, as well as its seven membered analogue azepine, that target H3R's and their potential therapeutical applications, in order to elucidate the current state of the art in this vast field. Due to a high level of structural divergence among compounds described herein, we decided to divide them into groups, where the key division element was the position of nitrogen basicity decreasing moieties in (homo)piperazine ring. Paying attention to a number of published structures and their overall high biological activity, one can realize that the (homo)piperazine scaffold bids a versatile template also for histamine H3 receptor ligands. With two possible substitution sites and therefore a number of possible structural combinations, piperazine derivatives stand as one of the largest group of high importance among H3R ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Structural basis for AMPA receptor activation and ligand selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, A; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Jin, R

    2002-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter within the mammalian CNS, playing an important role in many different functions in the brain such as learning and memory. In this study, a combination of molecular biology, X-ray structure determinations, as well as electrophysiology...... with Br-HIBO and ACPA have allowed us to explain the molecular mechanism behind this selectivity and to identify key residues for ligand recognition. The agonists induce the same degree of domain closure as AMPA, except for Br-HIBO, which shows a slightly lower degree of domain closure. An excellent...

  17. Assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Anastasia; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors play important roles in the development and function of both neuronal and glial elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Their functional diversity is in part based on their ability to interact with alternative complexes of receptor molecules. This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern the assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes. The realization that many, if not the majority, of these complexes exist in a preassembled form at the plasma membrane has forced the revision of classical ligand-mediated oligomerization models, and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of receptor activation and generation of signaling diversity which are likely to be shared by many different classes of receptors.

  18. Identification and super-resolution imaging of ligand-activated receptor dimers in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Pascale; Lartigue, Lydia; Giannone, Gregory; de Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Molecular interactions are key to many chemical and biological processes like protein function. In many signaling processes they occur in sub-cellular areas displaying nanoscale organizations and involving molecular assemblies. The nanometric dimensions and the dynamic nature of the interactions make their investigations complex in live cells. While super-resolution fluorescence microscopies offer live-cell molecular imaging with sub-wavelength resolutions, they lack specificity for distinguishing interacting molecule populations. Here we combine super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to identify dimers of receptors induced by ligand binding and provide super-resolved images of their membrane distribution in live cells. By developing a two-color universal-Point-Accumulation-In-the-Nanoscale-Topography (uPAINT) method, dimers of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) activated by EGF are studied at ultra-high densities, revealing preferential cell-edge sub-localization. This methodology which is specifically devoted to the study of molecules in interaction, may find other applications in biological systems where understanding of molecular organization is crucial.

  19. Regulation of inflorescence architecture by intertissue layer ligand-receptor communication between endodermis and phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Lee, Jin Suk; Horst, Robin J; Lai, Hung-Hsueh; Kajita, Ryoko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Tasaka, Masao; Torii, Keiko U

    2012-04-17

    Multicellular organisms achieve final body shape and size by coordinating cell proliferation, expansion, and differentiation. Loss of function in the Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER) receptor-kinase gene confers characteristic compact inflorescence architecture, but its underlying signaling pathways remain unknown. Here we report that the expression of ER in the phloem is sufficient to rescue compact er inflorescences. We further identified two Epidermal Patterning Factor-like (EPFL) secreted peptide genes, EPFL4 and EPFL6/CHALLAH (CHAL), as redundant, upstream components of ER-mediated inflorescence growth. The expression of EPFL4 or EPFL6 in the endodermis, a layer adjacent to phloem, is sufficient to rescue the er-like inflorescence of epfl4 epfl6 plants. EPFL4 and EPFL6 physically associate with ER in planta. Finally, transcriptome analysis of er and epfl4 epfl6 revealed a potential downstream component as well as a role for plant hormones in EPFL4/6- and ER-mediated inflorescence growth. Our results suggest that intercell layer communication between the endodermis and phloem mediated by peptide ligands and a receptor kinase coordinates proper inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis.

  20. Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tomlinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  1. Major advances in the development of histamine H4 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Rogier A; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-08-01

    The search for new and potent histamine H4 receptor ligands is leading to a steadily increasing number of scientific publications and patent applications. Several interesting and structurally diverse compounds have been found, but fierce IP competition for a preferred 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is becoming apparent. Recent investigations into the role of the histamine H(4)R in (patho)physiology and the use of H4R ligands in in vivo disease models reveal enormous potential in the field of inflammation and allergy, among others. The development of ligands that display activity at two or more histamine receptor (HR) subtypes is another clinical opportunity that is currently being explored. Taken together, the histamine H4R field is gearing up for clinical studies and has the potential to deliver another generation of blockbuster drugs.

  2. Exogenous or endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands: which is the MVP in tumorigenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Wang, Liantang; Chen, Shangwu

    2012-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors sensing microbial components and triggering an immune response against pathogens. In addition to their role in anti-infection immunity, increasing evidence indicates that engagement of TLRs can promote cancer cell survival and proliferation, induce tumor immune evasion, and enhance tumor metastasis and chemoresistance. Recent studies have demonstrated that endogenous molecules or damage-associated molecular patterns released from damaged/necrotic tissues are capable of activating TLRs and that the endogenous ligands-mediated TLR signaling is implicated in the tumor development and affects the therapeutic efficacy of tumors. Since both exogenous and endogenous TLR ligands can initiate TLR signaling, which is the most valuable player in tumor development becomes an interesting question. Here, we summarize the effect of TLR signaling on the development and progression of tumors, and discuss the role of exogenous and endogenous TLR ligands in the tumorigenesis.

  3. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond

    2009-01-01

    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an......, and reacted further with an alkylating agent....

  4. The molecular basis of ligand interaction at free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4 (previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. This study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands ...

  5. Docking of flexible ligands to flexible receptors in solution by molecular dynamics simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, R; Roccatano, D; Di Nola, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a method of simulating the docking of small flexible ligands to flexible receptors in water is reported. The method is based on molecular dynamics simulations and is an extension of an algorithm previously reported by Di Nola et al, (Di Nola et al,, Proteins 1994;19:174-182), The

  6. Unnatural amino acids as probes of ligand-receptor interactions and their conformational consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    -edge synthetic and chemical biological approaches. Here we summarize recent advances in the use of site-directed incorporation of unnatural amino acids and chemical probes to study ligand-receptor interactions, determine the location of binding sites, and examine the downstream conformational consequences...

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand effects in RBL2H3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates toxic effects of dioxin and xenobiotic metabolism. AHR has an emerging role in the immune system, but its physiological ligands and functional role in immunocytes remain poorly understood. Mast cells are immunocytes that are central to inflammatory...

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligands and Their Role in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bahman; Samadi, Nasser; Baradaran, Behzad; Shafiei-Irannejad, Vahid; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-01

    Imatinib therapy remains the gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the acquired resistance to this therapeutic agent in patients has urged the scientists to devise modalities for overcoming this chemoresistance. For this purpose, initially therapeutic agents with higher tyrosine kinase activity were introduced, which had the potential for inhibiting even mutant forms of Bcr-Abl. Furthermore, coupling imatinib with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands also showed beneficial effects in chronic myeloid leukemia cell proliferation. These combination protocols inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis as well as differentiation in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands increased imatinib uptake by upregulating the expression of human organic cation transporter 1. Taken together, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands are currently being considered as novel promising therapeutic candidates for chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, because they can synergistically enhance the efficacy of imatinib. In this article, we reviewed the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands for use in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. The mechanism of action of these therapeutics modalities are also presented in detail. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Nanoparticle-Based Receptors Mimic Protein-Ligand Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Laura; Gabrielli, Luca; Sun, Xiaohuan; De Biasi, Federico; Rastrelli, Federico; Mancin, Fabrizio; De Vivo, Marco

    2017-07-13

    The self-assembly of a monolayer of ligands on the surface of noble-metal nanoparticles dictates the fundamental nanoparticle's behavior and its functionality. In this combined computational-experimental study, we analyze the structure, organization, and dynamics of functionalized coating thiols in monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We explain how functionalized coating thiols self-organize through a delicate and somehow counterintuitive balance of interactions within the monolayer itself and with the solvent. We further describe how the nature and plasticity of these interactions modulate nanoparticle-based chemosensing. Importantly, we found that self-organization of coating thiols can induce the formation of binding pockets in AuNPs. These transient cavities can accommodate small molecules, mimicking protein-ligand recognition, which could explain the selectivity and sensitivity observed for different organic analytes in NMR chemosensing experiments. Thus, our findings advocate for the rational design of tailored coating groups to form specific recognition binding sites on monolayer-protected AuNPs.

  10. Structure-activity relationships of constrained phenylethylamine ligands for the serotonin 5-ht2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isberg, Vignir; Paine, James; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Serotonergic ligands have proven effective drugs in the treatment of migraine, pain, obesity, and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is a clinical need for more highly 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands and the most attention has been given to the phenethylamine...... about the bioactive conformation of the amine functionality. However, combined 1,2-constriction by cyclization has only been tested with one compound. Here, we present three new 1,2-cyclized phenylethylamines, 9-11, and describe their synthetic routes. Ligand docking in the 5-HT2B crystal structure...... but shift the placement of the core scaffold. The constraints in 9-11 resulted in docking poses with the 4-bromine in closer vicinity to 5.46, which is polar only in the human 5-HT2A subtype, for which 9-11 have the lowest affinity. The new ligands, conformational analysis and docking expand the structure...

  11. Elimination of a ligand gating site generates a supersensitive olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Ahuja, Gaurav; Hussain, Ashiq; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2016-06-21

    Olfaction poses one of the most complex ligand-receptor matching problems in biology due to the unparalleled multitude of odor molecules facing a large number of cognate olfactory receptors. We have recently deorphanized an olfactory receptor, TAAR13c, as a specific receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. Here we have modeled the cadaverine/TAAR13c interaction, exchanged predicted binding residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and measured the activity of the mutant receptors. Unexpectedly we observed a binding site for cadaverine at the external surface of the receptor, in addition to an internal binding site, whose mutation resulted in complete loss of activity. In stark contrast, elimination of the external binding site generated supersensitive receptors. Modeling suggests this site to act as a gate, limiting access of the ligand to the internal binding site and thereby downregulating the affinity of the native receptor. This constitutes a novel mechanism to fine-tune physiological sensitivity to socially relevant odors.

  12. Kinetic modeling of receptor-ligand binding applied to positron emission tomographic studies with neuroleptic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J; Wolf, A P; Shiue, C Y; Fowler, J S

    1987-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with labeled neuroleptics has made possible the study of neurotransmitter-receptor systems in vivo. In this study we investigate the kinetics of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) receptor-ligand binding using PET data from a series of experiments in the baboon with the /sup 18/F-labeled drugs spiperone, haloperidol, and benperidol. Models used to describe these systems are based on first-order kinetics which applies at high specific activity (low receptor occupancy). The parameters governing the uptake and loss of drug from the brain were found by fitting PET data from regions with little or no receptor concentration (cerebellum) and from experiments in which specific binding was blocked by pretreatment with the drug (+)-butaclamol. Receptor constants were determined by fitting data from receptor-containing structures. Correcting the arterial plasma activities (the model driving function) for the presence of drug metabolites was found to be important in the modeling of these systems.

  13. Structural basis of ligand recognition in 5-HT(3) receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesters, D.; Thompson, A.J.; Brams, M.; van Elk, R.; Spurny, R.; Geitmann, M.; Villalgordo, J.M.; Guskov, A.; Danielson, U.H.; Lummis, S.C.R.; Smit, A.B.; Ulens, C.

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT 3 receptor is a pentameric serotonin-gated ion channel, which mediates rapid excitatory neurotransmission and is the target of a therapeutically important class of anti-emetic drugs, such as granisetron. We report crystal structures of a binding protein engineered to recognize the agonist

  14. Ligand-specific conformational changes in the alpha1 glycine receptor ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    , and by the antagonist, strychnine. Voltage-clamp fluorometry involves labeling introduced cysteines with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from ligand-induced fluorescence changes. In the inner beta-sheet, we labeled residues in loop 2 and in binding domain loops D and E....... At each position, strychnine and glycine induced distinct maximal fluorescence responses. The pre-M1 domain responded similarly; at each of four labeled positions glycine produced a strong fluorescence signal, whereas strychnine did not. This suggests that glycine induces conformational changes...... in the inner beta-sheet and pre-M1 domain that may be important for activation, desensitization, or both. In contrast, most labeled residues in loops C and F yielded fluorescence changes identical in magnitude for glycine and strychnine. A notable exception was H201C in loop C. This labeled residue responded...

  15. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand induces the migration of human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Seishi; Muramatsu, Mayumi; Gokoh, Maiko; Oka, Saori; Waku, Keizo; Sugiura, Takayuki

    2005-02-01

    2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Evidence is gradually accumulating which shows that 2-arachidonoylglycerol plays important physiological roles in several mammalian tissues and cells, yet the details remain ambiguous. In this study, we first examined the effects of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on the motility of human natural killer cells. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the migration of KHYG-1 cells (a natural killer leukemia cell line) and human peripheral blood natural killer cells. The migration of natural killer cells induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was abolished by treating the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the CB2 receptor is involved in the 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. In contrast to 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, another endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, did not induce the migration. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, also failed to induce the migration; instead, the addition of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol together with 2-arachidonoylglycerol abolished the migration induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol. It is conceivable that the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, that is, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, affects natural killer cell functions such as migration, thereby contributing to the host-defense mechanism against infectious viruses and tumor cells.

  16. Ligand-Induced Dynamics of Neurotrophin Receptors Investigated by Single-Molecule Imaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Laura; Luin, Stefano; Bonsignore, Fulvio; de Nadai, Teresa; Beltram, Fabio; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that regulate neuronal development and survival, as well as maintenance and plasticity of the adult nervous system. The biological activity of neurotrophins stems from their binding to two membrane receptor types, the tropomyosin receptor kinase and the p75 neurotrophin receptors (NRs). The intracellular signalling cascades thereby activated have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, a comprehensive description of the ligand-induced nanoscale details of NRs dynamics and interactions spanning from the initial lateral movements triggered at the plasma membrane to the internalization and transport processes is still missing. Recent advances in high spatio-temporal resolution imaging techniques have yielded new insight on the dynamics of NRs upon ligand binding. Here we discuss requirements, potential and practical implementation of these novel approaches for the study of neurotrophin trafficking and signalling, in the framework of current knowledge available also for other ligand-receptor systems. We shall especially highlight the correlation between the receptor dynamics activated by different neurotrophins and the respective signalling outcome, as recently revealed by single-molecule tracking of NRs in living neuronal cells. PMID:25603178

  17. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  18. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv, often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses against the foreign transgene. Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. Herein, we review the experience with alternatively designed CARs that contain receptor ligands rather than scFv. While most of the experiences have been in the pre-clinical setting, clinical data is also emerging.

  19. Basigin-2 Is a Cell Surface Receptor for Soluble Basigin Ligand*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Robert J.; Chen, Li; Mesquita, Fernando S.; Nowak, Romana A.

    2008-01-01

    The metastatic spread of a tumor is dependent upon the ability of the tumor to stimulate surrounding stromal cells to express enzymes required for tissue remodeling. The immunoglobulin superfamily protein basigin (EMMPRIN/CD147) is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed by tumor cells that stimulates matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in stromal cells. The ability of basigin to stimulate expression of molecules involved in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis makes basigin a potential target for the development of strategies to block metastasis. However, the identity of the cell surface receptor for basigin remains controversial. The goal of this study was to determine the identity of the receptor for basigin. Using a novel recombinant basigin protein (rBSG) corresponding to the extracellular domain of basigin, it was demonstrated that the native, nonglycosylated rBSG protein forms dimers in solution. Furthermore, rBSG binds to the surface of uterine fibroblasts, activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3. Proteins that interact with rBSG were isolated using a biotin label transfer technique and sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrophotometry. The results demonstrate that rBSG interacts with basigin expressed on the surface of fibroblasts and is subsequently internalized. During internalization, rBSG associates with a novel form of human basigin (basigin-3). It was concluded that cell surface basigin functions as a membrane receptor for soluble basigin and this homophilic interaction is not dependent upon glycosylation of the basigin ligand. PMID:18434307

  20. Application of 3D-QSAR in the rational design of receptor ligands and enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia; Lodola, Alessio; Lorenzi, Simone; Bordi, Fabrizio; Plazzi, Pier Vincenzo; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2005-11-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are frequently employed in medicinal chemistry projects, both to rationalize structure-activity relationships (SAR) for known series of compounds and to help in the design of innovative structures endowed with desired pharmacological actions. As a difference from the so-called structure-based drug design tools, they do not require the knowledge of the biological target structure, but are based on the comparison of drug structural features, thus being defined ligand-based drug design tools. In the 3D-QSAR approach, structural descriptors are calculated from molecular models of the ligands, as interaction fields within a three-dimensional (3D) lattice of points surrounding the ligand structure. These descriptors are collected in a large X matrix, which is submitted to multivariate analysis to look for correlations with biological activity. Like for other QSARs, the reliability and usefulness of the correlation models depends on the validity of the assumptions and on the quality of the data. A careful selection of compounds and pharmacological data can improve the application of 3D-QSAR analysis in drug design. Some examples of the application of CoMFA and CoMSIA approaches to the SAR study and design of receptor or enzyme ligands is described, pointing the attention to the fields of melatonin receptor ligands and FAAH inhibitors.

  1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) by their ligands and protein kinase A activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Canaple, Laurence; Saugy, Damien; Wahli, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, β and γ activate the transcription of multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism. Several natural and synthetic ligands have been identified for each PPAR isotype but little is known about the phosphorylation state of these receptors. We show here that activators of protein kinase A (PKA) can enhance mouse PPAR activity in the absence and the presence of exogenous ligands in transient transfection experiments. The activation function 1 (AF-1) of PPARs was dispensable for transcriptional enhancement, whereas the activation function 2 (AF-2) was required for this effect. We also show that several domains of PPAR can be phosphorylated by PKA in vitro. Moreover, gel experiments suggest that PKA stabilizes binding of the liganded PPAR to DNA. PKA inhibitors decreased not only the kinase dependent induction of PPARs but also their ligand-dependent induction, suggesting that the ligands may also mobilize the PKA pathway to lead to maximal transcriptional induction by PPARs. Moreover, comparing PPARα KO with PPARα wild-type mice, we show that the expression of the ACO gene can be regulated by PKA-activated PPARα in liver. These data demonstrate that the PKA pathway is an important modulator of PPAR activity and we propose a model associating this pathway in the control of fatty acid β-oxidation under conditions of fasting, stress and exercise. PMID:11117527

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berasain, Carmen; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment

  3. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. → PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. → SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. → PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  4. A multi-protein receptor-ligand complex underlies combinatorial dendrite guidance choices in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Shen, Ao; Dong, Xintong; Tugizova, Madina; Xiang, Yang K; Shen, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells. LECT-2 functions in a multi-protein receptor-ligand complex that also contains two transmembrane ligands on the skin, SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1, and the neuronal transmembrane receptor DMA-1. LECT-2 greatly enhances the binding between SAX-7, MNR-1 and DMA-1. The activation of DMA-1 strictly requires all three ligands, which establishes a combinatorial code to precisely target and pattern dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18345.001 PMID:27705746

  5. Androgen receptor regulates nuclear trafficking and nuclear domain residency of corepressor HDAC7 in a ligand-dependent fashion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, Ulla; Jaenne, Olli A.; Palvimo, Jorma J.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to chromosomal proteins, histone deacetylases (HDACs) target transcription factors in transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the class II HDAC family member HDAC7 is an efficient corepressor of the androgen receptor (AR). HDAC7 resided in the cytoplasm in the absence of AR or a cognate ligand, but hormone-occupancy of AR induced nuclear transfer of HDAC7. Nuclear colocalization pattern of AR and HDAC7 was dependent on the nature of the ligand. In the presence of testosterone, a portion of HDAC7 localized to pearl-like nuclear domains, whereas AR occupied with antagonistic ligands cyproterone acetate- or casodex (bicalutamide) recruited HDAC7 from these domains to colocalize with the receptor in speckles and nucleoplasm in a more complete fashion. Ectopic expression of PML-3 relieved the repressive effect of HDAC7 on AR function by sequestering HDAC7 to PML-3 domains. AR acetylation at Lys630/632/633 was not the target of HDAC7 repression, since repression of AR function was independent of these acetylation sites. Moreover, the deacetylase activity of HDAC7 was in part dispensable in the repression of AR function. In sum, our results identify HDAC7 as a novel AR corepressor whose subcellular and subnuclear compartmentalization can be regulated in an androgen-selective manner

  6. A DFT approach to discriminate the antagonist and partial agonist activity of ligands binding to the NMDA receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslak, Zeynep Pinar; Bozkurt, Esra; Dutagaci, Bercem; De Proft, Frank; Aviyente, Viktorya; De Vleeschouwer, Freija

    2018-02-01

    The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is found to be intimately associated with neurodegenerative diseases which make them promising therapeutic targets. Despite the significantly increasing multidisciplinary interests centred on this ionotropic channel, design of new ligands with intended functional activity remains a great challenge. In this article, a computational study based on density functional theory is presented to understand the structural factors of ligands determining their function as antagonists and partial agonists. With this aim, the GluN1 subunit is chosen as being one of the essential components in the activation mechanism, and quantum chemical calculations are implemented for 30 antagonists and 30 partial agonists known to bind to this subunit with different binding affinities. Several quantum chemical descriptors are investigated which might unlock the difference between antagonists and partial agonists.

  7. Inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus in vitro by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorligand, rosiglitazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Yuta; Inoue, Jun; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Koji; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kakazu, Eiji; Obara, Noriyuki; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-01-01

    Although chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is currently managed with nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon-α, the control of HBV infection still remains a clinical challenge. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune reactions, and inflammation. In this study, the suppressive effect of PPAR ligands on HBV replication was examined in vitro using a PPARα ligand, bezafibrate, and a PPARγ ligand, rosiglitazone. The effects were examined in HepG2 cells transfected with a plasmid containing 1.3-fold HBV genome. Whereas bezafibrate showed no effect against HBV replication, rosiglitazone reduced the amount of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis B e antigen in the culture supernatant. Southern blot analysis showed that the replicative intermediates of HBV in the cells were also inhibited. It was confirmed that GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ, reduced the suppressive effect of rosiglitazone on HBV. Moreover, rosiglitazone showed a synergistic effect on HBV replication with lamivudine or interferon-α-2b. In conclusion, this study showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the replication of HBV in vitro, and suggested that the combination therapy of rosiglitazone and nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon could be a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection.

  8. Inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus in vitro by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} ligand, rosiglitazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Yuta; Inoue, Jun [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Ueno, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yueno@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Fukushima, Koji; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kakazu, Eiji; Obara, Noriyuki; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    Although chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is currently managed with nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon-{alpha}, the control of HBV infection still remains a clinical challenge. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune reactions, and inflammation. In this study, the suppressive effect of PPAR ligands on HBV replication was examined in vitro using a PPAR{alpha} ligand, bezafibrate, and a PPAR{gamma} ligand, rosiglitazone. The effects were examined in HepG2 cells transfected with a plasmid containing 1.3-fold HBV genome. Whereas bezafibrate showed no effect against HBV replication, rosiglitazone reduced the amount of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis B e antigen in the culture supernatant. Southern blot analysis showed that the replicative intermediates of HBV in the cells were also inhibited. It was confirmed that GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR{gamma}, reduced the suppressive effect of rosiglitazone on HBV. Moreover, rosiglitazone showed a synergistic effect on HBV replication with lamivudine or interferon-{alpha}-2b. In conclusion, this study showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the replication of HBV in vitro, and suggested that the combination therapy of rosiglitazone and nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon could be a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection.

  9. Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Xin, Bing; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Umemoto, Mika; Kasai-Sakamoto, Akiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2007-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha ligands reduce growth of some types of malignant tumors and prevent carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of clofibric acid (CA), a ligand for PPARalpha on growth of ovarian malignancy, in in vivo and in vitro experiments using OVCAR-3 and DISS cells derived from human ovarian cancer and aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of its antitumor effect. CA treatment significantly suppressed the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors xenotransplanted s.c. and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with malignant ascites derived from DISS cells as compared with control. CA also dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation of cultured cell lines. CA treatment increased the expression of carbonyl reductase (CR), which promotes the conversion of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) to PGF(2alpha), in implanted OVCAR-3 tumors as well as cultured cells. CA treatment decreased PGE(2) level as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) amount in both of OVCAR-3-tumor and DISS-derived ascites. Reduced microvessel density and induced apoptosis were found in solid OVCAR-3 tumors treated by CA. Transfection of CR expression vector into mouse ovarian cancer cells showed significant reduction of PGE(2) level as well as VEGF expression. These results indicate that CA produces potent antitumor effects against ovarian cancer in conjunction with a reduction of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. We conclude that CA could be an effective agent in ovarian cancer and should be tested alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs.

  10. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  11. [3H]CGP 61594, the first photoaffinity ligand for the glycine site of NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, D.; Honer, M.; Mohler, H.; Heckendorn, R.; Pozza, M.F.; Allgeier, H.; Angst, C.

    1999-01-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors requires the presence of glycine as a coagonist which binds to a site that is allosterically linked to the glutamate binding site. To identify the protein constituents of the glycine binding site in situ the photoaffinity label [ 3 H]CGP 61594 was synthesized. In reversible binding assays using crude rat brain membranes, [ 3 H]CGP 61594 labeled with high affinity (K D =23 nM) the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. This was evident from the Scatchard analysis, the displacing potencies of various glycine site ligands and the allosteric modulation of [ 3 H]CGP 61594 binding by ligands of the glutamate and polyamine sites. Electrophysiological experiments in a neocortical slice preparation identified CGP 61594 as a glycine antagonist. Upon UV-irradiation, a protein band of 115 kDa was specifically photolabeled by [ 3 H]CGP 61594 in brain membrane preparations. The photolabeled protein was identified as the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor by NR1 subunit-specific immunoaffinity chromatography. Thus, [ 3 H]CGP 61594 is the first photoaffinity label for the glycine site of NMDA receptors. It will serve as a tool for the identification of structural elements that are involved in the formation of the glycine binding domain of NMDA receptors in situ and will thereby complement the mutational analysis of recombinant receptors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -8 M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these 125 I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by 125 I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors

  14. Effects of serotonin (5-HT)1B receptor ligands on amphetamine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiel, Joanna; Przegaliński, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that serotonin (5-HT)1B receptor ligands affect the behavioral effects of psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine), including the reinforcing activities of these drugs. To substantiate a role for those receptors in incentive motivation for amphetamine, we used the extinction/reinstatement model to examine the effects of the 5-HT1B receptor ligands on the reinstatement of extinguished amphetamine-seeking behavior. Rats trained to self-administer amphetamine (0.06 mg/kg/infusion) subsequently underwent the extinction procedure. These rats were then tested for the amphetamine-primed or amphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished amphetamine-seeking behavior. The 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 216641 (5-7.5 mg/kg) attenuated the amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg)- and the amphetamine-associated cue combined with the threshold dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg)-induced reinstatement of amphetamine-seeking behavior. The 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94253 (1.25-5 mg/kg) also inhibited the amphetamine-seeking behavior induced by amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) but not by the cue combined with the threshold dose of amphetamine. The inhibitory effect of CP94253 on amphetamine-seeking behavior remained unaffected by the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that tonic activation of 5-HT1B receptors is involved in amphetamine- and cue-induced reinstatement of amphetamine-seeking behavior and that the inhibitory effects of 5-HT1B receptor antagonists on these phenomena are directly related to the motivational aspects of amphetamine abuse. The inhibitory effect of CP 94253 on amphetamine-seeking behavior seems to be unrelated to 5-HT1B receptor activation and may result from a general reduction of motivation.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated 131 I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[ 131 I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[ 131 I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV, an 211 At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Methods: The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The lipophilicity of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1 h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. Conclusion: These results indicate that (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated (131)I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[(131)I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[(131)I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV, an (211)At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. The lipophilicity of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[(125)I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[(211)At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. These results indicate that (+)-[(211)At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel chalcone-based fluorescent human histamine H3 receptor ligands as pharmacological tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eStark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent chalcone-based ligands at human histamine H3 receptors (hH3R have been designed, synthesized and characterized. Compounds described are non-imidazole analogues of ciproxifan with a tetralone motif. Tetralones as chemical precursors and related fluorescent chalcones exhibit affinities at hH3R in the same concentration range like that of the reference antagonist ciproxifan (hH3R pKi value of 7.2. Fluorescence characterization of our novel ligands shows emission maxima about 570 nm for yellow fluorescent chalcones and ≥600 nm for the red fluorescent derivatives. Interferences to cellular autofluorescence could be excluded. All synthesized chalcone compounds could be taken to visualize hH3R proteins in stably transfected HEK-293 cells using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. These novel fluorescent ligands possess high potential to be used as pharmacological tools for hH3R visualization in different tissues.

  18. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokoch, Michael P; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2010-01-01

    extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known...... conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive...... about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the beta(2) adrenergic...

  19. Titration ELISA as a Method to Determine the Dissociation Constant of Receptor Ligand Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, Johannes A

    2018-02-15

    The dissociation constant describes the interaction between two partners in the binding equilibrium and is a measure of their affinity. It is a crucial parameter to compare different ligands, e.g., competitive inhibitors, protein isoforms and mutants, for their binding strength to a binding partner. Dissociation constants are determined by plotting concentrations of bound versus free ligand as binding curves. In contrast, titration curves, in which a signal that is proportional to the concentration of bound ligand is plotted against the total concentration of added ligand, are much easier to record. The signal can be detected spectroscopically and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This is exemplified in a protocol for a titration ELISA that measures the binding of the snake venom-derived rhodocetin to its immobilized target domain of α2β1 integrin. Titration ELISAs are versatile and widely used. Any pair of interacting proteins can be used as immobilized receptor and soluble ligand, provided that both proteins are pure, and their concentrations are known. The difficulty so far has been to determine the dissociation constant from a titration curve. In this study, a mathematical function underlying titration curves is introduced. Without any error-prone graphical estimation of a saturation yield, this algorithm allows processing of the raw data (signal intensities at different concentrations of added ligand) directly by mathematical evaluation via non-linear regression. Thus, several titration curves can be recorded simultaneously and transformed into a set of characteristic parameters, among them the dissociation constant and the concentration of binding-active receptor, and they can be evaluated statistically. When combined with this algorithm, titration ELISAs gain the advantage of directly presenting the dissociation constant. Therefore, they may be used more efficiently in the future.

  20. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanov, K; Bobkov, Y; Corey, E A; Ache, B W

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca(2+) release and/or Ca(2+) influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antidiabetic actions of a phosphatidylcholine ligand for nuclear receptor LRH-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Man; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Mamrosh, Jennifer L.; Busby, Scott A.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Pathak, Manish C.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Moore, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis1,2. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands3–5, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine, DLPC) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse liver, increases bile acid levels, and lowers hepatic triglycerides and serum glucose. DLPC treatment also decreases hepatic steatosis and improves glucose homeostasis in two mouse models of insulin resistance. Both the antidiabetic and lipotropic effects are lost in liver specific Lrh-1 knockouts. These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signaling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. PMID:21614002

  2. submitter Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Altara, R; Brandao, R D; Zeidan, A; Booz, G W; Zouein, F A

    2016-01-01

    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that have a key role in immunity and inflammation. However, CXCR3 is also expressed by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and appears to be important in controlling physiological vascular function. In the last decade, evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has revealed the participation of CXCR3 and its ligands in multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of different aetiologies including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, as well as in heart transplant rejection and transplant coronary artery disease (CAD). CXCR3 ligands have also proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the deve...

  3. Design of ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the quest for selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnelle, William H; Dart, Michael J; Schrimpf, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have emerged as important targets for drug discovery. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic agonists depends substantially on the ability to selectively activate certain receptor subtypes that mediate beneficial effects. The design of such compounds has proceeded in spite of a general shortage of data pertaining to subtype selectivity. Medicinal chemistry efforts have been guided principally by binding affinities to the alpha4beta2 and/or alpha7 subtypes, even though these are not predictive of agonist activity at either subtype. Nevertheless, a diverse family of nAChR ligands has been developed, and several analogs with promising therapeutic potential have now advanced to human clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the structure-affinity relationships that continue to drive development of new nAChR ligands.

  4. Labeling of receptor ligands with bromine radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1981-10-01

    In recent years there has been an interest in the use of various radioisotopes of bromine as labels for radiopharmaceuticals. Although radioisotopes of iodine have been used extensively as radiopharmaceutical labels, there are several advantages associated with the use of radiobromine as a label, due primarily to increased stability of bonds to the radiohalide and smaller steric perturbation resulting from substitution of the radiohalide. Methods of attaching radiobromine to receptor ligands with the potential of mapping estrogen receptors in mammary tumors and uteri were studied. Two ligands were studied extensively in vitro and in animal models; preliminary studies were also carried out in humans. To date, the only radioisotope of bromine used was bromine-77. In addition, a series of model compounds were labeled with bromine-77 using a recently described method for rapid bromination; the scope and limitations of this new rapid radiobromination technique were evaluated

  5. Anions mediate ligand binding in Adineta vaga glutamate receptor ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomash, Suvendu; Chittori, Sagar; Brown, Patrick; Mayer, Mark L

    2013-03-05

    AvGluR1, a glutamate receptor ion channel from the primitive eukaryote Adineta vaga, is activated by alanine, cysteine, methionine, and phenylalanine, which produce lectin-sensitive desensitizing responses like those to glutamate, aspartate, and serine. AvGluR1 LBD crystal structures reveal an unusual scheme for binding dissimilar ligands that may be utilized by distantly related odorant/chemosensory receptors. Arginine residues in domain 2 coordinate the γ-carboxyl group of glutamate, whereas in the alanine, methionine, and serine complexes a chloride ion acts as a surrogate ligand, replacing the γ-carboxyl group. Removal of Cl(-) lowers affinity for these ligands but not for glutamate or aspartate nor for phenylalanine, which occludes the anion binding site and binds with low affinity. AvGluR1 LBD crystal structures and sedimentation analysis also provide insights into the evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic iGluRs and reveal features unique to both classes, emphasizing the need for additional structure-based studies on iGluR-ligand interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand ITE inhibits TGFβ1-induced human myofibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Geniece M; Xi, Xia; Kulkarni, Ajit A; Olsen, Keith C; Pollock, Stephen J; Baglole, Carolyn J; Gupta, Shikha; Casey, Ann E; Huxlin, Krystel R; Sime, Patricia J; Feldon, Steven E; Phipps, Richard P

    2011-04-01

    Fibrosis can occur in any human tissue when the normal wound healing response is amplified. Such amplification results in fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Occurrence of these sequelae in organs such as the eye or lung can result in severe consequences to health. Unfortunately, medical treatment of fibrosis is limited by a lack of safe and effective therapies. These therapies may be developed by identifying agents that inhibit critical steps in fibrotic progression; one such step is myofibroblast differentiation triggered by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1). In this study, we demonstrate that TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast differentiation is blocked in human fibroblasts by a candidate endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). Our data show that ITE disrupts TGFβ1 signaling by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3/4. Although ITE functions as an AhR agonist, and biologically persistent AhR agonists, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, cause severe toxic effects, ITE exhibits no toxicity. Interestingly, ITE effectively inhibits TGFβ1-driven myofibroblast differentiation in AhR(-/-) fibroblasts: Its ability to inhibit TGFβ1 signaling is AhR independent. As supported by the results of this study, the small molecule ITE inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and may be useful clinically as an antiscarring agent. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, U

    2011-01-15

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[{sub 18}F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent

  8. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, U.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent, but no

  9. Ligand- and cell-dependent determinants of internalization and cAMP modulation by delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Iness; Nagi, Karim; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Thibault, Dominic; Balboni, Gianfranco; Schiller, Peter W.; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Signaling bias refers to G protein-coupled receptor ligand ability to preferentially activate one type of signal over another. Bias to evoke signaling as opposed to sequestration has been proposed as a predictor of opioid ligand potential for generating tolerance. Here we measured whether delta opioid receptor agonists preferentially inhibited cyclase activity over internalization in HEK cells. Efficacy (τ) and affinity (KA) values were estimated from functional data and bias was calculated from efficiency coefficients (log τ/KA). This approach better represented the data as compared to alternative methods that estimate bias exclusively from τ values. Log (τ/KA) coefficients indicated that SNC-80 and UFP-512 promoted cyclase inhibition more efficiently than DOR internalization as compared to DPDPE (bias factor for SNC-80: 50 and for UFP-512: 132). Molecular determinants of internalization were different in HEK293 cells and neurons with βarrs contributing to internalization in both cell types, while PKC and GRK2 activities were only involved in neurons. Rank orders of ligand ability to engage different internalization mechanisms in neurons were compared to rank order of Emax values for cyclase assays in HEK cells. Comparison revealed a significant reversal in rank order for cyclase Emax values and βarr-dependent internalization in neurons, indicating that these responses were ligand-specific. Despite this evidence, and because kinases involved in internalization were not the same across cellular backgrounds, it is not possible to assert if the magnitude and nature of bias revealed by rank orders of maximal responses is the same as the one measured in HEK cells. PMID:24022593

  10. Rapid, portable detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J Porter; Schinn, Song-Min; Jones, Matthew D; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-12-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are structurally diverse compounds that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors, posing significant risk to human and ecological health. Unfortunately, many conventional biosensors have been too structure-specific, labor-intensive or laboratory-oriented to detect broad ranges of EDC effectively. Recently, several technological advances are providing more rapid, portable, and affordable detection of endocrine-disrupting activity through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions. Here, we overview these recent advances applied to EDC biosensors - including cell lyophilization, cell immobilization, cell-free systems, smartphone-based signal detection, and improved competitive binding assays.

  11. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...... with similar potency. Overexpression of EBI2 profoundly potentiated antibody-stimulated ex vivo proliferation of murine B cells compared with WT cells, whereas this was equivalently reduced for EBI2-deficient B cells. Inhibition of EBI2 constitutive activity suppressed the proliferation in all cases...

  12. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bender, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore...... in young and old pigs, and were close to those reported for rat and human brain. Furthermore, gradients in the concentrations of D1 and D2/3 sites in striatum measured in vitro agreed with earlier findings in PET studies. However, the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand [3H]GBR12935 did not bind in pig brain...

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microchemical synthesis of the serotonin receptor ligand, 125I-LSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, P.R.; Krohn, A.M.; Hirschman, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 2-[ 125 I]-lysergic acid diethylamide, the first 125 I-labeled serotonin receptor ligand, are described. A novel microsynthesis apparatus was developed for this synthesis. The apparatus employs a micromanipulator and glass micro tools to handle microliter to nanoliter volumes on a microscope stage. This apparatus should be generally useful for the synthesis of radioligands and other compounds when limited amounts of material must be handled in small volumes

  15. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  16. The Prelude on Novel Receptor and Ligand Targets Involved in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a group of disorders, due to the disruption of the normal metabolic process at a cellular level. Diabetes Mellitus and Tyrosinaemia are the majorly reported metabolic disorders. Among them, Diabetes Mellitus is a one of the leading metabolic syndrome, affecting 5 to 7 % of the population worldwide and mainly characterised by elevated levels of glucose and is associated with two types of physiological event disturbances such as impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Up to now, various treatment strategies are like insulin, alphaglucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, incretins were being followed. Concurrently, various novel therapeutic strategies are required to advance the therapy of Diabetes mellitus. For the last few decades, there has been an extensive research in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in Diabetes Mellitus at the cellular level and having the profound knowledge on cell-growth, cell-cycle, and apoptosis at a molecular level provides new targets for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Receptor signalling has been involved in these mechanisms, to translate the information coming from outside. To understand the various receptors involved in these pathways, we must have a sound knowledge on receptors and ligands involved in it. This review mainly summarises the receptors and ligands which are involved the Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, researchers have to develop the alternative chemical moieties that retain their affinity to receptors and efficacy. Diabetes Mellitus being a metabolic disorder due to the glucose surfeit, demands the need for regular exercise along with dietary changes.

  17. Characterizing ligand-gated ion channel receptors with genetically encoded Ca2++ sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a cell based system and experimental approach to characterize agonist and antagonist selectivity for ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC by developing sensor cells stably expressing a Ca(2+ permeable LGIC and a genetically encoded Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium sensor. In particular, we describe separate lines with human α7 and human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, mouse 5-HT(3A serotonin receptors and a chimera of human α7/mouse 5-HT(3A receptors. Complete concentration-response curves for agonists and Schild plots of antagonists were generated from these sensors and the results validate known pharmacology of the receptors tested. Concentration-response relations can be generated from either the initial rate or maximal amplitudes of FRET-signal. Although assaying at a medium throughput level, this pharmacological fluorescence detection technique employs a clonal line for stability and has versatility for screening laboratory generated congeners as agonists or antagonists on multiple subtypes of ligand-gated ion channels. The clonal sensor lines are also compatible with in vivo usage to measure indirectly receptor activation by endogenous neurotransmitters.

  18. General Linker Diversification Approach to Bivalent Ligand Assembly: Generation of an Array of Ligands for the Cation-Independent Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiang; Zavorka, Megan E; Malik, Guillaume; Connelly, Christopher M; MacDonald, Richard G; Berkowitz, David B

    2017-08-18

    A generalized strategy is presented for the rapid assembly of a set of bivalent ligands with a variety of linking functionalities from a common monomer. Herein, an array of phosphatase-inert mannose-6-phosphonate-presenting ligands for the cation-independent-mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) is constructed. Receptor binding affinity varies with linking functionality-the simple amide and 1,5-triazole(tetrazole) being preferred over the 1,4-triazole. This approach is expected to find application across chemical biology, particularly in glycoscience, wherein multivalency often governs molecular recognition.

  19. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for [ 3 H]diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with [ 3 H]flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines

  20. Attenuation of eph receptor kinase activation in cancer cells by coexpressed ephrin ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Falivelli

    Full Text Available The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases mediate juxtacrine signals by interacting "in trans" with ligands anchored to the surface of neighboring cells via a GPI-anchor (ephrin-As or a transmembrane segment (ephrin-Bs, which leads to receptor clustering and increased kinase activity. Additionally, soluble forms of the ephrin-A ligands released from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases can also activate EphA receptor signaling. Besides these trans interactions, recent studies have revealed that Eph receptors and ephrins coexpressed in neurons can also engage in lateral "cis" associations that attenuate receptor activation by ephrins in trans with critical functional consequences. Despite the importance of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Eph receptor-ephrin cis interactions have not been previously investigated in cancer cells. Here we show that in cancer cells, coexpressed ephrin-A3 can inhibit the ability of EphA2 and EphA3 to bind ephrins in trans and become activated, while ephrin-B2 can inhibit not only EphB4 but also EphA3. The cis inhibition of EphA3 by ephrin-B2 implies that in some cases ephrins that cannot activate a particular Eph receptor in trans can nevertheless inhibit its signaling ability through cis association. We also found that an EphA3 mutation identified in lung cancer enhances cis interaction with ephrin-A3. These results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to cancer pathogenesis by attenuating the tumor suppressing effects of Eph receptor signaling pathways activated by ephrins in trans.

  1. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multitarget-directed tricyclic pyridazinones as G protein-coupled receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Amedeo; Catto, Marco; Pinna, Giovanni; Frau, Simona; Murineddu, Gabriele; Asproni, Battistina; Curzu, Maria M; Pisani, Leonardo; Leonetti, Francesco; Loza, Maria Isabel; Brea, José; Pinna, Gérard A; Carotti, Angelo

    2015-06-01

    By following a multitarget ligand design approach, a library of 47 compounds was prepared, and they were tested as binders of selected G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and inhibitors of acetyl and/or butyryl cholinesterase. The newly designed ligands feature pyridazinone-based tricyclic scaffolds connected through alkyl chains of variable length to proper amine moieties (e.g., substituted piperazines or piperidines) for GPCR and cholinesterase (ChE) molecular recognition. The compounds were tested at three different GPCRs, namely serotoninergic 5-HT1A, adrenergic α1A, and dopaminergic D2 receptors. Our main goal was the discovery of compounds that exhibit, in addition to ChE inhibition, antagonist activity at 5-HT1A because of its involvement in neuronal deficits typical of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Ligands with nanomolar affinity for the tested GPCRs were discovered, but most of them behaved as dual antagonists of α1A and 5-HT1A receptors. Nevertheless, several compounds displaying this GPCR affinity profile also showed moderate to good inhibition of AChE and BChE, thus deserving further investigations to exploit the therapeutic potential of such unusual biological profiles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; Liu, Corey W.; Nygaard, Rie; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Fung, Juan José; Choi, Hee-Jung; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Weis, William I.; Pardo, Leonardo; Prosser, R. Scott; Mueller, Luciano; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (Toronto); (BMS); (UAB, Spain)

    2010-01-14

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands regulate lipid content, metabolism, and composition in fetal lungs of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Careaga, V; Martinez, N; Mazzucco, M B; Maier, M; Jawerbaum, A

    2014-03-01

    Maternal diabetes impairs fetal lung development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors relevant in lipid homeostasis and lung development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of in vivo activation of PPARs on lipid homeostasis in fetal lungs of diabetic rats. To this end, we studied lipid concentrations, expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid composition in fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats i) after injections of the fetuses with Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, PPARα ligand) or 15deoxyΔ(12,14)prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, PPARγ ligand) and ii) fed during pregnancy with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched with PPAR ligands were studied. Maternal diabetes increased triglyceride concentrations and decreased expression of lipid-oxidizing enzymes in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, an expression further decreased by LTB4 and partially restored by 15dPGJ2 in lungs of male fetuses in the diabetic group. In lungs of female fetuses in the diabetic group, maternal diets enriched with olive oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid synthase expression, while those enriched with safflower oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid transporter expression. Both olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets decreased cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations and increased the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in fetal lungs of female fetuses of diabetic rats. In fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the maternal diets enriched with olive and safflower oils. Our results revealed important changes in lipid metabolism in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, and in the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate the composition of lipid species relevant in the lung during the perinatal period.

  5. Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M U; Emr, S D; Winther, Jakob R.

    1999-01-01

    Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand bind...

  6. Effects of cypermethrin on the ligand-independent interaction between androgen receptor and steroid receptor coactivator-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Chen; Liu, Ya-Peng; Li, Yan-Fang; Hu, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Wang, Hong-Mei; Li, Jing; Xu, Li-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been considered as an environmental anti-androgen by interfering with the androgen receptor (AR) transactivation. In order to clarify the effects of cypermethrin on the ligand-independent interaction between the AR and SRC-1, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The AR N-terminal domain 1–660 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pVP16 to construct the vector pVP16-ARNTD. The SRC-1 C-terminal domain 989–1240 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pM to construct the vector pM-SRC-1. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-SRC-1 and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The AR AF1 interacted with SRC-1 in the absence of exogenous ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Furthermore, DHT did not enhance the interaction between AR AF-1 and SRC-1 at the concentrations from 10 −10 M to 10 −8 M. Cypermethrin inhibited the interaction between the AR AF1 and SRC-1, and the significant reduction was detected at the concentration of 10 −5 M. It is suggested that the interaction between the AR AF1 and SRC-1 is ligand-independent. Cypermethrin inhibits AR activity by disrupting the ligand-independent AR–SRC-1 interaction.

  7. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL...... on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.-Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering...

  8. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Van Le

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10 is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and Chemokine (C–C Motif Ligand 20 (CCL20 expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  9. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  10. Synthesis of the possible receptor Ligand [125I]-spiperone for D2-dopamine receptor and in-vivo biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.; Shoukry, M.; Abd EL-Bary, A.

    2009-01-01

    The spiperone is a selective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist radioiodination of spiperone is of interest for dopamine (DA) receptor studies both in vivo and in vitro. The labeling of spiperone with iodine-125 was extremely done in a neutral ph 7, using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent via heating the reaction mixture at 70 C (degree) for 10 - 15 minutes producing radiochemical yield of 97 %. In vivo biodistribution studies showed that the initial brain uptake correlated fairly well with the brain uptake index and that the kinetics of the radioactivity specifically bound to the striatum were strongly influenced by the dopamine receptor binding affinity of the compound. The brain uptake of 125 I-Spiperone was high and equal to 3.5, 3.25,2.75 and 1.7 % per gram tissue at 5, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post injection, respectively. 125 I-Spiperone binds with high affinity to dopamine receptors in vivo. Specific binding is about 65% of the total binding as is displaced stereo-specifically by clozapine. 125 I-spiperone may prove to be a useful ligand in studies examining D2-dopamine receptors. Furthermore iodinated spiperone may be useful in radioreceptor assays of neuroleptic drug levels and, in a 123 I-labeled form, for imaging of dopamine receptors, in vivo, using single photon tomography.

  11. Novel aza-analogous ergoline derived scaffolds as potent serotonin 5-HT6 and dopamine D2 receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Jensen, Anders A.; Schrøder, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    By introducing distal substituents on a tetracyclic scaffold resembling the ergoline structure, two series of analogues were achieved exhibiting subnanomolar receptor binding affinities for the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT6 receptor subtype, respectively. While the 5-HT6 ligands were antagonists......, the D2 ligands displayed intrinsic activities ranging from full agonism to partial agonism with low intrinsic activity. These structures could potentially be interesting for treatment of neurological diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and cognitive deficits....

  12. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leuko...

  13. Evaluation of 3-Ethyl-3-(phenylpiperazinylbutyl)oxindoles as PET Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias M; Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated several oxindole derivatives in the pursuit of a 5-HT7 receptor PET ligand. Herein the synthesis, chiral separation, and pharmacological profiling of two possible PET candidates toward a wide selection of CNS-targets are detailed. Subsequent (11)C-labeling and in vivo evaluat...... evaluation in Danish landrace pigs showed that both ligands displayed high brain uptake. However, neither of the radioligands could be displaced by the 5-HT7 receptor selective inverse agonist SB-269970....

  14. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.A.; Steele-Perkins, G.; Hari, J.; Stover, C.; Pierce, S.; Turner, J.; Edman, J.C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin is a member of a family of structurally related hormones with diverse physiological functions. In humans, the best-characterized members of this family include insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II. Each of these three polypeptide hormones has its own distinct receptor. The structures of each of these receptors have now been deduced from analyses of isolated cDNA clones. To study further the responses mediated through these three different receptors, the authors have been studying cells expressing the proteins encoded by these three cDNAs. The isolated cDNAs have been transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the resulting transfected cell lines have been characterized as to the ligand-binding activities and signal-transducing activities of the expressed proteins

  15. Importance of the extracellular loops in G protein-coupled receptors for ligand recognition and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M C; van Westen, G J P; Li, Q; IJzerman, A P

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major drug target of medicines on the market today. Therefore, much research is and has been devoted to the elucidation of the function and three-dimensional structure of this large family of membrane proteins, which includes multiple conserved transmembrane domains connected by intra- and extracellular loops. In the last few years, the less conserved extracellular loops have garnered increasing interest, particularly after the publication of several GPCR crystal structures that clearly show the extracellular loops to be involved in ligand binding. This review will summarize the recent progress made in the clarification of the ligand binding and activation mechanism of class-A GPCRs and the role of extracellular loops in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal structure of the ligand-bound glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor extracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Steffen; Thøgersen, Henning; Madsen, Kjeld; Lau, Jesper; Rudolph, Rainer

    2008-04-25

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to Family B1 of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, and its natural agonist ligand is the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is involved in glucose homeostasis, and activation of GLP-1R in the plasma membrane of pancreatic beta-cells potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The N-terminal extracellular domain (nGLP-1R) is an important ligand binding domain that binds GLP-1 and the homologous peptide Exendin-4 with differential affinity. Exendin-4 has a C-terminal extension of nine amino acid residues known as the "Trp cage", which is absent in GLP-1. The Trp cage was believed to interact with nGLP-1R and thereby explain the superior affinity of Exendin-4. However, the molecular details that govern ligand binding and specificity of nGLP-1R remain undefined. Here we report the crystal structure of human nGLP-1R in complex with the antagonist Exendin-4(9-39) solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method to 2.2A resolution. The structure reveals that Exendin-4(9-39) is an amphipathic alpha-helix forming both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with nGLP-1R. The Trp cage of Exendin-4 is not involved in binding to nGLP-1R. The hydrophobic binding site of nGLP-1R is defined by discontinuous segments including primarily a well defined alpha-helix in the N terminus of nGLP-1R and a loop between two antiparallel beta-strands. The structure provides for the first time detailed molecular insight into ligand binding of the human GLP-1 receptor, an established target for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. The role of TAM family receptors and ligands in the nervous system: From development to pathobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Gruber, Ross C; DuBois, Juwen C

    2018-03-04

    Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk, referred to as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are instrumental in maintaining cell survival and homeostasis in mammals. TAM receptors interact with multiple signaling molecules to regulate cell migration, survival, phagocytosis and clearance of metabolic products and cell debris called efferocytosis. The TAMs also function as rheostats to reduce the expression of proinflammatory molecules and prevent autoimmunity. All three TAM receptors are activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the vitamin K-dependent growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6). Gas6 and the TAMs are abundantly expressed in the nervous system. Gas6, secreted by neurons and endothelial cells, is the sole ligand for Axl. ProteinS1 (ProS1), another vitamin K-dependent protein functions mainly as an anti-coagulant, and independent of this function can activate Tyro3 and Mertk, but not Axl. This review will focus on the role of the TAM receptors and their ligands in the nervous system. We highlight studies that explore the function of TAM signaling in myelination, the visual cortex, neural cancers, and multiple sclerosis (MS) using Gas6 -/- and TAM mutant mice models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  19. Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, J V

    2009-01-01

    While the endogenous hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, have been acknowledged as naturally occurring components of the mammalian body for decades, their biological function remains as elusive now as it was at the time of their discovery. The recent discovery of the trace amine associated receptors and the activity of DMT and other hallucinogenic compounds at these receptor sites leads to the hypothesis that the endogenous hallucinogens act as neurotransmitters of a subclass of these trace amine receptors. Additionally, while activity at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as being responsible for the hallucinogenic affects of administered hallucinogens, in their natural setting the 5-HT2A receptor may not interact with the endogenous hallucinogens at all. Additionally 5-HT2A agonist activity is unable to account for the visual altering effects of many of the administered hallucinogens; these effects may be mediated by one of the endogenous hallucinogen trace amine receptors rather than the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Therefore, activity at the trace amine receptors, in addition to serotonin receptors, may play a large role in the sensory altering effects of administered hallucinogens and the trace amine receptors along with their endogenous hallucinogen ligands may serve an endogenous role in mediating sensory perception in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus the theory proposed states that these compounds act as true endogenous hallucinogenic transmitters acting in regions of the central nervous system involved in sensory perception.

  20. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ suppresses liver tumorigenesis in hepatitis B transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandaram, Gayathri; Kramer, Lance R.; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Murray, Iain A.; Perdew, Gary H.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The role of PPARβ/δ in HBV-induced liver cancer was examined. • PPARβ/δ inhibits steatosis, inflammation, tumor multiplicity and promotes apoptosis. • Kupffer cell PPARβ/δ mediates these effects independent of DNA binding. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) inhibits steatosis and inflammation, known risk factors for liver cancer. In this study, the effect of ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in modulating liver tumorigenesis in transgenic hepatitis B virus (HBV) mice was examined. Activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice reduced steatosis, the average number of liver foci, and tumor multiplicity. Reduced expression of hepatic CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) mRNA, serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase, and an increase in apoptotic signaling was also observed following ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice compared to controls. Inhibition of Tnfa mRNA expression was not observed in wild-type hepatocytes. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression of Tnfa in wild-type, but not in Pparβ/δ-null Kupffer cells. Interestingly, LPS-induced expression of Tnfa mRNA was also inhibited in Kupffer cells from a transgenic mouse line that expressed a DNA binding mutant form of PPARβ/δ compared to controls. Combined, these results suggest that ligand activation of PPARβ/δ attenuates hepatic tumorigenesis in HBV transgenic mice by inhibiting steatosis and cell proliferation, enhancing hepatocyte apoptosis, and modulating anti-inflammatory activity in Kupffer cells.

  1. Estrogen receptor determination in endometrial carcinoma: ligand binding assay versus enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1995-01-01

    We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA......, and cytosolic progesterone receptors (PR) measured by LBA were also studied. While ERc concentrations determined by LBA and EIA were highly correlated (r: 0.94), ERc values detected by LBA were approximately twice those found by EIA (median values of ERc: 155 vs. 64 fmol/mg cytosol protein, DCC vs. EIA......). The percentages of ERc positive tumors were 89% by LBA and 77% by EIA. The median fraction of total ER present as ERn was 63%. PR levels correlated positively with ERn concentrations (r: 0.73). We explore possible reasons why greater concentrations of ERc are determined by estradiol binding than by the ER-EIA kit...

  2. ReFlexIn: a flexible receptor protein-ligand docking scheme evaluated on HIV-1 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Leis

    Full Text Available For many targets of pharmaceutical importance conformational changes of the receptor protein are relevant during the ligand binding process. A new docking approach, ReFlexIn (Receptor Flexibility by Interpolation, that combines receptor flexibility with the computationally efficient potential grid representation of receptor molecules has been evaluated on the retroviral HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 protease system. An approximate inclusion of receptor flexibility is achieved by using interpolation between grid representations of individual receptor conformations. For the retroviral protease the method was tested on an ensemble of protease structures crystallized in the presence of different ligands and on a set of structures obtained from morphing between the unbound and a ligand-bound protease structure. Docking was performed on ligands known to bind to the protease and several non-binders. For the binders the ReFlexIn method yielded in almost all cases ligand placements in similar or closer agreement with experiment than docking to any of the ensemble members without degrading the discrimination with respect to non-binders. The improved docking performance compared to docking to rigid receptors allows for systematic virtual screening applications at very small additional computational cost.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligands and modulators from dietary compounds: Types, screening methods and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Nanping

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis and a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. Natural dietary compounds, including nutrients and phytochemicals, are PPARα ligands or modulators. High-throughput screening assays have been developed to screen for PPARα ligands and modulators in our diet. In the present review, we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of PPARα, including its structure, function, and ligand and modulator screening assays, and summarize the different types of dietary PPARα ligands and modulators. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Key structural features of nonsteroidal ligands for binding and activation of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Donghua; He, Yali; Perera, Minoli A; Hong, Seoung Soo; Marhefka, Craig; Stourman, Nina; Kirkovsky, Leonid; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to examine the androgen receptor (AR) binding ability and in vitro functional activity of multiple series of nonsteroidal compounds derived from known antiandrogen pharmacophores and to investigate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these nonsteroidal compounds. The AR binding properties of sixty-five nonsteroidal compounds were assessed by a radioligand competitive binding assay with the use of cytosolic AR prepared from rat prostates. The AR agonist and antagonist activities of high-affinity ligands were determined by the ability of the ligand to regulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cultured CV-1 cells, using a cotransfection assay. Nonsteroidal compounds with diverse structural features demonstrated a wide range of binding affinity for the AR. Ten compounds, mainly from the bicalutamide-related series, showed a binding affinity superior to the structural pharmacophore from which they were derived. Several SARs regarding nonsteroidal AR binding were revealed from the binding data, including stereoisomeric conformation, steric effect, and electronic effect. The functional activity of high-affinity ligands ranged from antagonist to full agonist for the AR. Several structural features were found to be determinative of agonist and antagonist activities. The nonsteroidal AR agonists identified from the present studies provided a pool of candidates for further development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) for androgen therapy. Also, these studies uncovered or confirmed numerous important SARs governing AR binding and functional properties by nonsteroidal molecules, which would be valuable in the future structural optimization of SARMs.

  5. Glycosylation as a Main Regulator of Growth and Death Factor Receptors Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Gomes Ferreira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we provide a thorough picture of the mechanisms bywhich glycosylation affects the activity of growth and death factor receptors in normal and pathological conditions. Glycosylation affects receptor activity through three non-mutually exclusive basic mechanisms: (1 by directly regulating intracellular transport, ligand binding, oligomerization and signaling of receptors; (2 through the binding of receptor carbohydrate structures to galectins, forming a lattice thatregulates receptor turnover on the plasma membrane; and (3 by receptor interaction with gangliosides inside membrane microdomains. Some carbohydrate chains, for example core fucose and β1,6-branching, exert a stimulatory effect on all receptors, while other structures exert opposite effects on different receptors or in different cellular contexts. In light of the crucial role played by glycosylation in the regulation of receptor activity, the development of next-generation drugs targeting glyco-epitopes of growth factor receptors should be considered a therapeutically interesting goal.

  6. Ligand-Receptor Interaction-Mediated Transmembrane Transport of Dendrimer-like Soft Nanoparticles: Mechanisms and Complicated Diffusive Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junshi; Chen, Pengyu; Dong, Bojun; Huang, Zihan; Zhao, Kongyin; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-05-09

    Nearly all nanomedical applications of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles rely on the functionality of attached ligands. Understanding how the ligands interact with the receptors in cell membrane and its further effect on the cellular uptake of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles is thereby a key issue for their better application in nanomedicine. However, the essential mechanism and detailed kinetics for the ligand-receptor interaction-mediated transmembrane transport of such unconventional nanoparticles remain poorly elucidated. Here, using coarse-grained simulations, we present the very first study of molecular mechanism and kinetics behaviors for the transmembrane transport of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles conjugated with ligands. A phase diagram of interaction states is constructed through examining ligand densities and membrane tensions that allows us to identify novel endocytosis mechanisms featured by the direct wrapping and the penetration-extraction vesiculation. The results provide an in-depth insight into the diffusivity of receptors and dendrimer in the membrane plane and demonstrate how the ligand density influences receptor diffusion and uptake kinetics. It is interesting to find that the ligand-conjugated dendrimers present superdiffusive behaviors on a membrane, which is revealed to be driven by the random fluctuation dynamics of the membrane. The findings facilitate our understanding of some recent experimental observations and could establish fundamental principles for the future development of such important nanomaterials for widespread nanomedical applications.

  7. Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor (SILIRID) for alignment-free binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupakhin, Vladimir; Marcou, Gilles; Gaspar, Helena; Varnek, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    We describe SILIRID (Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor), a novel fixed size descriptor characterizing protein-ligand interactions. SILIRID can be obtained from the binary interaction fingerprints (IFPs) by summing up the bits corresponding to identical amino acids. This results in a vector of 168 integer numbers corresponding to the product of the number of entries (20 amino acids and one cofactor) and 8 interaction types per amino acid (hydrophobic, aromatic face to face, aromatic edge to face, H-bond donated by the protein, H-bond donated by the ligand, ionic bond with protein cation and protein anion, and interaction with metal ion). Efficiency of SILIRID to distinguish different protein binding sites has been examined in similarity search in sc-PDB database, a druggable portion of the Protein Data Bank, using various protein-ligand complexes as queries. The performance of retrieval of structurally and evolutionary related classes of proteins was comparable to that of state-of-the-art approaches (ROC AUC ≈ 0.91). SILIRID can efficiently be used to visualize chemogenomic space covered by sc-PDB using Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM): sc-PDB SILIRID data form clusters corresponding to different protein types.

  8. α2A- and α2C-Adrenoceptors as Potential Targets for Dopamine and Dopamine Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Yano, Hideaki; Bender, Brian Joseph; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Moreno, Estefanía; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Meiler, Jens; Casadó, Vicent; Ferré, Sergi

    2018-03-18

    The poor norepinephrine innervation and high density of Gi/o-coupled α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors in the striatum and the dense striatal dopamine innervation have prompted the possibility that dopamine could be an effective adrenoceptor ligand. Nevertheless, the reported adrenoceptor agonistic properties of dopamine are still inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the binding of norepinephrine, dopamine, and several compounds reported as selective dopamine D 2 -like receptor ligands, such as the D 3 receptor agonist 7-OH-PIPAT and the D 4 receptor agonist RO-105824, to α 2 -adrenoceptors in cortical and striatal tissue, which express α 2A -adrenoceptors and both α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors, respectively. The affinity of dopamine for α 2 -adrenoceptors was found to be similar to that for D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors. Moreover, the exogenous dopamine receptor ligands also showed high affinity for α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors. Their ability to activate Gi/o proteins through α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was also analyzed in transfected cells with bioluminescent resonance energy transfer techniques. The relative ligand potencies and efficacies were dependent on the Gi/o protein subtype. Furthermore, dopamine binding to α 2 -adrenoceptors was functional, inducing changes in dynamic mass redistribution, adenylyl cyclase activity, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Binding events were further studied with computer modeling of ligand docking. Docking of dopamine at α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was nearly identical to its binding to the crystallized D 3 receptor. Therefore, we provide conclusive evidence that α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors are functional receptors for norepinephrine, dopamine, and other previously assumed selective D 2 -like receptor ligands, which calls for revisiting previous studies with those ligands.

  9. Collagen Type I as a Ligand for Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Boraschi-Diaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Collagens form the fibrous component of the extracellular matrix in all multi-cellular animals. Collagen type I is the most abundant collagen present in skin, tendons, vasculature, as well as the organic portion of the calcified tissue of bone and teeth. This review focuses on numerous receptors for which collagen acts as a ligand, including integrins, discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and 2, OSCAR, GPVI, G6b-B, and LAIR-1 of the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC and mannose family receptor uPARAP/Endo180. We explore the process of collagen production and self-assembly, as well as its degradation by collagenases and gelatinases in order to predict potential temporal and spatial sites of action of different collagen receptors. While the interactions of the mature collagen matrix with integrins and DDR are well-appreciated, potential signals from immature matrix as well as collagen degradation products are possible but not yet described. The role of multiple collagen receptors in physiological processes and their contribution to pathophysiology of diseases affecting collagen homeostasis require further studies.

  10. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  11. Induction and regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo-2 ligand-mediated apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Thomas S; Fialkov, Jonathan M; Scott, David L; Azuhata, Takeo; Williams, Richard D; Wall, Nathan R; Altieri, Dario C; Sandler, Anthony D

    2002-06-01

    The lack of effective therapy for disseminated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has stimulated the search for novel treatments including immunotherapeutic strategies. However, poor therapeutic responses and marked toxicity associated with immunological agents has limited their use. The tumor necrosis factor family member tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/Apo-2 ligand induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types, while having little cytotoxic activity against normal cells. In this study the activation and regulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and TRAIL receptor expression in human RCC cell lines and pathologic specimens was examined. TRAIL induced caspase-mediated apoptotic death of RCC cells with variable sensitivities among the cell lines tested. Compared with TRAIL-sensitive RCC cell lines (A-498, ACHN, and 769-P), the TRAIL-resistant RCC cell line (786-O) expressed lesser amounts of the death-inducing TRAIL receptors, and greater amounts of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Incubation of 786-O with actinomycin D increased the expression of the death-inducing TRAIL receptors and, concomitantly, decreased the intracellular levels of survivin, resulting in TRAIL-induced apoptotic death. The link between survivin and TRAIL regulation was confirmed when an increase in TRAIL resistance was observed after overexpression of survivin in the TRAIL-sensitive, survivin-negative RCC line A-498. These findings, along with our observation that TRAIL receptors are expressed in RCC tumor tissue, suggest that TRAIL may be useful as a therapeutic agent for RCC and that survivin may partially regulate TRAIL-induced cell death.

  12. Ligand Binding Affinities of Arctigenin and Its Demethylated Metabolites to Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (−-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (−-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL by Eubacterium (E. sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (−-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (−-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC50 value of (2R,3R-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10−4 M.

  13. The relaxin family peptide receptors and their ligands : new developments and paradigms in the evolution from jawless fish to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yegorov, Sergey; Bogerd, Jan; Good, Sara V

    2014-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide receptors (Rxfps) and their ligands, relaxin (Rln) and insulin-like (Insl) peptides, are broadly implicated in the regulation of reproductive and neuroendocrine processes in mammals. Most placental mammals harbour genes for four receptors, namely rxfp1, rxfp2, rxfp3 and rxfp4.

  14. Different response patterns of several ligands at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype 3 (S1P(3))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.; van Unen, J.; van Loenen, P. B.; Michel, M. C.; Peters, S. L. M.; Alewijnse, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, some ligands targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype 3 (S1P(3)) have become available. The characterization of these compounds was mainly based on one functional read-out system, although S1P(3) receptors are known to activate different signal transduction pathways.

  15. Estrogen and progesterone receptor assay using I-125 estradiol and H-3 promegestone as ligands: Results in female mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.; Hienz, H.A.; Bettges, G.; Carmanns, B.; Lichtenberg, T.; Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Krefeld

    1984-01-01

    The determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytosol of carcinoma of the female breast has predictive value as to the success treatment of the patient. An improved estrogen and progesterone receptor assay using 1-125 labelled estradiol and a H-3 tagged synthetic gestagen (H-3 promegestone) as ligands proved to be highly praticable, especially time-saving. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of chicken thrombocyte responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael St Paul

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes are the avian equivalent to mammalian platelets. In addition to their hemostatic effects, mammalian platelets rely in part on pattern recognition receptors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLR, to detect the presence of pathogens and signal the release of certain cytokines. Ligands for TLRs include lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which is bound by TLR4, as well as unmethylated CpG DNA motifs, which are bound by TLR9 in mammals and TLR21 in chickens. Similar to mammalian platelets, avian thrombocytes have been shown to express TLR4 and secrete some pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS treatment. However, the full extent of the contributions made by thrombocytes to host immunity has yet to be elucidated. Importantly, the mechanisms by which TLR stimulation may modulate thrombocyte effector functions have not been well characterized. As such, the objective of the present study was to gain further insight into the immunological role of thrombocytes by analyzing their responses to treatment with ligands for TLR4 and TLR21. To this end, we quantified the relative expression of several immune system genes at 1, 3, 8 and 18 hours post-treatment using real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, production of nitric oxide and phagocytic activity of thrombocytes was measured after their activation with TLR ligands. We found that thrombocytes constitutively express transcripts for both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, in addition to those associated with anti-viral responses and antigen presentation. Moreover, we found that both LPS and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN induced robust pro-inflammatory responses in thrombocytes, as characterized by more than 100 fold increase in interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 transcripts, while only LPS enhanced nitric oxide production and phagocytic capabilities. Future studies may be aimed at examining the responses of thrombocytes to other TLR ligands.

  17. Functional characterization of the modified melanocortin peptides responsible for ligand selectivity at the human melanocortin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Georgeson, Keith E; Harmon, Carroll M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Yang, Yingkui

    2006-11-01

    The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis as well as skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis and exocrine gland function. In this study, we examined eight Ac-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) tetrapeptides that were modified at the Phe position and pharmacologically characterized their activities at the human MCR wild-types and their mutants. Our results indicate that at the hMC1R, all D stereochemical modified residues at the Phe position of peptides increase cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. At the hMC3R, the DPhe peptide dose dependently increases cAMP production but all other three tetrapeptides were not. At the hMC4R, both the DPhe and DNal(1') peptides induce cAMP production. However, both DTyr and DNal(2') were not able to induce cAMP production. Further studies indicated that at the hMC1R M128L mutant receptor, the all D-configured tetrapeptides reduce their potencies as compared to that of hMC1R wild-type. However, at the hMC3R and hMC4R L165M and L133M mutant receptors, the DNal(2') and DTyr tetrapeptides possess agonist activity. These findings indicate that DPhe in tetrapeptide plays an important role in ligand selectivity and specific residue TM3 of the melanocortin receptors is crucial for ligand selectivity.

  18. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, T.A.; Gearing, A.J.; Saklatvala, J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125 I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  19. Sigma receptor ligand N,N'-di-(ortho-tolyl)guanidine inhibits release of acetylcholine in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, B G; Keana, J F; Weber, E

    1991-11-26

    The inhibition of stimulated contractions of the guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation by sigma receptor ligands has been previously described. In this study, the stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve terminals in this same preparation was monitored in the presence and absence of sigma receptor ligands. N,N'-Di-(orthotolyl)guanidine (DTG) and other compounds selective for the sigma receptor inhibited stimulated [3H]acetylcholine release. These results suggest that their inhibition of stimulated contractions in this preparation was mediated by inhibition of acetylcholine release.

  20. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet α2-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: [ 3 H]SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of [ 3 H]SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M r 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M r 4000, which was further digested to the M r 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M r 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M r 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor

  1. Synthetic Ligands of Cannabinoid Receptors Affect Dauer Formation in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reis Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under adverse environmental conditions the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can enter an alternate developmental stage called the dauer larva. To identify lipophilic signaling molecules that influence this process, we screened a library of bioactive lipids and found that AM251, an antagonist of the human cannabinoid (CB receptor, suppresses dauer entry in daf-2 insulin receptor mutants. AM251 acted synergistically with glucose supplementation indicating that the metabolic status of the animal influenced the activity of this compound. Similarly, loss of function mutations in the energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase subunit, aak-2, enhanced the dauer-suppressing effects of AM251, while constitutive activation of aak-2 in neurons was sufficient to inhibit AM251 activity. Chemical epistasis experiments indicated that AM251 acts via G-protein signaling and requires the TGF-β ligand DAF-7, the insulin peptides DAF-28 and INS-6, and a functional ASI neuron to promote reproductive growth. AM251 also required the presence of the SER-5 serotonin receptor, but in vitro experiments suggest that this may not be via a direct interaction. Interestingly, we found that other antagonists of mammalian CB receptors also suppress dauer entry, while the nonselective CB receptor agonist, O-2545, not only inhibited the activity of AM251, but also was able to promote dauer entry when administered alone. Since worms do not have obvious orthologs of CB receptors, the effects of synthetic CBs on neuroendocrine signaling in C. elegans are likely to be mediated via another, as yet unknown, receptor mechanism. However, we cannot exclude the existence of a noncanonical CB receptor in C. elegans.

  2. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor's transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.

  3. Efficient cell-free production of olfactory receptors: detergent optimization, structure, and ligand binding analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Liselotte; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna; Steuerwald, Dirk; Vanberghem, Mélanie; Herlihy, Kara; Zhang, Shuguang

    2008-10-14

    High-level production of membrane proteins, particularly of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in heterologous cell systems encounters a number of difficulties from their inherent hydrophobicity in their transmembrane domains, which frequently cause protein aggregation and cytotoxicity and thus reduce the protein yield. Recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis circumvent those problems to produce membrane proteins with a yield sometimes exceeding the cell-based approach. Here, we report cell-free production of a human olfactory receptor 17-4 (hOR17-4) using the wheat germ extract. Using the simple method, we also successful produced two additional olfactory receptors. To obtain soluble olfactory receptors and to increase yield, we directly added different detergents in varying concentrations to the cell-free reaction. To identify a purification buffer system that maintained the receptor in a nonaggregated form, we developed a method that uses small-volume size-exclusion column chromatography combined with rapid and sensitive dot-blot detection. Different buffer components including salt concentration, various detergents and detergent concentration, and reducing agent and its concentrations were evaluated for their ability to maintain the cell-free produced protein stable and nonaggregated. The purified olfactory receptor displays a typical a alpha-helical CD spectrum. Surface plasmon resonance measurements were used to show binding of a known ligand undecanal to hOR17-4. Our approach to produce a high yield of purified olfactory receptor is a milestone toward obtaining a large quantity of olfactory receptors for designing bionic sensors. Furthermore, this simple approach may be broadly useful not only for other classes of GPCRs but also for other membrane proteins.

  4. Calcium is the switch in the moonlighting dual function of the ligand-activated receptor kinase phytosulfokine receptor 1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, Victor

    2014-09-23

    Background: A number of receptor kinases contain guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic centres encapsulated in the cytosolic kinase domain. A prototypical example is the phytosulfokine receptor 1 (PSKR1) that is involved in regulating growth responses in plants. PSKR1 contains both kinase and GC activities however the underlying mechanisms regulating the dual functions have remained elusive. Findings: Here, we confirm the dual activity of the cytoplasmic domain of the PSKR1 receptor. We show that mutations within the guanylate cyclase centre modulate the GC activity while not affecting the kinase catalytic activity. Using physiologically relevant Ca2+ levels, we demonstrate that its GC activity is enhanced over two-fold by Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, increasing Ca2+ levels inhibits kinase activity up to 500-fold at 100 nM Ca2+. Conclusions: Changes in calcium at physiological levels can regulate the kinase and GC activities of PSKR1. We therefore propose a functional model of how calcium acts as a bimodal switch between kinase and GC activity in PSKR1 that could be relevant to other members of this novel class of ligand-activated receptor kinases.

  5. Synthesis of 123I-labelled analogues of imidazobenzodiazepine receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsifis, A.G.; Mattner, F.; McPhee, M.E.; Ridley, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Reaction of bromo- or iodo-substituted isatoic anhydrides with N-methylglycine, L-proline or D-proline afforded bromo- or iodo-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepinediones which on condensation with ethyl or t-butyl isocyanoacetates gave ethyl or t-butyl bromo- or iodo-imidazobenzodiazepine carboxylates. These aryl halides were converted into the corresponding tributylstannanes with bis(tributyltin) in the presence of (triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), and the stannanes were treated with sodium ( 123 I)iodide in the presence of chloramine-T to give the required 123 I-labelled analogues of the imidazobenzodiazepine receptor ligands flumazenil and bretazenil. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  6. Ligand-independent Thrombopoietin Mutant Receptor Requires Cell Surface Localization for Endogenous Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Caroline; Chaligné, Ronan; Lacout, Catherine; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Vainchenker, William; Villeval, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The activating W515L mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) has been identified in primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia. MPL belongs to a subset of the cytokine receptor superfamily that requires the JAK2 kinase for signaling. We examined whether the ligand-independent MPLW515L mutant could signal intracellularly. Addition of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention KDEL sequence to the receptor C terminus efficiently locked MPLW515L within its natural ER/Golgi maturation pathway. In contrast to cells expressing the parental MPLW515L, MPLW515L-KDEL-expressing FDC-P1 cells were unable to grow autonomously and to produce tumors in nude mice. When observed, tumor nodules resulted from in vivo selection of cells leaking the receptor at their surface. JAK2 co-immunoprecipitated with MPLW515L-KDEL but was not phosphorylated. We generated disulfide-bonded MPLW515L homodimers by the S402C substitution, both in the normal and KDEL context. Unlike MPLW515L-KDEL, MPLW515L-S402C-KDEL signaled constitutively and exhibited cell surface localization. These data establish that MPLW515L with appended JAK2 matures through the ER/Golgi system in an inactive conformation and suggest that the MPLW515L/JAK2 complex requires membrane localization for JAK2 phosphorylation, resulting in autonomous receptor signaling. PMID:19261614

  7. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  8. Aromatic interactions impact ligand binding and function at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics results validated by experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Villa, Nancy; Fang, Lijuan; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family consists of types 2A, 2B, and 2C that share ∼75% transmembrane (TM) sequence identity. Agonists for 5-HT2C receptors are under development for psychoses; whereas, at 5-HT2A receptors, antipsychotic effects are associated with antagonists - in fact, 5-HT2A agonists can cause hallucinations and 5-HT2B agonists cause cardiotoxicity. It is known that 5-HT2A TM6 residues W6.48, F6.51, and F6.52 impact ligand binding and function; however, ligand interactions with these residues at the 5-HT2C receptor have not been reported. To predict and validate molecular determinants for 5-HT2C-specific activation, results from receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were compared with experimental results for ligand binding and function at wild type and W6.48A, F6.51A, and F6.52A point-mutated 5-HT2C receptors.

  9. In vivo evaluation of [11C]SA4503 as a PET ligand for mapping CNS sigma1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Tajima, Hisashi; Ishii, Shin-Ichi; Matsuno, Kiyoshi; Homma, Yoshio; Senda, Michio

    2000-01-01

    The potential of the 11 C-labeled selective sigma 1 receptor ligand 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine ([ 11 C]SA4503) was evaluated in vivo as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping sigma 1 receptors in rats. SA4503 is known to have a high affinity (IC 50 17.4 nM) and a higher selectivity (sigma 1 /sigma 2 =103) for the sigma 1 receptor. A high and increasing brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA4503 was found. Pre-, co- and postinjection of cold SA4503 significantly decreased uptake of [ 11 C]SA4503 in the brain, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney in which sigma receptors are present as well as in the skeletal muscle. In the blocking study with one of four sigma receptor ligands including haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, SA4503, and (-)-pentazocine (in the order of their affinity for sigma 1 receptor subtype), SA4503 and haloperidol significantly reduced the brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA4503 to approximately 30% of the control, but the other two benzomorphans did not. A high specific uptake of [ 11 C]SA4503 by the brain was also confirmed by ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and PET. Ex vivo ARG showed a higher uptake in the vestibular nucleus, temporal cortex, cingulate cortex, inferior colliculus, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and a moderate uptake in the parietal cortex and caudate putamen. Peripherally, the blocking effects of the four ligands depended on their affinity for sigma 1 receptors. No 11 C-labeled metabolite was detected in the brain 30 min postinjection, whereas approximately 20% of the radioactivity was found as 11 C-labeled metabolites in plasma. These results have demonstrated that the 11 C-labeled sigma 1 receptor ligand [ 11 C]SA4503 has a potential for mapping sigma 1 receptors in the central nervous system and peripheral organs

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xueyan; Hu Guoqiang; Tian Keli; Wang Mingyun

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125 I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g -1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g -1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  11. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co...

  12. Stereochemistry of charged nitrogen-aromatic interactions and its involvement in ligand-receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Marcel L.; Boks, Gertjan J.; Kooijman, Huub; Kanters, Jan A.; Kroon, Jan

    1993-04-01

    Recently, new evidence was found for the involvement of charged nitrogen-aromatic interactions in ligand-receptor binding. In this study we report two favourable orientations of a phenyl ring with respect to a R-N+(CH3)3 group, based on crystal structure statistics from the Cambridge Structural Database. In the first orientation, the phenyl ring is situated in between the substituents at about 4.5 Å from the nitrogen atom, and the ring is approximately oriented on the sphere around the nitrogen atom. In the second orientation, the phenyl ring is situated in the same direction as one of the N-C bonds at about 6.0 Å from the nitrogen atom, and the ring is tilted with respect to the sphere around the nitrogen atom. The same two orientations were also found in the crystal structures of three ligand-receptor complexes, which implies that these orientations probably play a major role in molecular recognition mechanisms.

  13. The GABAA receptor complex in hepatic encephalopathy. Autoradiographic evidence for the presence of elevated levels of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Gammal, S.H.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Autoradiographic analysis was used to examine radioligand binding to benzodiazepine (BZ) and GABAA receptors in the brains of rabbits with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thin sections of whole brain from normal rabbits and rabbits with HE were mounted on slides and subdivided into two groups. One group was washed before incubation with radioligand, while the second group was not prewashed. (3H)Flunitrazepam binding to BZ receptors was decreased by 22% to 42% (p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, superior and inferior colliculi, and cerebellum of unwashed sections from rabbits with HE compared to all other groups. The binding of (3H)Ro 15-1788 to unwashed sections from rabbits with HE was reduced by a similar degree (18% to 37%, p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar cortex. Incubation of sections with the GABA-mimetic muscimol and NaCl produced an additional decrease in (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the cortex and hippocampus (25% to 31%, p less than 0.05) in unwashed HE rabbit brain, but increased radioligand binding (27% to 71%, p less than 0.05) to several regions in control rabbits. No changes in radioligand binding to either GABAA or peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed between HE and control rabbit sections. These findings are consistent with previous electrophysiologic and neurochemical observations indicating no significant changes in either the function or density of GABAA or BZ receptors in this model of HE. Further, they indicate that a reversible BZ receptor ligand with agonist properties is present in the brain in HE. This substance may contribute to the enhancement of GABAergic tone observed in this syndrome.

  14. Identification of a carbohydrate-based endothelial ligand for a lymphocyte homing receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y.; Singer, M.S.; Fennie, C.; Lasky, L.A.; Rosen, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Lymphocyte attachment to high endothelial venules within lymph nodes is mediated by the peripheral lymph node homing receptor (pnHR), originally defined on mouse lymphocytes by the MEL-14 mAb. The pnHR is a calcium-dependent lectin-like receptor, a member of the LEC-CAM family of adhesion proteins. Here, using a soluble recombinant form of the homing receptor, we have identified an endothelial ligand for the pnHR as an ∼ 50-kD sulfated, fucosylated, and sialylated glycoprotein, which we designate Sgp50 (sulfated glycoprotein of 50 kD). Recombinant receptor binding to this lymph node-specific glycoprotein requires calcium and is inhibitable by specific carbohydrates and by MEL-14 mAb. Sialylation of the component is required for binding. Additionally, the glycoprotein is precipitated by MECA-79, an adhesion-blocking mAb reactive with lymph node HEV. A related glycoprotein of ∼ 90 kD (designated as Sgp90) is also identified

  15. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPARα. ► Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid β-oxidation and synthesis. ► Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. ► Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPARα agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPARα agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPARα. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPARα via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  16. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Xiang Hua [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: byhwang@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: junelee@korea.ac.kr [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands on cell proliferation and expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat liver "stem-like" cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Zatloukalová, Jiřina; Machala, M.; Krčmář, P.; Májková, Z.; Hennig, B.; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2007), s. 79-89 ISSN 0388-1350 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : tumor necrosis factor-alpha * xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes * dioxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Orphan nuclear receptor TR4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 in metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is achieved, in part, through the coordinated activities of members of the Nuclear Receptor (NR) family, a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors (TFs) that mediate responses to a wide range of lipophilic signaling molecules including lipids, steroids, retinoids,

  19. Functional expression of Squalus acanthias melanocortin-5 receptor in CHO cells: ligand selectivity and interaction with MRAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinick, Christina L; Liang, Liang; Angleson, Josepha K; Dores, Robert M

    2012-04-05

    The melanocortin-5 receptor (MC(5)) of the dogfish Squalus acanthias (SacMC(5) receptor) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells in the absence of the co-expression of an exogenous MRAP cDNA. Both human ACTH(1-24) and dogfish ACTH(1-25) were much better stimulators of the SacMC(5) receptor than any of the mammalian or dogfish MSH ligands that were tested. The order of ligand selectivity for the dogfish melanocortins was ACTH(1-25)>αMSH>γ-MSH=δ-MSH>β-MSH. Unlike mammalian MC(5) receptors, the functional expression of the SacMC(5) receptor was not negatively impacted when the receptor was co-expressed with a cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii) MRAP2 cDNA. However, co-expression with either mouse mMRAP1 or zebrafish zfMRAP1 increased the sensitivity of SacMC(5) receptor for hACTH(1-24) by at least one order of magnitude. Hence, SacMC(5) receptor has the potential to interact with MRAP1 orthologs and in this regard behaved more like a melanocortin MC(2) receptor ortholog than a melanocortin MC(5) receptor ortholog. These observations are discussed in light of the evolution of the melanocortin receptor gene family in cartilaginous fish, and the physiological implications of these observations are considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  1. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

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    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o homeostasis and many (pathophysiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR’s cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics.

  2. Monovalent cation and amiloride analog modulation of adrenergic ligand binding to the unglycosylated alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.L.; Seibert, K.; Brandon, S.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Limbird, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The unglycosylated alpha 2B subtype of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor found in NG-108-15 cells possesses allosteric regulation of adrenergic ligand binding by monovalent cations and 5-amino-substituted amiloride analogs. These findings demonstrate that allosteric modulation of adrenergic ligand binding is not a property unique to the alpha 2A subtype. The observation that amiloride analogs as well as monovalent cations can modulate adrenergic ligand binding to the nonglycosylated alpha 2B subtype indicates that charge shielding due to carbohydrate moieties does not play a role in this allosteric modulation but, rather, these regulatory effects result from interactions of cations and amiloride analogs with the protein moiety of the receptor. Furthermore, the observation that both alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptor subtypes are modulated by amiloride analogs suggests that structural domains that are conserved between the two are likely to be involved in this allosteric modulation

  3. Ligand binding reduces SUMOylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation function 1 (AF1 domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Diezko

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor regulating adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis and inflammatory responses. The activity of PPARγ is controlled by post-translational modifications including SUMOylation and phosphorylation that affects its biological and molecular functions. Several important aspects of PPARγ SUMOylation including SUMO isoform-specificity and the impact of ligand binding on SUMOylation remain unresolved or contradictory. Here, we present a comprehensive study of PPARγ1 SUMOylation. We show that PPARγ1 can be modified by SUMO1 and SUMO2. Mutational analyses revealed that SUMOylation occurs exclusively within the N-terminal activation function 1 (AF1 domain predominantly at lysines 33 and 77. Ligand binding to the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD of PPARγ1 reduces SUMOylation of lysine 33 but not of lysine 77. SUMOylation of lysine 33 and lysine 77 represses basal and ligand-induced activation by PPARγ1. We further show that lysine 365 within the LBD is not a target for SUMOylation as suggested in a previous report, but it is essential for full LBD activity. Our results suggest that PPARγ ligands negatively affect SUMOylation by interdomain communication between the C-terminal LBD and the N-terminal AF1 domain. The ability of the LBD to regulate the AF1 domain may have important implications for the evaluation and mechanism of action of therapeutic ligands that bind PPARγ.

  4. Comparative metabolomics reveals endogenous ligands of DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor regulating C. elegans development and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, Parag; Bose, Neelanjan; Bethke, Axel; Judkins, Joshua C.; Wollam, Joshua; Dumas, Kathleen J.; Zimmerman, Anna M.; Campbell, Sydney L.; Hu, Patrick J.; Antebi, Adam; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Small-molecule ligands of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) govern the transcriptional regulation of metazoan development, cell differentiation, and metabolism. However, the physiological ligands of many NHRs remain poorly characterized primarily due to lack of robust analytical techniques. Using comparative metabolomics, we identified endogenous steroids that act as ligands of the C. elegans NHR, DAF-12, a vitamin-D and liver-X receptor homolog regulating larval development, fat metabolism, and lifespan. The identified molecules feature unexpected chemical modifications and include only one of two DAF-12 ligands reported earlier, necessitating a revision of previously proposed ligand biosynthetic pathways. We further show that ligand profiles are regulated by a complex enzymatic network including the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36, the short-chain dehydrogenase DHS-16, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, HSD-1. Our results demonstrate the advantages of comparative metabolomics over traditional candidate-based approaches and provide a blueprint for the identification of ligands for other C. elegans and mammalian NHRs. PMID:24411940

  5. Kaempferol Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells-OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-Induced Apoptosis via JNK/ERK-CHOP Pathway and Up-Regulation of Death Receptors 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingmei; Tian, Binqiang; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haiying

    2017-10-26

    BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the most common gynecological malignancies in women, with high mortality rates worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily which preferentially induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL hampers its therapeutic application. Identification of compounds that sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL is vital in combating resistance to TRAIL. The effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cytotoxic effects of TRAIL (25 ng/mL) and kaempferol (20-100 µM) on human ovarian cancer cells OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 were assessed. Effect of kaempferol on the expression patterns of cell survival proteins (Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP, c-FLIP) and apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax) were studied. The influence of kaempferol on expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors on the cell surface and protein and mRNA levels was also analyzed. Apoptosis following silencing of DR5 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and activation of MAP kinases were analyzed as well. RESULTS Kaempferol enhanced apoptosis and drastically up-regulated DR4, DR5, CHOP, JNK, ERK1/2, p38 and apoptotic protein expression with decline in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Further transfection with siRNA specific to CHOP and DR5 indicated the involvement of CHOP in DR5 up-regulation and also the contribution of DR5 in kaempferol-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Kaempferol sensitized ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 through ERK/JNK/CHOP pathways.

  6. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase mediates inhibition of Th17 differentiation via catabolism of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Geoffrey L; Wang, Qun; Swerdlow, Bonnie; Bhat, Geetha; Kolbeck, Roland; Fung, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key transcriptional regulator of Th17-cell differentiation. Although endogenous ligands have yet to be identified, evidence suggests that tryptophan metabolites can act as agonists for the AhR. Tryptophan metabolites are abundant in circulation, so we hypothesized that cell intrinsic factors might exist to regulate the exposure of Th17 cells to AhR-dependent activities. Here, we find that Th17 cells preferentially express kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), which is an enzyme involved in catabolism of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine. KMO inhibition, either with a specific inhibitor or via siRNA-mediated silencing, markedly increased IL-17 production in vitro, whereas IFN-γ production by Th1 cells was unaffected. Inhibition of KMO significantly exacerbated disease in a Th17-driven model of autoimmune gastritis, suggesting that expression of KMO by Th17 cells serves to limit their continuous exposure to physiological levels of endogenous AhR ligands in vivo. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthetic ligands of the elastin receptor induce elastogenesis in human dermal fibroblasts via activation of their IGF-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qa'aty, Nour; Vincent, Matthew; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Andrew; Mitts, Thomas F; Hinek, Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported that a mixture of peptides obtained after chemical or enzymatic degradation of bovine elastin, induced new elastogenesis in human skin. Now, we investigated the elastogenic potential of synthetic peptides mimicking the elastin-derived, VGVAPG sequence, IGVAPG sequence that we found in the rice bran, and a similar peptide, VGVTAG that we identified in the IGF-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). We now demonstrate that treatment with each of these xGVxxG peptides (recognizable by the anti-elastin antibody), up-regulated the levels of elastin-encoding mRNA, tropoelastin protein, and the deposition of new elastic fibers in cultures of human dermal fibroblasts and in cultured explants of human skin. Importantly, we found that such induction of new elastogenesis may involve two parallel signaling pathways triggered after activation of IGF-1 receptor. In the first one, the xGVxxG peptides interact with the cell surface elastin receptor, thereby causing the downstream activation of the c-Src kinase and a consequent cross-activation of the adjacent IGF-1R, even in the absence of its principal ligand. In the second pathway their hydrophobic association with the N-terminal domain (VGVTAG) of the serum-derived IGFBP-1 induces conformational changes of this IGF-1 chaperone allowing for the release of its cargo and a consequent ligand-specific phosphorylation of IGF-1R. We present a novel, clinically relevant mechanism in which products of partial degradation of dermal elastin may stimulate production of new elastic fibers by dermal fibroblasts. Our findings particularly encourage the use of biologically safe synthetic xGVxxG peptides for regeneration of the injured or aged human skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid domain formation and ligand-receptor distribution in lipid bilayer membranes investigated by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel experimental technique, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), is proposed to visualize the lateral organization of membrane systems in the nanometer range. The technique involves the use of a ligand-receptor pair, biotin-avidin, which introduces a height variation on a solid-supported l......A novel experimental technique, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), is proposed to visualize the lateral organization of membrane systems in the nanometer range. The technique involves the use of a ligand-receptor pair, biotin-avidin, which introduces a height variation on a solid...

  9. sigma receptor ligands attenuate N-methyl-D-aspartate cytotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons of mesencephalic slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, S; Katsuki, H; Takenaka, C; Tomita, M; Kume, T; Kaneko, S; Akaike, A

    2000-01-28

    We investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of several sigma receptor ligands in organotypic midbrain slice cultures as an excitotoxicity model system. When challenged with 100-microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) for 24 h, dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slice cultures degenerated, and this was prevented by (5R, 10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,b]-cyclohepten-5, 10-imine (MK-801; 1-10 microM). Concomitant application of ifenprodil (1-10 microM) or haloperidol (1-10 microM), both of which are high-affinity sigma receptor ligands, significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity of 100 microM NMDA. The sigma(1) receptor-selective ligand (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF 10047; 1-10 microM) was also effective in attenuating the toxicity of NMDA. The effect of R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane hydrochloride ((-)-PPAP), a sigma receptor ligand with negligible affinity for the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors, was also examined. (-)-PPAP (3-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of NMDA cytotoxicity, with significant protection at concentrations of 30 and 100 microM. In contrast, (+)-SKF 10047 (10 microM) and (-)-PPAP (100 microM) showed no protective effects against cell death induced by the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1-3 microM). These results indicate that sigma receptor ligands attenuate the cytotoxic effects of NMDA on midbrain dopaminergic neurons, possibly via inhibition of NMDA receptor functions.

  10. Inhibition of allergen-induced basophil activation by ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brittany M; Oliveria, John Paul; Nusca, Graeme M; Smith, Steven G; Beaudin, Sue; Dua, Benny; Watson, Rick M; Assayag, Evelynne Israël; Cormier, Yvon F; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified on eosinophils and shown to regulate inflammatory responses, but nAChR expression on basophils has not been explored yet. We investigated surface receptor expression of nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 subunits on basophils. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ASM-024, a synthetic nicotinic ligand, on in vitro anti-IgE and in vivo allergen-induced basophil activation. Basophils were enriched from the peripheral blood of allergic donors and the expression of nAChR subunits and muscarinic receptors was determined. Purified basophils were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence of ASM-024 with or without muscarinic or nicotinic antagonists for the measurement of CD203c expression and histamine release. The effect of 9 days of treatment with 50 and 200 mg ASM-024 on basophil CD203c expression was examined in the blood of mild allergic asthmatics before and after allergen inhalation challenge. nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 receptor subunit expression was detected on basophils. Stimulation of basophils with anti-IgE increased CD203c expression and histamine release, which was inhibited by ASM-024 (10(-5) to 10(-)(3) M, p ASM-024 was reversed in the presence of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. In subjects with mild asthma, ASM-024 inhalation significantly inhibited basophil CD203c expression measured 24 h after allergen challenge (p = 0.03). This study shows that ASM-024 inhibits IgE- and allergen-induced basophil activation through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and suggests that ASM-024 may be an efficacious agent for modulating allergic asthma responses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Human Adenosine A2A Receptor: Molecular Mechanism of Ligand Binding and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Carpenter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (ARs comprise the P1 class of purinergic receptors and belong to the largest family of integral membrane proteins in the human genome, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. ARs are classified into four subtypes, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, which are all activated by extracellular adenosine, and play central roles in a broad range of physiological processes, including sleep regulation, angiogenesis and modulation of the immune system. ARs are potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, including sleep disorders, cancer, and dementia, which has made them important targets for structural biology. Over a decade of research and innovation has culminated with the publication of more than 30 crystal structures of the human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR, making it one of the best structurally characterized GPCRs at the atomic level. In this review we analyze the structural data reported for A2AR that described for the first time the binding of mode of antagonists, including newly developed drug candidates, synthetic and endogenous agonists, sodium ions and an engineered G protein. These structures have revealed the key conformational changes induced upon agonist and G protein binding that are central to signal transduction by A2AR, and have highlighted both similarities and differences in the activation mechanism of this receptor compared to other class A GPCRs. Finally, comparison of A2AR with the recently solved structures of A1R has provided the first structural insight into the molecular determinants of ligand binding specificity in different AR subtypes.

  12. Revealing the sequence and resulting cellular morphology of receptor-ligand interactions during Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite's life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1 an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2 EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite's actin-myosin motor, 3 a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4 an AMA1-RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine.

  13. SPR-based fragment screening with neurotensin receptor 1 generates novel small molecule ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sylwia; Casagrande, Fabio; Hug, Melanie N.; Wang, Lisha; Heine, Philipp; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas; Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor 1 represents an important drug target involved in various diseases of the central nervous system. So far, the full exploitation of potential therapeutic activities has been compromised by the lack of compounds with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties which efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Recent progress in the generation of stabilized variants of solubilized neurotensin receptor 1 and its subsequent purification and successful structure determination presents a solid starting point to apply the approach of fragment-based screening to extend the chemical space of known neurotensin receptor 1 ligands. In this report, surface plasmon resonance was used as primary method to screen 6369 compounds. Thereby 44 hits were identified and confirmed in competition as well as dose-response experiments. Furthermore, 4 out of 8 selected hits were validated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as orthogonal biophysical method. Computational analysis of the compound structures, taking the known crystal structure of the endogenous peptide agonist into consideration, gave insight into the potential fragment-binding location and interactions and inspires chemistry efforts for further exploration of the fragments. PMID:28510609

  14. Abscisic Acid Regulates Inflammation via Ligand-binding Domain-independent Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guri, Amir J.; Lu, Pinyi; Climent, Montse; Carbo, Adria; Sobral, Bruno W.; Horne, William T.; Lewis, Stephanie N.; Bevan, David R.; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has shown efficacy in the treatment of diabetes and inflammation; however, its molecular targets and the mechanisms of action underlying its immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ) and lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2) as molecular targets for ABA. We demonstrate that ABA increases PPAR γ reporter activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages and increases ppar γ expression in vivo, although it does not bind to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR γ. LANCL2 knockdown studies provide evidence that ABA-mediated activation of macrophage PPAR γ is dependent on lancl2 expression. Consistent with the association of LANCL2 with G proteins, we provide evidence that ABA increases cAMP accumulation in immune cells. ABA suppresses LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 and MCP-1 production via a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism possibly involving activation of PPAR γ and suppression of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells. LPS challenge studies in PPAR γ-expressing and immune cell-specific PPAR γ null mice demonstrate that ABA down-regulates toll-like receptor 4 expression in macrophages and T cells in vivo through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. Global transcriptomic profiling and confirmatory quantitative RT-PCR suggest novel candidate targets and demonstrate that ABA treatment mitigates the effect of LPS on the expression of genes involved in inflammation, metabolism, and cell signaling, in part, through PPAR γ. In conclusion, ABA decreases LPS-mediated inflammation and regulates innate immune responses through a bifurcating pathway involving LANCL2 and an alternative, ligand-binding domain-independent mechanism of PPAR γ activation. PMID:21088297

  15. Abscisic acid regulates inflammation via ligand-binding domain-independent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guri, Amir J; Lu, Pinyi; Climent, Montse; Carbo, Adria; Sobral, Bruno W; Horne, William T; Lewis, Stephanie N; Bevan, David R; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2011-01-28

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has shown efficacy in the treatment of diabetes and inflammation; however, its molecular targets and the mechanisms of action underlying its immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ) and lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2) as molecular targets for ABA. We demonstrate that ABA increases PPAR γ reporter activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages and increases ppar γ expression in vivo, although it does not bind to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR γ. LANCL2 knockdown studies provide evidence that ABA-mediated activation of macrophage PPAR γ is dependent on lancl2 expression. Consistent with the association of LANCL2 with G proteins, we provide evidence that ABA increases cAMP accumulation in immune cells. ABA suppresses LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2) and MCP-1 production via a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism possibly involving activation of PPAR γ and suppression of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells. LPS challenge studies in PPAR γ-expressing and immune cell-specific PPAR γ null mice demonstrate that ABA down-regulates toll-like receptor 4 expression in macrophages and T cells in vivo through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. Global transcriptomic profiling and confirmatory quantitative RT-PCR suggest novel candidate targets and demonstrate that ABA treatment mitigates the effect of LPS on the expression of genes involved in inflammation, metabolism, and cell signaling, in part, through PPAR γ. In conclusion, ABA decreases LPS-mediated inflammation and regulates innate immune responses through a bifurcating pathway involving LANCL2 and an alternative, ligand-binding domain-independent mechanism of PPAR γ activation.

  16. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  17. A macrocyclic ligand as receptor and Zn(II)-complex receptor for anions in water: binding properties and crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Gianluca; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Pontellini, Roberto; Rossi, Patrizia

    2011-02-01

    Binding properties of 24,29-dimethyl-6,7,15,16-tetraoxotetracyclo[19.5.5.0(5,8).0(14,17)]-1,4,9,13,18,21,24,29-octaazaenatriaconta-Δ(5,8),Δ(14,17)-diene ligand L towards Zn(II) and anions, such as the halide series and inorganic oxoanions (phosphate (Pi), sulfate, pyrophosphate (PPi), and others), were investigated in aqueous solution; in addition, the Zn(II)/L system was tested as a metal-ion-based receptor for the halide series. Ligand L is a cryptand receptor incorporating two squaramide functions in an over-structured chain that connects two opposite nitrogen atoms of the Me(2)[12]aneN(4) polyaza macrocyclic base. It binds Zn(II) to form mononuclear species in which the metal ion, coordinated by the Me(2)[12]aneN(4) moiety, lodges inside the three-dimensional cavity. Zn(II)-containing species are able to bind chloride and fluoride at the physiologically important pH value of 7.4; the anion is coordinated to the metal center but the squaramide units play the key role in stabilizing the anion through a hydrogen-bonding network; two crystal structures reported here clearly show this aspect. Free L is able to bind fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate, Pi, and PPi in aqueous solution. The halides are bound at acidic pH, whereas the oxoanions are bound in a wide range of pH values ranging from acidic to basic. The cryptand cavity, abundant in hydrogen-bonding sites at all pH values, allows excellent selectivity towards Pi to be achieved mainly at physiological pH 7.4. By joining amine and squaramide moieties and using this preorganized topology, it was possible, with preservation of the solubility of the receptor, to achieve a very wide pH range in which oxoanions can be bound. The good selectivity towards Pi allows its discrimination in a manner not easily obtainable with nonmetallic systems in aqueous environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Different mechanisms are involved in the antibody mediated inhibition of ligand binding to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E

    1999-01-01

    Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance or interfer......Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance......) can be employed as a highly useful tool to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of specific antagonist antibodies. Two inhibitory antibodies against uPAR, mAb R3 and mAb R5, were shown to exhibit competitive and non-competitive inhibition, respectively, of ligand binding to the receptor. The former...

  19. Synthesis of the sup 11 C-labelled. beta. -adrenergic receptor ligands atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, G.; Ulin, J.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    The {sup 11}C-labelled {beta}-adrenergic receptor ligands atenolol 1, metoprolol 2 and propranolol 3 have been synthesized by an N-alkylation reaction using (2-{sup 11}C)isopropyl iodide. The labelled isopropyl iodide was prepared in a one-pot reactor system from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide and obtained in 40% radiochemical yield within 14 min reaction time. The total reaction times for compounds 1-3, counted from the start of the isopropyl iodide synthesis and including purification were 45-55 min. The products were obtained in 5-15% radiochemical yields and with radiochemical purities higher than 98%. The specific activity ranged from 0.4 to 4 GBq/{mu}mol. In a typical experiment starting with 4 GBq around 75 MBq of product was obtained. (author).

  20. Development of Fluorinated Non-Peptidic Ghrelin Receptor Ligands for Potential Use in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rareş-Petru Moldovan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ghrelin receptor (GhrR is a widely investigated target in several diseases. However, the current knowledge of its role and distribution in the brain is limited. Recently, the small and non-peptidic compound (S-6-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy-3-((1-isopropylpiperidin-3-ylmethyl-2-methylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H-one ((S-9 has been described as a GhrR ligand with high binding affinity. Here, we describe the synthesis of fluorinated derivatives, the in vitro evaluation of their potency as partial agonists and selectivity at GhrRs, and their physicochemical properties. These results identified compounds (S-9, (R-9, and (S-16 as suitable parent molecules for 18F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET radiotracers to enable future investigation of GhrR in the brain.

  1. Modulation of seizure activity in mice by metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Nils Ole; Thomsen, C

    1996-01-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of ligands at metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were examined in different seizure models by use of intracerebroventricular infusion. The mGluR1a antagonist/mGluR2 agonist, (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG] dose-dependently antagonized...... pentylenetetrazol- and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-2-carboxylate (DMCM)-induced clonic convulsions in mice with ED50 values of 400 and 180 nmol/mice, respectively. A modest increase in electrical seizure threshold was observed in mice injected with (S)-4C3HPG. No effect on seizures induced...... by systemic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate was observed by prior intracerebroventricular infusion of (S)-4C3HPG. The more selective (but less potent) mGluR1a antagonist, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, was a weak anticonvulsant in similar seizure models with the exception of convulsions induced...

  2. AMP and adenosine are both ligands for adenosine 2B receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holien, Jessica K; Seibt, Benjamin; Roberts, Veena; Salvaris, Evelyn; Parker, Michael W; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

    2018-01-15

    Adenosine is considered the canonical ligand for the adenosine 2B receptor (A 2B R). A 2B R is upregulated following kidney ischemia augmenting post ischemic blood flow and limiting tubular injury. In this context the beneficial effect of A 2B R signaling has been attributed to an increase in the pericellular concentration of adenosine. However, following renal ischemia both kidney adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine levels are substantially increased. Using computational modeling and calcium mobilization assays, we investigated whether AMP could also be a ligand for A 2B R. The computational modeling suggested that AMP interacts with more favorable energy to A 2B R compared with adenosine. Furthermore, AMPαS, a non-hydrolyzable form of AMP, increased calcium uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human A 2B R, indicating preferential signaling via the G q pathway. Therefore, a putative AMP-A 2B R interaction is supported by the computational modeling data and the biological results suggest this interaction involves preferential G q activation. These data provide further insights into the role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding-Site Compatible Fragment Growing Applied to the Design of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillard, Florent; Rimmer, Helena; Betti, Cecilia; Pardon, Els; Ballet, Steven; van Hilten, Niek; Steyaert, Jan; Diederich, Wibke E; Kolb, Peter

    2018-02-08

    Fragment-based drug discovery is intimately linked to fragment extension approaches that can be accelerated using software for de novo design. Although computers allow for the facile generation of millions of suggestions, synthetic feasibility is however often neglected. In this study we computationally extended, chemically synthesized, and experimentally assayed new ligands for the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) by growing fragment-sized ligands. In order to address the synthetic tractability issue, our in silico workflow aims at derivatized products based on robust organic reactions. The study started from the predicted binding modes of five fragments. We suggested a total of eight diverse extensions that were easily synthesized, and further assays showed that four products had an improved affinity (up to 40-fold) compared to their respective initial fragment. The described workflow, which we call "growing via merging" and for which the key tools are available online, can improve early fragment-based drug discovery projects, making it a useful creative tool for medicinal chemists during structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.

  4. Role of Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor and Ligand Matching in Donor Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Beksaç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all efforts to improve HLA typing and immunosuppression, it is still impossible to prevent severe graft versus host disease (GVHD which can be fatal. GVHD is not always associated with graft versus malignancy and can prevent stem cell transplantation from reaching its goals. Overall T-cell alloreactivity is not the sole mechanism modulating the immune defense. Innate immune system has its own antigens, ligands, and mediators. The bridge between HLA and natural killer (NK cell-mediated reactions is becoming better understood in the context of stem cell transplantation. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs constitute a wide range of alleles/antigens segregated independently from the HLA alleles and classified into two major haplotypes which imprints the person's ability to suppress or to amplify T-cell alloreactivity. This paper will summarize the impact of both activating and inhibitory KIRs and their ligands on stem cell transplantation outcome. The ultimate goal is to develop algorithms based on KIR profiles to select donors with maximum antileukemic and minimum antihost effects.

  5. CARD9 impacts colitis by altering gut microbiota metabolism of tryptophan into aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Bruno; Richard, Mathias L; Leducq, Valentin; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Michel, Marie-Laure; Da Costa, Gregory; Bridonneau, Chantal; Jegou, Sarah; Hoffmann, Thomas W; Natividad, Jane M; Brot, Loic; Taleb, Soraya; Couturier-Maillard, Aurélie; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Merabtene, Fatiha; Seksik, Philippe; Bourrier, Anne; Cosnes, Jacques; Ryffel, Bernhard; Beaugerie, Laurent; Launay, Jean-Marie; Langella, Philippe; Xavier, Ramnik J; Sokol, Harry

    2016-06-01

    Complex interactions between the host and the gut microbiota govern intestinal homeostasis but remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a relationship between gut microbiota and caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9), a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that functions in the immune response against microorganisms. CARD9 promotes recovery from colitis by promoting interleukin (IL)-22 production, and Card9(-/-) mice are more susceptible to colitis. The microbiota is altered in Card9(-/-) mice, and transfer of the microbiota from Card9(-/-) to wild-type, germ-free recipients increases their susceptibility to colitis. The microbiota from Card9(-/-) mice fails to metabolize tryptophan into metabolites that act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands. Intestinal inflammation is attenuated after inoculation of mice with three Lactobacillus strains capable of metabolizing tryptophan or by treatment with an AHR agonist. Reduced production of AHR ligands is also observed in the microbiota from individuals with IBD, particularly in those with CARD9 risk alleles associated with IBD. Our findings reveal that host genes affect the composition and function of the gut microbiota, altering the production of microbial metabolites and intestinal inflammation.

  6. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Conformational study on cyclic melanocortin ligands and new insight into their binding mode at the MC4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Paolo; Brancaccio, Diego; Novellino, Ettore; Hruby, Victor J; Carotenuto, Alfonso

    2011-09-01

    The melanocortin receptors are involved in many physiological functions, including pigmentation, sexual function, feeding behavior, and energy homeostasis, making them potential targets to treat obesity, sexual dysfunction, etc. Understanding the basis of the ligand-receptor interactions is crucial for the design of potent and selective ligands for these receptors. The conformational preferences of the cyclic melanocortin ligands MTII (Ac-Nle(4)-c[Asp(5)-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Lys(10)]-NH(2)) and SHU9119 (Ac-Nle(4)-c[Asp(5)-His(6)-DNal(2')(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Lys(10)]-NH(2)), which show agonist and antagonist activity at the h-MC4R, respectively, were comprehensively investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy in different environments. In particular, water and water/DMSO (8:2) solutions were used as isotropic solutions and an aqueous solution of DPC (dodecylphosphocholine) micelles was used as a membrane mimetic environment. NMR-derived conformations of these two ligands were docked within h-MC4R models. NMR and docking studies revealed intriguing differences which can help explain the different activities of these two ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Convergent [18]F-labeling and evaluation of N-benzyl-phenethylamines as 5-HT2A receptor PET ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Villadsen, Jonas; Hansen, Hanne Demant

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) investigations of the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) system can be used as a research tool in diseases such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. We have previously developed a (11)C-labeled agonist PET ligand ([(11)C]Cimbi-36), and the aim of this st......Positron emission tomography (PET) investigations of the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) system can be used as a research tool in diseases such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. We have previously developed a (11)C-labeled agonist PET ligand ([(11)C]Cimbi-36), and the aim...... of this study was to identify a (18)F-labeled analogue of this PET-ligand. Thus, we developed a convergent radiochemical approach giving easy access to 5 different (18)F-labeled ligands structurally related to Cimbi-36 from a common (18)F-labeled intermediate. After intravenous injection, all ligands entered...... the pig brain. However, since within-scan intervention with ketanserin, a known orthosteric 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, did not result in significant blocking, the radioligands seem unsuitable for neuroimaging of the 5-HT2AR in vivo....

  9. Quantitative ligand and receptor binding studies reveal the mechanism of interleukin-36 (IL-36) pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Todorovic, Viktor; Kakavas, Steve; Sielaff, Bernhard; Medina, Limary; Wang, Leyu; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Stockmann, Henning; Richardson, Paul L; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Sun, Chaohong; Scott, Victoria

    2018-01-12

    IL-36 cytokines signal through the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) and a shared subunit, IL-1RAcP (IL-1 receptor accessory protein). The activation mechanism for the IL-36 pathway is proposed to be similar to that of IL-1 in that an IL-36R agonist (IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ) forms a binary complex with IL-36R, which then recruits IL-1RAcP. Recent studies have shown that IL-36R interacts with IL-1RAcP even in the absence of an agonist. To elucidate the IL-36 activation mechanism, we considered all possible binding events for IL-36 ligands/receptors and examined these events in direct binding assays. Our results indicated that the agonists bind the IL-36R extracellular domain with micromolar affinity but do not detectably bind IL-1RAcP. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we found that IL-1RAcP also does not bind IL-36R when no agonist is present. In the presence of IL-36α, however, IL-1RAcP bound IL-36R strongly. These results suggested that the main pathway to the IL-36R·IL-36α·IL-1RAcP ternary complex is through the IL-36R·IL-36α binary complex, which recruits IL-1RAcP. We could not measure the binding affinity of IL-36R to IL-1RAcP directly, so we engineered a fragment crystallizable-linked construct to induce IL-36R·IL-1RAcP heterodimerization and predicted the binding affinity during a complete thermodynamic cycle to be 74 μm The SPR analysis also indicated that the IL-36R antagonist IL-36Ra binds IL-36R with higher affinity and a much slower off rate than the IL-36R agonists, shedding light on IL-36 pathway inhibition. Our results reveal the landscape of IL-36 ligand and receptor interactions, improving our understanding of IL-36 pathway activation and inhibition. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Ligand receptor dynamics at streptavidin-coated particle surfaces: A flow cytometric and spectrofluorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buranda, T. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, G.M. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nolan, J.P.; Keij, J. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States); Lopez, G.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sklar, L.A. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-04-29

    The authors have studied the binding of 5-((N-(5-(N-(6-(biotinoyl)amino)hexanoyl)amino)pentyl)thioureidyl)fluorescein (fluorescein biotin) to 6.2 {micro}m diameter, streptavidin-coated polystyrene beads using a combination of fluorimetric and flow cytometric methods. They have determined the average number of binding sites per bead, the extent of fluorescein quenching upon binding to the bead, and the association and dissociation kinetics. The authors estimate the site number to be {approx}1 million per bead. The binding of the fluorescein biotin ligand occurs in steps where the insertion of the biotin moiety into one receptor pocket is followed immediately by the capture of the fluorescein moiety by a neighboring binding pocket; fluorescence quenching is a consequence of this secondary binding. At high surface coverage, the dominant mechanism of quenching appears to be via the formation of nonfluorescent nearest-neighbor aggregates. At early times, the binding process is characterized by biphasic association and dissociation kinetics which are remarkably dependent on the initial concentration of the ligand. The rate constant for binding to the first receptor pocket of a streptavidin molecule is {approx}(1.3 {+-} 0.3) {times} 10{sup 7} 1{sup {minus}1} S{sup {minus}1}. The rate of binding of a second biotin may be reduced due to steric interference. The early time dissociative behavior is in sharp contrast to the typical stability associated with this system. The early time dissociative behavior is in sharp contrast to the typical stability associated with this system. The dissociation rate constant is as high as 0.05 s{sup {minus}1} shortly after binding, but decreases by 3 orders of magnitude after 3 h of binding. Potential sources for the time dependence of the dissociation rate constant are discussed.

  11. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and tritiated ligands for estrogen receptor assays in 241 breast cancer cytosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussard, J.; Lechevrel, C.; Martin, P.M.; Roussel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Estrogen receptor determinations have been performed on 241 cytosols from 160 breast cancer tumors using both radioactive ligands ([ 3 H]-estradiol, [3H]R2858) and monoclonal antibodies (Abbott ER-EIA Kit) to compare the two methods and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the new immunological, simplified assay. Intra- and interassay reproducibility of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method was studied during a 6-month period on 35 standard curves with 4 different batches of monoclonal antibodies. Intraassay coefficients of variation studied on duplicates were smaller than 5% in most cases and reproducibility of the curves showed coefficients of variation lower than 10% except for standard 0 and 5 fmol/ml. Pooled cytosols used as control for the dextran coated charcoal method had interassay variation coefficients between 3.8 and 11.4%. Reproducibility has been studied on clinical specimens assayed twice at two different periods with either EIA or dextran coated charcoal methods. Slopes obtained were 1.05 and 0.96, respectively. A good stability of EIA results was obtained with protein concentrations in the range 4-0.15 mg/ml cytosol. No significant effects of dithiothreitol or monothioglycerol (1 mM) on EIA and dextran coated charcoal assay were observed. Eighty breast cancer cytosols were assayed with both EIA and Scatchard analysis. The slope of the regression curve obtained was 1.04 (r = 0.963). Cytosols were assayed by EIA and by a saturating concentration of tritiated ligand (5 nM). With 153 cytosols the EIA/5 nM slope was 1.34 (r = 0.978). This slope can be compared with the slope Scatchard/5 nM obtained with 90 cytosols: 1.29 (r = 0.985). Absence of cross-reactivity of monoclonal ER antibodies with progesterone receptor was observed

  12. The radio ligand receptor assay for thyroid stimulating factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruck, G.; Kruck, I.

    1978-01-01

    The possible uses of RRA in routine examinations to detect HTSI and physiological TSH concentrations were investigated in this study. The primary difficulties were that the RRA had a low sensitivity using the Mehdi method and the investigation results exhibited large deviations. The authors first investigated the non-specific influences of the incubation medium such as temperature, incubation time, protein used and salts on the 125 I-TSH compared by means of the enriched membrane according to Mehdi. After the modification of the labelling process of 125 I-TSH with Smith's post-purification method, it was possible to improve the sensitivity of the assay system from 100 μU to 10 μU TSH/test. It was now possible to detect HTSI in 67% of the Morbus Basedow sera in clinical tests (compared with 54% in the RRA prior to modification and 19% in the McKenzie assay). The discrepancy between these results and those of Mukhtar et al. - with a HTSI detection in 100% of the cases investigated for the same sensitivity of the assay - remains unexplained. The sensitivity of the RRA is not sufficient to detect TSH in serum, as the standard region for the basal TSH level in the serum is given as between 0.5 and 3.8 μU/ml in the radioimmunoassay. (orig./AJ) [de

  13. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring, E-mail: jla@mb.au.dk [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren [H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, 2500 Valby (Denmark); Strandbygård, Dorthe [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pallesen, Lone Tjener [Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 3, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); García-Alai, Maria Marta [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; Jong, Inge E. M. de; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob [H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, 2500 Valby (Denmark); Uppalanchi, Srinivas; Sakumudi, Durga Rao; Eradi, Pradheep [GVK BioScience, Plot No. 28 A, IDA Nacharam, Hyderabad 500 076 (India); Watson, Steven P., E-mail: jla@mb.au.dk [H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, 2500 Valby (Denmark); Thirup, Søren, E-mail: jla@mb.au.dk [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-02-01

    The identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex are reported. Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methylumbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine.

  14. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Strandbygård, Dorthe; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; Jong, Inge E. M. de; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Uppalanchi, Srinivas; Sakumudi, Durga Rao; Eradi, Pradheep; Watson, Steven P.; Thirup, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex are reported. Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methylumbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine

  15. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  16. Structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human androgen receptor in complex with a selective modulator LGD2226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-qin; Li, He; Liang, Kai-ni; Miner, Jeffrey N.; Hong, Mei; Kallel, E. Adam; Oeveren, Arjan van; Zhi, Lin; Jiang, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor in complex with LGD2226. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible steroid hormone receptor that mediates androgen action, determining male sexual phenotypes and promoting spermatogenesis. As the androgens play a dominant role in male sexual development and function, steroidal androgen agonists have been used clinically for some years. However, there is a risk of potential side effects and most steroidal androgens cannot be dosed orally, which limits the use of these substances. 1,2-Dihydro-6-N,N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-quinolinone (LGD2226) is a synthetic nonsteroidal ligand and a novel selective AR modulator. The crystal structure of the complex of LGD2226 with the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR LBD) at 2.1 Å was solved and compared with the structure of the AR LBD–R1881 complex. It is hoped that this will aid in further explaining the selectivity of LGD2226 observed in in vitro and in vivo assays and in developing more selective and effective therapeutic agents

  17. Fluorescent-labeled ligands for the benzodiazepine receptor - Part 1 : Synthesis and characterization of fluorescent-labeled benzodiazepines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Hulst, A.J R L; Kellogg, R.M; Hendriks, M.M W B; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    Because radioactive labeled ligands in receptor assays have several disadvantages, we synthesized a number of fluorescent-labeled benzodiazepines. Several fluorophores were attached at different positions of 1,4-benzodiazepine molecules in order to assess the impact of the fluorophores and their

  18. Combining Stochastic Deformation/Relaxation and Intermolecular Contacts Analysis for Extracting Pharmacophores from Ligand-Receptor Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmal, Ma'mon M; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-04-23

    We previously combined molecular dynamics (classical or simulated annealing) with ligand-receptor contacts analysis as a means to extract valid pharmacophore model(s) from single ligand-receptor complexes. However, molecular dynamics methods are computationally expensive and time-consuming. Here we describe a novel method for extracting valid pharmacophore model(s) from a single crystallographic structure within a reasonable time scale. The new method is based on ligand-receptor contacts analysis following energy relaxation of a predetermined set of randomly deformed complexes generated from the targeted crystallographic structure. Ligand-receptor contacts maintained across many deformed/relaxed structures are assumed to be critical and used to guide pharmacophore development. This methodology was implemented to develop valid pharmacophore models for PI3K-γ, RENIN, and JAK1. The resulting pharmacophore models were validated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis against inhibitors extracted from the CHEMBL database. Additionally, we implemented pharmacophores extracted from PI3K-γ to search for new inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute list of compounds. The process culminated in new PI3K-γ/mTOR inhibitory leads of low micromolar IC 50 s.

  19. Tyrosine 769 of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor is required for receptor signaling but not endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceridono, Mara; Belleudi, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Simona; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on epithelial cells which belongs to the family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Following ligand binding, KGFR is rapidly autophosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain, recruits substrate proteins, and is rapidly internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The role of different autophosphorylation sites in FGFRs, and in particular the role of the tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, first identified as PLCγ binding site, has been extensively studied. We analyzed here the possible role of the tyrosine 769 in KGFR, corresponding to tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, in the regulation of KGFR signal transduction and MAPK activation as well as in the control of the endocytic process of KGFR. A mutant KGFR in which tyrosine 769 was substituted by phenylalanine was generated and transfected in NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Our results indicate that tyrosine 769 is required for the binding to KGFR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ as well as for the full activation of MAPKs and for cell proliferation through the regulation of FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that this residue represents a key regulator of KGFR signal transduction. Our data also show that tyrosine 769 is not involved in the regulation of the endocytic process of KGFR

  20. Novel mixed ligand technetium complexes as 5-HT1A receptor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Rey, A.; Mallo, L.; Pirmettis, I.; Papadopoulos, M.; Leon, E.; Pagano, M.; Manta, E.; Incerti, M.; Raptopoulou, C.; Terzis, A.; Chiotellis, E.

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of two novel 3 + 1 mixed ligand 99m Tc-complexes, bearing the 1-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine) moiety, a fragment of the true 5-HT 1A antagonist WAY 100635, is reported. Complexes at tracer level 99m TcO[(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NCH 2 CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 S) 2 ][o-CH 3 OC 6 H 4 N(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NCH 2 CH 2 S], 99m Tc-1, and 99m TcO[((CH 3 ) 2 CH) 2 NCH 2 CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 S) 2 ][o-CH 3 OC 6 H 4 N (CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NCH 2 CH 2 S], 99m Tc-2, were prepared using 99m Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor. For structural characterization, the analogous oxorhenium complexes, Re-1 and Re-2, were prepared by ligand exchange reaction using ReOCl 3 (PPh 3 ) 2 as precursor, and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. Complex Re-1 was further characterized by crystallographic analysis. Labeling was performed with high yield (>85%) and radiochemical purity (>90%) using very low ligand concentration. The structure of 99m Tc complexes was established by comparative HPLC using the well-characterized oxorhenium analogues as references. In vitro binding assays demonstrated the affinity of these complexes for 5-HT 1A receptors (IC 50 : 67 and 45 nM for Re-1 and Re-2 respectively). Biological studies in mice showed the ability of 99m Tc-1 and 99m Tc-2 complexes to cross the intact blood-brain barrier (1.4 and 0.9% dose/g, respectively at 1 min post-inj.). The distribution of these complexes in various regions in rat brain is inhomogeneous. The highest ratio between areas reach and poor in 5-HT 1A receptors was calculated for complex Tc-1 at 60 min p.i. (hippocampus/cerebellum = 1.7).

  1. Novel mixed ligand technetium complexes as 5-HT1A receptor imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, A; Rey, A; Mallo, L; Pirmettis, I; Papadopoulos, M; León, E; Pagano, M; Manta, E; Incerti, M; Raptopoulou, C; Terzis, A; Chiotellis, E

    2002-02-01

    The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of two novel 3 + 1 mixed ligand 99mTc-complexes, bearing the 1-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine) moiety, a fragment of the true 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635, is reported. Complexes at tracer level 99mTcO[(CH3CH2)2NCH2CH2N(CH2CH2S)2][o-CH3OC6H4N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH2S], 99mTc-1, and 99mTcO[((CH3)2CH)2NCH2CH2N(CH2CH2S)2][o-CH3OC6H4N (CH2CH2)2NCH2CH2S], 99mTc-2, were prepared using 99mTc-glucoheptonate as precursor. For structural characterization, the analogous oxorhenium complexes, Re-1 and Re-2, were prepared by ligand exchange reaction using ReOCl3(PPh3)2 as precursor, and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. Complex Re-1 was further characterized by crystallographic analysis. Labeling was performed with high yield (>85%) and radiochemical purity (>90%) using very low ligand concentration. The structure of 99mTc complexes was established by comparative HPLC using the well-characterized oxorhenium analogues as references. In vitro binding assays demonstrated the affinity of these complexes for 5-HT1A receptors (IC50 : 67 and 45 nM for Re-1 and Re-2 respectively). Biological studies in mice showed the ability of 99mTc-1 and 99mTc-2 complexes to cross the intact blood-brain barrier (1.4 and 0.9% dose/g, respectively at 1 min post-inj.). The distribution of these complexes in various regions in rat brain is inhomogeneous. The highest ratio between areas reach and poor in 5-HT1A receptors was calculated for complex Tc-1 at 60 min p.i. (hippocampus/cerebellum = 1.7).

  2. Novel mixed ligand technetium complexes as 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, A.; Rey, A. E-mail: arey@bilbo.edu.uy; Mallo, L.; Pirmettis, I.; Papadopoulos, M.; Leon, E.; Pagano, M.; Manta, E.; Incerti, M.; Raptopoulou, C.; Terzis, A.; Chiotellis, E

    2002-02-01

    The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of two novel 3 + 1 mixed ligand {sup 99m}Tc-complexes, bearing the 1-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine) moiety, a fragment of the true 5-HT{sub 1A} antagonist WAY 100635, is reported. Complexes at tracer level {sup 99m}TcO[(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}S){sub 2}][o-CH{sub 3}OC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}= CH{sub 2}S], {sup 99m}Tc-1, and {sup 99m}TcO[((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CH){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}S){sub 2}][o-CH{sub 3}OC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}S], {sup 99m}Tc-2, were prepared using {sup 99m}Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor. For structural characterization, the analogous oxorhenium complexes, Re-1 and Re-2, were prepared by ligand exchange reaction using ReOCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} as precursor, and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. Complex Re-1 was further characterized by crystallographic analysis. Labeling was performed with high yield (>85%) and radiochemical purity (>90%) using very low ligand concentration. The structure of {sup 99m}Tc complexes was established by comparative HPLC using the well-characterized oxorhenium analogues as references. In vitro binding assays demonstrated the affinity of these complexes for 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors (IC{sub 50} : 67 and 45 nM for Re-1 and Re-2 respectively). Biological studies in mice showed the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-1 and {sup 99m}Tc-2 complexes to cross the intact blood-brain barrier (1.4 and 0.9% dose/g, respectively at 1 min post-inj.). The distribution of these complexes in various regions in rat brain is inhomogeneous. The highest ratio between areas reach and poor in 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors was calculated for complex Tc-1 at 60 min p.i. (hippocampus/cerebellum = 1.7)

  3. Endocytosis via galactose receptors in vivo. Ligand size directs uptake by hepatocytes and/or liver macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlepper-Schaefer, J.; Huelsmann, D.; Djovkar, A.; Meyer, H.E.; Herbertz, L.; Kolb, H.; Kolb-Bachofen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The intrahepatic binding and uptake of variously sized ligands with terminal galactosyl residues is rat liver was followed. The ligands were administered to prefixed livers in binding studies and in vivo and in situ (serum-free perfused livers) in uptake studies. Gold sols with different particle diameters were prepared: 5 nm (Au 5 ), 17 nm (Au 17 ), 50 nm (Au 50 ) and coated with galactose exposing glycoproteins (asialofetuin (ASF) or lactosylated BSA (LacBSA)). Electron microscopy of mildly prefixed livers perfused with LacBSA-Au 5 in serum-free medium showed ligand binding to liver macrophages, hepatocytes and endothelial cells. Ligands bound to prefixed cell surfaces reflect the initial distribution of receptor activity: pre-aggregated clusters of ligands are found on liver macrophages, single particles statistically distributed on hepatocytes and pre-aggregated clusters of particles restricted to coated pits on endothelial cells. Ligand binding is prevented in the presence of 80 mM N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), while N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is without effect. Electron microscopy of livers after ligand injection into the tail vein shows that in vivo uptake of electron-dense galactose particles by liver cells is size-dependent. In vivo uptake by liver macrophages is mediated by galactose-specific recognition as shown by inhibition with GalNAc

  4. Molecular characterization of the haptoglobin.hemoglobin receptor CD163. Ligand binding properties of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2004-01-01

    CD163 is the macrophage receptor for endocytosis of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. The extracellular region consisting of nine scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains also circulates in plasma as a soluble protein. By ligand binding analysis of a broad spectrum of soluble CD163...... truncation variants, the amino-terminal third of the SRCR region was shown to be crucial for the binding of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. By Western blotting of the CD163 variants, a panel of ten monoclonal antibodies was mapped to SRCR domains 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9, respectively. Only the two antibodies...... to CD163 demonstrated that optimal ligand binding requires physiological plasma calcium concentrations, and an immediate ligand release occurs at the low calcium concentrations measured in acidifying endosomes. In conclusion, SRCR domain 3 of CD163 is an exposed domain and a critical determinant...

  5. Expression and function of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their cognate cannabinoid ligands in murine embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating the self-renewal/division and differentiation of stem cells is crucial in determining embryonic stem (ES cell fate. ES cells differentiate into multiple hematopoietic lineages during embryoid body (EB formation in vitro, which provides an experimental platform to define the molecular mechanisms controlling germ layer fate determination and tissue formation.The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2 are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family, that are activated by endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. CB1 receptor expression is abundant in brain while CB2 receptors are mostly expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, the expression and the precise roles of CB1 and CB2 and their cognate ligands in ES cells are not known. We observed significant induction of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors during the hematopoietic differentiation of murine ES (mES-derived embryoid bodies. Furthermore, mES cells as well as ES-derived embryoid bodies at days 7 and 14, expressed endocannabinoids, the ligands for both CB1 and CB2. The CB1 and CB2 antagonists (AM251 and AM630, respectively induced mES cell death, strongly suggesting that endocannabinoids are involved in the survival of mES cells. Treatment of mES cells with the exogenous cannabinoid ligand Delta(9-THC resulted in the increased hematopoietic differentiation of mES cells, while addition of AM251 or AM630 blocked embryoid body formation derived from the mES cells. In addition, cannabinoid agonists induced the chemotaxis of ES-derived embryoid bodies, which was specifically inhibited by the CB1 and CB2 antagonists.This work has not been addressed previously and yields new information on the function of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as components of a novel pathway regulating murine ES cell differentiation. This study provides insights into cannabinoid system involvement in ES cell

  6. Selective modulation of Wnt ligands and their receptors in adipose tissue by chronic hyperadiponectinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin-transgenic mice had many small adipocytes in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, and showed higher sensitivity to insulin, longer life span, and reduced chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates Wnt signaling in adipocytes and thereby modulates adipocyte proliferation and chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of all Wnt ligands and their receptors and the activity of Wnt signaling pathways in visceral adipose tissue from wild-type mice and two lines of adiponectin-transgenic mice. The effects of adiponectin were also investigated in cultured 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: The Wnt5b, Wnt6, Frizzled 6 (Fzd6, and Fzd9 genes were up-regulated in both lines of transgenic mice, whereas Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt5a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, Fzd1, Fzd2, Fzd4, Fzd7, and the Fzd coreceptor low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6 were reduced. There was no difference in total β-catenin levels in whole-cell extracts, non-phospho-β-catenin levels in nuclear extracts, or mRNA levels of β-catenin target genes, indicating that hyperadiponectinemia did not affect canonical Wnt signaling. In contrast, phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII and phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK were markedly reduced in adipose tissue from the transgenic mice. The adipose tissue of the transgenic mice consisted of many small cells and had increased expression of adiponectin, whereas cyclooxygenase-2 expression was reduced. Wnt5b expression was elevated in preadipocytes of the transgenic mice and decreased in diet-induced obese mice, suggesting a role in adipocyte differentiation. Some Wnt genes, Fzd genes, and p-CaMKII protein were down-regulated in 3T3-L1 cells cultured with a high concentration of adiponectin. CONCLUSION: Chronic hyperadiponectinemia selectively modulated the expression of Wnt ligands, Fzd receptors and LRP coreceptors

  7. Pharmacogenomics of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Ligands in Cardiovascular Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosskopf, Dieter; Michel, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Agonists and antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors are important drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, but the therapeutic response of any given patient remains difficult to predict because of large interindividual variability. Among the factors potentially contributing to such

  8. Glycodendrimeric ligands of c-type lectin receptors as ther agents in experimental cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Miloslav; Vannucci, Luca; Fišerová, Anna; Krausová, Kateřina; Horváth, Ondřej; Křen, Vladimír; Lindhorst, T.; Sadalapure, K.; Bezouška, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 495, - (2001), s. 343-348 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/98/K034; GA AV ČR IAA7020006 Keywords : introduction * lectin * receptors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2000

  9. Acetylated deoxycholic (DCA) and cholic (CA) acids are potent ligands of pregnane X (PXR) receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carazo, A.; Hyršová, L.; Dušek, J.; Chodounská, Hana; Horvátová, A.; Berka, K.; Bazgier, V.; Gan-Schreier, H.; Chamulitrat, W.; Kudová, Eva; Pávek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 265, Jan 4 (2017), s. 86-96 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : PXR * metabolism * bile acids * nuclear receptors * FXR Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.858, year: 2016

  10. Activity-Mediated AMPA Receptor Remodeling, Driven by Alternative Splicing in the Ligand-Binding Domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Penn, A.C.; Balík, Aleš; Wozny, Ch.; Cais, O.; Greger, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 3 (2012), s. 503-510 ISSN 0896-6273 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : RNA * AMPA receptors * hippocampus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 15.766, year: 2012

  11. Serotoninergic receptors in brain tissue: properties and identification of various 3H-ligand binding sites in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leysen, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro binding studies to serotoninergic receptors were performed using 3 H-LSD, 3 H-5-HT and 3 H-spiperone. An overwiew is given on findings using these three ligands with respect to the following: localization of specific binding sites, in various animal species, the regional distribution in the brain and periphery, the subcellular and cellular distribution. Properties of the binding sites, influence of the composition of the assay medium, binding kinetic properties, receptor regulation in vivo. Identity of the binding sites, differences between site for various 3 H-ligands, pharmacological specificity of the membranous binding sites, chemical composition of the macromolecular complex constituting the binding site. Function of the receptor. Binding affinities of 44 compounds were measured in binding assays using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-LSD with rat frontal cortex membrane preparations and using 3 H-5-HT and 3 H-LSD with rat hippocampal membrane preparations

  12. Controlled-Deactivation CB1 Receptor Ligands as a Novel Strategy to Lower Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half a century has passed since the demonstration that cannabis and its chief psychoactive component Δ9-THC lowers intraocular pressure (IOP. Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a condition that places millions at risk of blindness. It is likely that Δ9-THC exerts much of its IOP-lowering effects via the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. However, the initial promise of CB1 as a target for treating glaucoma has not thus far translated into a credible therapeutic strategy. We have recently shown that blocking monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, an enzyme that breaks the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG, substantially lowers IOP. Another strategy is to develop cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists that are optimized for topical application to the eye. Recently we have reported on a controlled-deactivation approach where the “soft” drug concept of enzymatic deactivation was combined with a “depot effect” that is commonly observed with Δ9-THC and other lipophilic cannabinoids. This approach allowed us to develop novel cannabinoids with a predictable duration of action and is particularly attractive for the design of CB1 activators for ophthalmic use with limited or no psychoactive effects. We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. We now report that AM7410 is a reasonably potent and efficacious agonist at CB1 in neurons and that it substantially (30% lowers IOP for as long as 5 h after a single topical treatment. This effect is absent in CB1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that the direct targeting of CB1 receptors with controlled-deactivation ligands is a viable approach to lower IOP in a murine model and merits further study in other model systems.

  13. Airfuge centrifugation procedure for the measurement of ligand binding to membrane-associated and detergent-solubilized plasma membrane receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, E L.F.; Perdue, J F [Lady Davis Institute, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    1980-10-01

    A method is described in which high-speed centrifugation of membranes through an oil phase is used to separate membrane-bound and detergent-solubilized polypeptide receptor-iodinated ligand complexes from unbound ligands. Three centrifuges, the Brinkmann Eppendorf (5412), the Beckman Microfuge B and the Beckman Airfuge were evaluated for this capability. Under the conditions described, the Beckman Airfuge surpassed the others in recovering previously /sup 125/I- and /sup 32/P-labelled cell membranes. The Airfuge method was compared with the more classically employed membrane filtration method to measure specific (/sup 125/I)insulin and (/sup 125/I)thrombin binding to human placental membranes and an enriched plasma membrane fraction from mouse embryo fibroblasts, respectively, and found to be 4 to 5 times more sensitive. For example, specific binding of ligand to its receptor was demonstrated with 5 ..mu..g of protein. With slight modifications, the polyethyleneglycol 6000 method of precipitating /sup 125/I-labelled ligand-soluble receptor complexes can be adapted to the Airfuge sedimentation through oil procedure.

  14. Structure-Guided Screening for Functionally Selective D2 Dopamine Receptor Ligands from a Virtual Chemical Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Barbara; Jaiteh, Mariama; Zeifman, Alexey; Randakova, Alena; Möller, Dorothee; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Carlsson, Jens

    2017-10-20

    Functionally selective ligands stabilize conformations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that induce a preference for signaling via a subset of the intracellular pathways activated by the endogenous agonists. The possibility to fine-tune the functional activity of a receptor provides opportunities to develop drugs that selectively signal via pathways associated with a therapeutic effect and avoid those causing side effects. Animal studies have indicated that ligands displaying functional selectivity at the D 2 dopamine receptor (D 2 R) could be safer and more efficacious drugs against neuropsychiatric diseases. In this work, computational design of functionally selective D 2 R ligands was explored using structure-based virtual screening. Molecular docking of known functionally selective ligands to a D 2 R homology model indicated that such compounds were anchored by interactions with the orthosteric site and extended into a common secondary pocket. A tailored virtual library with close to 13 000 compounds bearing 2,3-dichlorophenylpiperazine, a privileged orthosteric scaffold, connected to diverse chemical moieties via a linker was docked to the D 2 R model. Eighteen top-ranked compounds that occupied both the orthosteric and allosteric site were synthesized, leading to the discovery of 16 partial agonists. A majority of the ligands had comparable maximum effects in the G protein and β-arrestin recruitment assays, but a subset displayed preference for a single pathway. In particular, compound 4 stimulated β-arrestin recruitment (EC 50 = 320 nM, E max = 16%) but had no detectable G protein signaling. The use of structure-based screening and virtual libraries to discover GPCR ligands with tailored functional properties will be discussed.

  15. Drug of the year: programmed death-1 receptor/programmed death-1 ligand-1 receptor monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Caroline; Soria, Jean-Charles; Eggermont, Alexander M M

    2013-09-01

    Programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1)/its ligand (PD-L1) antibodies have changed the landscape in oncology in 2013. The most mature results have been obtained in advanced melanoma patients. They indicate important response rates and high quality responses or prolonged duration. Also in renal cancer and in lung cancer remarkable activity has been demonstrated. Thus it is clear that these antibodies have a very broad potential and trials in many tumour types are being initiated. Breaking tolerance at the tumour site is a potent phenomenon and the potential for synergy with other checkpoint inhibitors such as ipilimumab have also been demonstrated in 2013. Long term tumour control now seems achievable and thus the concept of a clinical cure is emerging by modulation of the immune system. These antibodies bring immunotherapy to the forefront and indicate that immune-modulation will be a key component of therapeutic strategies from now on. Because of all these reasons PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are considered 'drug of the year'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of bivalent cannabinoid receptor ligands based on hCB₂R selective benzimidazoles reveal unexpected intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimczick, Martin; Pemp, Daniela; Darras, Fouad H; Chen, Xinyu; Heilmann, Jörg; Decker, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The design of bivalent ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) often leads to the development of new, highly selective and potent compounds. To date, no bivalent ligands for the human cannabinoid receptor type 2 (hCB₂R) of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are described. Therefore, two sets of homobivalent ligands containing as parent structure the hCB2R selective agonist 13a and coupled at different attachment positions were synthesized. Changes of the parent structure at these positions have a crucial effect on the potency and efficacy of the ligands. However, we discovered that bivalency has an influence on the effect at both cannabinoid receptors. Moreover, we found out that the spacer length and the attachment position altered the efficacy of the bivalent ligands at the receptors by turning agonists into antagonists and inverse agonists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...... and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides...... of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates...

  18. FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carol J.E.; Sampson, Heidi M.; Hlousek, Daniela; Percival-Smith, Anthony; Copeland, John W.R.; Simmonds, Andrew J.; Krause, Henry M.

    2001-01-01

    To activate transcription, most nuclear receptor proteins require coactivators that bind to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). The Drosophila FTZ-Factor1 (FTZ-F1) protein is a conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, but was previously thought to lack an AF2 motif, a motif that is required for ligand and coactivator binding. Here we show that FTZ-F1 does have an AF2 motif and that it is required to bind a coactivator, the homeodomain-containing protein Fushi tarazu (FTZ). We also show that FTZ contains an AF2-interacting nuclear receptor box, the first to be found in a homeodomain protein. Both interaction motifs are shown to be necessary for physical interactions in vitro and for functional interactions in developing embryos. These unexpected findings have important implications for the conserved homologs of the two proteins. PMID:11157757

  19. Nicotine facilitates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targeting to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenska, Kateryna; Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Chernyshov, Volodymyr; Arias, Hugo R; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2017-08-24

    Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs. Experiments were performed in isolated liver mitochondria from mice, that either consumed or not nicotine with the drinking water (200μL/L) for 7days. Mitochondria detergent lysates were studied by sandwich or lectin ELISA for the presence and carbohydrate composition of different nAChR subunits. Intact mitochondria were examined by flow cytometry for the binding of fluorescently labeled α-cobratoxin and were tested in functional assay of cytochrome c release under the effect of either Ca 2+ or wortmannin in the presence or absence of nAChR-selective ligands, including PNU-282987 (1nM), dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE, 1μM), PNU-120596 (0.3, 3, or 10μM) and desformylflustrabromine hydrochloride (dFBr, 0.001, 0.3, or 1μM). It was found that nicotine consumption increased the ratio of mitochondrial vs non-mitochondrial nAChRs in the liver, enhanced fucosylation of mitochondrial nAChRs, but prevented the binding of α-cobratoxin and the cytochrome c release-attenuating effects of nAChR-specific agonists, antagonists, or positive allosteric modulators. It is concluded that nicotine consumption in vivo favors nAChR glycosylation and trafficking to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to the effects of specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety, tolerability, and biomarkers of the treatment of mice with aerosolized toll-like receptor ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eAlfaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously discovered a synergistically therapeutic combination of two Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands, an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN and Pam2CSK4. Aerosolization of these ligands stimulates innate immunity within the lungs to prevent pneumonia from bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we examined the safety and tolerability of this treatment in mice, and characterized the expression of biomarkers of innate immune activation. We found that neutrophils appeared in lung lavage fluid 4 hours after treatment, reached a peak at 48 hours, and resolved by 7 days. The peak of neutrophil influx was accompanied by a small increase in lung permeability. Despite the abundance of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid, only rare neutrophils were visible histopathologically in the interstitium surrounding bronchi and veins and none were visible in alveolar airspaces. The cytokines IL-6, TNF and CXCL2 rose several hundred-fold in lung lavage fluid 4 hours after treatment in a dose-dependent and synergistic manner, providing useful biomarkers of lung activation. IL-6 rose five-fold in serum with delayed kinetics compared to its rise in lavage fluid, and might serve as a systemic biomarker of immune activation of the lungs. The dose-response relationship of lavage fluid cytokines was preserved in mice that underwent myeloablative treatment with cytosine arabinoside to model the treatment of hematologic malignancy. There were no overt signs of distress in mice treated with ODN/Pam2CSK4 in doses up to 8-fold the therapeutic dose, and no changes in temperature, respiratory rate, or behavioral signs of sickness including sugar water preference, food disappearance, cage exploration or social interaction, though there was a small degree of transient weight loss. We conclude that treatment with aerosolized ODN/Pam2CSK4 is well tolerated in mice, and that innate immune activation of the lungs can be monitored by the measurement of inflammatory cytokines in lung lavage

  1. Towards a Novel Class of Multitarget-Directed Ligands: Dual P2X7–NMDA Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Karoutzou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs offer new hope for the treatment of multifactorial complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Herein, we present compounds aimed at targeting the NMDA and the P2X7 receptors, which embody a different approach to AD therapy. On one hand, we are seeking to delay neurodegeneration targeting the glutamatergic NMDA receptors; on the other hand, we also aim to reduce neuroinflammation, targeting P2X7 receptors. Although the NMDA receptor is a widely recognized therapeutic target in treating AD, the P2X7 receptor remains largely unexplored for this purpose; therefore, the dual inhibitor presented herein—which is open to further optimization—represents the first member of a new class of MTDLs.

  2. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor (CB1) Ligands with Therapeutic Potential for Withdrawal Syndrome in Chemical Dependents of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jaderson V; Chaves, Gisele A; Marino, Bianca L B; Sousa, Kessia P A; Souza, Lucilene R; Brito, Maiara F B; Teixeira, Hueldem R C; da Silva, Carlos H T P; Santos, Cleydson B R; Hage-Melim, Lorane I S

    2017-08-22

    Cannabis sativa withdrawal syndrome is characterized mainly by psychological symptoms. By using computational tools, the aim of this study was to propose drug candidates for treating withdrawal syndrome based on the natural ligands of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1). One compound in particular, 2-n-butyl-5-n-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (ZINC1730183, also known as stemphol), showed positive predictions as a human CB1 ligand and for facile synthetic accessibility. Therefore, ZINC1730183 is a favorable candidate scaffold for further research into pharmacotherapeutic alternatives to treat C. sativa withdrawal syndrome. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is an early event in Sigma-2 receptor ligand mediated cell death in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, John R; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Spitzer, Dirk; Abate, Carmen; Berardi, Francesco; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G

    2012-05-02

    Sigma-2 receptor ligands have been studied for treatment of pancreatic cancer because they are preferentially internalized by proliferating cells and induce apoptosis. This mechanism of apoptosis is poorly understood, with varying reports of caspase-3 dependence. We evaluated multiple sigma-2 receptor ligands in this study, each shown to decrease tumor burden in preclinical models of human pancreatic cancer. Fluorescently labeled sigma-2 receptor ligands of two classes (derivatives of SW43 and PB282) localize to cell membrane components in Bxpc3 and Aspc1 pancreatic cancer cells and accumulate in lysosomes. We found that interactions in the lysosome are critical for cell death following sigma-2 ligand treatment because selective inhibition of a protective lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, LAMP1, with shRNA greatly reduced the viability of cells following treatment. Sigma-2 ligands induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and protease translocation triggering downstream effectors of apoptosis. Subsequently, cellular oxidative stress was greatly increased following treatment with SW43, and the hydrophilic antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) gave greater protection against this than a lipophilic antioxidant, α-tocopherol (α-toco). Conversely, PB282-mediated cytotoxicity relied less on cellular oxidation, even though α-toco did provide protection from this ligand. In addition, we found that caspase-3 induction was not as significantly inhibited by cathepsin inhibitors as by antioxidants. Both NAC and α-toco protected against caspase-3 induction following PB282 treatment, while only NAC offered protection following SW43 treatment. The caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-FMK offered significant protection from PB282, but not SW43. Sigma-2 ligand SW43 commits pancreatic cancer cells to death by a caspase-independent process involving LMP and oxidative stress which is protected from by NAC. PB282 however undergoes a caspase-dependent death following LMP protected by DEVD

  4. Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization is an Early Event in Sigma-2 Receptor Ligand Mediated Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornick John R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sigma-2 receptor ligands have been studied for treatment of pancreatic cancer because they are preferentially internalized by proliferating cells and induce apoptosis. This mechanism of apoptosis is poorly understood, with varying reports of caspase-3 dependence. We evaluated multiple sigma-2 receptor ligands in this study, each shown to decrease tumor burden in preclinical models of human pancreatic cancer. Results Fluorescently labeled sigma-2 receptor ligands of two classes (derivatives of SW43 and PB282 localize to cell membrane components in Bxpc3 and Aspc1 pancreatic cancer cells and accumulate in lysosomes. We found that interactions in the lysosome are critical for cell death following sigma-2 ligand treatment because selective inhibition of a protective lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, LAMP1, with shRNA greatly reduced the viability of cells following treatment. Sigma-2 ligands induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and protease translocation triggering downstream effectors of apoptosis. Subsequently, cellular oxidative stress was greatly increased following treatment with SW43, and the hydrophilic antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC gave greater protection against this than a lipophilic antioxidant, α-tocopherol (α-toco. Conversely, PB282-mediated cytotoxicity relied less on cellular oxidation, even though α-toco did provide protection from this ligand. In addition, we found that caspase-3 induction was not as significantly inhibited by cathepsin inhibitors as by antioxidants. Both NAC and α-toco protected against caspase-3 induction following PB282 treatment, while only NAC offered protection following SW43 treatment. The caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-FMK offered significant protection from PB282, but not SW43. Conclusions Sigma-2 ligand SW43 commits pancreatic cancer cells to death by a caspase-independent process involving LMP and oxidative stress which is protected from by NAC. PB282 however undergoes a

  5. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the α subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K d of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site

  6. Identification of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 as a protein receptor for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte P S Jacky

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A causes transient muscle paralysis by entering motor nerve terminals (MNTs where it cleaves the SNARE protein Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25206 to yield SNAP25197. Cleavage of SNAP25 results in blockage of synaptic vesicle fusion and inhibition of the release of acetylcholine. The specific uptake of BoNT/A into pre-synaptic nerve terminals is a tightly controlled multistep process, involving a combination of high and low affinity receptors. Interestingly, the C-terminal binding domain region of BoNT/A, HC/A, is homologous to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, making it a possible ligand for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs. Here we present data supporting the identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3 as a high affinity receptor for BoNT/A in neuronal cells. HC/A binds with high affinity to the two extra-cellular loops of FGFR3 and acts similar to an agonist ligand for FGFR3, resulting in phosphorylation of the receptor. Native ligands for FGFR3; FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9 compete for binding to FGFR3 and block BoNT/A cellular uptake. These findings show that FGFR3 plays a pivotal role in the specific uptake of BoNT/A across the cell membrane being part of a larger receptor complex involving ganglioside- and protein-protein interactions.

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis: susceptibility in respect to the genes encoding the KIR receptors and their HLA class I ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; Frederico, Fábio Batista; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia; Previato, Mariana; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the genes encoding the KIR receptors and their HLA ligands in the susceptibility of ocular toxoplasmosis. A total of 297 patients serologically-diagnosed with toxoplasmosis were selected and stratified according to the presence (n = 148) or absence (n = 149) of ocular scars/lesions due to toxoplasmosis. The group of patients with scars/lesions was further subdivided into two groups according to the type of ocular manifestation observed: primary (n = 120) or recurrent (n = 28). Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSOP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test, and odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was also calculated to evaluate the risk association. The activating KIR3DS1 gene was associated with increased susceptibility for ocular toxoplasmosis. The activating KIR together with their HLA ligands (KIR3DS1-Bw4-80Ile and KIR2DS1+/C2++ KIR3DS1+/Bw4-80Ile+) were associated with increased susceptibility for ocular toxoplasmosis and its clinical manifestations. KIR-HLA inhibitory pairs -KIR2DL3/2DL3-C1/C1 and KIR2DL3/2DL3-C1- were associated with decreased susceptibility for ocular toxoplasmosis and its clinical forms, while the KIR3DS1−/KIR3DL1+/Bw4-80Ile+ combination was associated as a protective factor against the development of ocular toxoplasmosis and, in particular, against recurrent manifestations. Our data demonstrate that activating and inhibitory KIR genes may influence the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:27827450

  8. Novel Chemical Strategies for Labeling Small Molecule Ligands for Androgen, Progestin, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors for Imaging Prostate and Breast Cancer and the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Progress The specific aims of this project can be summarized as follows: Aim 1: Prepare and evaluate radiolabeled ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a new nuclear hormone receptor target for tumor imaging and hormone therapy. Aim 2: Prepare steroids labeled with a cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl technetium or rhenium unit. Aim 3: Prepare and evaluate other organometallic systems of novel design as ligand mimics and halogenated ligands for nuclear hormone receptor-based tumor imaging. As is described in detail in the report, we made excellent progress on all three of these aims; the highlights of our progress are the following: (1) we have prepared the first fluorine-18 labeled analogs of ligands for the PPARγ receptor and used these in tissue distribution studies in rats; (2) we have developed three new methods for the synthesis of cyclopentadienyltricarbonyl rhenium and technetium (CpRe(CO)3 and CpTc(CO)3) systems and we have adapted these to the synthesis of steroids labeled with these metals, as well as ligands for other receptor systems; (3) we have prepared a number of fluorine-18 labeled steroidal and non-steroidal androgens and measured their tissue distribution in rats; (4) we have prepared iodine and bromine-labeled progestins with high progesterone receptor binding affinity; and (5) we have prepared inorganic metal tricarbonyl complexes and steroid receptor ligands in which the metal tricarbonyl unit is an integral part off the ligand core

  9. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of [11C]SA6298 as a PET sigma1 receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Tajima, Hisashi; Ishii, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Yuhei; Matsuno, Kiyoshi; Homma, Yoshio; Senda, Michio

    1999-01-01

    The potential of a 11 C-labeled selective sigma 1 receptor ligand, 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl]piperazine ([ 11 C]SA6298), was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping sigma 1 receptors in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. [ 11 C]SA6298 was synthesized by methylation of the desmethyl SA6298 with [ 11 C]CH 3 I, with the decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 39±5% based on [ 11 C]CH 3 I and with the specific activity of 53±17 TBq/mmol within 20 min from end of bombardment (EOB). In mice, the uptake of [ 11 C]SA6298 was significantly decreased by carrier loading in the brain, liver, spleen, heart, lung, small intestine, and kidney in which sigma receptors are present as well as in the skeletal muscle. Pretreatment with SA6298 also blocked the uptake of [ 11 C]SA6298 by these organs except for the small intestine, but significant displacement of [ 11 C]SA6298 by posttreatment with SA6298 was observed only in the heart, lung, and muscle. In the blocking study with one of the eight sigma receptor ligands, including haloperidol, SA6298, NE-100, (+)-pentazocine, SA4503, (-)-pentazocine, (+)-3-PPP, and (+)-SKF 10,047 (in the order of the affinity for sigma 1 receptor subtype), only SA6298 and an analog SA4503 significantly reduced the brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA6298 to approximately 80% of the control, but the other six ligands did not. Peripherally, the uptake of [ 11 C]SA6298 by the organs described above was decreased predominantly by SA6298 or SA4503, but the blocking effects of the other five ligands except for NE-100 depended on their affinity for sigma 1 receptors. The saturable brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA6298, approximately 20%, was also observed by tissue dissection method in rats and by PET in a cat. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain showed a high uptake in the cortex and thalamus. In the cat brain a relatively high uptake was found in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellum

  10. Multivalent cyclic RGD ligands: influence of linker lengths on receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubas, Holger; Schaefer, Martin; Bauder-Wuest, Ulrike; Eder, Matthias; Oltmanns, Doerte [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, Michael, E-mail: m.eisenhut@dkfz.d [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Peptides involving the RGD motive (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) recognize members of the integrin receptor family. Since the receptors are located mainly on the surface of endothelial cells, structural modifications including multimers of c(RGDfE) were recently found to improve the binding avidity for {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin significantly. The multivalent RGD peptides exhibited rather loose linkages partly including oligo(ethylene glycol) spacers (EG{sub n}) with different chain lengths. Therefore, the dependence of multivalent RGD systems with and without EG{sub n} linkers were investigated on their binding properties to cultured {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin-expressing U87MG cells. Methods: We synthesized a series of di-, tri- and tetravalent rigid scaffolds (terephthalic acid, trimesic acid and adamantane-1,3,5,7-tetracarboxylic acid) conjugated to c(RGDyK) ligands, which were linked contiguously or separated by the oligo(ethylene glycol) spacers. The inhibition constants of these c(RGDyK) derivatives were determined by competition assays with {sup 125}I-labeled echistatin. Results: While c(RGDyK) function is a relative weak competitor against [{sup 125}I]echistatin (K{sub i}, 329{+-}18 nM) for {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin-expressing U87MG cells, RGD dimers improved the competition potency considerably (K{sub i}, 64{+-}23 nM). This effect was even more pronounced with the RGD trimers (K{sub i}, 40{+-}7 nM) and tetramers (K{sub i}, 26{+-}9 nM). The introduction of EG{sub n} spacers and the increase of linker lengths proved to be detrimental since more competitors were needed to compete with [{sup 125}I]echistatin. The EG{sub 6} group, for example, reduced the inhibition constants by 29% (dimer), 57% (trimer) and 97% (tetramer). Conclusion: The binding experiments performed with the three forms of multivalent RGD ligands indicate the weakening of competitive potency against [{sup 125}I]echistatin with the introduction of EG{sub n} spacers. This effect

  11. Binding Mode Prediction of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Ligands by Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Asif; Nagarajan, Shanthi; Doddareddy, Munikumar Reddy; Cho, Yong Seo; Pae, Ae Nim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 2C (5-HT{sub 2C}) receptor belongs to class A amine subfamily of Gprotein- coupled receptor (GPCR) super family and its ligands has therapeutic promise as anti-depressant and -obesity agents. So far, bovine rhodopsin from class A opsin subfamily was the mostly used X-ray crystal template to model this receptor. Here, we explained homology model using beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the model was energetically minimized and validated by flexible ligand docking with known agonists and antagonists. In the active site Asp134, Ser138 of transmembrane 3 (TM3), Arg195 of extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) and Tyr358 of TM7 were found as important residues to interact with agonists. In addition to these, V208 of ECL2 and N351 of TM7 was found to interact with antagonists. Several conserved residues including Trp324, Phe327 and Phe328 were also found to contribute hydrophobic interaction. The predicted ligand binding mode is in good agreement with published mutagenesis and homology model data. This new template derived homology model can be useful for further virtual screening based lead identification.

  12. Identification of endogenous surrogate ligands for human P2Y12 receptors by in silico and in vitro methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Yosuke; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Fujita, Norihisa

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous ligands acting on a human P2Y 12 receptor, one of the G-protein coupled receptors, were searched by in silico screening against our own database, which contains more than 500 animal metabolites. The in silico screening using the docking software AutoDock resulted in selection of cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), with high free energy changes, in addition to the known P2Y 12 ligands such as 2MeSADP and ADP. These candidates were subjected to an in vitro Ca 2+ assay using the CHO cells stably expressing P2Y 12 -G 16 α fusion proteins. We found that CysLTE4 and PRPP acted on the P2Y 12 receptor as agonists with the EC 50 values of 1.3 and 7.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the P2Y, P2Y-like, and CysLT receptors based on sequence alignment followed by evolutionary analyses. The analyses showed that the P2Y 12 , P2Y 13 , P2Y 14 , GPR87, CysLT-1, and CysLT-2 receptors formed a P2Y-related receptor subfamily with common sequence motifs in the transmembrane regions

  13. [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594, the first photoaffinity ligand for the glycine site of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, D.; Honer, M.; Mohler, H. [Institute of Pharmacology, ETH and University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Heckendorn, R.; Pozza, M.F.; Allgeier, H.; Angst, C. [NS Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH-4002 Basle (Switzerland)

    1999-02-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors requires the presence of glycine as a coagonist which binds to a site that is allosterically linked to the glutamate binding site. To identify the protein constituents of the glycine binding site in situ the photoaffinity label [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 was synthesized. In reversible binding assays using crude rat brain membranes, [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 labeled with high affinity (K{sub D}=23 nM) the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. This was evident from the Scatchard analysis, the displacing potencies of various glycine site ligands and the allosteric modulation of [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 binding by ligands of the glutamate and polyamine sites. Electrophysiological experiments in a neocortical slice preparation identified CGP 61594 as a glycine antagonist. Upon UV-irradiation, a protein band of 115 kDa was specifically photolabeled by [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 in brain membrane preparations. The photolabeled protein was identified as the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor by NR1 subunit-specific immunoaffinity chromatography. Thus, [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 is the first photoaffinity label for the glycine site of NMDA receptors. It will serve as a tool for the identification of structural elements that are involved in the formation of the glycine binding domain of NMDA receptors in situ and will thereby complement the mutational analysis of recombinant receptors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Development of 7TM receptor-ligand complex models using ligand-biased, semi-empirical helix-bundle repacking in torsion space: application to the agonist interaction of the human dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Marcus; Persson, Ronnie; Svensson, Peder; Luthman, Kristina; Brive, Lars

    2013-03-01

    Prediction of 3D structures of membrane proteins, and of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in particular, is motivated by their importance in biological systems and the difficulties associated with experimental structure determination. In the present study, a novel method for the prediction of 3D structures of the membrane-embedded region of helical membrane proteins is presented. A large pool of candidate models are produced by repacking of the helices of a homology model using Monte Carlo sampling in torsion space, followed by ranking based on their geometric and ligand-binding properties. The trajectory is directed by weak initial restraints to orient helices towards the original model to improve computation efficiency, and by a ligand to guide the receptor towards a chosen conformational state. The method was validated by construction of the β1 adrenergic receptor model in complex with (S)-cyanopindolol using bovine rhodopsin as template. In addition, models of the dopamine D2 receptor were produced with the selective and rigid agonist (R)-N-propylapomorphine ((R)-NPA) present. A second quality assessment was implemented by evaluating the results from docking of a library of 29 ligands with known activity, which further discriminated between receptor models. Agonist binding and recognition by the dopamine D2 receptor is interpreted using the 3D structure model resulting from the approach. This method has a potential for modeling of all types of helical transmembrane proteins for which a structural template with sequence homology sufficient for homology modeling is not available or is in an incorrect conformational state, but for which sufficient empirical information is accessible.

  15. Homology-modeled ligand-binding domains of medaka estrogen receptors and androgen receptors: A model system for the study of reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jianzhou; Shen Xueyan; Yan Zuowei; Zhao Haobin; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen and androgen and their receptors play critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development. Using the available structural models for the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptor as templates, we designed in silico agonist and antagonist models of medaka estrogen receptor (meER) alpha, beta-1, and beta-2, and androgen receptor (meAR) alpha and beta. Using these models, we studied (1) the structural relationship between the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERs and ARs of human and medaka, and (2) whether medaka ER and AR can be potential models for studying the ligand-binding activities of various agonists and antagonists of these receptors by docking analysis. A high level of conservation was observed between the sequences of the ligand-binding domains of meERα and huERα, meERβ1 and huERβ, meERβ2, and huERβ with 62.8%, 66.4%, and 65.1% identity, respectively. The sequence conservation between meARα and huAR, meARβ, and huAR was found with 70.1% and 61.0% of identity, respectively. Thirty-three selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including both agonists and antagonists, were docked into the LBD of ER and AR, and the corresponding docking score for medaka models and human templates were calculated. In order to confirm the conservation of the overall geometry and the binding pocket, the backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) for Cα atoms was derived from the structure superposition of all 10 medaka homology models to the six human templates. Our results suggested conformational conservation between the ERs and ARs of medaka and human, Thus, medaka could be highly useful as a model system for studies involving estrogen and androgen interaction with their receptors.

  16. Preassembly and ligand-induced restructuring of the chains of the IFN-gamma receptor complex: the roles of Jak kinases, Stat1 and the receptor chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Lavnikova, Natasha; Xie, Junxia; Mei, Erwen; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V; Jia, Yiwei; Hochstrasser, Robin M; Pestka, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated using noninvasive technologies that the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor complex is preassembled (1). In this report we determined how the receptor complex is preassembled and how the ligand-mediated conformational changes occur. The interaction of Stat1 with IFN-gammaR1 results in a conformational change localized to IFN-gammaR1. Jak1 but not Jak2 is required for the two chains of the IFN-gamma receptor complex (IFN-gammaR1 and IFN-gammaR2) to interact; however, the presence of both Jak1 and Jak2 is required to see any ligand-dependant conformational change. Two IFN-gammaR2 chains interact through species-specific determinants in their extracellular domains. Finally, these determinants also participate in the interaction of IFN-gammaR2 with IFN-gammaR1. These results agree with a detailed model of the IFN-gamma receptor that requires the receptor chains to be pre-associated constitutively for the receptor to be active.

  17. Identification of phenylalanine 346 in the rat growth hormone receptor as being critical for ligand-mediated internalization and down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allevato, G; Billestrup, N; Goujon, L

    1995-01-01

    The functional significance of growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) internalization is unknown; therefore, we have analyzed domains and individual amino acids in the cytoplasmic region of the rat GHR required for ligand-mediated receptor internalization, receptor down-regulation, and transcriptiona...

  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors: Zooming in on ligand-induced intracellular trafficking and its functional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, Dennis; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory processes including receptor phosphorylation and intracellular trafficking, also referred to as receptor internalization, are important processes to terminate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Compelling evidence now indicates that internalization of a receptor is not

  19. Impact of genetic variations in C-C chemokine receptors and ligands on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qidwai, Tabish; Khan, M Y

    2016-10-01

    Chemokine receptors and ligands are crucial for extensive immune response against infectious diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, HIV and tuberculosis and a wide variety of other diseases. Role of chemokines are evidenced in the activation and regulation of immune cell migration which is important for immune response against diseases. Outcome of disease is determined by complex interaction among pathogen, host genetic variability and surrounding milieu. Variation in expression or function of chemokines caused by genetic polymorphisms could be associated with attenuated immune responses. Exploration of chemokine genetic polymorphisms in therapeutic response, gene regulation and disease outcome is important. Infectious agents in human host alter the expression of chemokines via epigenetic alterations and thus contribute to disease pathogenesis. Although some fragmentary data are available on chemokine genetic variations and their contribution in diseases, no unequivocal conclusion has been arrived as yet. We therefore, aim to investigate the association of CCR5-CCL5 and CCR2-CCL2 genetic polymorphisms with different infectious diseases, transcriptional regulation of gene, disease severity and response to therapy. Furthermore, the role of epigenetics in genes related to chemokines and infectious disease are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  1. FGF-2 deficiency does not influence FGF ligand and receptor expression during development of the nigrostriatal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Andreas; Baron, Olga; Grothe, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Secreted proteins of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play important roles during development of various organ systems. A detailed knowledge of their temporal and spatial expression profiles, especially of closely related FGF family members, are essential to further identification of specific functions in distinct tissues. In the central nervous system dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and their axonal projections into the striatum progressively degenerate in Parkinson's disease. In contrast, FGF-2 deficient mice display increased numbers of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we determined the expression profiles of all 22 FGF-ligands and 10 FGF-receptor isoforms, in order to clarify, if FGF-2 deficiency leads to compensatory up-regulation of other FGFs in the nigrostriatal system. Three tissues, ventral mesencephalon (VM), striatum (STR) and as reference tissue spinal cord (SC) of wild-type and FGF-2 deficient mice at four developmental stages E14.5, P0, P28, and adult were comparatively analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. As no differences between the genotypes were observed, a compensatory up-regulation can be excluded. Moreover, this analysis revealed that the majority of FGF-ligands (18/22) and FGF-receptors (9/10) are expressed during normal development of the nigrostriatal system and identified dynamic changes for some family members. By comparing relative expression level changes to SC reference tissue, general alterations in all 3 tissues, such as increased expression of FGF-1, -2, -22, FgfR-2c, -3c and decreased expression of FGF-13 during postnatal development were identified. Further, specific changes affecting only one tissue, such as increased FGF-16 (STR) or decreased FGF-17 (VM) expression, or two tissues, such as decreased expression of FGF-8 (VM, STR) and FGF-15 (SC, VM) were found. Moreover, 3 developmentally down-regulated FGFs (FGF-8b, FGF-15, FGF-17a) were functionally characterized by plasmid-based over-expression in

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira-Cunha, Melissa; Newman, William G.; Siriwardena, Ajith K.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  3. The Fifth Transmembrane Domain of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Participates in the Formation of the Ligand-binding Pocket and Undergoes a Counterclockwise Rotation upon Receptor Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S.; Holleran, Brian J.; Morin, Marie-Ève; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT1 receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT1, N200C-AT1, I201C-AT1, G203C-AT1, and F204C-AT1 mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT1 receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT1 receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT1 became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT1 lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT1 receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side. PMID:19773549

  4. The fifth transmembrane domain of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor participates in the formation of the ligand-binding pocket and undergoes a counterclockwise rotation upon receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S; Holleran, Brian J; Morin, Marie-Eve; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-11-13

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT(1) receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT(1), N200C-AT(1), I201C-AT(1), G203C-AT(1), and F204C-AT(1) mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT(1) receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT(1) became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT(1) lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT(1) receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side.

  5. Forced unbinding of GPR17 ligands from wild type and R255I mutant receptor models through a computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantucci Piercarlo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPR17 is a hybrid G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR activated by two unrelated ligand families, extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs, and involved in brain damage and repair. Its exploitment as a target for novel neuro-reparative strategies depends on the elucidation of the molecular determinants driving binding of purinergic and leukotrienic ligands. Here, we applied docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD to analyse the binding and the forced unbinding of two GPR17 ligands (the endogenous purinergic agonist UDP and the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast from both the wild-type (WT receptor and a mutant model, where a basic residue hypothesized to be crucial for nucleotide binding had been mutated (R255I to Ile. Results MD suggested that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and extracellular loop (EL 2. The driving interaction involves R255 and the UDP phosphate moiety. To support this hypothesis, steered MD experiments showed that the energy required to unbind UDP is higher for the WT receptor than for R255I. Three potential binding sites for pranlukast where instead found and analysed. In one of its preferential docking conformations, pranlukast tetrazole group is close to R255 and phenyl rings are placed into a subpocket highly conserved among GPCRs. Pulling forces developed to break polar and aromatic interactions of pranlukast were comparable. No differences between the WT receptor and the R255I receptor were found for the unbinding of pranlukast. Conclusions These data thus suggest that, in contrast to which has been hypothesized for nucleotides, the lack of the R255 residue doesn't affect the binding of pranlukast a crucial role for R255 in binding of nucleotides to GPR17. Aromatic interactions are instead likely to play a predominant role in the recognition of pranlukast, suggesting that two different binding subsites are present on GPR17.

  6. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM) to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM) to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after adding a large concentration of

  7. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Person Alexandra M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after

  8. Domain interplay in the urokinase receptor. Requirement for the third domain in high affinity ligand binding and demonstration of ligand contact sites in distinct receptor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ronne, E; Dano, K

    1996-01-01

    by chemical cross-linking, but quantitative binding/competition studies showed that the apparent ligand affinity was 100- to 1000-fold lower than that of the intact suPAR. This loss of affinity was comparable with the loss found after cleavage between the first domain (D1) and D(2 + 3), using chymotrypsin...

  9. Destabilization of strigolactone receptor DWARF14 by binding of ligand and E3-ligase signaling effector DWARF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Hua; Zhou, X Edward; Yi, Wei; Wu, Zhongshan; Liu, Yue; Kang, Yanyong; Hou, Li; de Waal, Parker W; Li, Suling; Jiang, Yi; Scaffidi, Adrian; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M; Lam, Vinh Q; Griffin, Patrick R; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are endogenous hormones and exuded signaling molecules in plant responses to low levels of mineral nutrients. Key mediators of the SL signaling pathway in rice include the α/β-fold hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14) and the F-box component DWARF 3 (D3) of the ubiquitin ligase SCFD3 that mediate ligand-dependent degradation of downstream signaling repressors. One perplexing feature is that D14 not only functions as the SL receptor but is also an active enzyme that slowly hydrolyzes diverse natural and synthetic SLs including GR24, preventing the crystallization of a binary complex of D14 with an intact SL as well as the ternary D14/SL/D3 complex. Here we overcome these barriers to derive a structural model of D14 bound to intact GR24 and identify the interface that is required for GR24-mediated D14-D3 interaction. The mode of GR24-mediated signaling, including ligand recognition, hydrolysis by D14, and ligand-mediated D14-D3 interaction, is conserved in structurally diverse SLs. More importantly, D14 is destabilized upon the binding of ligands and D3, thus revealing an unusual mechanism of SL recognition and signaling, in which the hormone, the receptor, and the downstream effectors are systematically destabilized during the signal transduction process. PMID:26470846

  10. Exploring G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Ligand Space via Cheminformatics Approaches: Impact on Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, Shaherin; Cui, Minghua; Macalino, Stephani J. Y.; Park, Jongmi; Clavio, Nina A. B.; Kang, Soosung; Choi, Sun

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of rational drug discovery is the identification of selective ligands which act on single or multiple drug targets to achieve the desired clinical outcome through the exploration of total chemical space. To identify such desired compounds, computational approaches are necessary in predicting their drug-like properties. G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest and most important integral membrane protein families. These receptors serve as increasingly attractive drug targets due to their relevance in the treatment of various diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, metabolic imbalances, cardiac disorders, cancer, monogenic disorders, etc. In the last decade, multitudes of three-dimensional (3D) structures were solved for diverse GPCRs, thus referring to this period as the “golden age for GPCR structural biology.” Moreover, accumulation of data about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has garnered much interest toward the exploration of GPCR chemical space. Due to the steady increase in the structural, ligand, and functional data of GPCRs, several cheminformatics approaches have been implemented in its drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we mainly focus on the cheminformatics-based paradigms in GPCR drug discovery. We provide a comprehensive view on the ligand– and structure-based cheminformatics approaches which are best illustrated via GPCR case studies. Furthermore, an appropriate combination of ligand-based knowledge with structure-based ones, i.e., integrated approach, which is emerging as a promising strategy for cheminformatics-based GPCR drug design is also discussed. PMID:29593527

  11. A homeostatic sleep-stabilizing pathway in Drosophila composed of the sex peptide receptor and its ligand, the myoinhibitory peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkyun Oh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep, a reversible quiescent state found in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals, disconnects animals from their environment and is highly regulated for coordination with wakeful activities, such as reproduction. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has proven to be a valuable model for studying the regulation of sleep by circadian clock and homeostatic mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that the sex peptide receptor (SPR of Drosophila, known for its role in female reproduction, is also important in stabilizing sleep in both males and females. Mutants lacking either the SPR or its central ligand, myoinhibitory peptide (MIP, fall asleep normally, but have difficulty in maintaining a sleep-like state. Our analyses have mapped the SPR sleep function to pigment dispersing factor (pdf neurons, an arousal center in the insect brain. MIP downregulates intracellular cAMP levels in pdf neurons through the SPR. MIP is released centrally before and during night-time sleep, when the sleep drive is elevated. Sleep deprivation during the night facilitates MIP secretion from specific brain neurons innervating pdf neurons. Moreover, flies lacking either SPR or MIP cannot recover sleep after the night-time sleep deprivation. These results delineate a central neuropeptide circuit that stabilizes the sleep state by feeding a slow-acting inhibitory input into the arousal system and plays an important role in sleep homeostasis.

  12. Effects of Polyethylene Glycol Spacer Length and Ligand Density on Folate Receptor Targeting of Liposomal Doxorubicin In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Kawano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate receptor is an attractive target for selective tumor delivery of liposomal doxorubicin (DXR because it is abundantly expressed in a large percentage of tumors. This study examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG spacer length and folate ligand density on the targeting ability of folate-modified liposomes. Liposomes were modified with folate-derivatized PEG-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine with PEG molecular weights of 2000, 3400, or 5000. The association of DXR-loaded liposomes with KB cells, which overexpress the folate receptor, was evaluated by flow cytometry at various ratios of folate modification. A low ratio of folate modification with a sufficiently long PEG chain showed the highest folate receptor-mediated association with the cells, but did not show the highest in vitro cytotoxicity. DXR release from folate-modified liposomes in endosomes might be different. These findings will be useful for designing folate receptor-targeting carriers.

  13. Chemogenomic analysis of G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands deciphers locks and keys governing diverse aspects of signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg D Wichard

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanism of signalling in the important super-family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is causally related to questions of how and where these receptors can be activated or inhibited. In this context, it is of great interest to unravel the common molecular features of GPCRs as well as those related to an active or inactive state or to subtype specific G-protein coupling. In our underlying chemogenomics study, we analyse for the first time the statistical link between the properties of G-protein-coupled receptors and GPCR ligands. The technique of mutual information (MI is able to reveal statistical inter-dependence between variations in amino acid residues on the one hand and variations in ligand molecular descriptors on the other. Although this MI analysis uses novel information that differs from the results of known site-directed mutagenesis studies or published GPCR crystal structures, the method is capable of identifying the well-known common ligand binding region of GPCRs between the upper part of the seven transmembrane helices and the second extracellular loop. The analysis shows amino acid positions that are sensitive to either stimulating (agonistic or inhibitory (antagonistic ligand effects or both. It appears that amino acid positions for antagonistic and agonistic effects are both concentrated around the extracellular region, but selective agonistic effects are cumulated between transmembrane helices (TMHs 2, 3, and ECL2, while selective residues for antagonistic effects are located at the top of helices 5 and 6. Above all, the MI analysis provides detailed indications about amino acids located in the transmembrane region of these receptors that determine G-protein signalling pathway preferences.

  14. Contribution of Adsorbed Protein Films to Nanoscopic Vibrations Exhibited by Bacteria Adhering through Ligand-Receptor Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Sjollema, Jelmer; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C

    2015-09-29

    Bacteria adhering to surfaces exhibit nanoscopic vibrations that depend on the viscoelasticity of the bond. The quantification of the nanoscopic vibrations of bacteria adhering to surfaces provides new opportunities to better understand the properties of the bond through which bacteria adhere and the mechanisms by which they resist detachment. Often, however, bacteria do not adhere to bare surfaces but to adsorbed protein films, on which adhesion involves highly specific ligand-receptor binding next to nonspecific DLVO interaction forces. Here we determine the contribution of adsorbed salivary protein and fibronectin films to vibrations exhibited by adhering streptococci and staphylococci, respectively. The streptococcal strain used has the ability to adhere to adsorbed salivary proteins films through antigen I/II ligand-receptor binding, while the staphylococcal strain used adheres to adsorbed fibronectin films through a proteinaceous ligand-receptor bond. In the absence of ligand-receptor binding, electrostatic interactions had a large impact on vibration amplitudes of adhering bacteria on glass. On an adsorbed salivary protein film, vibration amplitudes of adhering streptococci depended on the film softness as determined by QCM-D and were reduced after film fixation using glutaraldehyde. On a relatively stiff fibronectin film, cross-linking the film in glutaraldehyde hardly reduced its softness, and accordingly fibronectin film softness did not contribute to vibration amplitudes of adhering staphylococci. However, fixation of the staphylococcus-fibronectin bond further decreased vibration amplitudes, while fixation of the streptococcus bond hardly impacted vibration amplitudes. Summarizing, this study shows that both the softness of adsorbed protein films and the properties of the bond between an adhering bacterium and an adsorbed protein film play an important role in bacterial vibration amplitudes. These nanoscopic vibrations reflect the viscoelasticity of the

  15. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: A general theory corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    Adhesion processes of biological membranes that enclose cells and cellular organelles are essential for immune responses, tissue formation, and signaling. These processes depend sensitively on the binding constant K2D of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, which is difficult to measure in the "two-dimensional" (2D) membrane environment of the proteins. An important problem therefore is to relate K2D to the binding constant K3D of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in three dimensions (3D). In this article, we present a general theory for the binding constants K2D and K3D of rather stiff proteins whose main degrees of freedom are translation and rotation, along membranes and around anchor points "in 2D," or unconstrained "in 3D." The theory generalizes previous results by describing how K2D depends both on the average separation and thermal nanoscale roughness of the apposing membranes, and on the length and anchoring flexibility of the receptors and ligands. Our theoretical results for the ratio K2D/K3D of the binding constants agree with detailed results from Monte Carlo simulations without any data fitting, which indicates that the theory captures the essential features of the "dimensionality reduction" due to membrane anchoring. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we consider a novel coarse-grained model of biomembrane adhesion in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic surfaces, and the receptors and ligands as anchored molecules that diffuse continuously along the membranes and rotate at their anchor points.

  16. Identification of cinnabarinic acid as a novel endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that drives IL-22 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Lowe

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR binds to environmental toxicants including synthetic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and is involved in a diverse array of biological processes. Recently, the AHR was shown to control host immunity by affecting the balance between inflammatory T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17 and IL-22 versus regulatory T cells (Treg involved in tolerance. While environmental AHR ligands can mediate this effect, endogenous ligands are likely to be more relevant in host immune responses. We investigated downstream metabolites of tryptophan as potential AHR ligands because (1 tryptophan metabolites have been implicated in regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and (2 many of the AHR ligands identified thus far are derivatives of tryptophan. We characterized the ability of tryptophan metabolites to bind and activate the AHR and to increase IL-22 production in human T cells. We report that the tryptophan metabolite, cinnabarinic acid (CA, is an AHR ligand that stimulates the differentiation of human and mouse T cells producing IL-22. We compare the IL-22-stimulating activity of CA to that of other tryptophan metabolites and define stimulation conditions that lead to CA production from immune cells. Our findings link tryptophan metabolism to AHR activation and define a novel endogenous AHR agonist with potentially broad biological functions.

  17. Identification of cinnabarinic acid as a novel endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that drives IL-22 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Margaret M; Mold, Jeff E; Kanwar, Bittoo; Huang, Yong; Louie, Alexander; Pollastri, Michael P; Wang, Cuihua; Patel, Gautam; Franks, Diana G; Schlezinger, Jennifer; Sherr, David H; Silverstone, Allen E; Hahn, Mark E; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds to environmental toxicants including synthetic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and is involved in a diverse array of biological processes. Recently, the AHR was shown to control host immunity by affecting the balance between inflammatory T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17) and IL-22 versus regulatory T cells (Treg) involved in tolerance. While environmental AHR ligands can mediate this effect, endogenous ligands are likely to be more relevant in host immune responses. We investigated downstream metabolites of tryptophan as potential AHR ligands because (1) tryptophan metabolites have been implicated in regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and (2) many of the AHR ligands identified thus far are derivatives of tryptophan. We characterized the ability of tryptophan metabolites to bind and activate the AHR and to increase IL-22 production in human T cells. We report that the tryptophan metabolite, cinnabarinic acid (CA), is an AHR ligand that stimulates the differentiation of human and mouse T cells producing IL-22. We compare the IL-22-stimulating activity of CA to that of other tryptophan metabolites and define stimulation conditions that lead to CA production from immune cells. Our findings link tryptophan metabolism to AHR activation and define a novel endogenous AHR agonist with potentially broad biological functions.

  18. Using novel descriptor accounting for ligand-receptor interactions to define and visually explore biologically relevant chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen

    2012-05-25

    The definition and pragmatic implementation of biologically relevant chemical space is critical in addressing navigation strategies in the overlapping regions where chemistry and therapeutically relevant targets reside and, therefore, also key to performing an efficient drug discovery project. Here, we describe the development and implementation of a simple and robust method for representing biologically relevant chemical space as a general reference according to current knowledge, independently of any reference space, and analyzing chemical structures accordingly. Underlying our method is the generation of a novel descriptor (LiRIf) that converts structural information into a one-dimensional string accounting for the plausible ligand-receptor interactions as well as for topological information. Capitalizing on ligand-receptor interactions as a descriptor enables the clustering, profiling, and comparison of libraries of compounds from a chemical biology and medicinal chemistry perspective. In addition, as a case study, R-groups analysis is performed to identify the most populated ligand-receptor interactions according to different target families (GPCR, kinases, etc.), as well as to evaluate the coverage of biologically relevant chemical space by structures annotated in different databases (ChEMBL, Glida, etc.).

  19. The relaxin family peptide receptors and their ligands: new developments and paradigms in the evolution from jawless fish to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorov, Sergey; Bogerd, Jan; Good, Sara V

    2014-12-01

    Relaxin family peptide receptors (Rxfps) and their ligands, relaxin (Rln) and insulin-like (Insl) peptides, are broadly implicated in the regulation of reproductive and neuroendocrine processes in mammals. Most placental mammals harbour genes for four receptors, namely rxfp1, rxfp2, rxfp3 and rxfp4. The number and identity of rxfps in other vertebrates are immensely variable, which is probably attributable to intraspecific variation in reproductive and neuroendocrine regulation. Here, we highlight several interesting, but greatly overlooked, aspects of the rln/insl-rxfp evolutionary history: the ancient origin, recruitment of novel receptors, diverse roles of selection, differential retention and lineage-specific loss of genes over evolutionary time. The tremendous diversity of rln/insl and rxfp genes appears to have arisen from two divergent receptors and one ligand that were duplicated by whole genome duplications (WGD) in early vertebrate evolution, although several genes, notably relaxin in mammals, were also duplicated via small scale duplications. Duplication and loss of genes have varied across lineages: teleosts retained more WGD-derived genes, dominated by those thought to be involved in neuroendocrine regulation (rln3, insl5 and rxfp 3/4 genes), while eutherian mammals witnessed the diversification and rapid evolution of genes involved in reproduction (rln/insl3). Several genes that arose early in evolutionary history were lost in most mammals, but retained in teleosts and, to a lesser extent, in early diverging tetrapods. To elaborate on their evolutionary history, we provide updated phylogenies of the Rxfp1/2 and Rxfp3/4 receptors and their ligands, including new sequences from early diverging vertebrate taxa such as coelacanth, skate, spotted gar, and lamprey. We also summarize the recent progress made towards understanding the functional biology of Rxfps in non-mammalian taxa, providing a new conceptual framework for research on Rxfp signaling across

  20. Molecular Recognition of Corticotropin releasing Factor by Its G protein-coupled Receptor CRFR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel)

    2009-01-15

    The bimolecular interaction between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide, and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is crucial for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress, and has been a target of intense drug design for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and related disorders. As a class B GPCR, CRFR1 contains an N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) that provides the primary ligand binding determinants. Here we present three crystal structures of the human CRFR1 ECD, one in a ligand-free form and two in distinct CRF-bound states. The CRFR1 ECD adopts the alpha-beta-betaalpha fold observed for other class B GPCR ECDs, but the N-terminal alpha-helix is significantly shorter and does not contact CRF. CRF adopts a continuous alpha-helix that docks in a hydrophobic surface of the ECD that is distinct from the peptide-binding site of other class B GPCRs, thereby providing a basis for the specificity of ligand recognition between CRFR1 and other class B GPCRs. The binding of CRF is accompanied by clamp-like conformational changes of two loops of the receptor that anchor the CRF C terminus, including the C-terminal amide group. These structural studies provide a molecular framework for understanding peptide binding and specificity by the CRF receptors as well as a template for designing potent and selective CRFR1 antagonists for therapeutic applications.

  1. A Macrocyclic Agouti-Related Protein/[Nle4, DPhe7]α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Chimeric Scaffold Produces Sub-nanomolar Melanocortin Receptor Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Mark D.; Freeman, Katie T.; Schnell, Sathya M.; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin system consists of five receptor subtypes, endogenous agonists, and naturally occurring antagonists. These receptors and ligands have been implicated in numerous biological pathways including processes linked to obesity and food intake. Herein, a truncation structure-activity relationship study of chimeric agouti-related protein (AGRP)/[Nle4, DPhe7]α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (NDP-MSH) ligands is reported. The tetrapeptide His-DPhe-Arg-Trp or tripeptide DPhe-Arg-Trp repl...

  2. Differential expression of ligands for NKG2D and DNAM-1 receptors by epithelial ovarian cancer-derived exosomes and its influence on NK cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labani-Motlagh, Alireza; Israelsson, Pernilla; Ottander, Ulrika; Lundin, Eva; Nagaev, Ivan; Nagaeva, Olga; Dehlin, Eva; Baranov, Vladimir; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Cancers constitutively produce and secrete into the blood and other biofluids 30-150 nm-sized endosomal vehicles called exosomes. Cancer-derived exosomes exhibit powerful influence on a variety of biological mechanisms to the benefit of the tumors that produce them. We studied the immunosuppressive ability of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) exosomes on two cytotoxic pathways of importance for anticancer immunity-the NKG2D receptor-ligand pathway and the DNAM-1-PVR/nectin-2 pathway. Using exosomes, isolated from EOC tumor explant and EOC cell-line culture supernatants, and ascitic fluid from EOC patients, we studied the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on EOC exosomes and their ability to downregulate the cognate receptors. Our results show that EOC exosomes differentially and constitutively express NKG2D ligands from both MICA/B and ULBP families on their surface, while DNAM-1 ligands are more seldom expressed and not associated with the exosomal membrane surface. Consequently, the NKG2D ligand-bearing EOC exosomes significantly downregulated the NKG2D receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) while the DNAM-1 receptor was unaffected. The downregulation of NKG2D receptor expression was coupled to inhibition of NKG2D receptor-ligand-mediated degranulation and cytotoxicity measured in vitro with OVCAR-3 and K562 cells as targets. The EOC exosomes acted as a decoy impairing the NKG2D mediated cytotoxicity while the DNAM-1 receptor-ligand system remained unchanged. Taken together, our results support and explain the mechanism behind the recently reported finding that in EOC, NK-cell recognition and killing of tumor cells was mainly dependent on DNAM-1 signaling while the contribution of the NKG2D receptor-ligand pathway was complementary and uncertain.

  3. Self-phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor: evidence for a model of intermolecular allosteric activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, Y.; Schlessinger, J.

    1987-01-01

    The membrane receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 170,000 dalton glycoprotein composed of an extracellular EGF-binding domain and a cytoplasmic kinase domain connected by a stretch of 23 amino acids traversing the plasma membrane. The binding of EGF to the extracellular domain activates the cytoplasmic kinase function even in highly purified preparations of EGF receptor, suggesting that the activation occurs exclusively within the EGF receptor moiety. Conceivably, kinase activation may require the transfer of a conformational change through the single transmembrane region from the ligand binding domain to the cytoplasmic kinase region. Alternatively, ligand-induced receptor-receptor interactions may activate the kinase and thus bypass this requirement. Both mechanisms were contrasted by employing independent experimental approaches. On the basis of these results, an allosteric aggregation model is formulated for the activation of the cytoplasmic kinase function of the receptor by EGF. This model may be relevant to the mechanism by which the mitogenic signal of EGF is transferred across the membrane

  4. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation of Affibody ligands binding interleukin-2 receptor alpha/CD25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönwall, Caroline; Snelders, Eveline; Palm, Anna Jarelöv; Eriksson, Fredrik; Herne, Nina; Ståhl, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Affibody molecules specific for human IL-2Ralpha, the IL-2 (interleukin-2) receptor alpha subunit, also known as CD25, were selected by phage-display technology from a combinatorial protein library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. The IL-2R system plays a major role in T-cell activation and the regulation of cellular immune responses. Moreover, CD25 has been found to be overexpressed in organ rejections, a number of autoimmune diseases and T-cell malignancies. The phage-display selection using Fc-fused target protein generated 16 unique Affibody molecules targeting CD25. The two most promising binders were characterized in more detail using biosensor analysis and demonstrated strong and selective binding to CD25. Kinetic biosensor analysis revealed that the two monomeric Affibody molecules bound to CD25 with apparent affinities of 130 and 240 nM respectively. The Affibody molecules were, on biosensor analysis, found to compete for the same binding site as the natural ligand IL-2 and the IL-2 blocking monoclonal antibody 2A3. Hence the Affibody molecules were assumed to have an overlapping binding site with IL-2 and antibodies targeting the IL-2 blocking Tac epitope (for example, the monoclonal antibodies Daclizumab and Basiliximab, both of which have been approved for therapeutic use). Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis of CD25-expressing cells demonstrated that the selected Affibody molecules bound to CD4+ CD25+ PMBCs (peripheral-blood mononuclear cells), the IL-2-dependent cell line NK92 and phytohaemagglutinin-activated PMBCs. The potential use of the CD25-binding Affibody molecules as targeting agents for medical imaging and for therapeutic applications is discussed.

  6. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim S. Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity.

  7. Receptor activator NFkappaB-ligand and osteoprotegerin protein expression in human periapical cysts and granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Renato; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; da Silva Paiva, Katiúcia Batista; Letra, Ariadne; Carneiro, Everdan; Fernando Zambuzzi, Willian; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) associated with bone destruction in periapical cysts and granulomas. Forty human dental chronic periapical lesions were collected after periapical surgery. The lesions collected were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histologically processed. At least 2 sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic diagnosis. After that, 10 human periapical granulomas and 10 cysts were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for RANKL, OPG, and CD68+. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes were stained for RANKL and OPG in both lesions. Epithelial cells were also stained for RANKL and OPG in periapical cysts. Quantitative analysis was conducted and the results were expressed as a ratio of the number of immunostained cells over the total number of cells in the field (n = 100). The ratio of RANKL+/total cells was higher than OPG+/total cells in periapical granulomas (0.553 +/- 0.153 and 0.483 +/- 0.189, respectively; P cysts (0.519 +/- 0.09 and 0.339 +/- 0.117, respectively; P cysts. However, the ratio RANKL+/OPG+ in granulomas (1.336 +/- 0.723) and cysts (1.404 +/- 0.385) was not significantly different. The ratio of CD68+/total cells was significantly higher in granulomas (0.381 +/- 0.040) than in cysts (0.307 +/- 0.068) (P cysts and granulomas, strongly suggesting the involvement of these gene products in the development of periapical lesions.

  8. Screening of synthetic phage display scFv libraries yields competitive ligands of human leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Peter; Vodnik, Miha; Strukelj, Borut; Bratkovič, Tomaž

    2014-09-26

    Initially considered the main endogenous anorexigenic factor, fat-derived leptin turned out to be a markedly pleiotropic hormone, influencing diverse physiological processes. Moreover, hyperleptinemia in obese individuals has been linked to the onset or progression of serious disorders, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and atherosclerosis, and antagonizing peripheral leptin's signalization has been shown to improve these conditions. To develop an antibody-based leptin antagonist we have devised a tailored panning procedure and screened two phage display libraries of single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) against recombinant leptin receptor. One of the scFvs was expressed in Escherichia coli and its interaction with leptin receptor was characterized in more detail. It was found to recognize a discontinuous epitope and to compete with leptin for receptor binding with IC50 and Kd values in the nanomolar range. The reported scFv represents a lead for development of leptin antagonists that may ultimately find use in therapy of various hyperleptinemia-related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an image analysis screen for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) ligands through measurement of nuclear translocation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, Angie; Goncharova, Ekaterina; Hager, Gordon; McMahon, James B

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a robust high-content assay to screen for novel estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonists and antagonists by quantitation of cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of an estrogen receptor chimera in 384-well plates. The screen utilizes a green fluorescent protein tagged-glucocorticoid/estrogen receptor (GFP-GRER) chimera which consisted of the N-terminus of the glucocorticoid receptor fused to the human ER ligand binding domain. The GFP-GRER exhibited cytoplasmic localization in the absence of ERα ligands, and translocated to the nucleus in response to stimulation with ERα agonists or antagonists. The BD Pathway 435 imaging system was used for image acquisition, analysis of translocation dynamics, and cytotoxicity measurements. The assay was validated with known ERα agonists and antagonists, and the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC 1280). Additionally, screening of crude natural product extracts demonstrated the robustness of the assay, and the ability to quantitate the effects of toxicity on nuclear translocation dynamics. The GFP-GRER nuclear translocation assay was very robust, with z' values >0.7, CVs screening of natural product extracts. This assay has been developed for future primary screening of synthetic, pure natural products, and natural product extracts libraries available at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis in chondrocyte degradation and disease progress in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-kun Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common arthritic disease and multifactorial whole-joint disease. Interactions of chemokines and OA is inadequately documented RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to investigate monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 in chondrocyte degradation and cartilage degeneration. Chondrocytes from 16 OA patients and 6 normal controls were involved in this study. After stimulation of MCP-1, the expression of MCP-1 and CCR2 increased significantly (P < 0.001 and the expression of MMP-13 also increased (P < 0.05. MCP-1 stimulation also induced (or enhanced the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes (P < 0.05. Additionally, the degradation of cartilage matrix markers (metalloproteinase 3 and 13, MMP3 and MMP13 in the culture medium of normal chondrocytes was also assessed. Furthermore, intra-articular injection of MCP-1 in mouse knees induced cartilage degradation and the CCR2 antagonist did not impede cartilage destroy in rats knees of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis plays a special role in the initiation and progression of OA pathology. Patients with ambiguous etiology can gain some insight from the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis

  12. Vitamin D receptor: key roles in bone mineral pathophysiology, molecular mechanism of action, and novel nutritional ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurutka, Peter W; Bartik, Leonid; Whitfield, G Kerr; Mathern, Douglas R; Barthel, Thomas K; Gurevich, Miriam; Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Haussler, Carol A; Haussler, Mark R

    2007-12-01

    The vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], binds with high affinity to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recruits its retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimeric partner to recognize vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in target genes. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is known primarily as a regulator of calcium, but it also controls phosphate (re)absorption at the intestine and kidney. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone produced in osteoblasts that, like PTH, lowers serum phosphate by inhibiting renal reabsorption through Npt2a/Npt2c. Real-time PCR and reporter gene transfection assays were used to probe VDR-mediated transcriptional control by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Reporter gene and mammalian two-hybrid transfections, plus competitive receptor binding assays, were used to discover novel VDR ligands. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces FGF23 78-fold in osteoblasts, and because FGF23 in turn represses 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) synthesis, a reciprocal relationship is established, with FGF23 indirectly curtailing 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated intestinal absorption and counterbalancing renal reabsorption of phosphate, thereby reversing hyperphosphatemia and preventing ectopic calcification. Therefore, a 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-FGF23 axis regulating phosphate is comparable in importance to the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-PTH axis that regulates calcium. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also elicits regulation of LRP5, Runx2, PHEX, TRPV6, and Npt2c, all anabolic toward bone, and RANKL, which is catabolic. Regulation of mouse RANKL by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) supports a cloverleaf model, whereby VDR-RXR heterodimers bound to multiple VDREs are juxtapositioned through chromatin looping to form a supercomplex, potentially allowing simultaneous interactions with multiple co-modulators and chromatin remodeling enzymes. VDR also selectively binds certain omega3/omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with low affinity, leading to transcriptionally active VDR-RXR complexes. Moreover, the turmeric

  13. Recent Advances of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) Kinase and Its Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Al-Ameen, Shahad K; Al-Koumi, Dania M; Hamad, Mawadda G; Jalal, Nouran A; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2018-01-17

    Colony stimulation factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is also known as FMS kinase, plays an important role in initiating inflammatory, cancer, and bone disorders when it is overstimulated by its ligand, CSF-1. Innate immunity, as well as macrophage differentiation and survival, are regulated by the stimulation of the CSF-1R. Another ligand, interlukin-34 (IL-34), was recently reported to activate the CSF-1R receptor in a different manner. The relationship between CSF-1R and microglia has been reviewed. Both CSF-1 antibodies and small molecule CSF-1R kinase inhibitors have now been tested in animal models and in humans. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of CSF-1 and IL-34 in producing cancer, bone disorders, and inflammation. We also review the newly discovered and improved small molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies that have shown potent activity toward CSF-1R, reported from 2012 until 2017.

  14. Bibenzimidazole containing mixed ligand cobalt(III) complex as a selective receptor for iodide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Indumathy, R.; Parameswarana, P.S.; Aiswarya, C.V.; Nair, B.U.

    Two new mixed ligand cobalt(III) complexes containing bibenzimidazole (bbenzimH2) ligand with composition [Co(phen)2bbenzimH2](ClO4)3 (1) and [Co(bpy)2bbenzimH2](ClO4...

  15. EANM procedure guidelines for brain neurotransmission SPECT/PET using dopamine D2 receptor ligands, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Laere, Koen; Varrone, Andrea; Booij, Jan

    2010-01-01

    receptor SPECT or PET studies, and to achieve a high quality standard of dopamine D2 receptor imaging, which will increase the impact of this technique in neurological practice.The present document is an update of the first guidelines for SPECT using D2 receptor ligands labelled with (123)I [1......The guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee (ENC). The aims of the guidelines are to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in making recommendations, performing, interpreting and reporting the results of clinical dopamine D2......] and was guided by the views of the Society of Nuclear Medicine Brain Imaging Council [2], and the individual experience of experts in European countries. The guidelines intend to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be taken in the context of local...

  16. Involvement of apoptosis and autophagy in the death of RPMI 8226 multiple myeloma cells by two enantiomeric sigma receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpis, Katharina; Weber, Frauke; Brune, Stefanie; Wünsch, Bernhard; Bednarski, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Over-expression of σ receptors by many tumor cell lines makes ligands for these receptors attractive as potential chemotherapeutic drugs. Enantiomeric piperazines (S)-4 and (R)-4 were prepared as potential σ-receptor ligands in a chiral pool synthesis starting from (S)- and (R)-aspartate. Both compounds showed high affinities for the σ₁ and σ₂ receptors. In the human multiple myeloma cell line RPMI 8226, a line expressing high levels of σ receptors, both compounds inhibited cell proliferation with IC₅₀ values in the low μM range. No chiral differentiation between either the σ receptor binding affinity or the cytotoxicity of the two enantiomers was observed. Both compounds induced apoptosis, which was evidenced by nuclear condensation, binding of annexin-V to phosphatidylserine in the outer leaf of the cell membrane, cleavage products of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and caspase-8 as well as the expression of bcl₂ family members bax, bad and bid. However, apoptosis appeared to be caspase independent. Increased levels of the phosphorylated form of the microtubule associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II), an autophagosome marker, gave evidence that both compounds induced autophagy. However, further data (e.g., treatment with wortmannin) indicate that autophagy is incomplete and not cytoprotective. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in RPMI 8226 cells treated with the two compounds, and the lipid antioxidant α-tocopherol attenuated LPO. Interestingly, α-tocopherol reduced significantly both apoptosis and autophagy induced by the compounds. These results provide evidence that, by initiating LPO and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, both compounds induce apoptosis and autophagy in RPMI 8226 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of ligands on the equilibria between functional states of a G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hun; Chung, Ka Young; Manglik, Aashish; Hansen, Alexandar L; Dror, Ron O; Mildorf, Thomas J; Shaw, David E; Kobilka, Brian K; Prosser, R Scott

    2013-06-26

    G protein-coupled receptors exhibit a wide variety of signaling behaviors in response to different ligands. When a small label was incorporated on the cytosolic interface of transmembrane helix 6 (Cys-265), (19)F NMR spectra of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) reconstituted in maltose/neopentyl glycol detergent micelles revealed two distinct inactive states, an activation intermediate state en route to activation, and, in the presence of a G protein mimic, a predominant active state. Analysis of the spectra as a function of temperature revealed that for all ligands, the activation intermediate is entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored. β2AR enthalpy changes toward activation are notably lower than those observed with rhodopsin, a likely consequence of basal activity and the fact that the ionic lock and other interactions stabilizing the inactive state of β2AR are weaker. Positive entropy changes toward activation likely reflect greater mobility (configurational entropy) in the cytoplasmic domain, as confirmed through an order parameter analysis. Ligands greatly influence the overall changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system and the corresponding changes in population and amplitude of motion of given states, suggesting a complex landscape of states and substates.

  18. Oxytocin receptor ligand binding in embryonic tissue and postnatal brain development of the C57BL/6J mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eHammock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT has drawn increasing attention as a developmentally relevant neuropeptide given its role in the brain regulation of social behavior. It has been suggested that OXT plays an important role in the infant brain during caregiver attachment in nurturing familial contexts, but there is incomplete experimental evidence. Mouse models of OXT system genes have been particularly informative for the role of the OXT system in social behavior, however, the developing brain areas that could respond to ligand activation of the OXT receptor (OXTR have yet to be identified in this species. Here we report new data revealing dynamic ligand-binding distribution of OXTR in the developing mouse brain. Using male and female C57BL/6J mice at postnatal days (P 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 60 we quantified OXTR ligand binding in several brain areas which changed across development. Further, we describe OXTR ligand binding in select tissues of the near-term whole embryo at E18.5. Together, these data aid in the interpretation of findings in mouse models of the OXT system and generate new testable hypotheses for developmental roles for OXT in mammalian systems. We discuss our findings in the context of developmental disorders (including autism, attachment biology, and infant physiological regulation.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated ReceptorLigands: Potential Pharmacological Agents for Targeting the Angiogenesis Signaling Cascade in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Giaginis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ has currently been considered as molecular target for the treatment of human metabolic disorders. Experimental data from in vitro cultures, animal models, and clinical trials have shown that PPAR-γ ligand activation regulates differentiation and induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Tumor angiogenesis constitutes a multifaceted process implicated in complex downstream signaling pathways that triggers tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this aspect, accumulating in vitro and in vivo studies have provided extensive evidence that PPAR-γ ligands can function as modulators of the angiogenic signaling cascade. In the current review, the crucial role of PPAR-γ ligands and the underlying mechanisms participating in tumor angiogenesis are summarized. Targeting PPAR-γ may prove to be a potential therapeutic strategy in combined treatments with conventional chemotherapy; however, special attention should be taken as there is also substantial evidence to support that PPAR-γ ligands can enhance angiogenic phenotype in tumoral cells.

  20. A compartment model of VEGF distribution in humans in the presence of soluble VEGF receptor-1 acting as a ligand trap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T H Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, through its activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, is a vital regulator of stimulatory and inhibitory processes that keep angiogenesis--new capillary growth from existing microvasculature--at a dynamic balance in normal physiology. Soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1--a naturally-occurring truncated version of VEGFR1 lacking the transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains--has been postulated to exert inhibitory effects on angiogenic signaling via two mechanisms: direct sequestration of angiogenic ligands such as VEGF; or dominant-negative heterodimerization with surface VEGFRs. In pre-clinical studies, sVEGFR1 gene and protein therapy have demonstrated efficacy in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis; while in clinical studies, sVEGFR1 has shown utility as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in a widening array of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here we developed a novel computational multi-tissue model for recapitulating the dynamic systemic distributions of VEGF and sVEGFR1. Model features included: physiologically-based multi-scale compartmentalization of the human body; inter-compartmental macromolecular biotransport processes (vascular permeability, lymphatic drainage; and molecularly-detailed binding interactions between the ligand isoforms VEGF(121 and VEGF(165, signaling receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1, as well as sVEGFR1. The model was parameterized to represent a healthy human subject, whereupon we investigated the effects of sVEGFR1 on the distribution and activation of VEGF ligands and receptors. We assessed the healthy baseline stability of circulating VEGF and sVEGFR1 levels in plasma, as well as their reliability in indicating tissue-level angiogenic signaling potential. Unexpectedly, simulated results showed that sVEGFR1 - acting as a diffusible VEGF sink alone, i.e., without sVEGFR1-VEGFR heterodimerization

  1. Involvement of the Retinoid X Receptor Ligand in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect Induced by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ forms a heterodimeric DNA-binding complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs. It has been reported that the effect of the PPAR agonist is reduced in hepatocyte RXR-deficient mice. Therefore, it is suggested that the endogenous RXR ligand is involved in the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect. However, the participation of the RXR ligand in the PPARγ-induced anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of RXR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect of PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in carrageenan test. In addition, we also examined the influence of PPAR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect induced by RXR agonist NEt-3IP. The RXR antagonist suppressed the antiedema effect of PPARγ agonist. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of RXR agonist was suppressed by PPARγ antagonist. PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effects were reversed by the RXR antagonist. Thus, we showed that the endogenous RXR ligand might contribute to the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. New advances in pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H.; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer’ and Sjogren’s diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  3. Microglia-Secreted Galectin-3 Acts as a Toll-like Receptor 4 Ligand and Contributes to Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Burguillos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response induced by microglia plays a critical role in the demise of neuronal populations in neuroinflammatory diseases. Although the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in microglia’s inflammatory response is fully acknowledged, little is known about endogenous ligands that trigger TLR4 activation. Here, we report that galectin-3 (Gal3 released by microglia acts as an endogenous paracrine TLR4 ligand. Gal3-TLR4 interaction was further confirmed in a murine neuroinflammatory model (intranigral lipopolysaccharide [LPS] injection and in human stroke subjects. Depletion of Gal3 exerted neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects following global brain ischemia and in the neuroinflammatory LPS model. These results suggest that Gal3-dependent-TLR4 activation could contribute to sustained microglia activation, prolonging the inflammatory response in the brain.

  4. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  5. Extracellular ionic locks determine variation in constitutive activity and ligand potency between species orthologs of the free fatty acid receptors FFA2 and FFA3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Tikhonova, Irina G; Pandey, Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3) are G protein-coupled receptors for short chain free fatty acids (SCFAs). They respond to the same set of endogenous ligands but with distinct rank-order of potency such that acetate (C2) has been described as FFA2-selective, whereas propionate (C...

  6. Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Are Refractory to Genotoxic Drug-Mediated Induction of Ligands for NK Cell-Activating Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Veneziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, causes death in almost 15% of children affected by cancer. Treatment of neuroblastoma is based on the combination of chemotherapy with other therapeutic interventions such as surgery, radiotherapy, use of differentiating agents, and immunotherapy. In particular, adoptive NK cell transfer is a new immune-therapeutic approach whose efficacy may be boosted by several anticancer agents able to induce the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors, thus rendering cancer cells more susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Here, we show that chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used for the treatment of NB such as cisplatin, topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide are unable to induce the expression of activating ligands in a panel of NB cell lines. Consistently, cisplatin-treated NB cell lines were not more susceptible to NK cells than untreated cells. The refractoriness of NB cell lines to these drugs has been partially associated with the abnormal status of genes for ATM, ATR, Chk1, and Chk2, the major transducers of the DNA damage response (DDR, triggered by several anticancer agents and promoting different antitumor mechanisms including the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors. Moreover, both the impaired production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in some NB cell lines and the transient p53 stabilization in response to our genotoxic drugs under our experimental conditions could contribute to inefficient induction of activating ligands. These data suggest that further investigations, exploiting molecular strategies aimed to potentiate the NK cell-mediated immunotherapy of NB, are warranted.

  7. Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Are Refractory to Genotoxic Drug-Mediated Induction of Ligands for NK Cell-Activating Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Irene; Brandetti, Elisa; Ognibene, Marzia; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Pistoia, Vito

    2018-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, causes death in almost 15% of children affected by cancer. Treatment of neuroblastoma is based on the combination of chemotherapy with other therapeutic interventions such as surgery, radiotherapy, use of differentiating agents, and immunotherapy. In particular, adoptive NK cell transfer is a new immune-therapeutic approach whose efficacy may be boosted by several anticancer agents able to induce the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors, thus rendering cancer cells more susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Here, we show that chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used for the treatment of NB such as cisplatin, topotecan, irinotecan, and etoposide are unable to induce the expression of activating ligands in a panel of NB cell lines. Consistently, cisplatin-treated NB cell lines were not more susceptible to NK cells than untreated cells. The refractoriness of NB cell lines to these drugs has been partially associated with the abnormal status of genes for ATM, ATR, Chk1, and Chk2, the major transducers of the DNA damage response (DDR), triggered by several anticancer agents and promoting different antitumor mechanisms including the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors. Moreover, both the impaired production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in some NB cell lines and the transient p53 stabilization in response to our genotoxic drugs under our experimental conditions could contribute to inefficient induction of activating ligands. These data suggest that further investigations, exploiting molecular strategies aimed to potentiate the NK cell-mediated immunotherapy of NB, are warranted. PMID:29805983

  8. Discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activators with a ligand-screening system using a human PPARα-expressing cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Yuzuriha, Tomohiro; Tabata, Ryotaro; Fukuda, Syohei; Maegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Rika; Tanimoto, Keiichi; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Nunomura, Kazuto; Lin, Bangzhong; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro Js; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Kobayashi, Tadayuki; Ishimoto, Kenji; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takefumi

    2018-05-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. PPARα is mainly expressed in the liver, where it activates fatty acid oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism and improves plasma lipid profiles. Therefore, PPARα activators are often used to treat patients with dyslipidemia. To discover additional PPARα activators as potential compounds for use in hypolipidemic drugs, here we established human hepatoblastoma cell lines with luciferase reporter expression from the promoters containing peroxisome proliferator responsive elements (PPRE) and tetracycline-regulated expression of full-length human PPARα to quantify the effects of chemical ligands on PPARα activity. Using the established cell-based PPARα-activator screening system to screen a library of > 12,000 chemical compounds, we identified several hit compounds with basic chemical skeletons different from those of known PPARα agonists. One of the hit compounds, a 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid derivative we termed compound 3, selectively up-regulated PPARα transcriptional activity, leading to PPARα target gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Of note, the half-maximal effective concentrations of the hit compounds were lower than that of the known PPARα ligand fenofibrate. Finally, fenofibrate or compound 3 treatment of high fructose-fed rats having elevated plasma triglyceride levels for 14 days indicated that compound 3 reduces plasma triglyceride levels with similar efficiency as fenofibrate. These observations raise the possibility that 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives might be effective drug candidates for selective targeting of PPARα to manage dyslipidemia. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Dynamic ligand modulation of EPO receptor pools, and dysregulation by polycythemia-associated EPOR alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO and its cell surface receptor (EPOR are essential for erythropoiesis; can modulate non-erythroid target tissues; and have been reported to affect the progression of certain cancers. Basic studies of EPOR expression and trafficking, however, have been hindered by low-level EPOR occurrence, and the limited specificity of anti-EPOR antibodies. Consequently, these aspects of EPOR biology are not well defined, nor are actions of polycythemia- associated mutated EPOR alleles. Using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to intracellular, PY- activated and extracellular EPOR domains, the following properties of the endogenous hEPOR in erythroid progenitors first are unambiguously defined. 1 High- Mr EPOR forms become obviously expressed only when EPO is limited. 2 EPOR-68K plus -70K species sequentially accumulate, and EPOR-70K comprises an apparent cell surface EPOR population. 3 Brefeldin A, N-glycanase and associated analyses point to EPOR-68K as a core-glycosylated intracellular EPOR pool (of modest size. 4 In contrast to recent reports, EPOR inward trafficking is shown (in UT7epo cells, and primary proerythroblasts to be sharply ligand-dependent. Beyond this, when C-terminal truncated hEPOR-T mutant alleles as harbored by polycythemia patients are co-expressed with the wild-type EPOR in EPO-dependent erythroid progenitors, several specific events become altered. First, EPOR-T alleles are persistently activated upon EPO- challenge, yet are also subject to apparent turn-over (to low-Mr EPOR products. Furthermore, during exponential cell growth EPOR-T species become both over-represented, and hyper-activated. Interestingly, EPOR-T expression also results in an EPO dose-dependent loss of endogenous wild-type EPOR's (and, therefore, a squelching of EPOR C-terminal- mediated negative feedback effects. New knowledge concerning regulated EPOR expression and trafficking therefore is provided, together with new insight into mechanisms via

  10. Ligand-induced dynamics of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor-like kinase complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Tunc-Ozdemir

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis, 7-transmembrane Regulator of G signaling protein 1 (AtRGS1 modulates canonical G protein signaling by promoting the inactive state of heterotrimeric G protein complex on the plasma membrane. It is known that plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs phosphorylate AtRGS1 in vitro but little is known about the in vivo interaction, molecular dynamics, or the cellular consequences of this interaction.Therefore, a subset of the known RLKs that phosphorylate AtRGS1 were selected for elucidation, namely, BAK1, BIR1, FLS2. Several microscopies for both static and dynamic protein-protein interactions were used to follow in vivo interactions between the RLKs and AtRGS1 after the presentation of the Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern, Flagellin 22 (Flg22. These microscopies included Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, Bimolecular Fluoresence Complementation, and Cross Number and Brightness Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. In addition, reactive oxygen species and calcium changes in living cells were quantitated using luminometry and R-GECO1 microscopy.The LRR RLKs BAK1 and BIR1, interact with AtRGS1 at the plasma membrane. The RLK ligand flg22 sets BAK1 in motion toward AtRGS1 and BIR1 away, both returning to the baseline orientations by 10 minutes. The C-terminal tail of AtRGS1 is important for the interaction with BAK1 and for the tempo of the AtRGS1/BIR1 dynamics. This window of time corresponds to the flg22-induced transient production of reactive oxygen species and calcium release which are both attenuated in the rgs1 and the bak1 null mutants.A temporal model of these interactions is proposed. flg22 binding induces nearly instantaneous dimerization between FLS2 and BAK1. Phosphorylated BAK1 interacts with and enables AtRGS1 to move away from BIR1 and AtRGS1 becomes phosphorylated leading to its endocytosis thus leading to de-repression by permitting AtGPA1 to exchange GDP for GTP. Finally, the G protein complex

  11. Dynamic Ligand Modulation of EPO Receptor Pools, and Dysregulation by Polycythemia-Associated EPOR Alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Seema; Verma, Rakesh; Pradeep, Anamika; Leu, Karen; Mortensen, R. Bruce; Young, Peter R.; Oyasu, Miho; Schatz, Peter J.; Green, Jennifer M.; Wojchowski, Don M.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) are essential for erythropoiesis; can modulate non-erythroid target tissues; and have been reported to affect the progression of certain cancers. Basic studies of EPOR expression and trafficking, however, have been hindered by low-level EPOR occurrence, and the limited specificity of anti-EPOR antibodies. Consequently, these aspects of EPOR biology are not well defined, nor are actions of polycythemia- associated mutated EPOR alleles. Using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to intracellular, PY- activated and extracellular EPOR domains, the following properties of the endogenous hEPOR in erythroid progenitors first are unambiguously defined. 1) High- Mr EPOR forms become obviously expressed only when EPO is limited. 2) EPOR-68K plus -70K species sequentially accumulate, and EPOR-70K comprises an apparent cell surface EPOR population. 3) Brefeldin A, N-glycanase and associated analyses point to EPOR-68K as a core-glycosylated intracellular EPOR pool (of modest size). 4) In contrast to recent reports, EPOR inward trafficking is shown (in UT7epo cells, and primary proerythroblasts) to be sharply ligand-dependent. Beyond this, when C-terminal truncated hEPOR-T mutant alleles as harbored by polycythemia patients are co-expressed with the wild-type EPOR in EPO-dependent erythroid progenitors, several specific events become altered. First, EPOR-T alleles are persistently activated upon EPO- challenge, yet are also subject to apparent turn-over (to low-Mr EPOR products). Furthermore, during exponential cell growth EPOR-T species become both over-represented, and hyper-activated. Interestingly, EPOR-T expression also results in an EPO dose-dependent loss of endogenous wild-type EPOR's (and, therefore, a squelching of EPOR C-terminal- mediated negative feedback effects). New knowledge concerning regulated EPOR expression and trafficking therefore is provided, together with new insight into mechanisms via which

  12. Breast and other cancer dormancy as a therapeutic endpoint: speculative recombinant T cell receptor ligand (RTL) adjuvant therapy worth considering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakács, Tibor; Mehrishi, Jitendra N

    2010-01-01

    Most individuals who died of trauma were found to harbour microscopic primary cancers at autopsies. Surgical excision of the primary tumour, unfortunately, seems to disturb tumour dormancy in over half of all metastatic relapses. A recently developed immune model suggested that the evolutionary pressure driving the creation of a T cell receptor repertoire was primarily the homeostatic surveillance of the genome. The model is based on the homeostatic role of T cells, suggesting that molecular complementarity between the positively selected T cell receptors and the self peptide-presenting major histocompatibility complex molecules establishes and regulates homeostasis, strictly limiting variations of its components. The repertoire is maintained by continuous peripheral stimulation via soluble forms of self-peptide-presenting major histocompatibility complex molecules governed by the law of mass action. The model states that foreign peptides inhibit the complementary interactions between the major histocompatibility complexes and T cell receptors. Since the vast majority of clinically detected cancers present self-peptides the model assumes that tumour cells are, paradoxically, under homeostatic T cell control. The novelty of our hypothesis therefore is that resection of the primary tumour mass is perceived as loss of 'normal' tissue cells. Consequently, T cells striving to reconstitute homeostasis stimulate rather than inhibit the growth of dormant tumour cells and avascular micrometastases. Here we suggest that such kick-start growths could be prevented by a recombinant T cell receptor ligand therapy that modifies T cell behaviour through a partial activation mechanism. The homeostatic T cell regulation of tumours can be tested in a tri-transgenic mice model engineered to express potent oncogenes in a doxycycline-dependent manner. We suggest seeding dissociated, untransformed mammary cells from doxycycline naïve mice into the lungs of two mice groups: one

  13. Relationship between tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and vascular endothelial growth factor in human multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkun, Lukasz; Lemancewicz, Dorota; Piszcz, Jaroslaw; Moniuszko, Marcin; Bolkun-Skornicka, Urszula; Szkiladz, Malgorzata; Jablonska, Ewa; Kloczko, Janusz; Dzieciol, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine with a wide spectrum of biological activity, including angiogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), which belongs to the TNF family of proteins, plays a role in the regulation of vascular responses, but its effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. We analysed TRAIL concentrations in parallel with pro-angiogenic cytokines in serum and their expression in trephine biopsy (TB) in 56 patients with newly diagnosed IgG MM and 24 healthy volunteers. The study showed statistically higher concentrations of TRAIL and TNF-α, as well as of VEGF and its receptor, in MM patients compared to healthy volunteers and patients in advanced stages of the disease. Furthermore, we observed a significant decrease in all studied pro-angiogenic cytokines and significant increase of TRAIL concentration after anti-angiogenic therapy, with meaningful differences between responders (at least partial remission) and patients with progression during the induction treatment. It was also established that TRAIL correlated statistically and negatively with pro-angiogenic cytokines such as VEGF with its receptor and expression of VEGF and syndecan-1 in TB. In summary, our data indicate that in MM patients, both clinical course and treatment responsiveness are associated with dynamic yet corresponding changes of levels of TRAIL parallel pro-angiogenic mediators such as VEGF with its receptor and expression of VEGF and syndecan-1 in TB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pulling-induced rupture of ligand-receptor bonds between a spherically shaped bionanoparticle and the support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2018-04-01

    Contacts of biological or biologically-inspired spherically shaped nanoparticles (e.g., virions or lipid nanoparticles used for intracellular RNA delivery) with a lipid membrane of cells are often mediated by multiple relatively weak ligand-receptor bonds. Such contacts can be studied at a supported lipid bilayer. The rupture of bonds can be scrutinized by using force spectroscopy. Bearing a supported lipid bilayer in mind, the author shows analytically that the corresponding dependence of the force on the nanoparticle displacement and the effect of the force on the bond-rupture activation energy are qualitatively different compared to what is predicted by the conventional Bell approximation.

  15. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of fluorine-18 fluoroalkyl pindolol derivatives: Ligands for the β-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewson, T.J.; Kinsey, B.M.; Franceschini, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    [I-125]Iodocyanopindolol, an antagonist for the β-adrenergic receptor, has been shown to accumulate in vivo in areas rich in β-adrenergic receptors, presumably through saturable receptor mediated binding. In order to perform PET studies of the β-adrenergic receptor in the heart and lung the authors have prepared fluoroalkyl analogs of iodocyanopindolol and are evaluating these compounds for this purpose

  17. Mechanisms of integrin-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor cross-activation in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H; Feng, Weiyi; Reddy, Kumar; Plow, Edward F; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2007-09-14

    The functional responses of endothelial cells are dependent on signaling from peptide growth factors and the cellular adhesion receptors, integrins. These include cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, which, in turn, are essential for more complex processes such as formation of the endothelial tube network during angiogenesis. This study identifies the molecular requirements for the cross-activation between beta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase receptor 2 for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR-2) on endothelium. The relationship between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin appears to be synergistic, because VEGFR-2 activation induces beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which, in turn, is crucial for VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2. We demonstrate here that adhesion- and growth factor-induced beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are directly mediated by c-Src. VEGF-stimulated recruitment and activation of c-Src and subsequent beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are critical for interaction between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin. Moreover, c-Src mediates growth factor-induced beta3 integrin activation, ligand binding, beta3 integrin-dependent cell adhesion, directional migration of endothelial cells, and initiation of angiogenic programming in endothelial cells. Thus, the present study determines the molecular mechanisms and consequences of the synergism between 2 cell surface receptor systems, growth factor receptor and integrins, and opens new avenues for the development of pro- and antiangiogenic strategies.

  18. Crystal structure of the urokinase receptor in a ligand-free form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xiang; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Yuan, Cai

    2012-01-01

    The urokinase receptor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a surface receptor capable of not only focalizing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated fibrinolysis to the pericellular micro-environment but also promoting cell migration and chemotaxis. Consistent...

  19. Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and its complex with the microbial alkaloid K-252a

    OpenAIRE

    Schiering, Nikolaus; Knapp, Stefan; Marconi, Marina; Flocco, Maria M.; Cui, Jean; Perego, Rita; Rusconi, Luisa; Cristiani, Cinzia

    2003-01-01

    The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, stimulates receptor autophosphorylation, which leads to pleiotropic downstream signaling events in epithelial cells, including cell growth, motility, and invasion. These events are mediated by interaction of cytoplasmic effectors, generally through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, with two phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs in the unique...

  20. Modern approaches to the design of memory and cognitive function stimulants based on AMPA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, V V; Proshin, A N; Kinzirsky, A S; Bachurin, Sergey O

    2009-01-01

    Data on the structure and properties of compounds acting on AMPA receptors, the key subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors of the mammalian central nervous system, are analyzed. Data on the role of these receptors in provision of memory and cognitive function formation and impairment processes are presented. The attention is focused on the modern views on the mechanisms of AMPA receptor desensitization and deactivation and action of substances affecting these processes. The structures of key positive modulators of AMPA receptors are given. The problems of application of these substances as therapeutic means for preventing and treating neurodegenerative and psychoneurological diseases are discussed. Bibliography - 121 references.

  1. Modern approaches to the design of memory and cognitive function stimulants based on AMPA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, V V; Proshin, A N; Kinzirsky, A S; Bachurin, Sergey O [Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-31

    Data on the structure and properties of compounds acting on AMPA receptors, the key subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors of the mammalian central nervous system, are analyzed. Data on the role of these receptors in provision of memory and cognitive function formation and impairment processes are presented. The attention is focused on the modern views on the mechanisms of AMPA receptor desensitization and deactivation and action of substances affecting these processes. The structures of key positive modulators of AMPA receptors are given. The problems of application of these substances as therapeutic means for preventing and treating neurodegenerative and psychoneurological diseases are discussed. Bibliography - 121 references.

  2. Modern approaches to the design of memory and cognitive function stimulants based on AMPA receptor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, V. V.; Proshin, A. N.; Kinzirsky, A. S.; Bachurin, Sergey O.

    2009-05-01

    Data on the structure and properties of compounds acting on AMPA receptors, the key subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors of the mammalian central nervous system, are analyzed. Data on the role of these receptors in provision of memory and cognitive function formation and impairment processes are presented. The attention is focused on the modern views on the mechanisms of AMPA receptor desensitization and deactivation and action of substances affecting these processes. The structures of key positive modulators of AMPA receptors are given. The problems of application of these substances as therapeutic means for preventing and treating neurodegenerative and psychoneurological diseases are discussed. Bibliography — 121 references.

  3. A BRET assay for monitoring insulin receptor interactions and ligand pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Sanni, Samra J; Slaaby, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase super family and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. The receptor interacts with several large docking proteins that mediate signaling from the receptor, including the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family and Src...... for monitoring the interactions between the IR and its substrates. Furthermore, the insulin analogue X10 was characterized in the BRET2 assay and was found to be 10 times more potent with respect to IRS1, IRS4 and Shc recruitment compared to human insulin. This study demonstrates that the BRET2 technique can...

  4. Synthesis of a [sup 11]C-labeled novel, quinuclidine based ligand for the 5-HT[sub 3] receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, S; Diksic, M [Montreal Neurological Inst., PQ (Canada); Francis, B; Burns, H D [Merck Research Labs., West Point, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiopharmacology; Swain, C J [Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Harlow (United Kingdom). Neuroscience Research Centre

    1992-11-01

    L-683,877, a high affinity, 5-HT[sub 3] selective receptor ligand has been labeled with [sup 11]C for use in PET studies to measure regional brain kinetics of L-683,877 and to determine if [[sup 11]C]L-683,877 can be used for serotonin 5-HT[sub 3] receptor imaging. [[sup 11]C]L-683,877 was prepared by reacting [[sup 11]C]methyl iodide with the desmethyl, borane-protected precursor, L-686,472, in DMF in the presence of tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide. The average specific activity of [[sup 11]C]L-683,877 was 2700 Ci/mmol and the average radiochemical yield (decay corrected)was 20% at the end of synthesis. (Author).

  5. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF II) receptor from rat brain is of lower apparent molecular weight than the IGF II receptor from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElduff, A.; Poronnik, P.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The binding subunits of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF I) receptors from rat brain are of lower molecular weight than the corresponding receptor in rat liver, possibly due to variations in sialic acid content. We have compared the IGF II receptor from rat brain and rat liver. The brain receptor is of smaller apparent mol wt (about 10 K) on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This size difference is independent of ligand binding as it persists in iodinated and specifically immunoprecipitated receptors. From studies of wheat germ agglutinin binding and the effect of neuraminidase on receptor mobility, we conclude that this difference is not simply due to variations in sialic acid content. Treatment with endoglycosidase F results in reduction in the molecular size of both liver and brain receptors and after this treatment the aglycoreceptors are of similar size. We conclude that in rat brain tissue the IGF II receptor like the binding subunits of the insulin and IGF I receptors is of lower molecular size than the corresponding receptors in rat liver. This difference is due to differences in N-linked glycosylation

  7. Molecular analysis of the nerve growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempstead, B.; Patil, N.; Olson, K.; Chao, M.

    1988-01-01

    An essential molecule in the translocation of information by nerve growth factor (NGF) to responsive cells is the cell-surface receptor for NGF. This paper presents information on the genomic structure of the NGF receptor gene, NGF receptor models, and transfection of NGF receptors. Equilibrium binding of [ 125 I]NGF to cells reveals two distinct affinity states for the NGF receptor. The human NGF receptor gene is a single-copy gene, consisting of six exons that span 23 kb. The receptor gene is capable of being transferred to fibroblast cells from human genomic DNA and expressed at high levels. The constitutive nature of the receptor promoter sequence is a partial explanation of why this tissue-specific gene is expressed efficiently in a variety of nonneuronal cells after genomic gene transfer. The two kinetic forms of the NGF receptor appear to be encoded by the same protein, which is the product of a single gene

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl [2,4(5)-NAPS] group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp 3 by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The [D-Lys(2,4-NAPS)] 6 analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, [Orn(2,5-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe 6 , [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor

  9. Actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-HT1A receptor ligands on rat dorso-lateral septal neurones in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hooff, P; Galvan, M

    1992-08-01

    1. The actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and some 5-HT1A receptor ligands on neurones in the rat dorso-lateral septal nucleus were recorded in vitro by intracellular recording techniques. 2. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM) to block any indirect effects, bath application of 5-HT (0.3-30 microM) hyperpolarized the neurones in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced membrane resistance. The hyperpolarization did not exhibit desensitization and was sometimes followed by a small depolarization. 3. The 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP-5-CT) and buspirone but not the non-selective 5-HT1 receptor agonist, 1-m-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), also hyperpolarized the neurones. 4. 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT and DP-5-CT appeared to act as full agonists whereas buspirone behaved as a partial agonist. The estimated EC50S were: DP-5-CT 15 nM, 8-OH-DPAT 110 nM, 5-HT 3 microM and buspirone 110 nM. 5. At a concentration of 3 microM, the putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, spiperone, methiothepin, NAN-190 (1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-pthalimido)butyl]piperazine) and MDL 73005EF (8-[2-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-yl-methylamino)ethyl]-8- azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9-dione methyl sulphonate), produced a parallel rightward shift in the concentration-response curve to 5-HT with no significant reduction in the maximum response. The estimated pA2 values were: NAN-190 6.79, MDL 73005EF 6.59, spiperone 6.54 and methiothepin 6.17.6. The 5-HT2/5-HTlc receptor antagonist, ketanserin (3 microM) and the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron (3 microM) did not antagonize the 5-HT-induced hyperpolarizations; however, ketanserin blocked the depolarization which sometimes followed the hyperpolarization.7. It is concluded that the 5-HT-induced membrane hyperpolarization of rat dorso-lateral septal neurones is mediated by 5-HTA receptors.

  10. Interaction of epidermal growth factor receptors with the cytoskeleton is related to receptor clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, N.; Spaargaren, M.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently it has been established that cytoskeleton-associated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are predominantly of the high-affinity class and that EGF induces a recruitment of low-affinity receptors to the cytoskeleton. The nature of this EGF-induced receptor-cytoskeleton interaction,

  11. Selectivity and specificity of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor ligands: caveats and critical thinking in characterizing receptor-mediated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Waeber, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been identified only recently. Their medicinal chemistry is therefore still in its infancy, and few selective agonists or antagonists are available. Furthermore, the selectivity of S1P receptor agonists or antagonists is not well established. JTE-013 and BML-241 (also known as CAY10444), used extensively as specific S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptors antagonists respectively, are cases in point. When analyzing S1P-induced vasoconstriction in mouse basilar artery, we observed that JTE-013 inhibited not only the effect of S1P, but also the effect of U46619, endothelin-1 or high KCl; JTE-013 strongly inhibited responses to S1P in S1P(2) receptor knockout mice. Similarly, BML-241 has been shown to inhibit increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration via P(2) receptor or α(1A)-adrenoceptor stimulation and α(1A)-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of rat mesenteric artery, while it did not affect S1P(3)-mediated decrease of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. Another putative S1P(1/3) receptor antagonist, VPC23019, does not inhibit S1P(3)-mediated vasoconstriction. With these examples in mind, we discuss caveats about relying on available pharmacological tools to characterize receptor subtypes.

  12. Selectivity and specificity of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor ligands: caveats and critical thinking in characterizing receptor-mediated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eWaeber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P have been identified only recently. Their medicinal chemistry is therefore still in its infancy, and few selective agonists or antagonists are available. Furthermore, the selectivity of S1P receptor agonists or antagonists is not well established. JTE-013 and BML-241 (also known as CAY10444, used extensively as specific S1P2 and S1P3 receptors antagonists respectively, are cases in point. When analyzing S1P-induced vasoconstriction in mouse basilar artery, we observed that JTE-013 inhibited not only the effect of S1P, but also the effect of U46619, endothelin-1 or high KCl; JTE-013 strongly inhibited responses to S1P in S1P2 receptor knockout mice. Similarly, BML-241 has been shown to inhibit increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration via P2 receptor or α1A-adrenoceptor stimulation and α1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of rat mesenteric artery, while it did not affect S1P3-mediated decrease of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. Another putative S1P1/3 receptor antagonist, VPC23019, does not inhibit S1P3-mediated vasoconstriction. With these examples in mind, we discuss caveats about relying on available pharmacological tools to characterize receptor subtypes.

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of mammalian α1-adrenergic receptors: identification of the ligand binding subunit with a high affinity radioiodinated probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Dickinson, K.E.J.; Heald, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of the synthesised and characterization of a novel high affinity radioiodinated α 1 -adrenergic receptor photoaffinity probe, 4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-[4-[5-(4-azido-3-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)pentanoyl]-1-piperazinyl] quinazoline. In the absence of light, this ligand binds with high affinity (K/sub d/ = 130 pm) in a reverisble and saturable manner to sites in rat hepatic plasma membranes. The binding is stereoselective and competitively inhibited by adrenergic agonists and antagonists with an α 1 -adrenergic specificity. Upon photolysis, this ligand incorporates irreversibly into plasma membranes prepared from several mammalian tissues including rat liver, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit spleen, rabbit lung, and rabbit aorta vascular smooth muscle cells, also with typical α 1 -adrenergic specificity. Autoradiograms of such membrane samples subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveal a major specifically labeled polypeptide at M/sub 4/ = 78,000-85,000, depending on the tissue used, in addition to some lower molecular weight peptides. Protease inhibitors, in particular EDTA, a metalloprotease inhibitor, dramatically increases the predominance of the M/sub r/ = 78,000-85,000 polypeptide while attenuating the labeling of the lower molecular weight bands. This new high affinity radioiodinated photoaffinity probe should be of great value for the molecular characterization of the α 1 -adrenergic receptor

  14. The upregulation of receptor activator NF-kappaB ligand expression by interleukin-1alpha and Porphyromonas endodontalis in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-C; Huang, F-M; Lee, S-S; Li, M-Z; Chang, Y-C

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) in osteoblastic cells stimulated with inflammatory mediators. The expression of RANKL in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha and black-pigmented bacteria Porphyromonas endodontalis was investigated by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The significance of the results obtained from control and treated groups was statistically analysed by the paired Student's t-test. IL-1alpha was found to upregulate RANKL production in U2OS cells (P endodontalis also increased RANKL expression in U2OS cells after 4-h incubation period demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA (P endodontalis may be involved in developing apical periodontitis through the stimulation of RANKL production.

  15. Ligand binding modes from low resolution GPCR models and mutagenesis: chicken bitter taste receptor as a test-case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Kruetzfeldt, Louisa-Marie; Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-08-15

    Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1. Because of low sequence similarity between ggTas2r1 and crystallized GPCRs (~10% identity, ~30% similarity at most), the combination of computational approaches with site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the agonist-bound conformation of ggTas2r1 binding site between TMs 3, 5, 6 and 7. We found that the ligand interactions with N93 in TM3 and/or N247 in TM5, combined with hydrophobic contacts, are typically involved in agonist recognition. Next, the ggTas2r1 structural model was successfully used to identify three quinine analogues (epiquinidine, ethylhydrocupreine, quinidine) as new ggTas2r1 agonists. The integrated approach validated here may be applicable to additional cases where the sequence identity of the GPCR of interest and the existing experimental structures is low.

  16. Evidence for ligand and/or receptor-specific mechanisms of internalization and processing in cultured H35 hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.I.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Total cell associated (TC) and intracellularly accumulated (IC) 125 I-labeled insulin (INS) or α-2-macroglobulin (α2M) were assessed in cultured H35 hepatoma cells which were preincubated with various agents. Cytochalasin D or sodium azide, which affect microfilament- or energy-dependent receptor internalization, had no significant effects on INS TC or IC but each decreased α2M TC and IC to 50-75% of control. Monensin and chloroquine, acidotrophic agents, each increased INS TC and IC to 150-300% of control yet decreased TC and IC of α2M to 20-50% of control. Only leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, caused an increase in both INS and α2M TC and IC. These data suggest significant differences exist in the biochemical regulation or structural routes of INS and α2M receptors and/or receptor-ligand complexes in their (1) internalization, (2) processing in acidic organelles, (3) recycling to the cell surface or in combinations of the above. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies are being performed on the H35 hepatoma cell which will characterize the processing of INS and α2M receptors and provide an explanation for the differences observed

  17. Ligand-independent interaction of the type I interferon receptor complex is necessary to observe its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Digioia, Gina; Izotova, Lara S; Xie, Junxia; Kim, Youngsun; Schwartz, Barbara J; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Ectopic coexpression of the two chains of the Type I and Type III interferon (IFN) receptor complexes (IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c, or IFN-λR1 and IL-10R2) yielded sensitivity to IFN-alpha or IFN-lambda in only some cells. We found that IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibit FRET only when expressed at equivalent and low levels. Expanded clonal cell lines expressing both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c were sensitive to IFN-alpha only when IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET in the absence of human IFN-alpha. Coexpression of RACK-1 or Jak1 enhanced the affinity of the interaction between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c. Both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET with Jak1 and Tyk2. Together with data showing that disruption of the preassociation between the IFN-gamma receptor chains inhibited its biological activity, we propose that biologically active IFN receptors require ligand-independent juxtaposition of IFN receptor chains assisted by their associated cytosolic proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor associated with cytoskeletons of A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) have been shown to be associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton of A431 cells, where they retained both a functional ligand-binding domain and tyrosine kinase activity. In the present study we have characterized the tyrosine kinase and ligand binding activities of this cytoskeletally associated EGF-R. The tyrosine kinase activity of the cytoskeletally associated EGF-R was stimulated by EGF treatment of intact cells as evidenced by increased autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate angiotensin II (AII). The kinetic behavior of the EGF-R associated with cytoskeletons of EGF-treated cells was similar to that of purified receptors. The stimulation of the receptor kinase activity required EGF treatment of intact cells prior to Triton extraction. If cytoskeletons were prepared from untreated cells and then incubated with EGF, there was no stimulation of the detergent-insoluble receptor kinase activity, indicating that the immobilized receptor was unable to undergo EGF-stimulated activation. Comparison of peptide maps from soluble and cytoskeletally associated EGF-R revealed qualitatively similar patterns; however, they are distinguished by a prominent 46 kD band in digests of the cytoskeletal EGF-R. Saturable binding of 125I-EGF to A431 cytoskeletons prepared from adherent and suspended cells demonstrated the presence of specific receptors on the cytoskeleton. High-affinity EGF-R were preferentially retained upon detergent extraction of adherent cells, whereas both low- and high-affinity receptors were solubilized from the cytoskeletons of suspended cells. Suspension of cells resulted in the solubilization of an additional 15% of the EGF-R to that solubilized in adherent cells, indicating that EGF-R can reversibly associate with the structural elements of the cell

  19. Receptor-mediated endocytosis generates nanomechanical force reflective of ligand identity and cellular property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ren, Juan; Wang, Jingren; Li, Shixie; Zou, Qingze; Gao, Nan

    2018-08-01

    Whether environmental (thermal, chemical, and nutrient) signals generate quantifiable, nanoscale, mechanophysical changes in the cellular plasma membrane has not been well elucidated. Assessment of such mechanophysical properties of plasma membrane may shed lights on fundamental cellular process. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement of the mechanical properties of live cells was hampered by the difficulty in accounting for the effects of the cantilever motion and the associated hydrodynamic force on the mechanical measurement. These challenges have been addressed in our recently developed control-based AFM nanomechanical measurement protocol, which enables a fast, noninvasive, broadband measurement of the real-time changes in plasma membrane elasticity in live cells. Here we show using this newly developed AFM platform that the plasma membrane of live mammalian cells exhibits a constant and quantifiable nanomechanical property, the membrane elasticity. This mechanical property sensitively changes in response to environmental factors, such as the thermal, chemical, and growth factor stimuli. We demonstrate that different chemical inhibitors of endocytosis elicit distinct changes in plasma membrane elastic modulus reflecting their specific molecular actions on the lipid configuration or the endocytic machinery. Interestingly, two different growth factors, EGF and Wnt3a, elicited distinct elastic force profiles revealed by AFM at the plasma membrane during receptor-mediated endocytosis. By applying this platform to genetically modified cells, we uncovered a previously unknown contribution of Cdc42, a key component of the cellular trafficking network, to EGF-stimulated endocytosis at plasma membrane. Together, this nanomechanical AFM study establishes an important foundation that is expandable and adaptable for investigation of cellular membrane evolution in response to various key extracellular signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Minute Impurities Contribute Significantly to Olfactory Receptor Ligand Studies: Tales from Testing the Vibration Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, M.; M?nch, D.; Haase, A.; Skoulakis, E.; Turin, L.; Galizia, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to test the vibrational hypothesis of odorant receptor activation in behavioral and physiological studies using deuterated compounds as odorants. The results have been mixed. Here, we attempted to test how deuterated compounds activate odorant receptors using calcium imaging of the fruit fly antennal lobe. We found specific activation of one area of the antennal lobe corresponding to inputs from a specific receptor. However, upon more detailed analysis, we disco...

  1. Characterization of receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human placental membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyer, R.A.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) were identified on membranes prepared from full term human placenta. Highly purified rhTNF-alpha iodinated by the iodogen method was found to bind placental membranes in a displaceable manner with an approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 1.9 nM. The membrane bound TNF-alpha receptor could be solubilized by several detergents with optimum extraction being obtained with 1% Triton X-100. The binding of 125I-rhTNF-alpha to the solubilized receptor was found to be time and temperature dependent, yielding maximum binding within 1 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C, respectively. However, the maximum binding obtainable at 4 degrees C was only 40% of that at 37 degrees C. The binding 125I-rhTNF-alpha to solubilized placental membrane extracts was displaceable by unlabeled rhTNF-alpha, but not by a related protein recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-beta (rhTNF-beta; previously called lymphotoxin). This is similar to the behavior of TNF-alpha receptors derived from detergent-solubilized cell extracts, although on intact cells, both rhTNF-alpha and rhTNF-beta bind with equal affinity to TNF receptors. The Scatchard analysis of the binding data of the solubilized receptor revealed high affinity binding sites with a KD of approximately 0.5 nM and a receptor concentration of about 1 pmole/mg protein. Gel filtration of the solubilized receptor-ligand complexes on Sephacryl S-300 revealed two different peaks of radioactivity at approximate molecular masses of 50,000 Da and 400,000 Da. The 400,000 dalton peak corresponded to the receptor-ligand complex. Overall, our results suggest that high affinity receptors for TNF-alpha are present on human placental membranes and provide evidence that these receptors may be different from that of rhTNF-beta

  2. ITE, a novel endogenous nontoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, efficiently suppresses EAU and T-cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Lindsey F; Shi, Guangpu; Vistica, Barbara P; Ogbeifun, Osato; Hinshaw, Samuel J H; Gery, Igal

    2013-11-13

    Ligands for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), such as dioxins, are highly toxic. One such ligand, TCDD, was found to exert potent immunosuppressive capacities in mice developing pathogenic autoimmune processes, including EAU, but its toxicity makes it unusable for humans. A recently identified endogenous AHR ligand, ITE, is also immunosuppressive, but is nontoxic and could therefore be useful for therapy in humans. Here, we tested ITE for its capacity to inhibit EAU and related immune responses. EAU was induced in B10.A mice by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP; 40 μg) in CFA. Treatment with ITE was by daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg. Disease severity was assessed by both fundoscopy and histological examination. Draining lymph node cells were tested for proliferation by thymidine uptake and for cytokine production and release by ELISA. In addition, the intracellular expression of cytokines and Foxp3 was determined by flow cytometry. Serum antibodies were measured by ELISA. Treatment with ITE efficiently inhibited the development of EAU in mice, as well as the cellular immune responses against IRBP and PPD. ITE treatment inhibited the expansion of both Th1 and Th17 subpopulations, as well as their release of the signature cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-17. The treatment moderately increased, however, the proportion of Foxp3 expressing T-regulatory cells. Antibody production was not affected by the treatment. ITE, an endogenous AHR ligand, efficiently inhibits EAU development and related cellular immune responses. Being nontoxic, ITE may be considered for treatment of pathogenic immunity in humans.

  3. ITE, A Novel Endogenous Nontoxic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand, Efficiently Suppresses EAU and T-Cell–Mediated Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Lindsey F.; Shi, Guangpu; Vistica, Barbara P.; Ogbeifun, Osato; Hinshaw, Samuel J. H.; Gery, Igal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Ligands for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), such as dioxins, are highly toxic. One such ligand, TCDD, was found to exert potent immunosuppressive capacities in mice developing pathogenic autoimmune processes, including EAU, but its toxicity makes it unusable for humans. A recently identified endogenous AHR ligand, ITE, is also immunosuppressive, but is nontoxic and could therefore be useful for therapy in humans. Here, we tested ITE for its capacity to inhibit EAU and related immune responses. Methods. EAU was induced in B10.A mice by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP; 40 μg) in CFA. Treatment with ITE was by daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg. Disease severity was assessed by both fundoscopy and histological examination. Draining lymph node cells were tested for proliferation by thymidine uptake and for cytokine production and release by ELISA. In addition, the intracellular expression of cytokines and Foxp3 was determined by flow cytometry. Serum antibodies were measured by ELISA. Results. Treatment with ITE efficiently inhibited the development of EAU in mice, as well as the cellular immune responses against IRBP and PPD. ITE treatment inhibited the expansion of both Th1 and Th17 subpopulations, as well as their release of the signature cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-17. The treatment moderately increased, however, the proportion of Foxp3 expressing T-regulatory cells. Antibody production was not affected by the treatment. Conclusions. ITE, an endogenous AHR ligand, efficiently inhibits EAU development and related cellular immune responses. Being nontoxic, ITE may be considered for treatment of pathogenic immunity in humans. PMID:24150760

  4. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud

    2003-01-01

    for the surface immobilization of membrane proteins was developed using the prototypic seven transmembrane neurokinin-1 receptor. The receptor was expressed as a biotinylated protein in mammalian cells. Membranes from cell homogenates were selectively immobilized on glass surfaces covered with streptavidin. TIRF...... measurements showed that a fluorescent agonist binds to the receptor on the sensor surface with similar affinity as to the receptor in live cells. This approach offers the possibility to investigate minute amounts of membrane protein in an active form and in its native environment without purification....

  5. Insight into partial agonism by observing multiple equilibria for ligand-bound and Gs-mimetic nanobody-bound β1-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Andras S; Bostock, Mark J; Shrestha, Binesh; Kumar, Prashant; Warne, Tony; Tate, Christopher G; Nietlispach, Daniel

    2017-11-27

    A complex conformational energy landscape determines G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling via intracellular binding partners (IBPs), e.g., G s and β-arrestin. Using 13 C methyl methionine NMR for the β 1 -adrenergic receptor, we identify ligand efficacy-dependent equilibria between an inactive and pre-active state and, in complex with G s -mimetic nanobody, between more and less active ternary complexes. Formation of a basal activity complex through ligand-free nanobody-receptor interaction reveals structural differences on the cytoplasmic receptor side compared to the full agonist-bound nanobody-coupled form, suggesting that ligand-induced variations in G-protein interaction underpin partial agonism. Significant differences in receptor dynamics are observed ranging from rigid nanobody-coupled states to extensive μs-to-ms timescale dynamics when bound to a full agonist. We suggest that the mobility of the full agonist-bound form primes the GPCR to couple to IBPs. On formation of the ternary complex, ligand efficacy determines the quality of the interaction between the rigidified receptor and an IBP and consequently the signalling level.

  6. Transcytosis in the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier of the mouse brain with an engineered receptor/ligand system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor R Méndez-Gómez

    Full Text Available Crossing the blood–brain and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BCSFB is one of the fundamental challenges in the development of new therapeutic molecules for brain disorders because these barriers prevent entry of most drugs from the blood into the brain. However, some large molecules, like the protein transferrin, cross these barriers using a specific receptor that transports them into the brain. Based on this mechanism, we engineered a receptor/ligand system to overcome the brain barriers by combining the human transferrin receptor with the cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum, and we tested the hybrid receptor in the choroid plexus of the mouse brain with a dockerin ligand. By expressing our receptor in choroidal ependymocytes, which are part of the BCSFB, we found that our systemically administrated ligand was able to bind to the receptor and accumulate in ependymocytes, where some of the ligand was transported from the blood side to the brain side.

  7. Deletion of thyrotropin receptor residue Asp403 in a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule provides insight into the role of the ectodomain in ligand-induced receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, E; Chen, C-R; Mizutori-Sasai, Y; Ito, M; Kubota, S; Amino, N; Miyauchi, A; Rapoport, B

    2012-01-01

    Somatic mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene are the main cause of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Except for mutations in ectodomain residue S281, all of the numerous reported activating mutations are in the TSHR membrane-spanning region. Here, we describe a patient with a toxic adenoma with a novel heterozygous somatic mutation caused by deletion of ectodomain residue Asp403 (Del-D403). Subsequent in vitro functional studies of the Del-D403 TSHR mutation demonstrated greatly increased ligand-independent constitutive activity, 8-fold above that of the wild-type TSHR. TSH stimulation had little further effect, indicating that the mutation produced near maximal activation of the receptor. In summary, we report only the second TSHR ectodomain activating mutation (and the first ectodomain deletion mutation) responsible for development of a thyroid toxic adenoma. Because Del-D403 causes near maximal activation, our finding provides novel insight into TSHR structure and function; residue D403 is more likely to be involved in the ligand-mediated activating pathway than in the ectodomain inverse agonist property.

  8. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    with the internal repeats of u-PAR constitute the extracellular part of Ly-6 antigens and of the squid glycoprotein Sgp-2. Like u-PAR, these proteins are attached to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The hydrophilic, ligand-binding u-PAR domain identified in the present study has potential...

  9. Syndecan-2 is a novel ligand for the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD148

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteford, James R; Xian, Xiaojie; Chaussade, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Syndecan-2 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a cell adhesion regulatory domain contained within its extracellular core protein. Cell adhesion to the syndecan-2