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Sample records for factor kappab nf-kappab

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor and nuclear factor kappa-b affect three-dimensional chromatin organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsova, T.; Wang, S.Y.; Rao, N.A.; Mandoli, A.; Martens, J.H.; Rother, N; Aartse, A.; Groh, L.; Janssen-Megens, E.M.; Li, G.; Ruan, Y.; Logie, C.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of signal-dependent transcription factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor and nuclear factor kappa-b, on the three-dimensional organization of chromatin remains a topic of discussion. The possible scenarios range from remodeling of higher order chromatin architecture by activ

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor and nuclear factor kappa-b affect three-dimensional chromatin organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsova, T.; Wang, S.Y.; Rao, N.A.; Mandoli, A.; Martens, J.H.; Rother, N; Aartse, A.; Groh, L.; Janssen-Megens, E.M.; Li, G.; Ruan, Y.; Logie, C.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of signal-dependent transcription factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor and nuclear factor kappa-b, on the three-dimensional organization of chromatin remains a topic of discussion. The possible scenarios range from remodeling of higher order chromatin architecture by

  3. Activation of nuclear factor kappaB in colonic mucosa from patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, V.L.; Perner, A.; Hansen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly upregulated in the colonic mucosa of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. As the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is a major inducer of iNOS gene expression, we compared activation and transcriptional...

  4. Cardiovascular disease associated with radiotherapy: activation of nuclear factor kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, M; Hall, P; Tornvall, P

    2011-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of an increased risk of cardiovascular disease after radiotherapy. Hence, with an increasing number of cancer survivors, the incidence of cardiovascular disease caused by radiotherapy will increase. The existence of a type of vascular disease, or vasculopathy, induced by radiotherapy has been known for decades. It is important to identify and understand the molecular causes of this vasculopathy to determine preventive strategies. Recently, a chronic inflammation with similarities to atherosclerosis has been observed, with activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) as a possible cause. However, the trigger for NF-κB activation is unclear although it may be that reactive oxygen species or direct DNA damage is involved. To minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease in vulnerable patients, careful selection of patients, radiation dose and fractionation are important, together with the development of new techniques that reduce radiation dose to the blood vessels. In the light of the finding of an interaction between risk factors for cardiovascular disease and radiotherapy, it is reasonable to modify these factors including diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and smoking. We believe that preventive strategies focusing on NF-κB can reduce the risk of future adverse cardiovascular events. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Role of Nuclear Factor kappaB in Intestine Injury Induced by Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊华; 王国斌

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The role of nuclear factor kappaB in intestine injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion was investigated. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups randomly: sham operation group (group A), hepatic ischemia reperfusion group (group B) and hepatic ischemia reperfusion plus pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group (group C). The rats in group A were only subjected to laparotomy, those in group B underwent partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion (ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h) and those in group C underwent the same procedure as that of group B but received PDTC 200 mg/kg i.v. before and after ischemia. After reperfusion, tissues of jejunum and venous blood were obtained for measurement of TNF-α, MDA and MPO. The levels of TNF-α in jejunum and venous blood, the levels of MPO in jejunum in group B were significantly higher than those in group A and group C (P<0.05). There was no significant different in the levels of MDA between group B and group C. The severity of histological intestinal injury in group B and group C was similar. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion caused intestine injury, NF-kappaB may play an important role in this course and the targeting of upstream components of the inflammatory response, such as NF-kappaB, may have important therapeutic applications.

  6. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B signaling reduces growth in medulloblastoma in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckard Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor that requires surgery, whole brain and spine irradiation, and intense chemotherapy for treatment. A more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of medulloblastoma is needed to successfully reduce the intensity of treatment and improve outcomes. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Methods To test the importance of NFκB to medulloblastoma cell growth, the effects of multiple drugs that inhibit NFκB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfasalazine, curcumin and bortezomib, were studied in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a malignant glioma cell line and normal neurons. Expression of endogenous NFκB was investigated in cultured cells, xenograft flank tumors, and primary human tumor samples. A dominant negative construct for the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, IκB, was prepared from medulloblastoma cell lines and flank tumors were established to allow specific pathway inhibition. Results We report high constitutive activity of the canonical NFκB pathway, as seen by Western analysis of the NFκB subunit p65, in medulloblastoma tumors compared to normal brain. The p65 subunit of NFκB is extremely highly expressed in xenograft tumors from human medulloblastoma cell lines; though, conversely, the same cells in culture have minimal expression without specific stimulation. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB in cell lines halts proliferation and leads to apoptosis. We show by immunohistochemical stain that phosphorylated p65 is found in the majority of primary tumor cells examined. Finally, expression of a dominant negative form of the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, dnIκB, resulted in poor xenograft tumor growth, with average tumor volumes

  7. Statistics of assay validation in high throughput cell imaging of nuclear factor kappaB nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelock, Maurice M; Hunter, Edward A; Moran, Timothy J; Heynen, Susanne; Laris, Casey; Thieleking, Michael; Akong, Michael; Mikic, Ivana; Callaway, Scott; DeLeon, Rodney P; Goodacre, Angela; Zacharias, David; Price, Jeffrey H

    2005-10-01

    This report describes statistical validation methods implemented on assay data for inhibition of subcellular redistribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF kappaB) in HeLa cells. We quantified cellular inhibition of cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of NF kappaB in response to a range of concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist in the presence of IL-1alpha using eight replicate rows in each four 96-well plates scanned five times on each of 2 days. Translocation was measured as the fractional localized intensity of the nucleus (FLIN), an implementation of our more general fractional localized intensity of the compartments (FLIC), which analyzes whole compartments in the context of the entire cell. The NF kappaB antagonist assay (inhibition of IL-1- induced NF kappaB translocation) data were collected on a Q3DM (San Diego, CA) EIDAQtrade mark 100 high throughput microscopy system. [In 2003, Q3DM was purchased by Beckman Coulter Inc. (Fullerton, CA), which released the IC 100 successor to the EIDAQ 100.] The generalized FLIC method is described along with two-point (minimum-maximum) and multiple point titration statistical methods. As a ratio of compartment intensities that tend to change proportionally, FLIN was resistant to photobleaching errors. Two-point minimum-maximum statistical analyses yielded the following: a Z' of 0.174 with the data as n = 320 independent well samples; Z' by row data in a range of 0.393-0.933, with a mean of 0.766; by-plate Z' data of 0.310, 0.443, 0.545, and 0.794; and by-plate means of columns Z' data of 0.879, 0.927, 0.945, and 0.963. The mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for IL-1 receptor antagonist over all experiments was 213 ng/ml. The combined IC50 coefficients of variation (CVs) were 0.74%, 0.85%, 2.09%, and 2.52% for the four plates. Repeatability IC50 CVs were as follows: day to day 3.0%, row to row 8.0%, plate to plate 2.8%, and day to day 0.6%. The number of cells required for statistically resolvable

  8. Ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and nuclear factor kappaB activation in pancreas and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xue, Chengrui

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the influence of ghrelin on the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 in the pancreas and liver. Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rat by sodium taurocholate injection in the pancreaticobiliary duct. Ghrelin was administrated twice at the dose 10 or 20 nmol/kg per injection, respectively. Then, serum amylase activity; serum tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interleukin 6 concentrations; and morphological signs of pancreatitis and hepatic damage were measured. Meanwhile, determination of pancreatic and hepatic NF-kappaB p65 expression was performed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The serumal parameters increased, and morphological damages were observed in the pancreas and liver in SAP rats. Nuclear factor kappaB p65 expression was significantly higher in the pancreas and liver than sham-operated rats (P pancreas and liver. Ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate. It exerts the therapeutic effects through inhibiting NF-kappaB expression, thereby blocks the inflammatory signal transduction pathway and reduces the release of inflammatory media and cytokines.

  9. Real-time monitoring of nuclear factor kappaB activity in cultured cells and in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Christian E; Niers, Johanna M; Tjon-Kon-Fat, Lee-Ann; Noske, David P; Wurdinger, Thomas; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that plays a major role in many human disorders, including immune diseases and cancer. We designed a reporter system based on NF-kappaB responsive promoter elements driving expression of the secreted Gaussia princeps luciferase (Gluc). We show that this bioluminescent reporter is a highly sensitive tool for noninvasive monitoring of the kinetics of NF-kappaB activation and inhibition over time, both in conditioned medium of cultured cells and in the blood and urine of animals. NF-kappaB activation was successfully monitored in real time in endothelial cells in response to tumor angiogenic signaling, as well as in monocytes in response to inflammation. Further, we demonstrated dual blood monitoring of both NF-kappaB activation during tumor development as correlated to tumor formation using the NF-kappaB Gluc reporter, as well as the secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter. This NF-kappaB reporter system provides a powerful tool for monitoring NF-kappaB activity in real time in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Physiologic activation of nuclear factor kappa-B in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle is altered in endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ramos, Reinaldo; Rocco, Jocelyn; Rojas, Candy; Sovino, Hugo; Poch, Andrea; Kohen, Paulina; Alvarado-Díaz, Carlos; Devoto, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB-p65 subunit activation, immunolocalization, and expression in the endometrium of healthy women and endometriosis patients throughout the menstrual cycle. Prospective observational study. Affiliated hospital and university research laboratory. Twenty-four healthy women and 24 endometriosis patients. Menstrual, proliferative, and secretory endometrial biopsies. Assessment of NF-κB and p65 activation by protein-DNA binding assays and p65 localization and expression by immunohistochemistry. Total NF-κB-DNA binding was constitutive and variable in human endometrium accross the menstrual cycle. Healthy women (physiologic conditions) showed higher p65-DNA binding in proliferative than in menstrual and secretory endometrium. Conversely, in endometriosis patients, p65-DNA binding was higher in proliferative and secretory endometrium than in menstrual endometrium. Endometrial epithelial cells showed higher p65 expression level score than endometrial stromal cells. NF-κB activity is constitutive, physiologic, and variable in human endometrium. The physiologic cyclic p65 activation pattern was altered in endometriosis patients, showing no cyclic variation between the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. The absence of decreased p65 activity in secretory endometrium from endometriosis patients is concurrent with progesterone resistance and could participate in endometrial biologic alterations during the implantation window in endometriosis patients. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of resveratrol on activation of nuclear factor kappa-B and inflammatory factors in rat model of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Meng; Qing-Yong Ma; Xiao-Ping Kou; Jun Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of resveratrol on nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and the inflammatory response in sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis in rats.METHODS: Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (control),severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) group, and severe acute pancreatitis group treated with resveratrol (RES). A SAP model was established by injecting 4% sodium taurocholate 1 mL/kg through puncturing the pancreatic duct. In Res group, Res was given at 30 mg/kg b.m. intraperitoneally after the SAP model was successfully established. Eight animals from each group were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 h after modeling. The expression of NF-κB activation of pancreas was detected by immunohistochemical staining, whereas the levels of TNF-α and IL-8 in pancreatic tissues were estimated by radioimmunoassay. The pathological changes of pancreas and lungs were examined microscopically.RESULTS: Much less hyperemia, edema, dust-colored necrotic focus and soaps were noticed in pancreas in RES group than in SAP group. In RES group, hemorrhage,exudates and infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreas and interstitial edema, destruction of alveolar wall in lung were significantly less than in SAP group. In the SAP group,the activation of NF-κB in pancreatic tissues was enhanced significantly at any measure point compared with control group (64.23±10.72% vs2.56±0.65%, 55.86±11.34% vs 2.32±0.42%, 36.23±2.30% vs 2.40±0.36% ,P <0.01), TNF-α,IL-8 were also increased and reached their peak at 6 h and then declined. The activation of NF-κB and the levels of TNF-α and IL-8 in RES group were significantly lower than those in SAP group (P<0.01): activation (52.63±9.45% vs 64.23±10.72%, 40.52±8.40% vs 55.86±11.34%, 29.83±5.37% vs36.23±2.30%), TN-α (132.76±15.68 pg/mL vs 158.36±12.58 pg/mL, 220.32±23.57 pg/mL vs 247.67± 11.62 pg/mL, 175.68±18.43 pg/mL vs 197.35±12.57 pg/mL) and IL-8 (0.62±0.21

  12. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  13. Effects of ketamine on proinflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor kappaB in polyrnicrobial sepsis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Min Song; Jian-Guo Li; Yan-Lin Wang; Qing Zhou; Zhao-Hui Du; Bao-Hui Jia; Jian-Juan Ke

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of ketamine on hemodynamics, plasma proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation during polymicrobial sepsis.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawlay rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation.The rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups:sham CLP group, CLP group, ketamine (KT)I groupand KTⅡ group. Thirty minutes before CLP, ketamine (5my/kg per hour and 10 my/kg per hour, respectively) was infused continuously through the left femoral vein cannula in KT I group or KTⅡgroup. Sham CLP group and CLP group received 0.9% saline only (5 mL/kg per hour). The right femoral artery was cannulated to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rates (HR),and draw blood samples. The proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels of plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The hepatic NF-κB activation was determined by Western blot and HPIAS 2000 image analysis system.Twenty hours after CLP, the rats were killed by right femoral artery phlebotomization.RESULTS: CLP produced progressive hypotension,and a first increase followed by a decrease in HR. The hypotension was prevented, and the HR was slightly steady in ketamine treated rats. TNF-α levels of plasma reached a peak value at 2 h after CLP. Ketamine (KT I group or KTⅡgroup) caused a significant decrease compared with CLP group at 2, 5 and 9 h time points after CLP (14.3 ± 1.9 vs 4.3 ± 0.9, 9.7 ± 1.4 vs 4.3 ±0.9; 9.3 ± 1.5 vs 4.3 ± 0.9, 8.7 ± 1.4 vs 4.3 ± 0.9; 6.0± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 1.7, 5.3 ± 0.8 vs 5.0 ± 1.7; P < 0.01,respectively). The IL-6 levels of plasma firstly ascended and then descended in CLP group, and reached a peak value at 9 h after CLP. Ketamine (KT I group or KTⅡ group) caused a significant decrease compared with CLP group at 5, 9 or 20 h after CLP (135.0 ± 52.6 vs 60.0± 16.3, 112.5 ± 52.6 vs 60.0 ± 16.3; 410.0 ± 68.7 vs62.5 ± 12.5, 250.0

  14. Prognostic value of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK marker in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Zabroda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite notable progress made in studying breast cancer (BC, the mechanisms of metastases, in view of the classification into molecular subtypes, in patients with BC remain to be fully uninvestigated, in the presence of a good prognosis in particular. To study novel diagnostic and predictive markers in a new way presents current problems in the pathology of BC. This investigation deals with the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG in the tumor cells of patients with BC. It enrolled 83 patients with locally advanced BC (T2–4N0–3M0 who had been treated in 2003 to 2010. The inclusion criterion was a histologically verified diagnosis of invasive BC. To study the level of OPG, the investigators conducted an immunohistochemical study of biopsy sections according to the standard protocol. The mean expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK in the BC cells was 18.7 %; itsmedian was 5 % (range, 0–90 %. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the level of RANK expression: 1 high (higher than the median; 2 low (lower than the median. The high RANK group included 39 patients; the low RANK group comprised 44 patients. Analysis of the clinical and pathological characteristics of BC patients with regard RANK expression did not show any statistically significant differences in the presence or absence of affected regional lymph nodes, T category, and Ki-67 index. The analysis of clinical and pathomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with breast cancer, taking into consideration RANK expression level, did not show any statistically significant differences with respect to presence or absence of affected regional lymph nodes, age, T category and Ki-67 index (р > 0.05. However, it revealed the following pattern: the high expression of RANK was more common in patients positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors than in those for negative receptors (p = 0.04.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase through nuclear factor kappaB in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Naveen; Hacker, Amy; Huang, Yi; Casero, Robert A

    2006-08-25

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine produced by many cells in response to inflammatory stress. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the multiple biological activities of TNFalpha are due to its ability to activate multiple signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), which plays critical roles in cell proliferation and survival. TNFalpha displays both apoptotic and antiapoptotic properties, depending on the nature of the stimulus and the activation status of certain signaling pathways. Here we show that TNFalpha can lead to the induction of NFkappaB signaling with a concomitant increase in spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) expression in A549 and H157 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Induction of SSAT, a stress-inducible gene that encodes a rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme, leads to lower intracellular polyamine contents and has been associated with decreased cell growth and increased apoptosis. Stable overexpression of a mutant, dominant negative IkappaBalpha protein led to the suppression of SSAT induction by TNFalpha in these cells, thereby substantiating a role of NFkappaB in the induction of SSAT by TNFalpha. SSAT promoter deletion constructs led to the identification of three potential NFkappaB response elements in the SSAT gene. Electromobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and mutational studies confirmed that two of the three NFkappaB response elements play an important role in the regulation of SSAT in response to TNFalpha. The results of these studies indicate that a common mediator of inflammation can lead to the induction of SSAT expression by activating the NFkappaB signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

  16. Phytochemicals of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia exert anticancer effect by tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated decrease in nuclear factor kappaB binding activity

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    Hadem, Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta; Sharan, Rajeshwar Nath; Kma, Lakhan

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The active compounds or metabolites of herbal plants exert a definite physiological action on the human body and thus are widely used in human therapy for various diseases including cancer. Previous studies by our group have reported the anticarcinogenic properties of the two herbal plants extracts (HPE) of Aristolochia tagala (AT) Cham. and Curcuma caesia (CC) Roxb. in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo. The anticarcinogenic properties of these extracts may be due to the active compounds present in them. Objectives: Our objective was to analyze the phytochemical constituents present in AT and CC, to assay their antioxidant properties and to determine their role in a possible intervention on tumor progression. Materials and Methods: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of constituent with anticancer properties present in the crude methanol extract of the two plants CC and AT was carried out following standard methods. Separation of the phytochemical compounds was done by open column chromatography. The extracts were eluted out with gradients of chloroform-methanol solvents. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of individual fractions were recorded, and the fractions were combined based on their λmax. The free radical scavenging activity of crude extracts and fractions obtained was also determined; the radical scavenging activity was expressed as IC50. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of fractionated compounds was carried out to identify partially the phytochemical compounds. The anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of AT and CC extracts was studied in DEN induced BALB/c mice by analyzing the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum and the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) binding activity in nuclear extracts of the liver. Results: It was observed that both AT and CC contained compounds such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc., and both extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity. HPTLC

  17. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 modulate nuclear factor kappaB activity and nitric oxide synthase-2 expression in Theiler's virus-infected brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Castrillo, Antonio; Boscá, Lisardo; Vela, José M; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-06-01

    In brain astrocytes, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated by stimuli that produce cellular stress causing the expression of genes involved in defence, including the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2). Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a persistent CNS infection and chronic immune-mediated demyelination, similar to human multiple sclerosis. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, counteracting the inflammatory process. Our study reports that infection of cultured astrocytes with TMEV resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of NOS-2. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 blocked TMEV-induced nitrite accumulation, NOS-2 mRNA expression and phospho-IkappaBalpha degradation, suggesting NF-kappaB-dependent NOS-2 expression. Pretreatment of astrocytes with IL-4 or IL-10 decreased p65 nuclear translocation, NF-kappaB binding activity and NOS-2 transcription. IL-4 and IL-10 caused an accumulation of IkappaBalpha in TMEV-infected astrocytes without affecting IkappaBbeta levels. The IkappaB kinase activity and the degradation rate of both IkappaBs were not modified by either cytokine, suggesting de novo synthesis of IkappaBalpha. Indeed, IL-4 or IL-10 up-regulated IkappaBalpha mRNA levels after TMEV infection. Therefore, the accumulation of IkappaBalpha might impair the translocation of the NF-kappaB to the nucleus, mediating the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Overall, these data suggest a novel mechanism of action of IL-4 and IL-10, which abrogates NOS-2 expression in viral-infected glial cells.

  18. The Nuclear Factor kappaB Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Cardiac Remodelling and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Up-Regulation in Renovascular Hypertension.

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    Cau, Stefany B A; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Imbalanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is involved in hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-кB) with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can prevent MMP up-regulation. We suggested that treatment with PDTC could prevent 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) hypertension-induced left ventricular remodelling. Sham-operated controls or 2K1C rats with hypertension received either vehicle or PDTC (100 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored every week. Histological assessment of left ventricles was carried out with haematoxylin/eosin sections, and fibrosis was quantified in picrosirius red-stained sections. Oxidative stress was evaluated in heart samples with the dihydroethidium probe. Cardiac MMP activity was determined by in situ zymography, and cardiac MMP-2 was assessed by immunofluorescence. 2K1C surgery significantly increased systolic blood pressure in the 2K1C vehicle. PDTC exerted antihypertensive effects after 2 weeks of treatment. Histology revealed increased left ventricular and septum wall thickness associated with augmented myocyte diameter in hypertensive rats, which were reversed by treatment with PDTC. Hypertensive rats developed pronounced cardiac fibrosis with increased interstitial collagen area, increased cardiac reactive oxygen species levels, gelatinase activity and MMP-2 expression. PDTC treatment decreased these alterations. These findings show that PDTC modulates myocardial MMP-2 expression and ameliorates cardiac remodelling in renovascular hypertension. These results suggest that interfering with MMP expression at transcriptional level may be an interesting strategy in the therapy of organ damage associated with hypertension.

  19. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Local Osteoporotic Canine Mandible Model for the Evaluation of Peri-Implant Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ah Ryum; Cho, Tae Hyung; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2017-08-24

    The canine mandible is useful for studying bone regeneration after dental implant placement. However, it is limited in investigations of peri-implant osteogenesis under osteoporotic conditions due to the insignificant osteoporotic effect of ovariectomy. This study aimed at establishing a local osteoporotic model without ovariectomy by using receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in a canine mandible model. This new model was used to evaluate the effects of injectable β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) microsphere bone grafts on peri-implant bone regeneration under osteoporotic conditions with combinations of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). A local osteoporotic canine mandible model was designed by creating a hole in the mandibular alveolar bone, then implanting a collagen sponge soaked with 20, 40, or 60 μg RANKL into the hole, and leaving it for 2 weeks. After the establishment of the dose for maximum osteoporotic bone loss at 40 μg of RANKL, the main surgery was performed. RANKL-soaked collagen sponges were removed, and dental implants were placed with bone grafts in five groups: implant only, TCP, and TCP + rhBMP-2 at 5, 15, and 45 μg. Peri-implant bone generation was determined by radiologic and histologic evaluations at 6 weeks after dental implant placement. On performing micro-computed tomography analysis, the group with TCP + 5 μg rhBMP-2 showed the highest bone volume than the other groups and a 22% increase (p model was useful for peri-implant bone regeneration under osteoporotic conditions such as those found in geriatric patients. The injectable β-TCP bone grafts used in this study were effective in peri-implant bone generation under osteoporotic conditions, and their efficiency was enhanced at 5 μg BMP-2 compared with higher concentrations of BMP-2.

  20. Effects of systemic immunogenic insults and circulating proinflammatory cytokines on the transcription of the inhibitory factor kappaB alpha within specific cellular populations of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, N; Rivest, S

    1999-07-01

    Expression of the inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaB alpha) reflects the activity of nuclear factor kappaB(NF-kappaB) and is a powerful tool to investigate the regulation of the transcription factor within the CNS. IkappaB alpha mRNA was evaluated in the rat brain by means of in situ hybridization following different immunogenic stimuli; i.e., intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), i.v. recombinant rat interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and intramuscular (i.m.) turpentine injection, used here as a model of systemic localized inflammatory insult. Systemic LPS, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha caused a rapid and transient transcriptional activation of IkappaB alpha along the blood vessels of the entire brain; the signal was very intense 30-60 min after the i.v. injections and returned to undetectable levels from 2 to 12 h depending on the challenge. Double-labeling procedure provided the anatomical evidence that IkappaB alpha-expressing cells within the microvasculature were essentially of the endothelial type, as they were immunoreactive to the von Willebrand factor. Scattered small cells were also found across the brain of LPS-, IL-1beta-, and TNF-alpha-injected rats at time 1-3 h, and microglial (OX-42)-immunoreactive cells were positive for the transcript. Such expression within parenchymal microglia was nevertheless not observed in the brain following a localized and sterile inflammatory insult. Indeed, i.m. turpentine administration stimulated IkappaB alpha transcription quite uniquely within the endothelium of the brain capillaries, an effect that paralleled the swelling of the injection site and lasted up to 24 h after the aggression. In contrast to these immunogenic challenges, i.v. IL-6 injection failed to activate the gene encoding IkappaB alpha in the rat brain. These results indicate that NF-kappaB may play a crucial role in specific cellular populations of the CNS to trigger

  1. Cocaine induces cell death and activates the transcription nuclear factor kappa-b in pc12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Munhoz, Carolina D; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Yshii, Lidia M; Lima, Larissa S; Curi-Boaventura, Maria F; Salgado, Thais ML; Curi, Rui; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems. For example, cocaine increases extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulates several transcription factors. NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in cellular death. Our aim was to investigate the toxicity and modulation of NF-κB activity by cocaine in PC 12 cells. Treatment with cocaine (1 mM) for 24 hours induced DNA fragmentation, cellular membrane rupture and reduction of mitochondrial activity. A decrease in Bcl-2 protein and mRNA levels, and an increase in caspase 3 activity and cleavage were also observed. In addition, cocaine (after 6 hours treatment) activated the p50/p65 subunit of NF-κB complex and the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the NF-κB activation. Inhibition of NF-κB activity by using PDTC and Sodium Salicilate increased cell death caused by cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine induces cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and activates NF-κB in PC12 cells. This activation occurs, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors and seems to have an anti-apoptotic effect on these cells. PMID:19183502

  2. Cocaine induces cell death and activates the transcription nuclear factor kappa-b in pc12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepsch Lucilia B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems. For example, cocaine increases extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulates several transcription factors. NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in cellular death. Our aim was to investigate the toxicity and modulation of NF-κB activity by cocaine in PC 12 cells. Treatment with cocaine (1 mM for 24 hours induced DNA fragmentation, cellular membrane rupture and reduction of mitochondrial activity. A decrease in Bcl-2 protein and mRNA levels, and an increase in caspase 3 activity and cleavage were also observed. In addition, cocaine (after 6 hours treatment activated the p50/p65 subunit of NF-κB complex and the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the NF-κB activation. Inhibition of NF-κB activity by using PDTC and Sodium Salicilate increased cell death caused by cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine induces cell death (apoptosis and necrosis and activates NF-κB in PC12 cells. This activation occurs, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors and seems to have an anti-apoptotic effect on these cells.

  3. The Nuclear Factor kappaB Pathway: A Link to the Immune System in the Radiation Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Guenther; Chishti, Arif Ali; Koch, Kristina; Manchanda, Kashish

    Understanding the cellular radiation response is an essential prerequisite for the risk assessment of astronauts’ space radiation exposure during long-term space missions and for effective countermeasure development. In addition to the space radiation effects, other environmental factors during space missions such as microgravity have profound effects on the body, e.g. suppression of the innate and acquired immune response. Exposure to ionizing radiation modulates immune responses in a complex dose-dependent pattern, with possible anti-inflammatory effects in the low dose range, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines at moderate doses and immunosuppression after exposure to higher doses due to precursor cell death together with concomitant exacerbated innate immune responses. A central regulator in the immune system is the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kB (NF-kappaB). In this work, the role of NF-kappaB in the cellular response to space relevant radiation qualities was analyzed. It was shown with a recombinant human NF-kappaB reporter cell line that heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 100-300 keV/µm have a nine times higher potential to activate the NF-kappaB pathway compared to X-rays (150 kV). ATM was essential for NF-kappaB activation in response to X-rays and heavy ions. Knockdown of the NF-kappaB subunit RelA (p65) resulted in higher sensitivity towards X-rays. Reverse Transcriptase real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments showed that after exposure to radiation, NF-kappaB predominantly upregulates genes involved in intercellular communication processes, especially genes coding for chemokines, suggesting an important contribution of NF-kappaB in the molecular profile of the reaction to radiation, which can comprise features of inflammation and wound healing processes. This is process is strictly NF-kappaB dependent as this response is completely absent in RelA knockdown cells. These results show that the role of NF-kappaB in

  4. Radiation induced nuclear factor kappa-B signaling cascade study in mammalian cells by improved detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern, not only for tumor radiotherapy but also for new regimes of space missions. Ionizing radiation modulates several signaling pathways resulting in transcription factor activation. NF-kappaB is one of the important transcription factors that respond to changes in the environment of a mammalian cell and plays a key role in many biological processes relevant to radiation response, such as apoptosis, inflammation and carcinogenesis. From medical and biological point of view it is important to understand radiation induced NF-kappaB signaling cascade. For studying NF-kappaB signaling, green fluorescent proteins EGFP and d2EGFP were used previously (Advances in Space Research, 36: 1673-1679, 2005). The current study aims to improve reporter assays by the use of a destabilized variant of red fluorescent protein tdTomato (DD-tdTomato) which gives high fluorescence signals and a better signal/noise ratio for NF-kappaB activation. The reporter system HEK-pNFkappaB-DD-tdTomato-C8 is a dual reporter system which can provide both discrete and cumulative signals after exposure to ionizing radiation (X-rays, heavy ions). In the presence of Shield-1, the fluorescent protein DD-tdTomato is not degraded but accumulated inside the cell which helps to quantify the fold induction of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. The minimum dose required to activate NF-kappaB is 6 Gy but accumulated signals data shows that NF-kappaB is activated after 3 Gy in the presence of Shield-1. Average dose and number of heavy ions’ hits per nucleus necessary to double the NF

  5. Adenine nucleotides inhibit proliferation of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LXF-289 by activation of nuclear factor kappaB1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Rainer; Hartig, Roland; Sedehizade, Fariba; Welte, Tobias; Reiser, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Extracellular nucleotides have a profound role in the regulation of the proliferation of diseased tissue. We studied how extracellular nucleotides regulate the proliferation of LXF-289 cells, the adenocarcinoma-derived cell line from human lung bronchial tumor. ATP and ADP strongly inhibited LXF-289 cell proliferation. The nucleotide potency profile was ATP = ADP = ATPgammaS > > UTP, UDP, whereas alpha,beta-methylene-ATP, beta,gamma-methylene-ATP, 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP, AMP and UMP were inactive. The nucleotide potency profile and the total blockade of the ATP-mediated inhibitory effect by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 clearly show that P2Y receptors, but not P2X receptors, control LXF-289 cell proliferation. Treatment of proliferating LXF-289 cells with 100 microm ATP or ADP induced significant reduction of cell number and massive accumulation of cells in the S phase. Arrest in S phase is also indicated by the enhancement of the antiproliferative effect of ATP by coapplication of the cytostatic drugs cisplatin, paclitaxel and etoposide. Inhibition of LXF-289 cell proliferation by ATP was completely reversed by inhibitors of extracellular signal related kinase-activating kinase/extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (PD98059, U0126), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB203508), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (wortmannin), and nuclear factor kappaB1 (SN50). Western blot analysis revealed transient activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, and nuclear factor kappaB1 and possibly new formation of p50 from its precursor p105. ATP-induced attenuation of LXF-289 cell proliferation was accompanied by transient translocation of p50 nuclear factor kappaB1 and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 to the nucleus in a similar time period. In summary, inhibition of LXF-289 cell proliferation is mediated via P2Y receptors by activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and nuclear

  6. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-6 expression by telmisartan through cross-talk of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma with nuclear factor kappaB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qingping; Miyazaki, Ryohei; Ichiki, Toshihiro; Imayama, Ikuyo; Inanaga, Keita; Ohtsubo, Hideki; Yano, Kotaro; Takeda, Kotaro; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-05-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, was reported to be a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activators have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, such as inhibition of cytokine production, it has not been determined whether telmisartan has such effects. We examined whether telmisartan inhibits expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, in vascular smooth muscle cells. Telmisartan, but not valsartan, attenuated IL-6 mRNA expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Telmisartan decreased TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Because suppression of IL-6 mRNA expression was prevented by pretreatment with GW9662, a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma antagonist, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma may be involved in the process. Telmisartan suppressed IL-6 gene promoter activity induced by TNF-alpha. Deletion analysis suggested that the DNA segment between -150 bp and -27 bp of the IL-6 gene promoter that contains nuclear factor kappaB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta sites was responsible for telmisartan suppression. Telmisartan attenuated TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappaB- and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta-dependent gene transcription and DNA binding. Telmisartan also attenuated serum IL-6 level in TNF-alpha-infused mice and IL-6 production from rat aorta stimulated with TNF-alpha ex vivo. These data suggest that telmisartan may attenuate inflammatory process induced by TNF-alpha in addition to the blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Because both TNF-alpha and angiotensin II play important roles in atherogenesis through enhancement of vascular inflammation, telmisartan may be beneficial for treatment of not only hypertension but also vascular inflammatory change.

  7. Dendrobium moniliforme Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Both Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Mediated Osteoclast Differentiation in Vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Erosion in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yang, Miyoung; Oh, Jaemin; Choi, Min Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) is a well-known plant-derived extract that is widely used in Oriental medicine. DM and its chemical constituents have been reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities; however, no reports discuss the beneficial effects of DM on bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, we investigated the relationship between DM and osteoclasts, cells that function in bone resorption. We found that DM significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast formation; DM directly induced the down-regulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) without affecting other RANKL-dependent transduction pathways. In the later stages of osteoclast maturation, DM negatively regulated the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), resulting in impaired bone-resorbing activity by the mature osteoclasts. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) analysis of the murine model revealed that DM had a beneficial effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated bone erosion. Histological analysis showed that DM attenuated the degradation of trabecular bone matrix and formation of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in bone tissues. These results suggest that DM is a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis.

  8. Effects of L-3-n-butylphthalide on caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa-B expression in primary basal forebrain and hippocampal cultures after beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Wang; Yong Zhang; Liangliang Jiang; Guozhao Ma; Qingxi Fu; Jialong Li; Peng Yan; Lunqian Shen; Yabo Feng; Chunxia Li; Zaiying Pang; Yuanxiao Cui; Chunfu Chen; Yifeng Du; Zhaokong Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP) can inhibit phosphorylation of tau protein and reduce the neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42).OBJECTIVE: To observe the neuroprotective effects of L-NBP on caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-кB) expression in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cell experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University between January 2008 and August 2008.MATERIALS: L-NBP (purity>98%) was provided by Shijiazhuang Pharma Group NBP Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Aβ1-42, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolo-2]-2,5 iphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and rabbit anti-Caspase-3 polyclonal antibody were provided by Cell Signaling, METHODS: Primary cultures were generated from rat basal forebrain and hippocampal neurons at 17 or 19 days of gestation. The cells were assigned into five groups: the control group, the Aβ1-42 group (2μmol/L), the Aβ1-42+0.1μmol/L L-NBP group, the Aβ1-42+1 μmol/L L-NBP group, and the Aβ1-42 + 10μmol/L L-NBP group. The neurons were treated with Aβ1-42 (2 μmol/L) alone or in combination with L-NBP (0.1, 1, 10μmol/L) for 48 hours. Cells in the control group were incubated in PBS.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphologic changes were evaluated using inverted microscopy, Western blot.RESULTS: Induction with Aβ1-42 for 48 hours caused cell death and soma atrophy, and increased the high dose (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Aβ1-42 is toxic to basal forebrain and hippocampal primary neurons; L-NBP protects against this toxicity and inhibits the induction of caspase-3 and NF-κB expression.

  9. Expression of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 and their receptors in epithelial metastatic breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labovsky Vivian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While breast cancer (BC is the major cause of death among women worldwide, there is no guarantee of better patient survival because many of these patients develop primarily metastases, despite efforts to detect it in its early stages. Bone metastasis is a common complication that occurs in 65-80 % of patients with disseminated disease, but the molecular basis underlying dormancy, dissemination and establishment of metastasis is not understood. Our objective has been to evaluate simultaneously osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, and their receptors (R in 2 human BC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Methods OPG, RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1 expression and release, in addition to the expression of their receptors has been investigated using immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and ELISA analyses. Results MCF-7 cells released higher levels of OPG in conditioned media (CM than MDA-MB-231 cells; 100 % of both types of cell expressed OPG, RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1. Moreover, 100 % in both lines expressed membrane RANKL and RANK, whereas only 50 % expressed CXCR4. Furthermore, 100 % expressed TRAIL-R1 and R4, 30-50 % TRAIL-R2, and 40-55 % TRAIL-R3. Conclusions MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells not only released OPG, but expressed RANKL, TRAIL and SDF-1. The majority of the cells also expressed RANK, CXCR4 and TRAIL-R. Since these ligands and their receptors are implicated in the regulation of proliferation, survival, migration and future bone metastasis during breast tumor progression, assessment of these molecules in tumor biopsies of BC patients could be useful in identifying patients with more aggressive tumors that are also at risk of bone metastasis, which may thus improve the available options for therapeutic intervention.

  10. NF kappaB expression increases and CFTR and MUC1 expression decreases in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrosalpinx are associated with infertility, due to reduced rates of implantation and increased abortion rates. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, nuclear factor kappa B (NF KappaB and mucin-1 (MUC-1, and analyze the correlation between the expression of CFTR and NF KappaB or MUC1, in the endometrium of infertile women with and without hydrosalpinx. Methods Thirty-one infertile women with laparoscopy-confirmed unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx and 20 infertile women without hydrosalpinx or pelvic inflammatory disease (control group were recruited. Endometrial biopsy samples were collected and the expression of CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression tended to increase in the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase in both groups; however, these differences were not significantly different. The endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx had significantly higher NF KappaB mRNA and protein expression, and significantly lower CFTR and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression, compared to control infertile patients. A positive correlation was observed between CFTR and MUC1 mRNA expression (r = 0.65, P CFTR mRNA and NF KappaB mRNA expression (r = −0.59, P Conclusions Increased NF KappaB expression and decreased CFTR and MUC1 expression in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx reinforce the involvement of a molecular mechanism in the regulation of endometrial receptivity.

  11. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeung Su [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young, E-mail: kimjy1014@gmail.com [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  12. Structure-activity relationship studies of chalcone leading to 3-hydroxy-4,3',4',5'-tetramethoxychalcone and its analogues as potent nuclear factor kappaB inhibitors and their anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Johnson, Thomas E; Lad, Rahul; Xing, Chengguo

    2009-11-26

    Chalcone is a privileged structure, demonstrating promising anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. One potential mechanism is to suppress nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. The structures of chalcone-based NF-kappaB inhibitors vary significantly that there is minimum information about their structure-activity relationships (SAR). This study aims to establish SAR of chalcone-based compounds to NF-kappaB inhibition, to explore the feasibility of developing simple chalcone-based potent NF-kappaB inhibitors, and to evaluate their anticancer activities. Three series of chalcones were synthesized in one to three steps with the key step being aldol condensation. These candidates demonstrated a wide range of NF-kappaB inhibitory activities, some of low micromolar potency, establishing that structural complexity is not required for NF-kappaB inhibition. Lead compounds also demonstrate potent cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. Their cytotoxicities correlate moderately well with their NF-kappaB inhibitory activities, suggesting that suppressing NF-kappaB activation is likely responsible for at least some of the cytotoxicities. One lead compound effectively inhibits lung tumor growth with no signs of adverse side effects.

  13. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  14. Nuclear factor kappa-B signaling is integral to ocular neovascularization in ischemia-independent microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DeNiro

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia promotes the upregulation of VEGF expression and accounts for most pathological features of retinal neovascularization (NV. Paradoxically, VEGF remains the pivotal stimulator of ocular NV, despite the absence of ischemia. Therefore, the central question arises as to how the various molecular mechanisms interplay in ischemia-independent NV. It's been suggested that NFκB plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathies. Here, we dissected the molecular mechanism of ocular NV in the rho/VEGF transgenic mouse model, which develops subretinal NV in ischemia-independent microenvironment. Furthermore, we examined whether intravitreal administration of YC-1, a HIF-1 inhibitor, can modulate the activation of NFκB and its downstream angiogenic signaling in the mouse retina. We demonstrated that YC-1 inhibited retinal NFκB/p65 DNA binding activity and downregulated NFκB/p65, FAK, α5β1, EPO, ET-1, and MMP-9 expression at the message and the protein levels. In addition, YC-1 significantly inhibited subretinal NV by reducing the number of neovascular lesions, the area of each lesion and the total area of NV per retina. We further investigated the influence of VEGF signaling pathway on HIF-1α transcriptional activity to substantiate that this mouse model develops subretinal NV in an ischemia-independent microenvironment. Our data demonstrated that VEGF overexpression didn't have any impact on HIF-1α transcriptional activity, whereas treatment with YC-1 significantly inhibited endogenous HIF-1 activity. Our study suggests that retinal NFκB transcriptional activity is pivotal to ischemia-independent mechanisms, which lead to the local activation of angiogenic cascades. Our data also indicate that the nexus between VEGF and NFκB is implicated in triggering the angiogenic cascade that promotes retinal NV. Hence, targeting the VEGF/NFκB axis may act in a negative feedback loop to suppress ocular NV. This study suggests that inhibition of NFκB activation may be a means of turning off a "master switch" responsible for initiating and perpetuating these ocular pathologies.

  15. Nuclear Factor {kappa}B, Airway Epithelium, and Asthma: Avenues for Redox Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Heininger, Y.M.; Poynter, M.E.; Aesif, S.W.; Pantano, C.; Ather, J.L.; Reynaert, N.L.; Ckless, K.; Anathy, V.; van der Velden, J.; Irvin, C.G.; van der Vliet, A.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of recent studies points to the importance of airway epithelial cells in the orchestration of inflammatory responses in the allergic inflamed lung. Studies also point to a role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. This article provides a perspective

  16. Osteoprotegerin and ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor : kappaB expression in ovariectomized rats during tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lingyong; Cheng, Hui; Sandham, John; Zhao, Zhihe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that increased tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats is not related to differential expressions of OPG and RANKL in the periodontium. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four 12-week female rats were used; half were ovariectomized and half were not. Three months

  17. Osteoprotegerin and ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor : kappaB expression in ovariectomized rats during tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lingyong; Cheng, Hui; Sandham, John; Zhao, Zhihe

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that increased tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats is not related to differential expressions of OPG and RANKL in the periodontium. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four 12-week female rats were used; half were ovariectomized and half were not. Three months

  18. Osteoprotegerin and ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor : kappaB expression in ovariectomized rats during tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lingyong; Cheng, Hui; Sandham, John; Zhao, Zhihe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that increased tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats is not related to differential expressions of OPG and RANKL in the periodontium. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four 12-week female rats were used; half were ovariectomized and half were not. Three months

  19. Phytochemicals of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia exert anticancer effect by tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated decrease in nuclear factor kappaB binding activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hadem, Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta; Sharan, Rajeshwar Nath; Kma, Lakhan

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The active compounds or metabolites of herbal plants exert a definite physiological action on the human body and thus are widely used in human therapy for various diseases including cancer. Previous studies by our group have reported the anticarcinogenic properties of the two herbal plants extracts (HPE) of Aristolochia tagala (AT) Cham. and Curcuma caesia (CC) Roxb. in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo. The anticarcinogenic properties of these extracts may be d...

  20. Skeletal changes in osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappab ligand mRNA levels in primary hyperparathyroidism: effect of parathyroidectomy and association with bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilgren, L S; Rettmer, E; Eriksen, E F;

    2004-01-01

    (PHPT), hypersecretion of PTH leads to enhanced bone resorption and formation with increased risk of fracture. Decreasing PTH levels by surgery normalizes bone metabolism, but the effects on skeletal OPG and RANKL production are unknown. In this study, 24 patients referred to our clinic for evaluation...

  1. Expression and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and nuclear factor kappaB in normal and lesional psoriatic skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    activators of PPARdelta. The expression levels of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 were not significantly altered in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. In the basal layer of normal epidermis both p50 and p65 were sequestered in the cytoplasm, whereas p50, but not p65, localized to nuclei...... in the suprabasal layers, and this distribution was maintained in lesional psoriatic skin. In normal human keratinocytes PPAR agonists neither impaired IL-1beta-induced translocation of p65 nor IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding. We show that PPARdelta physically interacts with the N-terminal Rel homology......-mediated transactivation was partially relieved by forced expression of the coactivators p300 or CBP. We suggest that deficient NF-kappaB activation in chronic psoriatic plaques permitting unabated PPARdelta-mediated transactivation contributes to the pathologic phenotype of psoriasis....

  2. Antiosteoclastogenesis activity of a CO2 laser antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Liang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage cells are the important effector cells in the immune reaction which are indispensable for osteoclastogenesis; their heterogeneity and plasticity renders macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. In recent years, there have been very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteoclastogenesis. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with RANKL to regulate osteoclastogenesis. We used a CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of osteoclastogenic. We also evaluated cell viability, cell death and cathepsin K expression. The CO2 laser inhibited a receptor activator of the NF-ĸB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that irradiation for two times reduced RANKL-enhanced TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CO2 laser-treatment diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-ĸB activation. The current report demonstrates that CO2 laser abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The CO2 laser can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts and the maturation of osteoclasts. Therefore, the current results serve as an improved explanation of the cellular roles of macrophage cell populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling by CO2 laser-treatment.

  3. Phillyrin, a natural lignan, attenuates tumor necrosis factor α-mediated insulin resistance and lipolytic acceleration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Poren; Zhang, Linlin; Guo, Yuyu; Lu, Yingli; Lin, Dongping

    2014-07-01

    In obese adipose tissue, tumor necrosis factor-α secreted from macrophages plays an important role in the adipocyte dysfunctions, including insulin resistance, lipolytic acceleration, and changes of adipokines, which promote the development of obesity-related complications. Phillyrin, an active ingredient found in many medicinal plants and certain functional foods, elicits anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of phillyrin in preventing tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance or lipolytic acceleration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that phillyrin partially restored insulin-stimulated 2-DOG uptake, which was reduced by tumor necrosis factor-α, with concomitant restoration in serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation to plasma membrane. Phillyrin also dose-dependently prevented tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated adipocyte lipolysis with preserved downregulation of perilipin. The mitogen-activated protein kinases and I kappaB kinase activation was promoted in tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated adipocytes, but pretreatment with 40 µM phillyrin inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2, stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase and I kappaB kinase (padipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, the enhanced productions of tumor necrosis factor-α and free fatty acids in the medium were significantly reduced by phillyrin (padipocyte dysfunctions induced by tumor necrosis factor-α through suppression of the activation of I kappaB kinase and N-terminal kinase. Phillyrin may have the potential to ameliorate the inflammatory changes and insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Quercetin induces human colon cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-An; Zhang, Shuangxi; Yin, Qing; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as chemopreventers. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis as well as the antioxidant functions. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Inhibitors of NF-κB pathway have shown potential anti-tumor activities. However, it is not fully elucidated in colon cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer CACO-2 and SW-620 cells through inhibiting NF-κB pathway, as well as down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and up-regulation of Bax, thus providing basis for clinical application of quercetin in colon cancer cases.

  5. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  6. Allelic mutations in noncoding genomic sequences construct novel transcription factor binding sites that promote gene overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Erming; Børset, Magne; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Brede, Gaute; Våtsveen, Thea K; Hov, Håkon; Waage, Anders; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D; Epstein, Joshua; Sundan, Anders

    2015-11-01

    The growth and survival factor hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is expressed at high levels in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We report here that elevated HGF transcription in MM was traced to DNA mutations in the promoter alleles of HGF. Sequence analysis revealed a previously undiscovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and crucial single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the promoters of myeloma cells that produce large amounts of HGF. The allele-specific mutations functionally reassembled wild-type sequences into the motifs that affiliate with endogenous transcription factors NFKB (nuclear factor kappa-B), MZF1 (myeloid zinc finger 1), and NRF-2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). In vitro, a mutant allele that gained novel NFKB-binding sites directly responded to transcriptional signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) to promote high levels of luciferase reporter. Given the recent discovery by genome-wide sequencing (GWS) of numerous non-coding mutations in myeloma genomes, our data provide evidence that heterogeneous SNVs in the gene regulatory regions may frequently transform wild-type alleles into novel transcription factor binding properties to aberrantly interact with dysregulated transcriptional signals in MM and other cancer cells.

  7. Regulation of stem cell factor expression in inflammation and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.

  8. Restoring apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway with the anti-epidermal growth factor antibody IMC-C225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclabas, Guido M; Fujioka, Shuichi; Schmidt, Christian; Fan, Zhen; Evans, Douglas B; Chiao, Paul J

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that RelA is constitutively activated in the majority of human pancreatic cancers and plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. The antiapoptotic gene bcl-xl is a downstream target of RelA, and regulation of bcl-xl transcription is mediated directly by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites present in the upstream promoter element of the bcl-xl gene. In this study we investigated the effects of inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody IMC-C225 on constitutive NF-kappaB activation and regulation of apoptosis-related genes in human pancreatic cancer cells. We found that activation of EGFR can be blocked with the anti-EGFR antibody IMC-C225 in the human pancreatic cancer cell line MDA Panc-28, leading to a marked decrease in constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Our data also suggest that downregulation of NF-kappaB DNA binding activity by IMC-C225 leads to a decrease in bcl-xl and bfl-1 expression. Therefore, targeting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway with an anti-EGFR antibody may be one strategy to restore apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells, thereby enhancing the effect of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  9. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  10. Expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 is associated with occurrence of osteochondral change in pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takehiro; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kozawa, Eiji; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Hamada, Shunsuke; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign, translocation-derived neoplasm. Because of its high local recurrence rate after surgery and occurrence of osteochondral destruction, a novel therapeutic target is required. The present study aimed to evaluate the significance of protein expression possibly associated with the pathogenesis during the clinical course of PVNS. In 40 cases of PVNS, positivity of colony-stimulated factor 1 (CSF1), its receptor (CSF1R), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were immunohistochemically determined. The relationship between the positivity and clinical outcomes was investigated. High positivity of CSF1 staining intensity was associated with an increased incidence of osteochondral lesions (bone erosion and osteoarthritis) (p = 0.009), but not with the rate of local recurrence. Positivity of CSF1R and RANKL staining was not associated with any clinical variables. The number of giant cells was not correlated with positivity of any of the three proteins, or with the clinical outcome. Focusing on knee cases, CSF1 positivity was also associated with the incidence of osteochondal change (p = 0.02). CSF1R positivity was high in cases which had local recurrence, but not significantly so (p = 0.129). Determination of CSF1 and CSF1R expression may be useful as a prognosticator of the clinical course and/or outcomes of PVNS.

  11. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Memantine on Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin Receptor Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, Amyloidogenesis, and Neurotrophic Factor Decline in Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Nath, Chandishwar; Hanif, Kashif; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    Our earlier studies showed that insulin receptor (IR) dysfunction along with neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis played a major role in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced toxicity in astrocytes. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist-memantine shows beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the protective molecular and cellular mechanism of memantine in astrocytes is not properly understood. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of memantine on insulin receptors, neurotrophic factors, neuroinflammation, and amyloidogenesis in STZ-treated astrocytes. STZ (100 μM) treatment for 24 h in astrocytes resulted significant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) expression in astrocytes. Treatment with memantine (1-10 μM) improved STZ-induced neurotrophic factor decline (BDNF, GDNF) along with IR dysfunction as evidenced by a significant increase in IR protein expression, phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and GSK-3 α/β in astrocytes. Further, memantine attenuated STZ-induced amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-site APP-cleaving enzyme-1 and amyloid-β1-42 expression and restored IDE expression in astrocytes. In addition, memantine also displays protective effects against STZ-induced astrocyte activation showed by reduction of inflammatory markers, nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, glial fibrillary acidic protein, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α level, and oxidative-nitrostative stress. The results suggest that besides the NMDA receptor antagonisic activity, effect on astroglial IR and neurotrophic factor may also be an important factor in the beneficial effect of memantine in AD pathology. Graphical Abstract Novel neuroprotective mechanisms of memenatine in streptozotocin-induced toxicity in astrocytes.

  13. Nuclear Factor-kappaB controls the reaggregation of 3D neurosphere cultures in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Widera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach of reaggregation involves the regeneration and self-renewal of histotypical 3D spheres from isolated tissue kept in suspension culture. Reaggregated spheres can be used as tumour, genetic, biohybrid and neurosphere models. In addition the functional superiority of 3D aggregates over conventional 2D cultures developed the use of neurospheres for brain engineering of CNS diseases. Thus 3D aggregate cultures created enormous interest in mechanisms that regulate the formation of multicellular aggregates in vitro. Here we analyzed mechanisms guiding the development of 3D neurosphere cultures. Adult neural stem cells can be cultured as self-adherent clusters, called neurospheres. Neurospheres are characterised as heterogeneous clusters containing unequal stem cell sub-types. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha is one of the crucial inflammatory cytokines with multiple actions on several cell types. TNF- alpha strongly activates the canonical Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF-kappaB pathway. In order to investigate further functions of TNF in neural stem cells (NSCs we tested the hypothesis that TNF is able to modulate the motility and/or migratory behaviour of SVZ derived adult neural stem cells. We observed a significantly faster sphere formation in TNF treated cultures than in untreated controls. The very fast aggregation of isolated NSCs (<2h is a commonly observed phenomenon, though the mechanisms of 3D neurosphere formation remain largely unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time, increased aggregation and enhanced motility of isolated NSCs in response to the TNF-stimulus. Moreover, this phenomenon is largely dependent on activated transcription factor NF-kappaB. Both, the pharmacological blockade of NF-kappaB pathway by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC or Bay11-7082 and genetic blockade by expression of a transdominant-negative super-repressor IkappaB-AA1 led to decreased aggregation.

  14. PRMT5, a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis via nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Koike, Sumie; Naito, Mikihiko; Noda, Tetsuo; Arai, Hiroyuki; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya

    2009-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily and has selective antitumor activity. Although TNF-alpha-induced intracellular signaling pathways have been well studied, TRAIL signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel TRAIL receptor-binding protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), as a result of proteomic screening. PRMT5 selectively interacted with death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 but not with TNF receptor 1 or Fas. PRMT5 gene silencing sensitized various cancer cells to TRAIL without affecting TRAIL resistance in nontransformed cells. PRMT5 contributed to TRAIL-induced activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), leading to induction of several NF-kappaB target genes. Although IKK inhibition increased sensitivity to both TRAIL and TNF-alpha, PRMT5 knockdown potentiated TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity alone. PRMT5 had no effect on TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. These results show the selectivity of PRMT5 for TRAIL signaling. The PRMT5 small interfering RNA-mediated susceptibility to TRAIL was rescued by ectopic expression of active IKKbeta, confirming the involvement of PRMT5 in TRAIL resistance by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of PRMT5 in TRAIL-based cancer treatments

  15. Inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway by tetracyclic kaurene diterpenes in macrophages. Specific effects on NF-kappa B-inducing kinase activity and on the coordinate activation of ERK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, A; de Las Heras, B; Hortelano, S; Rodriguez, B; Villar, A; Bosca, L

    2001-05-11

    The anti-inflammatory action of most terpenes has been explained in terms of the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. Ent-kaurene diterpenes are intermediates of the synthesis of gibberellins and inhibit the expression of NO synthase-2 and the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in J774 macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide. These diterpenes inhibit NF-kappaB and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation in vivo but failed to affect in vitro the function of NF-kappaB, the phosphorylation and targeting of IkappaBalpha, and the activity of IKK-2. Transient expression of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) activated the IKK complex and NF-kappaB, a process that was inhibited by kaurenes, indicating that the inhibition of NIK was one of the targets of these diterpenes. These results show that kaurenes impair the inflammatory signaling by inhibiting NIK, a member of the MAPK kinase superfamily that interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors, and mediate the activation of NF-kappaB by these receptors. Moreover, kaurenes delayed the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and ERK2 MAPKs, but not that of JNK, in response to lipopolysaccharide treatment of J774 cells. The absence of a coordinate activation of MAPK and IKK might contribute to a deficient activation of NF-kappaB that is involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of these molecules.

  16. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy on Osteoclasts Precursors in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês P Perpétuo

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive local bone formation and concomitant systemic bone loss. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF plays a central role in the inflammation of axial skeleton and enthesis of AS patients. Despite reduction of inflammation and systemic bone loss, AS patients treated with TNF inhibitors (TNFi have ongoing local bone formation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNFi in the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts (OC in AS patients.13 AS patients treated with TNFi were analyzed at baseline and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. 25 healthy donors were recruited as controls. Blood samples were collected to assess receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL surface expression on circulating leukocytes and frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations. Quantification of serum levels of bone turnover markers and cytokines, in vitro OC differentiation assay and qRT-PCR for OC specific genes were performed.RANKL+ circulating lymphocytes (B and T cells and IL-17A, IL-23 and TGF-β levels were decreased after TNFi treatment. We found no differences in the frequency of the different monocyte subpopulations, however, we found decreased expression of CCR2 and increased expression of CD62L after TNFi treatment. OC number was reduced in patients at baseline when compared to controls. OC specific gene expression was reduced in circulating OC precursors after TNFi treatment. However, when cultured in OC differentiating conditions, OC precursors from AS TNFi-treated patients showed increased activity as compared to baseline.In AS patients, TNFi treatment reduces systemic pro osteoclastogenic stimuli. However, OC precursors from AS patients exposed to TNFi therapy have increased in vitro activity in response to osteoclastogenic stimuli.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 affects osteogenic efficacy on dental implants in rat mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Young-Hee [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Ho [Department of Dental Materials, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Song [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials, Development and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ho-Keun, E-mail: yihokn@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in bone cells and its utilization in dental implants have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic efficacy of chitosan gold nanoparticles (Ch-GNPs) conjugated with IGFBP-3 coated titanium (Ti) implants. Ch-GNPs were conjugated with IGFBP-3 plasmid DNA through a coacervation process. Conjugation was cast over Ti surfaces, and cells were seeded on coated surfaces. For in vitro analysis the expression of different proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. For in vivo analysis, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were installed in rat mandibles. Four weeks post-implantation, mandibles were examined by microcomputed tomography (μCT), immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin & eosin and tartrate resistance acid phosphatase staining. In vitro overexpressed Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated Ti surfaces was associated with activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), inhibition of the stress activated protein c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and 7 compared to control. Further, in vivo, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were associated with inhibition of implant induced osteoclastogenesis molecules, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced expression of osteogenic molecules including BMP2/7 and osteopontin (OPN). The μCT analysis demonstrated that IGFBP-3 increased the volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implants compared to control (n = 5; p < 0.05). These results support the view that IGFBP-3 overexpression diminishes osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis of Ti implants, and can serve as a potent molecule for the development of good implantation. - Highlights: • Chitosan gold nanoparticles were conjugated with IGFBP-3 and coated onto surface of the titanium implants for gene delivery to bone. • Implants were inserted in rat mandible for 4 weeks. • Parameters studied: histopathology and radiology.

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  19. AGRO100 inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by forming a complex with NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) and nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Allicia C; Teng, Yun; Casson, Lavona K; Thomas, Shelia D; Jüliger, Simone; Ball, Mark W; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Barve, Shirish S; Bates, Paula J

    2006-07-01

    AGRO100, also known as AS1411, is an experimental anticancer drug that recently entered human clinical trials. It is a member of a novel class of antiproliferative agents known as G-rich oligonucleotides (GRO), which are non-antisense, guanosine-rich phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides that form stable G-quadruplex structures. The biological activity of GROs results from their binding to specific cellular proteins as aptamers. One important target protein of GROs has been previously identified as nucleolin, a multifunctional protein expressed at high levels by cancer cells. Here, we report that AGRO100 also associates with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) essential modulator (NEMO), which is a regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) complex, and also called IKKgamma. In the classic NF-kappaB pathway, the IKK complex is required for phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We found that treatment of cancer cells with AGRO100 inhibits IKK activity and reduces phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that AGRO100 blocks both tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced and constitutive NF-kappaB activity in human cancer cell lines derived from cervical, prostate, breast, and lung carcinomas. In addition, we showed that, in AGRO100-treated cancer cells, NEMO is coprecipitated by nucleolin, indicating that both proteins are present in the same complex. Our studies suggest that abrogation of NF-kappaB activity may contribute to the anticancer effects of AGRO100 and that nucleolin may play a previously unknown role in regulating the NF-kappaB pathway.

  20. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Chuanshu

    2008-04-01

    The chemopreventive properties of edible berries have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, however, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects are largely unknown. Our previous studies have shown that a methanol extract fraction of freeze-dried black raspberries inhibits benzoapyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. This fraction also blocks activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by benzoapyrene diol-epoxide (BaPDE) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl 41 cells. To determine if different berry types exhibit specific mechanisms for their anti-cancer effects, we compared the effects of extract fractions from both black raspberries and strawberries on BaPDE-induced activation of various signaling pathways in Cl 41 cells. Black raspberry fractions inhibited the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by BaPDE as well as their upstream PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, strawberry fractions inhibited NFAT activation, but did not inhibit the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB or the PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Consistent with the effects on NFAT activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction by BaPDE was blocked by extract fractions of both black raspberries and strawberries, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which depends on AP-1 activation, was suppressed by black raspberry fractions but not strawberry fractions. These results suggest that black raspberry and strawberry components may target different signaling pathways in exerting their anti-carcinogenic effects.

  1. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  2. Epicatechin induces NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Haegeman, Guy; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary flavonoid epicatechin has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin on the activity of the main transcription factors (NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2)) related to antioxidant defence and survival and proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of cells with 10 microm-epicatechin induced the NF-kappaB pathway in a time-dependent manner characterised by increased levels of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and phosphorylated inhibitor of kappaB subunit-alpha (p-IkappaBalpha) and proteolytic degradation of IkappaB, which was consistent with an up-regulation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity. Time-dependent activation of the AP-1 pathway, in concert with enhanced c-Jun nuclear levels and induction of Nrf2 translocation and phosphorylation were also demonstrated. Additionally, epicatechin-induced NF-kappaB and Nrf2 were connected to reactive oxygen species intracellular levels and to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, being phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) associated to Nrf2 modulation and ERK to NF-kappaB induction. These data suggest that the epicatechin-induced survival effect occurs by the induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors through a tight regulation of survival and proliferation pathways.

  3. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in nuclear factor-kappaB knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Fiumara, Tiziana; Squadrito, Francesco; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Marini, Herbert; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) play an important role in testicular ischemia. We investigated the patterns of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 activation in NF-kappaB knockout (KO) mice subjected to testicular torsion. KO and normal littermate wild-type (WT) animals underwent at 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion (TI/R). Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion mice served as controls. ERK 1/2, JNK and p38 expression by western blot analysis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression (RT-PCR and western blot analysis) and a complete histological examination were carried out. TI/R caused a greater increase in phosphorylated form of ERK 1/2 in KO mice than in WT animals in either the ischemic testis and the contralateral one. By contrary, active form of JNK and p38 were completely abrogated in both testes of KO mice, while WT animals showed a significant activation of those kinases in both testes. TNF-alpha expression was markedly reduced in KO mice when compared to WT mice either at the mRNA and the protein level. Finally TI/R-induced histological damage was markedly reduced in KO mice. Our data indicate that NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the development of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury and suggest that, in the absence of the transcriptional factor, the up-stream signal JNK and p38 may be abrogated while ERK 1/2 activity is enhanced.

  4. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  5. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  6. Correlation of astrocyte elevated gene‑1, basic‑fibroblast growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Background: Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the ... Departments of Pathology, 2Biostatistics and 3General Surgery, ..... of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway by astrocyte elevated gene‑1: Implications.

  7. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  8. Calcineurin phosphatase as a negative regulator of fear memory in hippocampus: control on nuclear factor-κB signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Fustiñana, María Sol; Zalcman, Gisela; Romano, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    Protein phosphatases are important regulators of neural plasticity and memory. Some studies support that the Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is, on the one hand, a negative regulator of memory formation and, on the other hand, a positive regulator of memory extinction and reversal learning. However, the signaling mechanisms by which CaN exerts its action in such processes are not well understood. Previous findings support that CaN negatively regulate the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway during extinction. Here, we have studied the role of CaN in contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation in the hippocampus. We investigated the CaN control on the NF-κB signaling pathway, a key mechanism that regulates gene expression in memory processes. We found that post-training intrahippocampal administration of the CaN inhibitor FK506 enhanced memory retention one day but not two weeks after training. Accordingly, the inhibition of CaN by FK506 increased NF-κB activity in dorsal hippocampus. The administration of the NF-κB signaling pathway inhibitor sulfasalazine (SSZ) impeded the enhancing effect of FK506. In line with our findings in consolidation, FK506 administration before memory reactivation enhanced memory reconsolidation when tested one day after re-exposure to the training context. Strikingly, memory was also enhanced two weeks after training, suggesting that reinforcement during reconsolidation is more persistent than during consolidation. The coadministration of SSZ and FK506 blocked the enhancement effect in reconsolidation, suggesting that this facilitation is also dependent on the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, our results support a novel mechanism by which memory formation and reprocessing can be controlled by CaN regulation on NF-κB activity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  10. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  11. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation on the reactive oxygen species in acute necrotizing pancreatitic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Long; Na Song; Xi-Ping Liu; Ke-Jian Guo; Ren-Xuan Guo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation on the reactive oxygen species in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and to assess the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB).METHODS: Rat ANP model was established by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups (10rats each): Control group, ANP group and PDTC group. At the 6th h of the model, the changes of the serum amylase,nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pancreatic morphological damage were observed. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) were observed by SP immunohistochemistry. And the expressions of NF-κB p65 subunit mRNA were observed by hybridization in situ.RESULTS: Serum amylase and NO level decreased significantly in ANP group as compared with PDTC administrated group [(7 170.40±1 308.63) U/L vs(4 074.10±1 719.78) U/L,P<0.05], [(76.95±9.04) μmol/L vs (65.18±9.02) μmol/L,P<0.05] respectively. MDA in both ANP and PDTC group rose significantly over that in control group [(9.88±1.52)nmol/L, (8.60±1.41) nmol/L, vs (6.04±1.78) nmol/L,P<0.05], while there was no significant difference between them. SOD levels in both ANP and PDTC group underwent a significant decrease as compared with that in control [(3 214.59±297.74) NU/mL, (3 260.62±229.44) NU/mL,vs (3 977.80±309.09) NU/mL, P<0.05], but there was no significant difference between them. Though they were still higher than those in Control group, pancreas destruction was slighter in PDTC group, iNOS expression and NF-κB p65 subunit mRNA expression were lower in PDTC group as compared with ANP group.CONCLUSION: We conclude that correlation among NF-κB activation, serum amylase, reactive oxygen species level and tissue damage suggests a key role of NF-κB in the pathogenesis of ANP. Inhibition of NF-κB activation may reverse the pancreatic damage

  12. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  13. Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-kwong Kwok

    2004-01-01

    Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 activates apoptosis during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a nuclear factor-kappaB-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Maisano, Daniele; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2009-02-14

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase3/MAPK1 and MAPK8 are involved in testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (testicular-I/R). NF-kappaB knock-out mice (KO) subjected to testicular-I/R have a reduced testicular damage, blunted MAPK8 activation and enhanced MAPK3/MAPK1 activity. To better understand the role of MAPK3/MAPK1 up-regulation during testicular-I/R, we investigated the effects of PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK3/MAPK1, in KO mice during testicular-I/R. KO and wild-type (WT) animals underwent 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion or a sham testicular-I/R. Animals received either PD98059 (5 mg/kg/ip) or its vehicle. MAPK3/MAPK1, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 and TNF-alpha expression were assessed along with histological examination and an immunostaining for protein of apoptosis. Testicular-I/R caused a greater increase in MAPK3/MAPK1 in KO than in WT animals in both testes. KO mice had a lower expression of the apoptotic proteins and TNF-alpha as well as reduced histological damage compared to WT. Immunostaining confirmed the lower expression of BAX in the Leydig cells of KO mice. Administration of PD98059, abrogated MAPK3/MAPK1 expression and slightly reduced TNF-alpha but did not improve or reverse the histological damage in KO. PD98059 significantly reduced the histological damage in WT mice and markedly reduced the apoptotic proteins in KO and WT mice. These results suggest that testicular-I/R triggers also a pathway of organ damage involving MAPK3/MAPK1, TNF-alpha, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 that activates an apoptotic machinery in an NF-kappaB independent manner. These findings should contribute to better understand testicular torsion-induced damage.

  15. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  16. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  17. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  18. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  19. Transforming growth factor-β synthesized by stromal cells and cancer cells participates in bone resorption induced by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kayamori, Kou [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Oue, Erika [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Kei [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Kiyoshi [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a significant role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. To explore the role of TGF-β in oral cancer-induced bone destruction, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in 12 surgical specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). These studies revealed TGF-β and p-Smad2 expression in cancer cells in all tested cases. Several fibroblasts located between cancer nests and resorbing bone expressed TGF-β in 10 out of 12 cases and p-Smad2 in 11 out of 12 cases. Some osteoclasts also exhibited p ∼ Smad2 expression. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, and the bone marrow-derived fibroblastic cell line, ST2, synthesized substantial levels of TGF-β. Culture media derived from HSC3 cells could stimulate Tgf-β1 mRNA expression in ST2 cells. Recombinant TGF-β1 could stimulate osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in RAW264 cells. TGF-β1 could upregulate the expression of p-Smad2 in RAW264 cells, and this action was suppressed by the addition of a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β or by SB431542. Transplantation of HSC3 cells onto the calvarial region of athymic mice caused bone destruction, associated with the expression of TGF-β and p-Smad2 in both cancer cells and stromal cells. The bone destruction was substantially inhibited by the administration of SB431542. The present study demonstrated that TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Cancer cell, fibroblastic cells, and osteoclasts at bone resorbing area by oral cancer exhibited TGF-β and p-Smad2. • TGF-β1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis induced by RAKL in RAW264 cell. • Xenograft model of oral cancer-induced bone resorption was substantially inhibited by SB431542. • TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC

  20. Role of RANKL-RANK/Osteoprotegerin Pathway in Cardiovascular and Bone Disease Associated with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Currier, Judith S.; Yang, Otto O.; Brown, Todd T

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HIV-1 infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities, including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis has been identified as a possible common link between osteoporosis and vascular diseases. Since the discovery of this axis, much has been learned about its role in controlling skeletal biology and less about its role in the context of vascular biology. However, the exact role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis in HIV infection is not completely understood. In this review we examine the mechanisms by which inflammation and immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection may impact bone turnover and atherogenesis through perturbations in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis. PMID:25102334

  1. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  2. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  3. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and target genes in gastric precancerous lesions and adenocarcinoma:Association with Helicobactor pylori cagA (+) infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Fang Yang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Yong-Yan Xiong; Ling-Ling Gong; Bi-Cheng Wang; Jun Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and its target genes in intestinal metaplasia (IN),dysplasia (DYS) and gastric carcinoma (GC) infected with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) and to investigate the mechanism underlying H pylori cytotoxin associated gene A (cag A) infection leading to gastric adenocarcinoma.METHODS: Expressions of NF-κB/p65 and its target genes:c-myc, cyclinD1 and bcl-xl were immunohistochemically examined in 289 cases of gastric biopsy and resection specimens from patients with IM, DYS and GC infected with H pylori. H pylori in the above mentioned tissues was detected by Warthin-Starry stain and rapid urease tests.IgG antibody to cagA in sera of the patients was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: The positive rates of NF-κB/p65 were significantly higher in groups with cagA of IMI-Ⅱ(28/33), IM Ⅲ(48/52),DYSI(27/31), DYS Ⅱ-Ⅲ(28/32), GC(35/40) than in groups without cagA of IMI-Ⅱ(4/17), IMIII(3/20), DYSI(3/20),DYSII-Ⅲ(6/21), GC(10/23). The expressions of c-myc,cyclinD1, and bcl-xl were significantly higher in groups with cagA of IM Ⅲ(47/52, 49/52, 46/52), DYSII-Ⅲ(29/32, 26/32,25/32) than in groups without cagA of IM Ⅲ(8/20, 7/20,5/20), DYSII-Ⅲ(10/21, 8/21,3/21), which were in conformity with the expression of NF-κB in IM Ⅲ, and DYSII-Ⅲ. A significantly higher expression level of NF-κB/p65, c-myc,cyclinD1 and bcl-xl was detected in intestinal type GC(27/28,18/28, 22/28, 24/28) than in diffuse type GC(8/12, 3/12,3/12, 6/12), respectively.CONCLUSION: There may be two different molecular mechanisms in the occurrence of intestinal and diffuse type gastric carcinomas. Intestinal type gastric carcinoma is strongly associated with high expression of c-myc, cyclinD1 and bcl-xl through NF-κB/p65 activated by H pylori cagA.Inhibiting the activity of NF-κB is an effective and promising way to prevent intestinal type gastric carcinoma.

  4. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...

  5. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  6. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  7. Poxvirus host range protein CP77 contains an F-box-like domain that is necessary to suppress NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha but is independent of its host range function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Jung; Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Chiang, Cheng-Ting; Yang, Min-Hsiang; Tzou, Der-Lii; Mercer, Andrew A; Chang, Wen

    2009-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activates the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway that regulates expression of many cellular factors playing important roles in innate immune responses and inflammation in infected hosts. Poxviruses employ many strategies to inhibit NF-kappaB activation in cells. In this report, we describe a poxvirus host range protein, CP77, which blocked NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65 protein in TNF-alpha-treated HeLa cells was blocked by CP77. CP77 did so without blocking IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, suggesting that upstream kinase activation was not affected by CP77. Using GST pull-down, we showed that CP77 bound to the NF-kappaB subunit p65 through the N-terminal six-ankyrin-repeat region in vitro. CP77 also bound to Cullin-1 and Skp1 of the SCF complex through a C-terminal 13-amino-acid F-box-like sequence. Both regions of CP77 are required to block NF-kappaB activation. We thus propose a model in which poxvirus CP77 suppresses NF-kappaB activation by two interactions: the C-terminal F-box of CP77 binding to the SCF complex and the N-terminal six ankyrins binding to the NF-kappaB subunit p65. In this way, CP77 attenuates innate immune response signaling in cells. Finally, we expressed CP77 or a CP77 F-box deletion protein from a vaccinia virus host range mutant (VV-hr-GFP) and showed that either protein was able to rescue the host range defect, illustrating that the F-box region, which is important for NF-kappaB modulation and binding to SCF complex, is not required for CP77's host range function. Consistently, knocking down the protein level of NF-kappaB did not relieve the growth restriction of VV-hr-GFP in HeLa cells.

  8. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  9. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  10. Factoring Polynomials and Fibonacci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the factoring of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to factor it. (JN)

  11. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...

  12. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  13. Environmental factors in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  14. Environmental Factors in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas M. Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  15. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  16. Multilevel Mixture Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)…

  17. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  18. Chromium histidinate protects against heat stress by modulating the expression of hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, C; Akdemir, F; Sahin, N; Tuzcu, M; Komorowski, J R; Hayirli, A; Sahin, K

    2012-01-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental chromium histidinate (CrHis) on performance and expressions of hepatic nuclear factors kappaB, an enhancer (NF-κB) and an inhibitor (IκBα) of activated B cells in heat-stressed Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 2. A total of 180, 10-d-old Japanese quail were allocated randomly into 6 groups in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) for 32 d and fed on one of three diets supplemented with 0, 400 or 800 µg of CrHis per kg of diet. Each group consisted of 10 cages, each containing three quail. Data (performance variables and hepatic NF-κB and IκBα) were analysed using 2-way ANOVA. 3. Heat stress caused reductions in cumulative feed intake (FI) by 5·7%, weight gain (WG) by 13·0%, final body weight (FBW) by 10·3%, carcase weight by 12·6% and carcase efficiency by 2·3% and an increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed consumed, g:weight gained, g) by 8·4%. As supplemental CrHis level increased up to 800 µg/kg, there were linear increases in cumulative FI (from 602 to 609 g), WG (from 134 to 138 g), FBW (from 167 to 171 g), cold carcase weight (from 110 to 114 g) and cold carcase efficiency (from 65·5 to 66·4%) and a decrease in FE (from 4·51 to 4·42). The environmental temperature by CrHis level interaction effect on performance parameters was insignificant. Hepatic NF-κB p65 concentration was higher and hepatic IκBα concentration was lower in quail exposed to HS than in quail kept at TN temperature. Increasing supplemental CrHis level linearly inhibited hepatic NF-κB p65 expression from 134·4 to 105·3% and linearly enhanced hepatic IκBα expression from 73·4 to 99·6%. The decrease in hepatic NF-κB expression and the increase in hepatic IκB expression were more notable in the TN environment than in the HS environment. 4. In conclusion, heat

  19. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  20. Explicit correlation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cole M.; Hirata, So; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the performance of 17 different correlation factors in explicitly correlated second-order many-body perturbation calculations for correlation energies. Highly performing correlation factors are found to have near-universal shape and size in the short range of electron-electron distance (0 1.5 a.u.) is insignificant insofar as the factor becomes near constant, leaving an orbital expansion to describe decoupled electrons. An analysis based on a low-rank Taylor expansion of the correlation factor seems limited, except that a negative second derivative with the value of around -1.3 a.u. correlates with high performance.

  1. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circul...

  2. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  3. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  4. Overview of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  5. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  6. Factors of schizoid personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Allbutt, J

    1989-02-01

    The increasing use of schizoid personality scales with normals has led to a number of validation studies, but to date there are no published analyses of the factorial structure of these scales. This study presents results of factor analyses of schizoid personality scales in an initial attempt to delineate their factorial structure. Questionnaires were administered to 114 male and female undergraduates and factor analysed using Varimax, Quartimax, and Oblique rotations. A two-factor varimax solution yielded a first factor accounting for 49 per cent of total unrotated variance with high (0.70 to 0.91) loadings from Hallucinatory predisposition, Perceptual aberration, Schizophrenism, STA and STB scales, and was interpreted as reflecting a general factor of schizoid personality disorder. Psychoticism and Social anhedonia loaded on a second factor accounting for 20 per cent of the variance which was uncorrelated (r = 0.09) with factor 1. This factor solution was closely replicated using quartimax and oblimin rotation criteria. It is concluded that Social anhedonia and Psychoticism represent a separate dimension from other scales which reflect the more positive features of schizoid personality.

  7. Factorized Graph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando

    2015-11-19

    Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.

  8. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  9. Environmental factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  10. Environmental factors in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  11. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujovich, Jody Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is a genetic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated Protein C and an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common manifestations, but thrombosis in unusual locations also occurs. The current evidence suggests that the mutation has at most a modest effect on recurrence risk after initial treatment of a first venous thromboembolism. Factor V Leiden is also associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased relative risk for pregnancy loss and possibly other obstetric complications, although the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome is high. The clinical expression of Factor V Leiden is influenced by the number of Factor V Leiden alleles, coexisting genetic and acquired thrombophilic disorders, and circumstantial risk factors. Diagnosis requires the activated Protein C resistance assay (a coagulation screening test) or DNA analysis of the F5 gene, which encodes the Factor V protein. The first acute thrombosis is treated according to standard guidelines. Decisions regarding the optimal duration of anticoagulation are based on an individualized assessment of the risks for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulant-related bleeding. In the absence of a history of thrombosis, long-term anticoagulation is not routinely recommended for asymptomatic Factor V Leiden heterozygotes, although prophylactic anticoagulation may be considered in high-risk clinical settings. In the absence of evidence that early diagnosis reduces morbidity or mortality, decisions regarding testing at-risk family members should be made on an individual basis.

  12. Two-factor authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Stanislav, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the book, readers will learn about the various technical methods by which two-factor authentication is implemented, security concerns with each type of implementation, and contextual details to frame why and when these technologies should be used. Readers will also be provided with insight about the reasons that two-factor authentication is a critical security control, events in history that have been important to prove why organization and individual would want to use two factor, and core milestones in the progress of growing the market.

  13. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  14. TMDs, universality and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alesio, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    We present a short overview on transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions, giving their partonic interpretation and ways to access them. We then discuss the issue of their universality and its connection to factorization in perturbative QCD.

  15. Factor V Leiden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase your chance of developing abnormal blood clots (thrombophilia), usually in your veins. Most people with factor ... sharp tools. References Bauer KA. Management of inherited thrombophilia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 6, ...

  16. New microbial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  17. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  18. Factor X assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  19. Factor XII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ... Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, ...

  20. Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ingegnoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy.

  1. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  2. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  3. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L A

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  4. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  5. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  6. General Factors in Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    conjectured that the general factor problem can be solved in polynomial time when, in each Bi, all the gaps (if any) have length one. We prove this conjecture...exactly bi edges incident with node i, for each i. This problem is well-solved. A polynomial algorithm is known (Edmonds and Johnson (1970)) as well as a...powerful theorem to characterize the existence of solutions ( Tutte (1952)). The following generalization of the factor problem was studied by Lovtsz

  7. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  8. Los factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Senado Dumoy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el fundamento filosófico de los conceptos de la Dialéctica Materialista, se presenta un análisis en relación con el concepto e interpretación de los Factores de Riesgo.A analysis on the concept and interpretation of risk factors is presented based on the philosophical foundation of the concepts of materialist dialectics.

  9. Factors affecting emotional divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Said Shabanlou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Divorce is the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society, the family.Due to the sensitivity and position of the familyAnd its functions specifically to investigate the factors underlying emotional divorce has of particular importance.Emotional Divorce phenomenon is not a single factor, but rather a set of related factors together led to Emotional Divorce.In this paper the role of psychological factors such as early maladaptive schemas, negative body image, perfectionism is discussed on an emotional divorce.Also quality of life and family relationships of couples with emotional divorce,Such as quality of health, sexual dissatisfaction, ignoring the needs, expectations and opinions of women by men or vice versa,And also social and economic factors such as subcultures families, couples, the quality of social relationships, social networks couple,Economic situation of the families of the couple, financial crisis, unemployment and economic revenues couples studied and some suggestions are presented based on the findings.

  10. CATTELL AND EYSENCK FACTOR SCORES RELATED TO COMREY PERSONALITY FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E

    1968-10-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  12. [Prognostic factors in resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, F; Le Gall, J R; Loirat, P; Alperovitch, A; Patois, E

    1988-10-08

    The outcome from intensive care is known to be influenced by such factors as age, previous health status, severity of the disease and diagnosis. In order to assess the influence of each individual factor, 3,687 patients from 38 French intensive care units were studied. For each patient were recorded: age, simplified acute physiological score (SAPS), previous health status, diagnosis, type of intensive care unit (medicine, scheduled or elective surgery) and immediate outcome. Each of these factors was found to influence the immediate survival rate. A multivariate analysis ranked the factors in the following order: SAPS, age, type of intensive care unit and previous health status. Diagnosis played a role in the prognosis since with a 10-15 points SAPS mortality was nil for drug overdose, 12 per cent for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 38 per cent for cardiogenic shock. However, a single diagnosis was made in only 37 per cent of the patients, as against 3 diagnoses in 17 per cent and 4 diagnoses or more in 7 per cent. When the type of intensive care unit was considered, the mean death rate was 20 per cent in medicine, 27 per cent in scheduled surgery and 5 per cent in elective surgery (P less than 0.001). Since this study showed a definite influence of each of the four factors on immediate survival, intensive care patients can be described and classified according to this system. However, it must be stressed that individual prognoses are extremely vague.

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Multi-factor authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  15. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  16. La adolescencia: factores criticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Ardila Espinel

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten factors, tbat are considered by several psychologists as sensitive and characterístíc of the adolescent period, were tested by means of a Lykert type scale of 50 ítems, Seventy-eight subjects divided in three groups (U·13 years, early adolescence; 14·17 years, middle adolescence; 18-22 years, late adolescence answered the scale, Results índicate age differences. The factors that are in conflict duríng the middle adolescente are: emotional control, self control, social behavior, logical thinking, tendeney toward independency, economic índependency, family índependency, relígíous independency, rules conflict,and affective development, The factors change in direction before, during, and after adolescence

  17. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  18. Orthogonal factorizations of digraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guizhen LIU

    2009-01-01

    Let G be a digraph with vertex set V(G) and arc set E(G) and let g = (g-,g+) and f = (f-, f+) be pairs of positive integer-valued functions defined on V(G) such that g-(x) ≤ f-(x) and g+(x) ≤ f+(x) for each x ∈ V(G). A (g, f)-factor of G is a spanning subdigraph H of G such that g-(x) ≤ idH(x) ≤ f-(x) and g+(x) ≤ odu(x) ≤ f+(x) for each x ∈ V(H); a (g, f)-factorization of G is a partition of E(G) into arc-disjoint (g, f)-factors. Let = {F1,F2,...,Fm} and H be a factorization and a subdigraph of G, respectively, is called k-orthogonal to H if each FI, 1 ≤ I ≤ m, has exactly k arcs in common with H. In this paper it is proved that every (mg+m-1, mf-m+1)-digraph has a (g, f)-factorization k-orthogonal to any given subdigraph with km arcs if k ≤ min{g-(x),g+(x)} for any x ∈ V(G) and that every (mg, mf)-digraph has a (g, f)-factorization orthogonal to any given directed m-star if 0 ≤ g(x) ≤ f(x) for any x ∈ V(G). The results in this paper are in some sense best possible.

  19. Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and breast cancer risk by ER and PR subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron

    2017-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoproteg...

  20. AcEST: DK956679 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0|IKKB_BOVIN Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase ... 32 3.1 sp|P37573|DISA_BACSU DNA integrity scan...ning protein disA OS=Baci... 32 3.1 sp|Q10921|YWQ1_CAEEL Uncharacterized protein B0

  1. Factores de riesgo psicosocial

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Tras un año de estudio de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales he podido ir adquiriendo, todavía más, una clara concienciación sobre el estudio, supresión y mejora de los factores de riesgo que afectan a los trabajadores en la ejecución de su trabajo. Algo que es fácil de darse cuenta al entrar en profundidad en estas cuestiones, es de la escasa conciencia que tienen las organizaciones y los trabajadores sobre lo perjudiciales que pueden ser para su salud los factores de riesgo ergonómicos. ...

  2. Graph factors modulo k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove a general result on graph factors modulo k . A special case says that, for each natural number k , every (12k−7)-edge-connected graph with an even number of vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which each vertex has degree congruent to k modulo 2k.......We prove a general result on graph factors modulo k . A special case says that, for each natural number k , every (12k−7)-edge-connected graph with an even number of vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which each vertex has degree congruent to k modulo 2k....

  3. Endodontic surgery prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Shah, Prakesh S

    2011-01-01

    Medline, (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases together with hand searching of the following journals: Journal of Endodontics, International Endodontic Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology (name changed to Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics in 1995), Endodontics and Dental Traumatology (name changed to Dental Traumatology in 2001), Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Clinical studies evaluating apical surgery with placement of a root-end filling were included. Studies on apical surgery with orthograde root canal filling or about apicectomy alone without root-end filling were excluded, as were experimental and animal studies. Only studies with ≥ ten patients with a minimum six month follow-up period and clearly defined radiographic and clinical healing criteria, with healing reported for at least two categories of a specific prognostic factor were accepted. Studies reporting in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Scandinavian languages were included. All studies were assessed separately by two of the three authors, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Prognostic factors were divided into patient related, tooth-related or treatment-related factors. The reported percentages of healed teeth were pooled per category. The statistical method of Mantel-Haenszel was applied to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Homogeneity was assessed using Woolf's test. With regard to tooth-related factors, the following were identified as predictors of healing: absence of preoperative pain or signs, good density of the root canal filling and a periapical lesion size of ≤ 5 mm. With regard to treatment-related factors, teeth treated with the use of an endoscope tended to have higher healed rates than teeth treated without the use of an endoscope. Although the clinician may be able to control treatment

  4. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  5. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  6. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  7. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  8. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  9. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  10. Irrational factor races

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sneha Chaubey; Milenda Lanius; Alexandru Zaharescu

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the behavior of the sum of the irrational factor function over arithmetic progressions. We first establish a general asymptotic formula for such a sum, and then obtain some further results in the case of arithmetic progressions 3 ± 1.

  11. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  12. Hyperglycemia: a prothrombotic factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Lemkes; J. Hermanides; J.H. Devries; F. Holleman; J.C.M. Meijers; J.B.L. Hoekstra

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a high risk of atherothrombotic events. What is more, venous thrombosis has also been found to occur more frequently in this patient group. This prothrombotic condition in diabetes is underpinned by laboratory findings of elevated coagulation factors and impaire

  13. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  14. Environmental factors and leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the association between environmental hazards and the development of various types of leukaemia are reviewed. Regarding acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-documented risk factor. According to several recent studies exposure to strong electromagnetic fields may be suspected to be of etiologic importance for ANLL. There is evidence that occupational handling of benzene is a risk factor and other organic solvents may also be leukaemogenic. Occupational exposure to petrol products has been proposed to be a risk factor although the hazardous substances have not yet been defined. Results of cytogenetic studies in ANLL suggest that exposure to certain environmental agents may be associated with relatively specific clonal chromosome aberrations. Exposure in utero to ionizing radiation has been proposed to be a risk factor for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Unlike ANLL there seems at present to be little evidence that ALL is related to exposure to some chemicals. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) may follow exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation whereas such exposure seems to be of insignificant importance for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). According to some studies an abnormally high incidence of CLL may be found among farmers in the USA. These results have not been confirmed in Scandinavian studies. There seems to be little evidence that CML or CLL are related to occupational handling of some chemicals. 35 references.

  15. Factor Analysis and AIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Hirotugu

    1987-01-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was introduced to extend the method of maximum likelihood to the multimodel situation. Use of the AIC in factor analysis is interesting when it is viewed as the choice of a Bayesian model; thus, wider applications of AIC are possible. (Author/GDC)

  16. eta ' transition form factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo Sanchez, del P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    eta((')) transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV(2). The analysis is based on 469 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  17. Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Acuña, F J; Ellis, M E; Kushleika, J; Woods, J S

    2001-06-15

    Mercuric ion (Hg(2+)), one of the strongest thiol-binding agents known, mediates the toxicity associated with elemental, inorganic, and organic mercurial compounds. Studies of cellular events associated with Hg(2+) toxicity have focused largely on disruption of cell membranes and impairment of mitochondrial functions. In contrast, few studies have sought to define the specific molecular mechanisms through which Hg(2+) might affect toxicity via alteration of thiol-dependent signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival. Of particular interest in this regard is the effect of Hg(2+) on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pleiotropic transcriptional factor that is known to require reduced cysteine moieties at critical steps of activation and DNA binding. Here, we evaluated the effects of Hg(2+) on the expression of NF-kappaB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells, a principal target of Hg(2+) toxicity. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible form of NF-kappaB was readily detected in kidney cells and has been characterized as the p50p65 heterodimer. NF-kappaB-DNA binding was prevented in a dose-related manner by Hg(2+) (0-55 microM) in vitro when added to DNA binding reactions containing the nonthiol reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP). Similarly, Hg(2+) at the same concentrations prevented DNA binding of a human recombinant wild-type p50p50 homodimer in binding reactions, and this effect was attenuated using a mutant form of the p50 protein containing a cys(62)-->ser(62) mutation. The inhibition of p50-DNA binding by Hg(2+) was reversible in a dose-related manner in vitro by competitive thiols DTT, GSH, and l-cysteine in binding reactions. In contrast, competitive thiols added to nuclear binding reactions were unable to reverse attenuation of LPS-mediated NF-kappaB-DNA binding affinity when cells were pretreated in vivo with Hg(2+) at concentrations as low as 2 microM prior to LPS administration

  18. Identificar Factores de Riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen el contexto histórico y las condiciones en que se ha configurado lo que podría caracterizarse como una verdadera "cacería de factores de riesgo" en la epidemiología contemporánea. Entre otros problemas, se ha extendido la práctica de encarar el problema de la determinación o identificación de factores de riesgo a través de un ritual estadístico que roza la caricatura y, lo más importante, que la mayor parte de las veces no conduce a conseguir el objetivo de la investigación, ni a obtener nuevos conocimientos. El trabajo caracteriza dicho ritual y examina críticamente sus pasos. Se realiza una detallada discusión de la endeblez metodológica de tal procedimiento y se ilustra profusamente su empleo.

  19. Smad transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagué, Joan; Seoane, Joan; Wotton, David

    2005-12-01

    Smad transcription factors lie at the core of one of the most versatile cytokine signaling pathways in metazoan biology-the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Recent progress has shed light into the processes of Smad activation and deactivation, nucleocytoplasmic dynamics, and assembly of transcriptional complexes. A rich repertoire of regulatory devices exerts control over each step of the Smad pathway. This knowledge is enabling work on more complex questions about the organization, integration, and modulation of Smad-dependent transcriptional programs. We are beginning to uncover self-enabled gene response cascades, graded Smad response mechanisms, and Smad-dependent synexpression groups. Our growing understanding of TGFbeta signaling through the Smad pathway provides general principles for how animal cells translate complex inputs into concrete behavior.

  20. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  1. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  2. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection.

  3. Power factor compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra R, Felipe [Schneider Electric Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    Every company is looking for ways to increase productivity as a way to gain a competitive advantage. Energy is a significant element in making any product and so it is important to assess production processes from an energy perspective. This paper discusses the impact of power factor compensation on energy efficiency. The life cycle solution for energy efficiency involves optimization of active energy using automation and regulation. A brief explanation is given of how each component of a company plays a part in this cycle. Examples include simulations and analysis, modeling, performance monitoring facilities, and environmental sustainability. Reactive energy suppliers and the installation of capacitors are also explained. Types of compensation include fixed and automation compensations. Economic advantages include a reduction in the electricity bill and active energy consumption. Technical advantages include reduction in voltage drop and an increase in available power. The power correction factor also improves reliability and contributes to conservation of the environment.

  4. On braid monodromy factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France); Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-30

    We introduce and develop a language of semigroups over the braid groups to study the braid monodromy factorizations (bmf's) of plane algebraic curves and other related objects. As an application, we give a new proof of Orevkov's theorem on the realization of bmf's over a disc by algebraic curves and show that the complexity of such a realization cannot be bounded in terms of the types of factors of the bmf. We also prove that the type of a bmf distinguishes Hurwitz curves with singularities of inseparable type up to H-isotopy and J-holomorphic cuspidal curves in CP{sup 2} up to symplectic isotopy.

  5. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  6. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors : Analyses of three factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Peabody, D

    2005-01-01

    This study proceeds from an earlier one that examined the 'Big Five' factors (Peabody & De Raad, 2002). That study considered the substantive nature of five factors from six European psycholexical studies. The results supported Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness), but Factors I (Extraversion) an

  7. Information security factors systematization

    OpenAIRE

    Янченко, Вадим Николавевич; Ивченко, Александр Владимирович; Залога, Вильям Александрович; Дынник, Оксана Дмитриевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the necessity of solving the theoretical and practical task, aimed on development the methodological basis for elaboration and implementation of information security management system, has been considered. Based on research results of scientific works and the requirements in the field of information security management the universal multilevel system of information security factors of organizations (enterprises) in the wood properties form was offered by using quality control ...

  8. The malingering factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Michael

    2011-04-01

    The influence of malingering and suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests has become a major interest of clinical neuropsychologists. Methods to detect malingering have focused on specialized tests or embedded patterns associated with malingering present in the conventional neuropsychology tests. There are two stages to the study of their validity. The first stage involves whether the method can discriminate malingering subjects from those who are not malingering. In the second stage, they must be examined for their relationship to the conventional tests used to establish impairment and disability. Constantinou, Bauer, Ashendorf, Fisher, and McCaffrey (2005. Is poor performance on recognition memory effort measures indicative of generalized poor performance on neuropsychological tests? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 191-198.) conducted the only study in which correlations are presented between a commonly used symptom validity test, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). A factor analysis was conducted using these correlations. It revealed a clear malingering factor that explained significant variance in the TOMM and the WAIS-R subtests. The relationship of malingering with cognitive tests is complex: some tests are sensitive to malingering and others are not. Factor analysis can summarize the magnitude of variance associated with each test and reveal the patterns of inter-relationships between malingering and clinical tests. The analysis also suggested that malingering assessment methods could be improved by the addition of timing the responses.

  9. Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Mila; Lindseth, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease is one of the most common public health problems in the United States. Approximately 10%-20% of the national adult populations currently carry gallstones, and gallstone prevalence is rising. In addition, nearly 750,000 cholecystectomies are performed annually in the United States; direct and indirect costs of gallbladder surgery are estimated to be $6.5 billion. Cholelithiasis is also strongly associated with gallbladder, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer occurrence. Moreover, the National Institutes of Health estimates that almost 3,000 deaths (0.12% of all deaths) per year are attributed to complications of cholelithiasis and gallbladder disease. Although extensive research has tried to identify risk factors for cholelithiasis, several studies indicate that definitive findings still remain elusive. In this review, predisposing factors for cholelithiasis are identified, the pathophysiology of gallstone disease is described, and nonsurgical preventive options are discussed. Understanding the risk factors for cholelithiasis may not only be useful in assisting nurses to provide resources and education for patients who are diagnosed with gallstones, but also in developing novel preventive measures for the disease.

  10. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  11. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  12. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  13. Molecular factors in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Marta; Prendecki, Michał; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects 11% of adults worldwide. This disease most likely has a neurovascular origin. Migraine with aura (MA) and more common form - migraine without aura (MO) – are the two main clinical subtypes of disease. The exact pathomechanism of migraine is still unknown, but it is thought that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in this pathological process. The first genetic studies of migraine were focused on the rare subtype of MA: familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). The genes analysed in familial and sporadic migraine are: MTHFR, KCNK18, HCRTR1, SLC6A4, STX1A, GRIA1 and GRIA3. It is possible that migraine is a multifactorial disease with polygenic influence. Recent studies have shown that the pathomechanisms of migraine involves both factors responsible for immune response and oxidative stress such as: cytokines, tyrosine metabolism, homocysteine; and factors associated with pain transmission and emotions e.g.: serotonin, hypocretin-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, glutamate. The correlations between genetic variants of the HCRTR1 gene, the polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and hypocretin-1, and serotonin were observed. It is known that serotonin inhibits the activity of hypocretin neurons and may affect the appearance of the aura during migraine attack. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of migraine, including genotype-phenotype correlations, may contribute to finding markers important for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27191890

  14. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  15. Milestones and Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  16. Milestones and impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-07-08

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  17. A New Factorization Method to Factorize RSA Public Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagvant Ram Ambedkar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The security of public key encryption such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm is based on positive integer N, because each transmitting node generates pair of keys such as public and private. Encryption and decryption of any message depends on N. Where, N is the product of two prime numbers and pair of key generation is dependent on these prime numbers. The factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a New Factorization method is proposed to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The proposed work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. The New Factorization method is based on Pollard rho factorization method. Experimental results shown that factorization speed is fast as compare existing methods.

  18. Cultural Factors in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔敏

    2005-01-01

    Reading is a basic ability in learning English and reading comprehension exercise is a common way to assess this ability.Since reading is a communicative activity between author and reader in written form,there are some different rules and regulations of this communication in different countries.Therefore,cultural factors,existing in reading,decide,help,and influence the percentage of the right answers.This article attempts to analyze the effects of cultural differences in reading and the barriers in comprehension,and aims to improve students awareness of cultural differences in reading.

  19. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  20. Auxin response factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John William

    2016-05-01

    Auxin signalling involves the activation or repression of gene expression by a class of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins that bind to auxin response elements in auxin-responsive gene promoters. The release of ARF repression in the presence of auxin by the degradation of their cognate auxin/indole-3-acetic acid repressors forms a paradigm of transcriptional response to auxin. However, this mechanism only applies to activating ARFs, and further layers of complexity of ARF function and regulation are being revealed, which partly reflect their highly modular domain structure. This review summarizes our knowledge concerning ARF binding site specificity, homodimer and heterodimer multimeric ARF association and cooperative function and how activator ARFs activate target genes via chromatin remodelling and evolutionary information derived from phylogenetic comparisons from ARFs from diverse species. ARFs are regulated in diverse ways, and their importance in non-auxin-regulated pathways is becoming evident. They are also embedded within higher-order transcription factor complexes that integrate signalling pathways from other hormones and in response to the environment. The ways in which new information concerning ARFs on many levels is causing a revision of existing paradigms of auxin response are discussed.

  1. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  2. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...... targeting specific cis-acting elements in genes, and by the significant lack of fixed tertiary structure in their extensive intrinsically disordered regions. Recent research in protein intrinsic disorder (ID) has changed our understanding of transcriptional activation domains from 'negative noodles' to ID...... them to participate in large interactomes, how they use only a few hydrophobic residues, short sequence motifs, prestructured motifs, and coupled folding and binding for their interactions with co-activators, and how their accessibility to post-translational modification affects their interactions...

  3. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  4. Unity power factor converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  5. Asma: factores precipitantes

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, José Eduardo da Silva Maia Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    A asma é uma doença pulmonar crónica caracterizada por obstrução das vias aéreas, inflamação e hiperreactividade brônquica. A asma afecta cerca de 150 milhões de pessoas de todas as idades no Mundo. Em Portugal calcula-se que atinja cerca de 600.000 pessoas incluindo crianças e adultos, calculando-se que afecte cerca de 11% das crianças e 5% dos adultos. A asma é uma doença que provavelmente resulta de uma interacção complexa entre múltiplos factores ambientais e influências...

  6. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  8. Tiled QR factorization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwmeester, Henricus; Langou, Julien; Robert, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work revisits existing algorithms for the QR factorization of rectangular matrices composed of p-by-q tiles, where p >= q. Within this framework, we study the critical paths and performance of algorithms such as Sameh and Kuck, Modi and Clarke, Greedy, and those found within PLASMA. Although neither Modi and Clarke nor Greedy is optimal, both are shown to be asymptotically optimal for all matrices of size p = q^2 f(q), where f is any function such that \\lim_{+\\infty} f= 0. This novel and important complexity result applies to all matrices where p and q are proportional, p = \\lambda q, with \\lambda >= 1, thereby encompassing many important situations in practice (least squares). We provide an extensive set of experiments that show the superiority of the new algorithms for tall matrices.

  9. Milestones and impact factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable...... type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published...... was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent...

  10. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  11. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  12. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  13. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  14. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their ... Conclusions: Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated .... Summary of outcomes and fate of all the ADRs:The most.

  15. R-Factor for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R-Factor) quantifies the effects of raindrop impacts and reflects the amount and rate of runoff associated with the rain. The...

  16. FACTORING TO FIT OFF DIAGONALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    imply an upper bound on the number of factors. When applied to somatotype data, the method improved substantially on centroid solutions and indicated a reinterpretation of earlier factoring studies. (Author)

  17. Factores de crecimiento IV: Factor de crecimiento epidérmico,Factores estimuladores de colonias, Neurotropinas Growth factors: epidermal growth factor, colony stimulating factors and neurotropins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available En esta cuarta entrega sobre los factores de crecimiento se revisan el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF, los factores estimuladores de colonias (CSF y las neurotropinas. Como se ha venido presentando en las anteriores entregas, se hace referencia a su estructura bioquímica, su mecanismo de acción, sus efectos biológicos y sus interacciones. Las neurotropinas y el EGF, por tratarse de factores que actúan predominantemente en el microambiente tisular, no pueden manejarse en el contexto de concentraciones circulantes, situación que sí es factible para los CSF. De otro lado, se revisan los mecanismos de las neurotropinas en el sistema nervioso. In this fourth review of growth factors we summarize, as in previous papers, topics related to biochemical structure, mechanisms of action, biological effects and cross-interactions for epidermal growth factor (EGF, colony stimulating factors (CSF and neurotropins. Since the effects of EGF and neurotropins are exerted predominantly at the microenvironment level, they can not be evaluated by means of its circulating levels, a fact that could be possible for CSFs.

  18. Plasma factor XIII and platelet factor XIII in hyperlipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuianu, M P; Miloszewski, K; Porutiu, D; Losowsky, M S

    1976-12-31

    Plasma factor XIII activity measured by a quantitative assay was found to be significantly higher in hypertriglyceridaemic patients (type IV and combined hyperlipoproteinaemia), as compared to normolipaemic controls. No such elevation in plasma factor XIII activity was found in patients with type Ha hyperlipaemia. Plasma pseudocholinesterase was found to parallel the elevated factor XIII activity in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. In contrast, platelet factor XIII activity was not raised in hyperlipaemic subjects, and plasma factor XIII was found to be normal in a normolipaemic subjects with thrombocythaemia. It was concluded that there is no significant contribution from platelets to plasma factor XIII activity, and that the observed increase in plasma factor XIII in hypertriglyceridaemia results from enhanced hepatic synthesis of the enzyme.

  19. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  20. Investing in systematic factor premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Kees G.; Slager, Alfred M. H.; Stork, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and evaluate factor investing in the US and Europe for equities and bonds. We show that factor-based portfolios generally produce comparable or better portfolios than market indices. We expand the analysis to other asset classes and factors, work with other optimisation

  1. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  2. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  3. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...

  4. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  5. Factor analysis and missing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamakura, WA; Wedel, M

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the estimation of factor models and the imputation of missing data and propose an approach that provides direct estimates of factor weights without the replacement of missing data with imputed values. First, the approach is useful in applications of factor analysis in the presence

  6. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  7. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  8. Proteolytic factors in exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Khokha, Rama

    2013-05-01

    Exosomes are small microvesicles secreted from the late endosomal compartment of cells. Although an increasing body of evidence indicates that they play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication, the biological functions of exosomes are far from fully understood. Recent work has revealed detailed proteomic profiles of exosomes from cell lines and body fluids, which may provide clues to understanding their biological significance and general importance in human diseases. Metalloproteinases include the cell surface-anchored sheddases a disintegrin and metalloproteinases, as well as cell surface-bound and soluble matrix metalloproteinases and these extracellular proteases have been detected in exosomes by proteomic analyses. Exosomes play a key role in the transfer of proteins to other cells and metalloproteinases may provide a novel platform where ectodomain shedding by these membrane proteases alters the makeup of the recipient cell's surface. This review aims to address some of the facets of exosome biology with particular emphasis on the proteolytic factors and we discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, especially tumor biology.

  9. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A L; Broze, G J

    1997-10-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a 42 kD protein, provides the physiological inhibition of tissue factor initiated coagulation by inhibition of both factor Xa and factor VIIa/tissue factor. In plasma, most TFPI is lipoprotein bound with an additional "releasable" pool bound to the endothelial cell surface. TFPI clearance is via receptor mediated endocytosis into liver. Heparin sulfate proteoglycans and LRP (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein), an extremely large (∼600 kD) cell surface protein, primarily mediate this clearance, although additional TFPI binding sites and endocytosis pathways exist. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997; 7:234-239). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  10. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  11. The population factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, G

    1983-01-01

    Reducing population growth is essentil to Egypt's broader efforts to improve facilities, services, and the phsycial quality of life. Although a family planning program has existed since the mid-1950s, the 2.7% annual rate of population growth has not changed in 30 years. Nasser and the other "free officers" who seized power in 1952 became concerned about the adverse effects of the rapidly growing population, but perhaps out of concern with a possible religious backlash, they confined themselves to launching studies and subsidizing several dozen private family planning clinics. From 1962-72, the number of private clinics grew from 28 to 480, and family planning was introduced in government healthclinics in 1965. Such clinics are mainly located in rural areas and are staffed by doctors and other personnel who are not members of the local community and are not very effective at promoting family planning. Local girls and women called Rayadet were recruited to promote the idea to birth control in local communities. By 1970, 12.6% of Egyptians were using reliable contraception. A national survey 12 years later found 34% using contraception, buth the figure seems high. Approximately 60-65% of eligible couples would need to practice birth control for Egypt to reach a less than 1% annuel increase. The Egyptian government hopes to slow population growth to 1% by the year 2000, but major problems of motivation remain especially among the rural poor. Several factors may lead to success of the family planning effort: 1) financial and technical support from international family planning sources has grown rapidley and is likely to remain high; 2) the mortality rate has dropped from 17.8/1000 in 1952 to about half that level, while the rate of natural increase is about the same, suggesting that future reductions in the birth rate will translate to a reduced rate of natural increase, and that parents will be less reluctant to practice faimly planning if there is a greater chance

  12. Possible role of lipid peroxidation in the induction of NF-kappa B and AP-1 in RFL-6 cells by crocidolite asbestos: evidence following protection by vitamin E.

    OpenAIRE

    Faux, S P; Howden, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Asbestos fibers cause persistent induction of the oxidative stress sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in mammalian cells. These transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of cellular activity. Lipid peroxidation, mediated by reactive oxygen species, is thought to be a possible mechanism in the pathogenicity of asbestos fibers. These studies were designed to determine if crocidolite asbestos-induced lipid perox...

  13. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  14. Growth Factors in Synaptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Yi Nuo Poon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

  15. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Qu...

  16. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhib...

  17. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  18. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the constrained factorization problems of sparse principal components analysis (PCA) for gene expression modeling, low-rank matrix completion for recommender systems, and robust matrix factorization for video surveillance, this dissertation explores the modeling, methodology, and theory of matrix factorization.We begin by exposing the theoretical and empirical shortcomings of standard deflation techniques for sparse PCA and developing alternative methodology more suitable for def...

  19. Optimal Algorithm for Algebraic Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支丽红

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents on optimized method for factoring multivariate polynomials over algebraic extension fields defined by an irreducible ascending set. The basic idea is to convert multivariate polynomials to univariate polynomials and algebraic extension fields to algebraic number fields by suitable integer substituteions.Then factorize the univariate polynomials over the algebraic number fields.Finally,construct mulativariate factors of the original polynomial by Hensel lemma and TRUEFACTOR test.Some examples with timing are included.

  20. Strange nucleon form-factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, F. E.; Paschke, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    A broad program measuring parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering has now provided a large set of precision data on the weak-neutral-current form-factors of the proton. Under comparison with well-measured electromagnetic nucleon form-factors, these measurements reveal the role of the strange quark sea on the low-energy interactions of the proton through the strange-quark-flavor vector form-factors. This review will describe the experimental program and the implications of the global data for the strange-quark vector form-factors. We present here a new fit to the world data.

  1. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  2. First course in factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comrey, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to foster a basic understanding of factor analytic techniques so that readers can use them in their own research and critically evaluate their use by other researchers. Both the underlying theory and correct application are emphasized. The theory is presented through the mathematical basis of the most common factor analytic models and several methods used in factor analysis. On the application side, considerable attention is given to the extraction problem, the rotation problem, and the interpretation of factor analytic results. Hence, readers are given a background of

  3. Schemes for Deterministic Polynomial Factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanyos, Gábor; Saxena, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    In this work we relate the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials (over finite fields) to certain combinatorial objects we call m-schemes. We extend the known conditional deterministic subexponential time polynomial factoring algorithm for finite fields to get an underlying m-scheme. We demonstrate how the properties of m-schemes relate to improvements in the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials over finite fields assuming the generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH). In particular, we give the first deterministic polynomial time algorithm (assuming GRH) to find a nontrivial factor of a polynomial of prime degree n where (n-1) is a smooth number.

  4. Factorization method of quadratic template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Multiplication of two numbers is a one-way function in mathematics. Any attempt to distribute the outcome to its roots is called factorization. There are many methods such as Fermat's factorization, Dixońs method or quadratic sieve and GNFS, which use sophisticated techniques fast factorization. All the above methods use the same basic formula differing only in its use. This article discusses a newly designed factorization method. Effective implementation of this method in programs is not important, it only represents and clearly defines its properties.

  5. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... sources. These results point out the roles non-market arrangements, such as social networks, can play in mitigating market inefficiencies in poor rural markets....... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  6. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  7. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R., E-mail: roland.lefebvre@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’ Orsay, Bâtiment 350, UMR8214, CNRS- Université. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UFR925, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  8. FACTORING- CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Capital is the main factor of production, business development becomes virtually impossible without taking into account the financial market and the resources it provides to businesses. Any business, regardless of its degree of development, is involving direct contact with financial markets, namely the institutions that mediate mobilization of capital and the services they provide. Understanding the functioning of the financial system, the specific financial mechanisms through which savings are allocated to support capital investments and the costs and risks involved is essential for the development of a solid base for business. In this context, factoring operations can support economic agents, allowing a transfer of commercial receivables from their holder to a factor who commits to their recovery and guarantee such operations even if temporary or permanent insolvency of the debtor . Thus, factoring is a complex technique in at least two aspects, of the debt and the transfer of credit. . Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romania. Maybe because of poor business environment popularize the term is as little known as it was a few years ago the leasing. Present in Romanian legislation since 2002, factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent, providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor, which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part we defined the concept of factoring and international factoring, then I presented the advantages and development of factoring in Romania, and the last part conclusions.

  9. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Harun

    2016-09-01

    I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  10. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  11. Factor analysis of multivariate data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Mahadevan, R.

    A brief introduction to factor analysis is presented. A FORTRAN program, which can perform the Q-mode and R-mode factor analysis and the singular value decomposition of a given data matrix is presented in Appendix B. This computer program, uses...

  12. Factors That Shape Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of design literature discusses the role of the studio and its related pedagogy in the development of design thinking. Scholars in a variety of design disciplines pose a number of factors that potentially affect this development process, but a full understanding of these factors as experienced from a critical pedagogy or student…

  13. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Omer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU(5 fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  14. Psychological Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction The psychological factor that influences English study is dynamic,complex,and flexible.Its influence is not immediately known,but it rather accumulates over a period of time.It is inevitable that students have some psychological factors in learning English.Therefore,in the process of teaching,teachers

  15. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAZZAD ALI BISWAS

    2017-09-01

    For characters of a non-Archimedean local field we have explicit formula for epsilon factors. But in general, we do not have any generalized twisting formula of epsilon factors. In this paper, we give a generalized twisting formula of epsilon factorsvia local Jacobi sums.

  16. Polynomial J-spectral factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Huibert; Sebek, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Several algorithms are presented for the J-spectral factorization of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix. The four algorithms that are discussed are based on diagonalization, successive factor extraction, interpolation, and the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation, respectively. The paper includ

  17. Kadison-Kastler stable factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.;

    2014-01-01

    It is proven that a pair of continuous finite von Neumann algebra factors are unitarily equivalent if sufficiently close and one satisfies a certain cohomological condition.......It is proven that a pair of continuous finite von Neumann algebra factors are unitarily equivalent if sufficiently close and one satisfies a certain cohomological condition....

  18. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  19. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, P. [Madrid Univ. Autonoma and IFT, UAM/CSIC, E-28049 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  20. Critical factors for EIA implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jasmine; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages...

  1. Shape Factor Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    10 3. Shape Factor Distributions for Natural Fragments 12 3.1 Platonic Solids and Uniform Viewing from All Viewpoints 12 3.2 Natural Fragments from...12 Fig. 9 The 5 Platonic solids. ............................................................. 12 Fig. 10 Mean shape factor of...of the 5 Platonic solids............................................ 13 Table 3 Sequence of viewing angles in Icosahedron Gage

  2. Activity factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook.

  3. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  4. Universally conserved translation initiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpides, N C; Woese, C R

    1998-01-06

    The process by which translation is initiated has long been considered similar in Bacteria and Eukarya but accomplished by a different unrelated set of factors in the two cases. This not only implies separate evolutionary histories for the two but also implies that at the universal ancestor stage, a translation initiation mechanism either did not exist or was of a different nature than the extant processes. We demonstrate herein that (i) the "analogous" translation initiation factors IF-1 and eIF-1A are actually related in sequence, (ii) the "eukaryotic" translation factor SUI1 is universal in distribution, and (iii) the eukaryotic/archaeal translation factor eIF-5A is homologous to the bacterial translation factor EF-P. Thus, the rudiments of translation initiation would seem to have been present in the universal ancestor stage. However, significant development and refinement subsequently occurred independently on both the bacterial lineage and on the archaeal/eukaryotic line.

  5. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  6. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  7. Ceramic materials and growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgushi, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Okumura, M.; Nakajima, H.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orhtopaedic Surgery; Dohi, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health; Noshi, T.; Ikeuchi, M. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Recently, many types of growth factors have been purified and used for promoting cell differentiation cascade. The activity of growth factors can be detected in vitro such as culture condition. However, the activity is difficult to detect when these factors are locally administered in vivo, because these dissipate soon after the administration. In order to retain growth factors in local milieu, these can be incorporated with biocompatible porous ceramic materials. Such ceramic/factors composites when implanted in vivo, can trigger certain types of cell differentiation cascade resulted in new tissue formation and tissue regeneration. The paper describes the ceramic / growth factors composites especially hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA) / bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) composite to induce osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The HA/BMP composite supported the osteoblastic differentiation on the HA surface and finally resulted in bone bonding to the HA. When the marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were impregnated in pore areas of HA ceramics, the composites showed more and rapid bone formation than the HA/BMP and HA/MSCs composite, indicating the synergistic effect of BMP and MSCs. These findings indicate the importance of ceramic surface to evoke osteoblastic differentiation as well as to capture the molecules of growth factors for the cell differentiation. (orig.)

  8. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2016-02-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted.

  9. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  10. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  11. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is most common and its heterogenicity is presently apparent. There is a continuous search for the factors allowing the prediction of the poor course and biological difference of tumors. The College of American Pathologists classifies the currently known prognostic factors into 3 categories: 1 the factors whose prognostic importance and successful use have been proven in practice; 2 those that have been widely studied biologically and clinically, but the significance of which needs to be proven in extensive statistical studies; 3 all other factors that have been inadequately studied to demonstrate their prognostic value. Category 1 prognostic factors, such as prostate-specific antigen levels, TNM stage, Gleason grading, and the status of surgical margins, enjoy wide application. Category 2 factors are not used IN clinical practice so extensively. The value of some Category 3 factors (the biomarkers p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, receptors of androgens is indubitably and they claim to be widely applied in clinical practice with time. The clinical significance of molecular biological markers calls for further investigation.

  12. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is most common and its heterogenicity is presently apparent. There is a continuous search for the factors allowing the prediction of the poor course and biological difference of tumors. The College of American Pathologists classifies the currently known prognostic factors into 3 categories: 1 the factors whose prognostic importance and successful use have been proven in practice; 2 those that have been widely studied biologically and clinically, but the significance of which needs to be proven in extensive statistical studies; 3 all other factors that have been inadequately studied to demonstrate their prognostic value. Category 1 prognostic factors, such as prostate-specific antigen levels, TNM stage, Gleason grading, and the status of surgical margins, enjoy wide application. Category 2 factors are not used IN clinical practice so extensively. The value of some Category 3 factors (the biomarkers p53, Ki-67, Bcl-2, receptors of androgens is indubitably and they claim to be widely applied in clinical practice with time. The clinical significance of molecular biological markers calls for further investigation.

  13. Sigma Factors for Cyanobacterial Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousuke Imamura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthesizing microorganisms that can be used as a model for analyzing gene expression. The expression of genes involves transcription and translation. Transcription is performed by the RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme, comprising a core enzyme and a sigma (σ factor which confers promoter selectivity. The unique structure, expression, and function of cyanobacterial σ factors (and RNAP core subunits are summarized here based on studies, reported previously. The types of promoter recognized by the σ factors are also discussed with regard to transcriptional regulation.

  14. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  15. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  16. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  17. Integrating Factors and ODE Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Cheb-Terrab, E S

    1997-01-01

    A systematic algorithm for building integrating factors of the form mu(x,y') or mu(y,y') for non-linear second order ODEs is presented. When such an integrating factor exists, the scheme returns the integrating factor itself, without solving any auxiliary differential equations. The scheme was implemented in Maple, in the framework of the ODEtools package and its ODE-solver. A comparison between this implementation and other computer algebra ODE-solvers in solving related non-linear examples from Kamke's book is shown.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: factor V Leiden thrombophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions factor V Leiden thrombophilia factor V Leiden thrombophilia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder of blood clotting . Factor ...

  19. Learning about Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page Learning About Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia What is factor V Leiden thrombophilia? What are ... V Leiden Thrombophilia What is factor V Leiden thrombophilia? Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder ...

  20. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...

  1. Guidelines, evidence, and cultural factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaens, T.; Backer, D. de; Burgers, J.S.; Baerheim, A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare four recent guidelines on uncomplicated cystitis and to examine how cultural factors may have affected recommendations. DESIGN: Descriptive study with a qualitative analysis of authors' reasons for recommendations. MATERIAL: Guidelines for general practitioners published

  2. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...

  3. Success Factors of PLM Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭月梅; 李莉敏; 胡庆夕; 方明伦

    2004-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is a business strategy beginning to gain wide acceptance. Concerning the implementation of PLM projects, six success factors are presented and analyzed in details in this paper.

  4. Factorization Method in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2007-01-01

    This Work introduces the factorization method in quantum mechanics at an advanced level with an aim to put mathematical and physical concepts and techniques like the factorization method, Lie algebras, matrix elements and quantum control at the Reader’s disposal. For this purpose a comprehensive description is provided of the factorization method and its wide applications in quantum mechanics which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks. Related to this classic method are the supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariant potentials and group theoretical approaches. It is no exaggeration to say that this method has become the milestone of these approaches. In fact the Author’s driving force has been his desire to provide a comprehensive review volume that includes some new and significant results about the factorization method in quantum mechanics since the literature is inundated with scattered articles in this field, and to pave the Reader’s way into ...

  5. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  6. Transcription factors - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hearty wellcome to prof. Higgins editorial toil: a necessary tool for those colleagues (young and older fighting each day with the transcription factor they are involved with. In fact, the book is a full coverage compendium of state of the art papers dealing with practical thecniques and theoretical concepts about transcription factors. Each of the chapters (twenty-four is written by colleagues already working with one of the many trascription factors we become acquainted with. For the sake of the reader the volume is divided in four parts: Part I is a brief (when compared to the others three ! introductory presentation of the shuttling (i.e., transcription factor nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking achieved by three reviews presentation of this biologically critical phenomenon. Part II (nine chapters is devoted to the necessary techniques to study nuclear translocation ...............

  7. Transfer factors in medical therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez-González, Dolores J; Sosa-Luna, Carlos A; Vásquez-Moctezuma, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) consists of messenger peptides produced by activated T lymphocytes as part of cellular immunity, and it acts in virgin lymphocytes through TF inducers, suppressors and specific antigens...

  8. Factorization Properties of Finite Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Simkhovich, B; Zak, J; 10.1088/1751-8113/43/4/045301

    2010-01-01

    In 1960 Schwinger [J. Schwinger, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. 46 (1960) 570- 579] proposed the algorithm for factorization of unitary operators in the finite M dimensional Hilbert space according to a coprime decomposition of M. Using a special permutation operator A we generalize the Schwinger factorization to every decomposition of M. We obtain the factorized pairs of unitary operators and show that they obey the same commutation relations as Schwinger's. We apply the new factorization to two problems. First, we show how to generate two kq-like mutually unbiased bases for any composite dimension. Then, using a Harper-like Hamiltonian model in the finite dimension M = M1M2, we show how to design a physical system with M1 energy levels, each having degeneracy M2.

  9. Matrix Factorization for Evolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a matrix factorization problem, that is, to find two factor matrices U and V such that R≈UT×V, where R is a matrix composed of the values of the objects O1,O2,…,On at consecutive time points T1,T2,…,Tt. We first present MAFED, a constrained optimization model for this problem, which straightforwardly performs factorization on R. Then based on the interplay of the data in U, V, and R, a probabilistic graphical model using the same optimization objects is constructed, in which structural dependencies of the data in these matrices are revealed. Finally, we present a fitting algorithm to solve the proposed MAFED model, which produces the desired factorization. Empirical studies on real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art comparison algorithms.

  10. Epo and other hematopoietic factors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The growth factors erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor have hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic functions. Both are used clinically in their recombinant forms. Both also have interesting tissue-protective effects in other organs, which are unrelated to their hematopoietic functions. They have clinical hematopoietic uses in neonatal populations and in experimental non-hematopoietic research, and clinical potential as neuroprotective or tissue-protective agents.

  11. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  12. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  13. Effective Factors on CRM Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhraddin Maroofi; Bahareh Moradi Aliabadi; Hooshmand Fakhri; Hadikolivand

    2013-01-01

    The Customer Relationship Management (CRM) literature is the value of po¬tential and current customers. In this research we investigate effective factors on CRM development which have direct or indirect relation with it. CRM is defined as an important key in business among companies to maintain and increase their customers. In this study we look for key factors like Organizing, Technology, Information technologies, Communication channels of interaction, Formation of CRM system and CRM strateg...

  14. [Etiological factors of myelodysplastic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisse, C

    1997-09-01

    Specific epidemiologic data on myelodysplastic syndromes are rare. Analysis of data is in fact affected by problems of terminology and classification. The link between the exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents and MDS is well established. Etiologic factors of acute leukemia, or new factors such as non ionizing radiation, solvent, ethylene oxide, glycol eters, tobacco smoke, exhaust gases, agricultural work have been hypothesized but should be confirmed by other studies on MDS.

  15. High Power Factor Power Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing-yi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The PFC circuit takes UCC28019 made by TI Company as the core of system control, realize the power factor correction circuit functions, and the circuit power factor can be measured. Through a variety of detection circuit, with the support SCM control. And 30V~36V output voltage regulator can be set; with over-current protection circuits function, and be able to automatically back. Output current, voltage, and little significant value are displayed by display modules.

  16. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  18. Universality of soft and collinear factors in hard scattering factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, J C; Collins, John C.; Metz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Universality in QCD factorization of parton densities, fragmentation functions, and soft factors is endangered by the process dependence of the directions of Wilson lines in their definitions. We find a choice of directions that is consistent with factorization and that gives universality between e^+e^- annihilation, semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, and Drell-Yan. Universality is only modified by a time-reversal transformation of the soft function and parton densities between Drell-Yan and the other processes, whose only effect is the known reversal of sign for T-odd parton densities like the Sivers function. The modifications of the definitions needed to remove rapidity divergences with light-like Wilson lines do not affect the results.

  19. Security Gaps In Authentication Factor Credentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication factors refer to user login credentials that a user supplies to an authentication process for it to decide whether to grant or deny access. While two-factor and three-factor authentication generally provides better security than one-factor authentication the aim of this paper is to review security in individual authentication factor credentials that are in use nowadays. These credentials will be discussed in factor categories knowledge factor possession factor and inherence factor. The paper details current security gaps and some novel approaches to diminish the gaps in these authentication factors. We believe that our recommendations will inspire development of better authentication credentials and systems.

  20. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  1. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  2. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  3. Effective Factors on CRM Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddin Maroofi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Customer Relationship Management (CRM literature is the value of po¬tential and current customers. In this research we investigate effective factors on CRM development which have direct or indirect relation with it. CRM is defined as an important key in business among companies to maintain and increase their customers. In this study we look for key factors like Organizing, Technology, Information technologies, Communication channels of interaction, Formation of CRM system and CRM strategies and some other general factors which indirectly affected the processes. The study analyses variants of CRM management system creation by reviewing different models of CRM creation, the analysis of which allowed envisaging typical elements of CRM model formation or stages of implementation process. Organizational excellence model of framework identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. Successful CRM implementation is a complex, expensive and rarely technical projects. At the end of the study we introduce a model to the light of relationship between CRM and effective factors on it.

  4. [In vitro fertilization. Prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpüstün, S; al-Hasani, S; Diedrich, K; Bauer, O; Werner, A; Krebs, D

    1993-05-01

    Multiple factors influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In our prospective study different factors have been subject of examination concerning their effect on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer. 1237 couples undergoing 1675 consecutive treatment cycles between 1.1.1990-31.12.1991 were included in this study. Prior to treatment, couples were divided into "good" and "poor" prognosis groups. Cycles were prospectively labelled as carrying a potentially "poor prognosis", if one or more of the following factors were noted: 1) female age > 35; 2) an existence of male factor; 3) couples with more than 3 previous unsuccessful treatment cycles. Couples with none of these factors were assigned to the "good" prognosis group. The pregnancy rate per cycle in the "poor" prognosis group was 5.96%, compared with 17.92% per cycle in the "good" prognosis group (p cycle. An explanation may be seen in lower fertilisation rates after the age of 35 and cases of poor semen quality. Both will result in poor embryo quality.

  5. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and dietary factors in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Cunha Baia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and mineral metabolism: novel therapy for cardiovascular disease in renal patients? Deregulations in mineral metabolism, particularly related to phosphate and its regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), are common in patients with chronic kidney d

  7. Success factors in technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Universities in the U.S. have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This paper describes goals and philosophy of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper also relates the critical factors for susscessful technology transfer, particularly relating to new business formation. These critical factors include the quality of the technology, the quality of the management, the quality of the investor, the passion for success, and the image of the company. Descriptions of three different levels of investment are also given and the most successful level of investment for starting a new company is reviewed. Licensing to large companies is also briefly reviewed, as this type of licensing requires some different strategies than that of licensing to start-up companies. High quality critical factors and intelligent investment create rewards for the parties and successful ventures.

  8. Organizational Factors and Intrapreneurial Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Antonieta Lizote

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial competencies of coordinators of undergraduate courses in two community universities in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The organizational factors studied were: management support, freedom at work, rewards, and time available and organizational limitations. Eight entrepreneurial competencies were considered; five included in an achievement set, and three in a planning set. The method was quantitative and descriptive, adopting a structured questionnaire as the data collection tool. Factor analysis, canonical analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results revealed a positive relationship between the constructs. The most relevant competencies were organizational limitations or uncertainty about tasks, and freedom at work, which indicates the importance having clarity about rules and decisions that should exist both at the level of performance expected of the coordinator, and the freedom that they must feel in their work.

  9. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2006-03-01

    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  10. Automatic summarising factors and directions

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, K S

    1998-01-01

    This position paper suggests that progress with automatic summarising demands a better research methodology and a carefully focussed research strategy. In order to develop effective procedures it is necessary to identify and respond to the context factors, i.e. input, purpose, and output factors, that bear on summarising and its evaluation. The paper analyses and illustrates these factors and their implications for evaluation. It then argues that this analysis, together with the state of the art and the intrinsic difficulty of summarising, imply a nearer-term strategy concentrating on shallow, but not surface, text analysis and on indicative summarising. This is illustrated with current work, from which a potentially productive research programme can be developed.

  11. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  12. Boolean Factor Congruences and Property (*)

    CERN Document Server

    Terraf, Pedro Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    A variety V has Boolean factor congruences (BFC) if the set of factor congruences of every algebra in V is a distributive sublattice of its congruence lattice; this property holds in rings with unit and in every variety which has a semilattice operation. BFC has a prominent role in the study of uniqueness of direct product representations of algebras, since it is a strengthening of the refinement property. We provide an explicit Mal'cev condition for BFC. With the aid of this condition, it is shown that BFC is equivalent to a variant of the definability property (*), an open problem in R. Willard's work ("Varieties Having Boolean Factor Congruences," J. Algebra, 132 (1990)).

  13. Impact beyond the impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-02-01

    The journal impact factor is an annually calculated number for each scientific journal, based on the average number of times its articles published in the two preceding years have been cited. It was originally devised as a tool for librarians and publishers to provide information about the citation performance of a journal as a whole, but over the last few decades it has increasingly been used to assess the quality of specific articles and the research performance of individual investigators, institutions, and countries. In addition to this clear abuse of the journal impact factor, several conceptual and technical issues limit its usability as a measure of journal reputation, especially when journals are compared across different fields. An author's decision regarding the suitability of a scholarly journal for publication should, therefore, be based on the impact that this journal makes in the field of research, rather than on the journal impact factor.

  14. [Bifidogenic factors as drug preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashova, A O; Lisitsin, O B; Abramov, N A

    1999-01-01

    The review of new data on the study of bifidobacterial factors of different origin and the probable mechanisms of their favorable action on the microflora of the intestinal tract if presented. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data on the use of oligosaccharides, including fructo-oligosaccharides, as compounds stimulating the growth and development of bifidobacteria both in pure cultures and in intestinal microflora. Methods for the treatment of natural compounds with a view to enhancing their bifidogenic effect are presented. The possibilities and/or advantages of using bifidogenic factors in vivo and in vitro as medicinal preparations either alone or incorporated in probiotic compositions are evaluated. Suggestion has been made that the choice of the method for using bifidogenic factors may depend on the kind and severity of disturbances in indigenous microflora.

  15. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  16. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  17. Factores medioambientales, vivienda y salud Environmental factors, housing and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iglesias García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los factores medioambientales más importantes que influyen en la salud de las personas es la vivienda, en la que pasamos dos tercios del día.En primer lugar, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los condicionantes de la vivienda que influyen sobre la salud. En segundo lugar, se analiza una serie de encuestas realizadas a residentes en bloques de viviendas, de varias ciudades europeas. Por último, se establecen los determinantes de la vivienda que influyen más en la salud y calidad de vida de sus residentes y que deben tenerse en cuenta en la renovación o modernización de las viviendas.A continuación se determinan los “factores ambientales de la vivienda que influyen potencialmente sobre la salud” y que deben ser reflejados en cualquier estudio sobre vivienda y salud. Por último se enumeran una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones.One of the most important environmental factors affecting people is housing, since we live three quarters of our lives inside them.Firstly, a bibliographical revision about conditioning factors affecting health is made. Secondly, a series of questionnaires are analysed. They are addressed to apartment houses dwellers, in different European cities. Lastly, dwelling determinants which influence the most in health and quality of life, to be taken into account in the renovation or modernization of dwellings, are established.To end up, “environmental factors of dwellings potentially influencing health” and which must be taken into consideration in any study on housing and health, are determined. Finally, a series of conclusions and recommendations are made.

  18. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  19. General introduction and recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  20. Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos. A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, and biological effects.

  1. Baryon Form Factors at Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    An extensive study of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron }BABAR cross section data is presented. Two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e.: |G{sup p}(4M{sub p}{sup 2})|=1, as a pointlike fermion, and the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} baryon-antibaryon cross sections show a similar behavior near threshold.

  2. Factores de riesgo de la enfermedad periodontal: factores genéticos Risks factors in periodontal diseases: genetic factors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Hoy en día y tras numerosos estudios epidemiológicos, se acepta el concepto de la existencia de determinados factores de riesgo que van a modular la susceptibilidad o resistencia del hospedador a padecer enfermedad periodontal, por lo tanto, en el desarrollo van a intervenir varias causas considerándose dicha patología de etiología multifactorial. De este modo, las enfermedades periodontales son producidas por una interacción de un agente microbiano único o múltiple considerado como el factor...

  3. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  4. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  5. Familial risk factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Xue Ming; Parikh, Amisha

    2007-05-01

    Familial history risk factors in relation to autism were examined in a cohort of 164 autistic children referred to The Autism Center at New Jersey Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, over a 2-year period (2001-2003). Information related to familial history was obtained from each family and reviewed by a clinician. It is shown that these families carry a higher overall burden of psychiatric and developmental illnesses compared to reported national levels. These families also carry a relatively high incidence of medical disorders, independently of developmental and psychiatric disorders. This work supports the underlying presence of genetic factors in the etiology of autism.

  6. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  7. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  8. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions.

  9. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  10. The regulation of bone turnover in ameloblastoma using an organotypic in vitro co-culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tuula M; Day, Richard M; Fedele, Stefano; Salih, Vehid M

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm with benign histopathology, but extensive, local infiltrative capacity through the bone tissue it originates in. While the mechanisms of ameloblastoma invasion through the bone and bone absorption are largely unknown, recent investigations have indicated a role of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand regulatory mechanisms. Here, we present results obtained using a novel in vitro organotypic tumour model, which we have developed using tissue engineering techniques. Using this model, we analysed the expression of genes involved in bone turnover and detected a 700-fold increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand levels in the co-culture models with ameloblastoma cells cultured with bone cells. The model described here can be used for gene expression studies, as a basis for drug testing or for a more tailored platform for testing of the behaviour of different ameloblastoma tumours in vitro.

  11. The Ectodysplasin and NFkappaB signalling pathways in odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jo-Maree; Blackburn, James; Sharpe, Paul T

    2005-02-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a congenital disorder affecting organs of ectodermal origin including teeth, hair and sweat glands. Defects in Ectodysplasin (tabby), Edar (downless) and Edar associated death domain (Edaradd) (crinkled) cause HED in both humans and mice. Ectodysplasin is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member whose downstream signalling is transduced by the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex and inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaB) to activate the transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkappaB signalling is involved in a wide range of cellular processes and at each stage the different family members must be tightly regulated for each function. Recent data have demonstrated the importance of this signalling pathway in odontogenesis, particularly in the formation of cusps. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of Ectodysplasin/NFkappaB signalling in tooth development and in particular the central role of the IKK complex.

  12. Wave Packets can Factorize Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, H; Haug, F; Freyberger, M; Schleich, W P; Mack, Holger; Bienert, Marc; Haug, Florian; Freyberger, Matthias; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2002-01-01

    We draw attention to various aspects of number theory emerging in the time evolution of elementary quantum systems with quadratic phases. Such model systems can be realized in actual experiments. Our analysis paves the way to a new, promising and effective method to factorize numbers.

  13. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    2001-01-01

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  15. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  16. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  18. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  19. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  20. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  1. Chrestenson transform FPGA embedded factorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinthios, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Chrestenson generalized Walsh transform factorizations for parallel processing imbedded implementations on field programmable gate arrays are presented. This general base transform, sometimes referred to as the Discrete Chrestenson transform, has received special attention in recent years. In fact, the Discrete Fourier transform and Walsh-Hadamard transform are but special cases of the Chrestenson generalized Walsh transform. Rotations of a base-p hypercube, where p is an arbitrary integer, are shown to produce dynamic contention-free memory allocation, in processor architecture. The approach is illustrated by factorizations involving the processing of matrices of the transform which are function of four variables. Parallel operations are implemented matrix multiplications. Each matrix, of dimension N × N, where N = p (n) , n integer, has a structure that depends on a variable parameter k that denotes the iteration number in the factorization process. The level of parallelism, in the form of M = p (m) processors can be chosen arbitrarily by varying m between zero to its maximum value of n - 1. The result is an equation describing the generalised parallelism factorization as a function of the four variables n, p, k and m. Applications of the approach are shown in relation to configuring field programmable gate arrays for digital signal processing applications.

  2. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  3. Transforming Rubrics Using Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryla, Ed; Shelley, Gary; Trainor, William

    2012-01-01

    Student learning and program effectiveness is often assessed using rubrics. While much time and effort may go into their creation, it is equally important to assess how effective and efficient the rubrics actually are in terms of measuring competencies over a number of criteria. This study demonstrates the use of common factor analysis to identify…

  4. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  5. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...

  6. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist cir...

  7. HDG1 transcription factor targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.; Boutilier, K.A.; Sanchez Perez, Gabino

    2015-01-01

    The AIL transcription factor BABY BOOM (BBM) is required together with the related PLETHORA proteins for embryo and root meristem development and its expression is sufficient to confer pluripotency and totipotency to somatic tissues. We show that BBM and other AIL proteins interact with multiple

  8. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  9. Factors in Adolescent Rebellious Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Patricia W.; Rust, James O.

    1979-01-01

    This study examined 15- and 16-year-old youths' (Midteens') feelings of anomie and rebellion in relation to family and situational factors. Only parents' formal education level and midteens' approval of the way they were being reared correlated significantly with midteens' scores on the Anomia and Rebellion Scales. (Author/SJL)

  10. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  11. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  12. Ergonomic Factors and Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Results of a survey of computer users in a department of business studies in a college of further education in the United Kingdom focus on human factors problems associated with computer usage. Perceptions of health-related problems are explored, and findings from questionnaires and group discussions are described. (Nine references) (LRW)

  13. Adams Operations on Matrix Factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael K.; Miller, Claudia; Thompson, Peder; Walker, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    We define Adams operations on matrix factorizations, and we show these operations enjoy analogues of several key properties of the Adams operations on perfect complexes with support developed by Gillet-Soul\\'e in their paper "Intersection Theory Using Adams Operations". As an application, we give a proof of a conjecture of Dao-Kurano concerning the vanishing of Hochster's theta invariant.

  14. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  15. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  16. Factors in Adolescent Rebellious Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Patricia W.; Rust, James O.

    1979-01-01

    This study examined 15- and 16-year-old youths' (Midteens') feelings of anomie and rebellion in relation to family and situational factors. Only parents' formal education level and midteens' approval of the way they were being reared correlated significantly with midteens' scores on the Anomia and Rebellion Scales. (Author/SJL)

  17. Suicidal Adolescents: Factors in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, Maria; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined factors (family structure, functioning in school, suicidal risk, depression, and stressful life events) related to suicide attempts in 82 adolescents. Suicide risk correlated with current stress, while depression correlated with life-long and current stress. Results indicated most were depressed, angry, and experienced family disruption,…

  18. Refined Factorizations of Solvable Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, J; Rosas-Ortiz, O

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the factorization technique is shown to be a powerful algebraic tool to discover further properties of a class of integrable systems in Quantum Mechanics. The method is applied in the study of radial oscillator, Morse and Coulomb potentials to obtain a wide set of raising and lowering operators, and to show clearly the connection that link these systems.

  19. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  20. The electron g factor and factorization of the Pauli equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Ronald J.; Martin, Robert A.

    1992-09-01

    The gyromagnetic ratio or g factor of the electron is correctly predicted by the Dirac equation to be 2. However, it is also possible to obtain this value from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, as shown by Sakurai, who credits Feynman. It is noted here that the same trick used by Sakurai allows a factorization of the time independent Pauli equation. The result is an equivalent first-order equation which is referred to as the spin-momentum equation. In the absence of a scalar potential, the spin-momentum equation is the eigenvalue equation for the inner product of spin and kinetic momentum operators. The spin-momentum equation is solved directly for a constant magnetic field, and the solution is compared with the well-known Pauli equation solutions.

  1. Nonbenzamidine acylsulfonamide tissue factor-factor VIIa inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glunz, Peter W.; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zou, Yan; Delucca, Indawati; Nirschl, Alexandra H.; Cheng, Xuhong; Weigelt, Carolyn A.; Cheney, Daniel L.; Wei, Anzhi; Anumula, Rushith; Luettgen, Joseph M.; Rendina, Alan R.; Harpel, Mark; Luo, Gang; Knabb, Robert; Wong, Pancras C.; Wexler, Ruth R.; Priestley, E. Scott [BMS

    2017-03-16

    Aminoisoquinoline and isoquinoline groups have successfully replaced the more basic P1 benzamidine group of an acylsulfonamide factor VIIa inhibitor. Inhibitory activity was optimized by the identification of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic P' binding interactions. The molecular details of these interactions were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling. We also show that decreasing the basicity of the P1 group results in improved oral bioavailability in this chemotype.

  2. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  3. Pion transition form factor in k_T factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hsiang-nan

    2009-01-01

    It has been pointed out that the recent BaBar data on the pi gamma^* -> gamma transition form factor F_{pi gamma}(Q^2) at low (high) momentum transfer squared Q^2 indicate an asymptotic (flat) pion distribution amplitude. These seemingly contradictory observations can be reconciled in the k_T factorization theorem: the increase of the measured Q^2F_{pi gamma}(Q^2) for Q^2 > 10 GeV^2 is explained by convoluting a k_T dependent hard kernel with a flat pion distribution amplitude, k_T being a parton transverse momentum. The low Q^2 data are accommodated by including the resummation of alpha_s ln^2x, x being a parton momentum fraction, which provides a stronger suppression at the endpoints of x. The next-to-leading-order correction to the pion transition form factor is found to be less than 20% in the considered range of Q^2.

  4. [Risk factors and protective factors of the insanities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial. How to explain this group of very heterogeneous factors? Many of them can be considered as biopsychosocial risk factors. In other words, the risk factors, in link with the physiological functioning and a physiopathology, are difficultly dissociable of contingencies of psychological and/or social nature. The vital lead could be the stress bound to these variables, be it biological or psychosocial. It remains to ask the question of the preventive efficiency of treatments to relieve the impact of the traumatizing events of life that entail a depressive state or a state of posttraumatic stress. The hippocamp has to be the object of a quite particular attention. AD is a disease of the adaptation. This integrative model combines three vulnerabilities: a genetic vulnerability which would be there to dictate the type of lesions, their localization and the age of occurence; a psychobiographic vulnerability corresponding to a personality with inadequate mechanisms of defence, precarious adaptability in front of the adversity, weak impact strength and biography built on events of life during childhood, then during the grown-up life of traumatic nature, with a psychosocial environment insufficiently auxiliary; a neuroendocrinologic vulnerability which would base on a deregulation of the corticotrope axis, acquired during its infantile maturation, hampered by too premature stress. It would lead to a bad biological adaptability in stress later, at the origin of the observable lesions in the insanities.

  5. Pion transition form factor in k{sub T} factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hsiang-nan [Academica Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Physics; Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Phyiscs; National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Physics; National Cheng-Chi Univ, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Applied Physics; Mishima, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    It has been pointed out that the recent BaBar data on the {pi}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {gamma} transition form factor F{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) at low (high) momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} indicate an asymptotic (flat) pion distribution amplitude. These seemingly contradictory observations can be reconciled in the k{sub T} factorization theorem: the increase of the measured Q{sup 2}FF{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} is explained by convoluting a k{sub T} dependent hard kernel with a flat pion distribution amplitude, k{sub T} being a parton transverse momentum. The low Q{sup 2} data are accommodated by including the resummation of {alpha}{sub s} ln{sup 2}x, x being a parton momentum fraction, which provides a stronger suppression at the endpoints of x. The next-to-leading-order correction to the pion transition form factor is found to be less than 20% in the considered range of Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  6. Weak factor automata: the failure of failure factor oracles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loek Cleophas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In indexing of, and pattern matching on, DNA and text sequences, it is often important to represent all factors of a sequence. One efficient, compact representation is the factor oracle (FO. At the same time, any classical deterministic finite automata (DFA can be transformed to a so-called failure one (FDFA, which may use failure transitions to replace multiple symbol transitions, potentially yielding a more compact representation. We combine the two ideas and directly construct a failure factor oracle (FFO from a given sequence, in contrast to ex post facto transformation to an FDFA. The algorithm is suitable for both short and long sequences. We empirically compared the resulting FFOs and FOs on number of transitions for many DNA sequences of lengths 4 − 512, showing gains of up to 10% in total number of transitions, with failure transitions also taking up less space than symbol transitions. The resulting FFOs can be used for indexing, as well as in a variant of the FO-using backward oracle matching algorithm. We discuss and classify this pattern matching algorithm in terms of the keyword pattern matching taxonomies of Watson, Cleophas and Zwaan. We also empirically compared the use of FOs and FFOs in such backward reading pattern matching algorithms, using both DNA and natural language (English data sets. The results indicate that the decrease in pattern matching performance of an algorithm using an FFO instead of an FO may outweigh the gain in representation space by using an FFO instead of an FO.

  7. The Infinite Hierarchical Factor Regression Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Piyush

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric Bayesian factor regression model that accounts for uncertainty in the number of factors, and the relationship between factors. To accomplish this, we propose a sparse variant of the Indian Buffet Process and couple this with a hierarchical model over factors, based on Kingman's coalescent. We apply this model to two problems (factor analysis and factor regression) in gene-expression data analysis.

  8. NFKB2 mutation in common variable immunodeficiency and isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chuan; Wang, Fen; Tong, Anli; Xiao-qian ZHANG; Song, Hong-Mei; Liu, Zheng-Yin; Lyu, Wei; Liu, Yue-Hua; XIA, Wei-bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with central adrenal insufficiency is a recently defined clinical syndrome caused by mutations in the nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene. We present the first case of NFKB2 mutation in Asian population. Methods and Results An 18-year-old Chinese female with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency was admitted due to adrenal crisis and pneumonia. She had a history of recurrent respiratory infections since childhood an...

  9. RelA NF-κB subunit activation as a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Li, Ling;

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation is important for tumor cell growth and survival. RelA/p65 and p50 are the most common NF-kB subunits and involved in the classical NF-kB pathway. However, the prognostic and biological significance of RelA/p65 is equivoca...

  10. Growth factors: first part Factores de crecimiento I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Los factores de crecimiento tienen como función activar o inhibir la transcripción génica; es así como la cascada enzimática que se inicia con la activación de los receptores de la membrana citoplasmática, ya sean de tipo segundo mensajero o catalíticos, tiene como efecto final la fosforilación de proteínas, las cuales pueden ser: 1 enzimas que intervienen en las vías metabólicas; 2 proteínas promotoras de la transcripción de genes o, por el contrario, represoras de los mismos (31,32; en algunos casos el efecto final consiste en la transcripción de protooncogenes (33 cuyos productos pueden ser otro factor de crecimiento o receptores para éstos (16; 3 algunos factores de crecimiento ejercen sus efectos sobre los eventos postranscripcionales y postraslacionales (23.

    Los Factores de Crecimiento, incluyendo las citoquinas, representan un número muy grande de polipéptidos, glucoproteínas y otras moléculas relacionadas. Todos ellos promueven la proliferación, la diferenciación y las funciones especializadas de casi cualquier tipo de célula. Juegan un papel importante mediando los modos paracrino, autocrino y endocrino de comunicación. En esta primera parte de una serie se definen y clasifican los factores de crecimiento; para la clasificación se proponen diversos sistemas basados en el período de desarrollo del individuo en que actúan, en el punto crítico del ciclo celular sobre el que ejercen su acción y en los efectos fisiológicos que producen; se discuten, además, someramente, la composición química, los mecanismos de acción y las funciones de estas sustancias.

  11. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is one of the most emphasized psychosomatic disorders. Age, sexuality, excessive salt and alcohol consumption, lower activity level, fatigue, personality traits, emotional factors and stress are some of the risk factors for essential hypertension. The presence of emotional factors in the etiology of the essential hypertension and the emergence of psychiatric symptoms in the course of the illness has driven considerable attention from mental health workers on the disease for a long time. Some of the personality traits that make a person vulnerable to hypertension are being over controlled, being submissive, and hardworking. Hypertension is accepted to be a reaction against suppressed emotions and an adaptive and defense mechanism of the body. Among persons who are prone to hypertension, sympathetic nerve system is affected as a response to emotional stress and hypertension appears as a result of vasoconstriction and other autonomous responses. All at once, it was also shown that vasoconstrictor response continues much longer in hypertensive individuals than in normotensive patients. Autonomic response to stress almost always displays itself as hypertension in individuals who are prone to hypertension. Moreover, normotensive children of hypertensive parents also have elevation in blood pressures as a response to emotional stress almost without exception. The increase in sympathetic stimulus, re-modulation of bar receptors by structural and functional changes are the main features of the most commonly valid hypothesis in essential hypertension, currently. According to this hypothesis: as a result of emotional stress, inhibition over vasomotor center decreases and output of stimulus increases; epigenetic changes in endothelial structure of carotid sinus and/or aortic arch and/or vasomotor centers occurs; and finally stress increases sympathetic stimulus output. This situation leads to neurohormonal excitation; increases in

  12. [Prognostic factors in hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The hantaviruses classified in Hantavirus genus of Bunyaviridae family, may cause two different types of clinical conditions, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Mortality may reach up to 40% in these infections. Hantavirus subtypes (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Dobrava, etc) with different virulences represent one of the most significant factors affecting the mortality. Additionally, many other factors including age, gender, humoral immune response, genetic factors, patient's clinical and laboratory findings, transfusion, mechanical ventilation requirement, antiviral treatment and immunotherapy administered to the patient are prognostically important. Increasing age had an unfavorable effect on mortality. While the disease is commonly observed in the male gender, mortality rate is higher in the female gender. The higher the emergent neutralizing antibody response, the virus spread, the number of the infected cells and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated injury will be lower. The requirement for dialysis is reported to be higher with a poorer prognosis in individuals with HLA-B8, -DR3, -DQ2 alleles, and those with HLA-B27 allele usually experience a milder clinical course. Clinically, the risk of mortality increases in patients with multiple, central nervous system hemorrhage, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and secondary infection. The presence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the requirement for mechanical ventilation, the presence of dyspnea and hemoconcentration in HPS are reported to be the most important prognostic factors associated with death. The correlation of severity and the transfusion requirement with mortality was demonstrated. High serum levels of white blood cells, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phophokinase (CPK), C-reactive protein (CRP), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer and INR (International

  13. Erp Systems Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam K. Sowan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP systems are one of the highly complex systems in the information systems field; the implementations of this type of systems need a long time, high cost, and a lot of resources. Many factors affect the successful implementation of ERP system. The critical success factors (CSFs can be categorized as general, ICT related and software engineering or system life cycle (SLC related. This paper is a survey paper that identifies ERP systems CSFs in general and software engineering CSFs in specific. Also an agile methodology for ERP systems' implementations will be presented. Many existing ERP systems were surveyed and presented from ICT / software engineering point of view.

  14. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路平; 梁秋冬; 魏磊; 郑全庆

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate factors for prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Expressions of mn23- HI, erbB3 and erbB4 were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis was detected in situ by the TdT mediated duip-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Mitotic cell were counted by HE dyeing. Results: FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were the most important factors for evaluating prognosis in adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. AI/MI was positively correlated with 5-year survival of cervical carcinoma. Positive expression of nm23-H1 combed with negative expression of erbB4 [nm23-H1(+)/erbB4(-)] predicted good prognosis for adeno-carcinoma. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, only FIGO stage and AI/MI were into equation. Conclusion: FIGO stage and AI/MI were independent evaluating parameter for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Factorization of Chiral String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: As found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.

  17. Factorization of chiral string amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Siegel, Warren; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2016-09-01

    We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: as found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.

  18. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  19. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  20. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  1. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  2. Factors that determine job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Amalasunta Iacob

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's context is seeking various solutions to determine that employees receive performance at work. Most of the hand is to motivate people in terms of promoting strategic management objectives. Only that the motivation and objectives involved a number of factors that can influence the performance of employees much more than motivation itself. The case study presented in this study will prove this.

  3. Congenital deficiency of factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  4. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  5. Asma bronquial: factores de riesgo de las crisis y factores preventivos Bronchial asthma: risk factors of crises and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, y con motivo de los avances que se realizan en el campo de la investigación del asma bronquial, los conceptos en su prevención han ido cambiando entre los especialistas que lo tratan. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo llevar el conocimiento básico necesario a los profesionales de la medicina, para que a cada paciente asmático, atendido por primera vez, se le determinen los alergenos desencadenantes, los factores agravantes y socioculturales que le rodean y que pueden estar afectándolo. Se aborda la sensibilización a alergenos desde la etapa embrionaria y lactancia en el niño atópico, cuándo debemos considerar a un niño con alto riesgo alérgico, los factores de riesgo más importantes, con experiencias prácticas en el Hospital Universitario “Calixto García”, y las recomendaciones para la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en lactantes e infantes de alto riesgo alérgico.En recent years and advances in research field of bronchial asthma, features in its prevention has been changing among specialists treating it. Aim of this paper is to transmit the basic and necessary knowledge to medicine professionals for that in each asthmatic patient treated for the first time, the triggering allergens, aggravating factors, and the surrounded sociocultural ones, affecting him be determined. Authors approach sensitivity to allergens from embryonic stage and the lactation in atopic child, when we must to consider the case of an allergic and in high risk child, the more significant risk factors, with practical experiences in “Calixto García” University Hospital, and recommendations for preventions of allergic diseases in infants and breast-fed child in high risk of allergy.

  6. El factor de equidad intergeneracional

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Los expertos recomiendan la introducción de un factor de sostenibilidad en el cálculo de las pensiones, actuales y futuras, y lo justifican por la existencia de riesgos demográficos (sociedad envejecida) y económicos (ingresos del sistema, tasa de desempleo estructural, estructura productiva, etc.) que a su juicio pondrían en peligro el sistema de pensiones.

  7. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  8. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Nonproductive Factor Allowance. (Pilot Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    a separate factor for each size of facility, i.e., MEDCEN, Large MEDDAC, and Small MEDDAC. f. In a GAO audit report, "Development and Use of Military...measurement in determining and Justifying staffing requirements. g. Another GAO audit report, "Uniform Accounting and Workload Measurement Systems Needed for...Effective Writing, AFIT, Survival, TDY, Technical Training, IDEA High School, CDC and Survey Taking. Also taking tests such as PFE , SKT, AF Sup Exam, CLEP

  10. On factorization of multiparticle pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We address the near-collinear expansion of multiparticle NMHV amplitudes, namely, the heptagon and octagons in the dual language of null polygonal super Wilson loops. In particular, we verify multiparticle factorization of charged pentagon transitions in terms of pentagons for single flux-tube excitations within the framework of refined operator product expansion. We find a perfect agreement with available tree and one-loop data.

  11. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  12. Managing factoring in banking groups

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    On the market for factoring services independent suppliers coexhist with companies affiliated with banking groups. The last ones can be oriented in their decision processes by the policies of their parent company, usually a bank. They could also benefit from synergies among the different units of the group. The main benefits are linked to cost reduction, better skill-based resources allocation and a higher amount of financial coverage. If such interdependencies are found ...

  13. Cultural Factors in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to the intercultural business negotiation,a correct understanding of the cultural differences between the east and the west and the appropriate approach to the cultural conflicts are the preconditions for the success.This paper aims at putting forward effective strategies to tackle cross-cultural obstacles in the business negotiation through the comparative study of cultural factors in business negotiations.

  14. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AFECTAN LA SECURIDAD IBERICA FACTORES MARITIMOS QUE AFECTANJ LA SEGURIDAD IBE RICA Introduccion En lo que ataine a la seguridad ibe~rica, la realidad ...fuerzas naval.. sera~n de significado periferico. Aquella part. do la marina do guerra sovietica quo esta ya desplegada en el oce’ano sera/ aumentada ...nota de la realidad consabida de que tanto la hora de introduccion como la escala de emplec de las armas nlu- cleares en una guerra general anibas

  15. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa

    2015-07-18

    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products.

  16. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  17. Factores de riesgo de la enfermedad periodontal: factores genéticos Risks factors in periodontal diseases: genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rioboo Crespo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día y tras numerosos estudios epidemiológicos, se acepta el concepto de la existencia de determinados factores de riesgo que van a modular la susceptibilidad o resistencia del hospedador a padecer enfermedad periodontal, por lo tanto, en el desarrollo van a intervenir varias causas considerándose dicha patología de etiología multifactorial. De este modo, las enfermedades periodontales son producidas por una interacción de un agente microbiano único o múltiple considerado como el factor etiológico primario necesario pero no suficiente, un huésped más o menos susceptible y unos factores ambientales que influyen sobre ambos. La importancia de la herencia y la genética para el conocimiento de la etiopatogenia de la enfermedad periodontal y para la práctica clínica en general fueron destacadas desde muy temprano, pero las complejas interacciones que ocurren entre los mecanismos de respuesta del hospedador y la acción de los microorganismos patógenos han hecho que las aclaraciones sobre el papel de los factores genéticos en la enfermedad periodontal sean más difíciles. Aun así, la influencia de los factores genéticos en la periodontitis parece ser diferente para los distintos tipos de enfermedad periodontal y ha sido estudiada en cada una de las periodontitis definidas. En general, se considera que hay suficiente base científica a favor de la presencia de factores genéticos en la aparición de periodontitis agresivas. En las periodontitis crónicas, en cambio, la evidencia de la participación genética es menos manifiesta. Numerosos estudios ponen en evidencia que existe una asociación entre las periodontitis y una variación genética de determinados genes (polimorfismos que codifican diferentes citoquinas proinflamatorias y mediadores involucrados en la etiopatogénia de la enfermedad periodontal como la IL-1,IL- 4, IL-10,TNF, PGE2. El fenotipo HLA (Human Leukocite Antigen, también ha sido investigado como posible

  18. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

  19. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  20. Disclosure Risk from Factor Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drechsler Jörg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote access can be a powerful tool for providing data access for external researchers. Since the microdata never leave the secure environment of the data-providing agency, alterations of the microdata can be kept to a minimum. Nevertheless, remote access is not free from risk. Many statistical analyses that do not seem to provide disclosive information at first sight can be used by sophisticated intruders to reveal sensitive information. For this reason the list of allowed queries is usually restricted in a remote setting. However, it is not always easy to identify problematic queries. We therefore strongly support the argument that has been made by other authors: that all queries should be monitored carefully and that any microlevel information should always be withheld. As an illustrative example, we use factor score analysis, for which the output of interest - the factor loading of the variables - seems to be unproblematic. However, as we show in the article, the individual factor scores that are usually returned as part of the output can be used to reveal sensitive information. Our empirical evaluations based on a German establishment survey emphasize that this risk is far from a purely theoretical problem.

  1. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  2. Sigma factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Eric; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as in most bacterial species, the expression of genes is tightly controlled by a repertoire of transcriptional regulators, particularly the so-called sigma (sigma) factors. The basic understanding of these proteins in bacteria has initially been described in Escherichia coli where seven sigma factors are involved in core RNA polymerase interactions and promoter recognition. Now, 7 years have passed since the completion of the first genome sequence of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. Information from the genome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 identified 550 transcriptional regulators and 24 putative sigma factors. Of the 24 sigma, 19 were of extracytoplasmic function (ECF). Here, basic knowledge of sigma and ECF proteins was reviewed with particular emphasis on their role in P. aeruginosa global gene regulation. Summarized data are obtained from in silico analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF including rpoD (sigma(70)), RpoH (sigma(32)), RpoF (FliA or sigma(28)), RpoS (sigma(S) or sigma(38)), RpoN (NtrA, sigma(54) or sigma(N)), ECF including AlgU (RpoE or sigma(22)), PvdS, SigX and a collection of uncharacterized sigma ECF, some of which are implicated in iron transport. Coupled to systems biology, identification and functional genomics analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF are expected to provide new means to prevent infection, new targets for antimicrobial therapy, as well as new insights into the infection process.

  3. Factorizing the time evolution operator

    CERN Document Server

    Quijas, P C G

    2006-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in the quantum physical community, and in textbooks used to teach Quantum Mechanics, that it is a difficult task to apply the time evolution operator on an initial wave function. That is to say, because the hamiltonian operator generally is the sum of two operators, then it is a difficult task to apply the time evolution operator on an initial wave function, because it implies to apply terms like (A+B)^n. A possible solution of this problem is to factorize the time evolution operator and then apply successively the individual exponential operator on the initial wave function. However, the exponential operator does not directly factorize. In this work we present useful ways to factorizing the time evolution operator when the argument of the exponential is a sum of two operators which obey specific commutation relations. Then, we apply the exponential operator as an evolution operator for the case of elementary unidimensional potentials, like the harmonic oscillator. Also, we argue ...

  4. Tissue Factor Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Butenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein that is essential to life. It is a component of the factor VIIa-TF complex enzyme and plays a primary role in both normal hemostasis and thrombosis. With a vascular injury, TF becomes exposed to blood and binds plasma factor VIIa, and the resulting complex initiates a series of enzymatic reactions leading to clot formation and vascular sealing. Many cells, both healthy, and tumor cells, produce detectable amounts of TF, especially when they are stimulated by various agents. Despite the relative simplicity and small size of TF, there are numerous contradictory reports about the synthesis and presentation of TF on blood cells and circulation in normal blood either on microparticles or as a soluble protein. Another subject of controversy is related to the structure/function of TF. It has been almost commonly accepted that cell-surface-associated TF has low (if any activity, that is, is “encrypted” and requires specific conditions/reagents to become active, that is, “decrypted.” However there is a lack of agreement related to the mechanism and processes leading to alterations in TF function. In this paper TF structure, presentation, and function, and controversies concerning these features are discussed.

  5. Factors associated with intern fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lindsay D; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Baron, Robert B; Katz, Patricia P

    2008-12-01

    Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p 80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences.

  6. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  7. Factor V Leiden and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perez-Pujol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor V Leiden, is a variant of human factor V (FV, also known as proaccelerin, which leads to a hypercoagulable state. Along these years, factor V Leiden (FVL has been studied from the pathophysiologic point of view, and research has been focused on finding clinical approaches for the management of the FVL associated to a trombophilic state. Less attention has been paid about the possible role of FVL in inflammatory conditions known to be present in different disorders such as uremia, cirrhosis, liver transplantation, depression as well as sepsis, infection or, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Whether platelet FVL will increase the activation of coagulation and/or in which proportion is able to determine the final outcome in the previously mentioned inflammatory conditions is a subject that remains uncertain. This paper will review the association of FVL with inflammation. Specifically, it will analyze the important role of the endothelium and the contribution of other inflammatory components involved at both the immune and vascular levels. This paper will also try to emphasize the importance of being a FVL carrier in associations to diseases where a chronic inflammation occurs, and how this condition may be determinant in the progression and outcome of a specific clinic situation.

  8. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.

  9. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case – control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR). Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1%) was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83) and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41) were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency. PMID:24174950

  10. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazou, Vasiliki; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognized as a disorder involving the immune system, the interplay of environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility seems to influence MS onset and clinical expression, as well as therapeutic responsiveness. Multiple human epidemiological and animal model studies have evaluated the effect of different environmental factors, such as viral infections, vitamin intake, sun exposure, or still dietary and life habits on MS prevalence. Previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, especially if this infection occurs in late childhood, and lack of vitamin D (VitD) currently appear to be the most robust environmental factors for the risk of MS, at least from an epidemiological standpoint. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) activates VitD production but there are also some elements supporting the fact that insufficient UVR exposure during childhood may represent a VitD-independent risk factor of MS development, as well as negative effect on the clinical and radiological course of MS. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the gut-brain axis, a bidirectional neuro-hormonal communication system between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, components of the intestinal microbiota may be pro-inflammatory, promote the migration of immune cells into the CNS, and thus be a key parameter for the development of autoimmune disorders such as MS. Interestingly most environmental factors seem to play a role during childhood. Thus, if childhood is the most fragile period to develop MS later in life, preventive measures should be applied early in life. For example, adopting a diet enriched in VitD, playing outdoor and avoiding passive smoking would be extremely simple measures of primary prevention for public health strategies. However, these hypotheses need to be confirmed by prospective evaluations, which are obviously difficult to conduct. In addition, it remains to be determined whether and how Vit

  11. Neuroadaptations in human chronic alcoholics: dysregulation of the NF-kappaB system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Okvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50 heterodimer and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-kappaB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant kappaB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB target DNA sites, kappaB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with kappaB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-kappaB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of kappaB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism.

  12. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  13. Academic Success Factors: An IT Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aimao; Aasheim, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified causal factors for academic success. Factors vary from personal factors, such as cognitive style (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001), to social factors, such as culture differences (Aysan, Tanriogen, & Tanriogen, 1996). However, in these studies it is re-searchers who theorized the causal dimensions and…

  14. Bayesian Estimation of Categorical Dynamic Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Nesselroade, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…

  15. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented.

  16. Crocodylian nuclear factor kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Morkotinis, Vasileios; Hale, Amber; White, Mary; Moran, Chris

    2017-11-01

    We deduced the amino acid (aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A 105kDa protein, NFκB1 exhibits complex post-translational processing, multiple mechanisms of activation, and acts as precursor for a p50, a Rel homology transcription factor which influences the expression of key genes for developmental processes, apoptosis, and immune function. The aa sequences of the crocodylian proteins share very high identity with each other (97.2±0.7%), birds (81.0±1.1%, n=6), mammals (75.3±1.6%, n=4), reptiles (80.3±5.1%, n=2), and less identity with fish (55.5±5.5%, n=4) and one amphibian (66.1±0.8%). The crocodylian protein has a well-conserved Rel homology domain, a nuclear localization signal, and a glycine-rich region which facilitates proteasome-mediated generation of p50. The Rel homology domain contains sequences responsible for dimerization, DNA-binding, and nuclear translocation. In addition, seven ankyrin repeats were located, which putatively allow for inhibition of transcriptional regulation by mediating interaction with Inhibitor kappa B. Other features include a death domain, and conserved serine residues, near the C-terminal end, which act as potential phosphorylation sites for activation of the proteolytic generation of p50. Western blot analysis showed both the 105kDa precursor and the 50kDa mature NFκB were expressed in the alligator liver. Nuclear factor κB exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in alligator hepatocytes, and almost no cytoplasmic localization in infected animals. In addition, nuclear NFκB exhibited specific binding to the consensus NFκB promoter element. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Conditioning factors of weight condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; Bodega, Patricia; García de Angulo, Belén; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; Fajardo, Diana; García, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Estudios epidemiológicos muestran que durante las últimas dos décadas la obesidad infantil ha aumentado convertirse en una de las principales preocupaciones de salud pública. Los hábitos dietéticos, la falta de actividad física y, el grado de obesidad empeoran con el paso de los años convirtiendo a los niños con sobrepeso en adultos con sobrepeso. Objetivo: Conocer la influencia de diversos factores modificables (hábitos alimentarios, práctica de actividad física, sedentarismo y horas de sueño), sobre el estado ponderal de un colectivo de niños en edad escolar. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal retrospectivo de 129 escolares de Madrid entre 6 y 12 años con recogida de datos antropométricos (peso, talla y circunferencia de cintura), dietéticos (Kidmed), de actividad física (IPAQ adaptado), sedentarismo y horas de sueño. Resultados: El resultado más relevante fue el exceso ponderal de los niños (28,1%), aunque estos resultados no fueron significativos respecto a ninguno de los factores estudiados. Se estudió el factor de actividad física y el tiempo dedicado a actividades sedentarias en función del sexo, en ambos casos se vieron valores menores en niñas que en niños siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p.

  18. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  19. A Two-Factor Model of Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David E.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The higher order structure of temperament was examined in two studies using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Because previous research showed robust levels of convergence between Rothbart’s constructs of temperament and the Big Five factors, we hypothesized a higher order two-factor model of temperament based on Digman’s higher order two-factor model of personality traits derived from factor analysis of the Big Five factors. Study 1 included 258 undergraduates. Digman’s model did not fit ...

  20. Phenomenological applications of T factorization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong-Yeon Keum

    2004-12-01

    We discuss applications of the perturbative QCD approach in the exclusive non-leptonic two-body -meson decays. We briefly review its ingredients and some important theoretical issues on the factorization approach. PQCD results are compatible with present experimental data for charmless -meson decays. We predict the possibility of large direct CP asymmetry in $B^{0} → + − (23 ± 7\\%) and 0 → + − (−17 ± 5\\%). We also investigate the branching ratios, CP asymmetry and isospin symmetry breaking in radiative $B → (*/ρ) decays.

  1. Strange chiral nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmert, T R; Meißner, Ulf G; Hemmert, Thomas R.; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to third order in the chiral expansion. All counterterms can be fixed from data. In particular, the two unknown singlet couplings can be deduced from the parity-violating electron scattering experiments performed by the SAMPLE and the HAPPEX collaborations. Within the given uncertainties, our analysis leads to a small and positive electric strangeness radius, $ = (0.05 \\pm 0.16) fm^2$. We also deduce the consequences for the upcoming MAMI A4 experiment.

  2. NAC transcription factors in senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara; O'Shea, Charlotte; Gregersen, Per L.;

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, NAC transcription factors have been shown to play essential roles in senescence, which is the focus of this review. Transcriptome analyses associate approximately one third of Arabidopsis NAC genes and many crop NAC genes with senescence, thereby implicating NAC genes...... as important regulators of the senescence process. The consensus DNA binding site of the NAC domain is used to predict NAC target genes, and protein interaction sites can be predicted for the intrinsically disordered transcription regulatory domains of NAC proteins. The molecular characteristics...

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: factores de virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Reinier Borrero; Nadine Álvarez; Fátima Reyes; María Elena Sarmiento; Armando Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis es el agente causal de la tuberculosis, una de las enfermedades infecciosas más letales en el mundo. La única vacuna disponible para su control es el BCG, sin embargo, falla en la protección contra la tuberculosis pulmonar, siendo esta la forma más frecuente y responsable de la diseminación. La identificación de factores de virulencia del microorganismo causal pudiera ayudar en el desarrollo de un nuevo candidato vacunal que sea capaz de neutralizar la acción de eso...

  5. Geological Factors and Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological factors, such as damages, can cause health determinants in people, which were a little-studied and if they have been raised on occasion, usually referred to no communicable diseases. The aim of this work, which is a more or less updated bibliography, has been to develop a holistic idea for a better understanding of a problem and force latent or potential risk that they can carry and consider scientific basis infectious diseases especially complex.  In essence, the focus of ecosystem health that should be considered in terrestrial ecosystems. It also provides the basic elements for the development of new research in this field.

  6. Endocrine factors of pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, L

    2007-01-01

    Throughout literature--fiction and poetry, fine arts and music--falling in love and enjoying romantic love plays a central role. While several psychosocial conceptions of pair attachment consider the participation of hormones, human endocrinology has dealt with this theme only marginally. According to some authors in addictology, falling in love shows some signs of hormonal response to stressors with changes in dopamine and serotonin signalling and neurotrophin (transforming growth factor b) concentration. Endorphins, oxytocin and vasopressin may play a role during the later phases of love. However, proof of hormonal events associated with love in humans has, until recently, been lacking.

  7. Factores de riesgo en epilepsia

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    e analizaron 1.961 encuestas correspondientes a 1.131 casos de epilepsia y 830 controles, con el objeto de medir la asociación entre
    esta enfermedad y las siguientes variables: factor heredo-familiar, riesgo obstétrico, infecciones del sistema nervioso central, infecciones virales de la infancia y trauma del cráneo. Se validó el formulario analizando la presencia de infecciones urinarias, la colaboración a la entrevista y la duración de ésta; no se hallaron, en tales aspectos,

  8. Factores de riesgo en epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available e analizaron 1.961 encuestas correspondientes a 1.131 casos de epilepsia y 830 controles, con el objeto de medir la asociación entre
    esta enfermedad y las siguientes variables: factor heredo-familiar, riesgo obstétrico, infecciones del sistema nervioso central, infecciones virales de la infancia y trauma del cráneo. Se validó el formulario analizando la presencia de infecciones urinarias, la colaboración a la entrevista y la duración de ésta; no se hallaron, en tales aspectos,
    diferencias significativas entre los casos y los controles.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma...

  10. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The recent years of rapid development of mobile technologies create opportunities for new user groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of information systems (IS). However, to apprehend and harness these opportunities for mobile IS, it is crucial to fully understand the user group...... and the mobile technology. In this chapter, we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobility, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness and simplicity. Eventually...

  11. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    The recent years of rapid development of mobile technologies creates opportunities for new user-groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of in-formation systems (IS). However, to apprehend and harness these opportunities for mobile IS it is crucial to fully understand the user group...... and the mobile tech-nology. In this paper we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobili-ty, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness, and simplicity. Eventually...

  12. Making a tooth: growth factors, transcription factors, and stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yah Ding ZHANG; Zhi CHEN; Yi Qiang SONG; Chao LIU; Yi Ping CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is largely dependent on sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.These processes involve a series of inductive and permissive interactions that result in the determination, differentiation,and organization of odontogenic tissues. Multiple signaling molecules, including BMPs, FGFs, Shh, and Wnt proteins,have been implicated in mediating these tissue interactions. Transcription factors participate in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions via linking the signaling loops between tissue layers by responding to inductive signals and regulating the expression of other signaling molecules. Adult stem cells are highly plastic and multipotent. These cells including dental pulp stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells could be reprogrammed into odontogenic fate and participated in tooth formation. Recent progress in the studies of molecular basis of tooth development, adult stem cell biology, and regeneration will provide fundamental knowledge for the realization of human tooth regeneration in the near future.

  13. Exploring mobile learning success factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Cochrane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative account and analysis of three mobile Web 2.0 projects instigated within a tertiary learning environment during 2008. Following the successful instigation of a mobile Web 2.0 project in the third year of a Bachelor of Product Design course during semester one, similar projects were initiated in semester two within the first-year and second-year Bachelor of Product Design courses. A common methodology for supporting and facilitating mobile Web 2.0 projects was used for all three projects. The projects were designed to explore the potential of mobile Web 2.0 tools to enhance both the formal and informal teaching and learning environments with a focus upon mobile blogging (moblogging. A comparison of student and teaching staff feedback from each of the three projects provided a basis for identifying and illustrating critical success factors within similar m-learning scenarios. Critical success factors identified include: the importance of the pedagogical integration of the technology into the course assessment, lecturer modelling of the pedagogical use of the tools, the need for regular formative feedback from lecturers to students, and the appropriate choice of mobile devices and software to support the pedagogical model underlying the course.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: factores de virulencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier Borrero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis es el agente causal de la tuberculosis, una de las enfermedades infecciosas más letales en el mundo. La única vacuna disponible para su control es el BCG, sin embargo, falla en la protección contra la tuberculosis pulmonar, siendo esta la forma más frecuente y responsable de la diseminación. La identificación de factores de virulencia del microorganismo causal pudiera ayudar en el desarrollo de un nuevo candidato vacunal que sea capaz de neutralizar la acción de esos determinantes patogénicos. El empleo de diferentes modelos animales ha permitido reproducir las etapas de la enfermedad, así como medir o cuantificar la virulencia de las distintas cepas circulantes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Las mutaciones génicas y otras técnicas de biología molecular han posibilitado dilucidar los genes específicos involucrados en la virulencia de este microorganismo que codifican para múltiples y complejos factores de diferente naturaleza.

  15. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  16. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  17. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  18. Male factor infertility and ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herman Tournaye

    2012-01-01

    For years,the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience’ and not ‘evidence’ based.Although not evidence-based,current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART).Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed,ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility.According to the limited evidence available,intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be considered as a first-line treatment in a couple in which the female partner has a normal fertility status and at least 1x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation.If no pregnancy is achieved after 3-6 cycles of IUI,optimized in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be proposed.When less than 0.5x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after seminal fluid processing or sperm are recovered surgically from the testis or epididymis,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed.Although the outcome of no other ART has ever been scrutinized as much before,no large-scale ‘macroproblems’ have as yet been observed after ICSI.Yet,ICSI candidates should be rigorously screened before embarking on IVF or ICSI,and thoroughly informed of the limitations of our knowledge on the hereditary aspects of male infertility and the safety aspects of ART.

  19. Heat differentiated complement factor profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsten, Carl; Skattum, Lillemor; Truedsson, Lennart; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Uhlén, Mathias; Schwenk, Jochen M; Hammarström, Lennart; Nilsson, Peter; Neiman, Maja

    2015-08-03

    Complement components and their cascade of reactions are important defense mechanisms within both innate and adaptive immunity. Many complement deficient patients still remain undiagnosed because of a lack of high throughput screening tools. Aiming towards neonatal proteome screening for immunodeficiencies, we used a multiplex profiling approach with antibody bead arrays to measure 9 complement proteins in serum and dried blood spots. Several complement components have been described as heat sensitive, thus their heat-dependent detectability was investigated. Using sera from 16 patients with complement deficiencies and 23 controls, we confirmed that the proteins C1q, C2, C3, C6, C9 and factor H were positively affected by heating, thus the identification of deficient patients was improved when preheating samples. Measurements of C7, C8 and factor I were negatively affected by heating and non-heated samples should be used in analysis of these components. In addition, a proof of concept study demonstrated the feasibility of labeling eluates from dried blood spots to perform a subsequent correct classification of C2-deficiencies. Our study demonstrates the potential of using multiplexed single binder assays for screening of complement components that open possibilities to expand such analysis to other forms of deficiencies.

  20. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  1. Limiting factors of starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, P; Leloup, V; Buléon, A

    1992-10-01

    Foods appear as complex structures, in which starch may be present in different forms. These, including the molecular characteristics and the crystalline organization, depend on processing conditions and compositions of ingredients. The main changes in starch macro- and microstructures are the increase of surface area to volume ratio in the solid phase, the modification of the crystallinity as affected by gelatinization and gelation, and the depolymerization of amylose and amylopectin. Starch modification may be estimated by different methodologies, which should be selected according to the level of structure considered. When amylose and amylopectin are in solution, rapid and total hydrolysis leads to the formation of a mixture of linear oligosaccharides and branched alpha-limit dextrins. However, starch usually occurs in foods as solid structures. Structural factors of starchy materials influence their enzymic hydrolysis. A better understanding of the enzymatic process enables the identification of the structural factors limiting hydrolysis: diffusion of enzyme molecules, porosity of solid substrates, adsorption of enzymes onto solid substrates, and the catalytic event. A mechanistic modelling should be possible in the future.

  2. QCD factorization at forward rapidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepila, J.; Nemchik, J.; Šumbera, M.

    2011-09-01

    We analyze particle production in several reactions on nuclear targets at forward rapidities and different energies. The forward kinematic region at high energies allows to access the smallest Bjorken x. Nuclear effects are then usually interpreted as a result of the coherence effects associated with shadowing or the Color Glass Condensate. QCD factorization of soft and hard interactions requires the nucleus to be an universal filter for different Fock components of the projectile hadron. We demonstrate, however, that this is not the case in the vicinity of the kinematic limit, x → 1, where sharing of energy between the projectile constituents becomes an issue. The rise of suppression of particle production with x is confirmed by the E772 and E886 data on Drell-Yan and heavy quarkonia. We show that this effect can also be treated alternatively as an effective energy loss proportional to initial energy. This leads to a nuclear suppression at any energy, and predicts Feynman xF scaling of the suppression. We demonstrate how the kinematic limit influences the high-pT particle production at mid-rapidity where the Cronin enhancement at medium-high pT switches to a suppression at larger pT violating thus QCD factorization. Such an expectation seems to be confirmed by RHIC data for pion and direct photon production. We show that this effect as an additional large-pT suppression significantly revises calculations for jet quenching in heavy ion collisons at RHIC.

  3. Liver fibrogenesis and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Louvet, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases lead to the accumulation of fibrosis in the liver with eventual progression to cirrhosis and its complications. However, there is a wide range of inter-individual variation in the liver fibrogenesis process, thus posing a challenge to physicians to identify patients with poor prognosis. As demographic and environmental factors only account for a small portion of fibrogenesis variability, host genetic factors have been suggested as playing an important role. Due to technical limitations, the first genetic studies were restricted to the evaluation of candidate genes having a known or supposed function in liver fibrogenesis. Recently, technological improvements have made it possible to study the whole human genome in a single scan. Genome-wide association studies have considerably heightened the interest in genetics as part of the study of liver fibrogenesis through their identification of previously unsuspected genes that are statistically associated with liver fibrosis. It is thus possible to determine new diagnostic or prognostic genetic markers for the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Moreover, functional analyses of these genes may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrogenesis.

  4. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  5. Hadamard Factorization of Stable Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Villalobos, Carlos Arturo; Aguirre-Hernández, Baltazar

    2011-11-01

    The stable (Hurwitz) polynomials are important in the study of differential equations systems and control theory (see [7] and [19]). A property of these polynomials is related to Hadamard product. Consider two polynomials p,q ∈ R[x]:p(x) = anxn+an-1xn-1+...+a1x+a0q(x) = bmx m+bm-1xm-1+...+b1x+b0the Hadamard product (p × q) is defined as (p×q)(x) = akbkxk+ak-1bk-1xk-1+...+a1b1x+a0b0where k = min(m,n). Some results (see [16]) shows that if p,q ∈R[x] are stable polynomials then (p×q) is stable, also, i.e. the Hadamard product is closed; however, the reciprocal is not always true, that is, not all stable polynomial has a factorization into two stable polynomials the same degree n, if n> 4 (see [15]).In this work we will give some conditions to Hadamard factorization existence for stable polynomials.

  6. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  7. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural...

  8. Posttransplant Erythrocytosis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ERDEM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study included 96 patients who received a renal allograft between 2005-2009 years. PTE was defined as an elevated hematocrit level greater than 51% after renal transplantation in patients receiving an allograft. RESULTS: Of the 96 adult kidney recipients, 15 (15,6% developed PTE. The mean time from transplantation to diagnosis was 7,3 ± 2,8 months ( range, 4,5-13 months . Mean serum creatinine was 1,12 ±0,3 mg/dl (0,8-1,99 mg/dl at the diagnosis of PTE. PTE was more frequent in male patients (p<0.05 and the patients with a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in patient age, donor source, donor age and immunosuppressive therapy on comparing the PTE group and non PTE groups. None of the patients with erythrocytosis experienced thromboembolic events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PTE developed in the first year after transplantation. Male gender and a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation are risk factors of PTE.

  9. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is to ensure the entire power system always preserving unity power factor. The software and hardware required to implement the suggested automatic power factor correction scheme are explained and its operation is described. APFC thus helps us to decrease the time taken to correct the power factor which helps to increase the efficiency.

  10. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  11. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  12. How Likely Is Factor Price Equalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil O.; Keiding, Hans

    The idea of treating factor price equalization as a situation, where the distribution of factors among countries is compatible with an equilibrium in an integrated world economy, has been refined to give the so-called lens condition for factor price equalization. In this paper, we show...... that the lens condition may be used to give estimates for the probability of factor price equalization when factors are distributed randomly among countries and, in addition, the techologies are sampled according to a given probability distribution. The estimates indicate that factor price equalization may...

  13. Menarquia y factores asociados Menarche and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Valdés Gómez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la menarquia es el indicador de maduración sexual más comúnmente utilizado, influida por factores genéticos y ambientales, y se asocia al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades como la obesidad, el cáncer de mama, las enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre otras. Objetivos: caracterizar demográficamente las adolescentes en estudio; evaluarlas nutricionalmente utilizando el índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura, así como identificar la relación entre la menarquia, el color de la piel, el bajo peso al nacer, el exceso de peso corporal, la obesidad abdominal y la presencia de acantosis nigricans. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo transversal en la Secundaria Básica Urbana "José María Heredia", desde junio de 2010 a enero de 2011. La población estuvo constituida por 85 adolescentes, a las cuales se les preguntó acerca de la menarquia, se les realizaron las mediciones antropométricas, y se buscó la presencia de acantosis nigricans. Resultados: la edad media de las adolescentes fue 12,05 años, de las cuales el 63,5 % había experimentado la menarquia, y su edad media de presentación fue de 11,00±0,801 años. El 17,6 % presentó exceso corporal, el 34,1 % adiposidad abdominal y el 12,9 % acantosis nigricans, asociadas estadísticamente con la aparición de la menarquia. Conclusiones: la mayoría de las adolescentes que habían experimentado la menarquia eran maduradoras tempranas, y de color de piel blanca; mostraron un riesgo incrementado de desarrollar exceso de peso corporal, obesidad abdominal y signos clínicos de resistencia a la insulina. La aparición de la menarquia no estuvo influida por el bajo peso al nacer.Introduction: menarche is the most common sexual maturity indicator, influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated to the risk of developing diseases such as obesity, breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases and others. Objectives: to characterize

  14. Success factors of agricultural company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on developing a proposal to eliminate weaknesses in medium-sized farm and thus improving its market position. To determine the position of company’s products due to the competition, a BCG Matrix (Boston Consulting Group Matrix was used. Financial Ratio Analysis was used to identify company’s financial situation. With the help of the situational analysis of the company’s internal environment, success factors, strengths and weaknesses were defined. Further the proposals were designed to remove the selected weaknesses. In the farm was identified the following strengths: quality of managers, long-term and stable customer-supplier relationships, selling commodities at optimum moisture content and purity, the use of subsidies and high milk yield cows. A weakness was mainly breeding pigs, missing website, company profitability and obsolete buildings. Amongst others was suggested to create website for the farm.

  15. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  16. AGROECOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moldavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experience of development of forms of economy in developed countries is analysed. Ways of development of domestic agriculture are proposed. The paper proved that Ukraine needs a new model of agriculture that was based not on the dynamic growth market of export production, and the balanced development of multipurpose field, which meets the needs of the country in food and foreign exchange earnings, warned to the depletion of natural resources. The extent of devastating effects of industrial model of agriculture development, which is oriented on economic growth without social and environmental price of its growth is revealed. Retrospective analysis of entry in international practice like formal institutional status of an alternative model in which an economic function of a branch (production and income is balanced with ecological (conservation potential land and social (food security is realized. Basic principles of ecologically oriented agriculture as a factor in long-term food security are formulated.

  17. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  18. Altmetrics, PIRUS and Usage Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Shepherd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have moved their publications onto the web, and the ongoing conversation around the outputs of research increasingly takes place there. Beyond the research community itself, scholarly information has an impact on other professionals, as well as on the general public. Traditional measures do not reflect these wider impacts. The mission of COUNTER is to set and monitor global standards for the measurement of online usage of content. Usage is an important measure of the impact and value of publications, and as such has a role in altmetrics. Usage can be reported at the individual item and individual researcher level and aggregated to the journal or institution level. PIRUS and Usage Factor are two COUNTER-lead initiatives that are based on this approach, with the potential to provide useful altmetrics.

  19. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  20. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The recent years of rapid development of mobile technologies create opportunities for new user groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of information systems (IS). However, to apprehend and harness these opportunities for mobile IS, it is crucial to fully understand the user group...... and the mobile technology. In this chapter, we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobility, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness and simplicity. Eventually......, these two steps develop the framework towards a theoretical contribution as theory for describing handheld computing from a designer’s perspective. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were made and the tentative framework was elaborated and confirmed....

  1. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    The recent years of rapid development of mobile technologies creates opportunities for new user-groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of in-formation systems (IS). However, to apprehend and harness these opportunities for mobile IS it is crucial to fully understand the user group...... and the mobile tech-nology. In this paper we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobili-ty, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness, and simplicity. Eventually......, these two steps develop the framework towards a theoretical contribution as theory for describing handheld computing from a designer’s perspective. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were made and the tentative framework was elaborated and confirmed....

  2. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  3. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  4. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  5. Factors Behind Industrial Profit Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉歆; 李玉红

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes Chinese enterprise industrial profit distribution and profitability rise between 1998 and 2005. Looking at it from the perspective of drivers of total growth, this paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the origins and industry-level factors involved in this growth. It reaches the conclusion that structural change in profits was the main driving force for profit increases, to which heavy industry contributed greatly. Light and machine building industry profit rates improved due to increases in productivity levels, while energy and raw material industry profits increased due to increases in product prices. In addition, average wages grew slower than GDP, and wages among industries varied widely. In general however, this paper sets out to determine which enterprises gained from increases in industrial profitability, and how this gain came about.

  6. Factores determinantes en las OPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of “underpricing” is closely related to the difference of the price set up in the IPO and the closing price of its first day of trading. This concept has been studied internationally for more than 3 decades and it is lately relevant to emerging countries, particularly in the stock markets in which double digit growth has been an important factor such as the Mexican Stock Market. Here we will find some theoretical studies as well as some behaviors in this matter regarding companies in their first public offer. This article does not pretend to be exhaustive but to bring relevance of several studies and theories, to relate variables in international context to the Mexican Stock Market. Further more, conclusions and follow-up actions in this investigation will aim to have a successful initial public offer.

  7. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  8. On z-factorization and c-factorization of standard episturmian words

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Nooria, M.; Ghareghanib, N.; Sharifani, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ziv-Lempel and Crochemore factorization are two kinds of factorizations of words related to text processing. In this paper, we find these factorizations for standard epiesturmian words. Thus the previously known c-factorization of standard Sturmian words is provided as a special case. Moreover, the two factorizations are compared.

  9. Taking the Error Term of the Factor Model into Account: The Factor Score Predictor Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The problem of factor score indeterminacy implies that the factor and the error scores cannot be completely disentangled in the factor model. It is therefore proposed to compute Harman's factor score predictor that contains an additive combination of factor and error variance. This additive combination is discussed in the framework of classical…

  10. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  11. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  12. Possible factors for ankle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabaković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Classification of ankle fractures is commonly used for selecting an appropriate treatment and prognosing an outcome of definite management. One of the most used classifications is the Danis-Weber classification. To the best of our knowledge, in the available literature, there are no parameters affecting specific types of ankle fractures according to the Danis-Weber classification. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of the following parameters: age, body weight, body mass index (BMI, height, osteoporosis, osteopenia and physical exercises with specific types of ankle fractures using the Danis-Weber classification. Methods. A total of 85 patients grouped by the Danis-Weber classification fracture types were analyzed and the significance of certain parameters for specific types of ankle fractures was established. Results. The proportion of females was significantly higher (p < 0.001 with a significantly higher age (59.9 years, SD ± 14.2 in relation to males (45.1 years, SD ± 12.8 (p < 0.0001. Type A fracture was most frequent in the younger patients (34.2 years, SD ± 8.6, and those with increased physical exercises (p = 0.020. In type B fracture, the risk factor was osteoporosis (p = 0.0180, while in type C fracture, body weight (p = 0.017 and osteoporosis (p = 0.004 were significant parameters. Conclusion. Statistical analysis using the Danis-Weber classification reveals that there are certain parameters suggesting significant risk factors for specific types of ankle fractures.

  13. Etiological factors of psoas abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri Bodakçi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoas abscess (PA is a rare infection disease, which is difficult to diagnose. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate etiological factors and treatment results of patients with PA. Methods: Files of 20 patients who were diagnosed as PA between December 2006 and January 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Patient’s whose data were entirely reached and diagnosed by Ultrasonography and/or Computed Tomography as an exact PA were included to the study. Results: The mean age of the 20 patients was 48.8 (range 17-82 year, and 6 of them were female and remaining were male. Psoas abscess were on the right side in 12 patients (60%, on the left side in seven patients (35%, and bilateral in one (5%. According to data records four patients had Diabetes Mellitus (20%, two had Hypertension (10%, one had cerebrovascular disease (5%, one had tuberculosis (5%, one had hyperthyroidism (5%, one had mental retardation (5%, and one had paraplegia (5%. Six case (30% were diagnosed as a primary psoas abscess (pPA, sPA and remaining (n=14, %70 were diagnosed as secondary. Percutaneous drainage was performed to 13 patients (65% and exploration was performed to three patients (15% as a treatment modality. Remaining four patients (20% were followed by medical treatment. Conclusion: Psoas abscess is rare and have variable and non-specific clinical characteristic, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis. In developed and developing countries, it has been reported that the most common causes of sPA are Pott's disease, and Crohn's disease, also it should be taken into account that open surgery and urinary tract stone disease can receive a significant portion of the etiological factors. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 59-63

  14. [Time factors factors in radiotherapy. Introduction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreix, J

    1976-11-01

    The role of time factors, the fractioning and spread of irradiation, continue to occupy an important place in conference, symposia and meeting of radiotherapists and our own Society has followed this tradition by devoting to the subject this session of the Journées de Radiologie 1975. The problem is a constant feature of everyday clinical practise. Whilst the majority of radiotherapists are prudently attached to the traditional method of 5 sessions per week, they are frequently forced to change this rhythm for pathological reasons, the personal convenience of the patient or problems with apparatus. The association of transcutaneous and curietherapeutic irradiation adds new parameters : the rate of the curie-therapy, the relative contribution of the 2 methods of irradiation, their sequence and the interval which separates them. Poor results of radiotherapy in certain situations indicates the possible value of determining whether other methods of the distribution per session and in time might lead to an improvement. Under these numerous circumstances, one is led to compare different forms of irradiation and to assess their possible biological differences. Objective description of the type of irradiation may be limited to the contents of the treatment sheet. However this does not easily express the biological quantity of the irradiation. As soon as the differences between two types of irradiation involves two parameters, they can no longer be effectively compared. The usefulness of a single figure to express the biological value of irradiation is obvious. With this aim, Cohen proposes calculation of levels of cell survival resulting from irradiation and extracts the parameters of this calculation from clinical results published in the literature. By similar analysis, Ellis has deduced the overall role of time factors which is expressed by the simple relation of the N.S.D., which has itself been at the origin of other expressions seeking to be more convenient and

  15. Epidermal growth factor: a critical factor in fetal maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, G D; Waters, M J; Young, I R; Dolling, M; Buntine, D; Hopkins, P S

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused over 3-14 days into fetal sheep of 110-125 days gestation resulted in a number of morphological and endocrine changes. Striking hypertrophy of the skin, wool follicles and their accessory structures was seen, together with a reduction in the ratio of secondary to primary follicles and degenerative changes in wool fibres associated with shedding of fibres. Adrenal, thyroid, liver and kidney weights were increased while thymus weight was decreased. The increase in adrenal size resulted from cortical hypertrophy and was associated with increased cortisol secretion. Thyroid hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in colloid stores, decreased plasma thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, unchanged plasma T3 and thyroid-binding globulin and raised thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Thyrotropin receptor affinity and content per gram of tissue were unchanged. Fetal and maternal plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels, and fetal plasma placental lactogen levels, were unchanged, although there was a significant rise in maternal plasma placental lactogen concentrations with high doses of EGF. Other maturational parameters such as switching from fetal to adult haemoglobin and liver glycogen content were unaffected.

  16. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  17. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  18. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  19. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  20. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can control the following risk factors by making lifestyle changes. Your doctor might also suggest medicine to help control some risk factors, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Poor blood cholesterol (koh-LESS-tur-ol) and triglyceride ( ...

  1. Mycobacterial factors relevant for transmission of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hof, S. van den; Deutekom, H. van; Hermans, P.W.M.; Kremer, K.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Soolingen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is associated with patient-related risk factors. However, DNA fingerprint analysis has provided anecdotal evidence suggesting a role for bacteriological factors. METHODS: To examine the importance of the bacteriological component in TB transmission, we inve

  2. Note on Integer Factoring Methods IV

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2008-01-01

    This note continues the theoretical development of deterministic integer factorization algorithms based on systems of polynomials equations. The main result establishes a new deterministic time complexity bench mark in integer factorization.

  3. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  4. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  5. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  6. A factorization algorithm to compute Pfaffians

    OpenAIRE

    Rubow, Jürgen; Wolff, Ulli(Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany)

    2011-01-01

    We describe an explicit algorithm to factorize an even antisymmetric N^2 matrix into triangular and trivial factors. This allows for a straight forward computation of Pfaffians (including their signs) at the cost of N^3/3 flops.

  7. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  8. Piecemeal versus precipitous factor market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dellas (Harris); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStudies the effects of speed of international factor markets integration within a general equilibrium, two country model. Variant of Diamond's overlapping generations model; Effects of an international factor market liberalization; Determination of the amount of capital needed to

  9. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  10. Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velásquez-Forero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

  11. Socioeconomic factors associated with asthma prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate ranks 25th worldwide, SA ranks fourth for asthma mortality ... including larger household size, family and community violence, low ... pathways', wherein structural factors (e.g. urban living) were associated with individual factors (e.g. fewer ...

  12. EFFECTS OF PROJECT-RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    performance of every organization, whether large or small, in today's ... improvement of labour productivity should be a major and ... factors based on the theory of motivation. Durdyev and ..... of required work is one of the factors affecting.

  13. 7 CFR 3415.15 - Evaluation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.15 Evaluation factors. In carrying out its review under § 3415.14, the peer review group will take into account the following factors...

  14. Hypertension Management and Factors Associated with Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension Management and Factors Associated with Blood Pressure Control in ... Purpose: To assess modifiable clusters of cardiovascular risk factors and ... Results: The number of concomitant medical conditions was high: diabetes ...

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  16. Factor Model Forecasts of Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Engel; Nelson C. Mark; Kenneth D. West

    2012-01-01

    We construct factors from a cross section of exchange rates and use the idiosyncratic deviations from the factors to forecast. In a stylized data generating process, we show that such forecasts can be effective even if there is essentially no serial correlation in the univariate exchange rate processes. We apply the technique to a panel of bilateral U.S. dollar rates against 17 OECD countries. We forecast using factors, and using factors combined with any of fundamentals suggested by Taylor r...

  17. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  19. [Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicák, J

    2002-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis develops immediately after the causative impulse, while chronic pancreatitis develops after the long-term action of the noxious agent. A typical representative of acute pancreatitis is biliary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis develops in alcoholism and has a long latency. As alcoholic pancreatitis is manifested at first as a rule by a potent attack, it is classified in this stage as acute pancreatitis. The most frequent etiological factors in our civilization are thus cholelithiasis and alcoholism (both account for 20-50% in different studies). The assumed pathogenetic principles in acute biliary pancreatitis are the common canal of both efferent ducts above the obturated papilla, duodenopancreatic reflux and intrapancreatic hypertension. A detailed interpretation is however lacking. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is more complicated. Among others some part is played by changes in the calcium concentration and fusion of cellular membranes. Idiopathic pancreatitis occurs in up to 10%, part of the are due to undiagnosed alcoholism and cholelithiasis. Other etiologies are exceptional. Similarly as in cholelithiasis pancreatitis develops also during other pathological processes in the area of the papilla of Vater such as dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, ampulloma and juxtapapillary diverticulum, it is however usually mild. The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis is declining. Its lethality is 30% and the diagnosis is difficult. In the pathogenesis changes of the ion concentration are involved, hypoxia and mechanical disorders of the integrity of the gland. Pancreatitis develops in association with other infections--frequently in mumps, rarely in hepatitis, tuberculosis, typhoid and mycoses. Viral pancreatitis is usually mild. In parasitoses pancreatitis develops due to a block of the papilla Vateri. In hyperparathyroidism chronic pancreatitis is more likely to develop, recent data are lacking. As to dyslipoproteinaemias

  20. Prime Factorization in the Duality Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wan-Ying; SHANG Bin; WANG Chuan; LONG Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    We give algorithms to factorize large integers in the duality computer.We provide three duality algorithms for factorization based on a naive factorization method,the Shor algorithm in quantum computing,and the Fermat's method in classical computing.All these algorithms may be polynomial in the input size.

  1. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  2. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruţa Florina; Tarcea Monica; Stere Victoria; Abram Zoltan; Avram Călin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  3. Housing price forecastability: A factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    of the model stays high at longer horizons. The estimated factors are strongly statistically signi…cant according to a bootstrap resampling method which takes into account that the factors are estimated regressors. The simple three-factor model also contains substantial out-of-sample predictive power...

  4. Factors Explaining Faculty Technology Use and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Meyer, Katrina A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines factors related to technology use in teaching by university faculty. An EFA analysis of multiple questions of technology use in the classroom found two factors: one loaded with Web use and the second with email use. Therefore, three research questions were asked: What factors explain faculty use of the Web or email? Are these…

  5. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  6. 14 CFR 23.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bearing factors. (a) Each part that has clearance (free fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of normal relative motion. (b) For control surface hinges and control system joints, compliance with the factors prescribed in §§ 23.657 and...

  7. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  8. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  9. Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF

    2002-01-01

    For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the

  10. Fibroblast growth factors in neurodevelopment and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; Kahn, René S; Kas, Martien J H

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric disorders, the effect of genetic and environmental factors may converge on molecular pathways and brain circuits related to growth factor functioning. In this review, we describe how disturbances in fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors influence behavior by affecting b

  11. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  12. Herzberg revisited: factors in job dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, R A

    1978-10-01

    A study of nursing personnel in a private general hospital suggests that the high rate of turnover results as much from dissatisfaction with intrinsic job factors as from dissatisfaction with extrinsic factors. These findings contradict the Herzberg two-factor theory, and suggest alternative means of improving management of nurses.

  13. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  14. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.; De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) assesses the Big Five factors of personality, both for self-ratings and for others' ratings. It consists of 100 brief and concrete statements, and can be administered in 10-15 min. in addition to the five factor scores, the FFPI may be used to assess 40 b

  15. Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF

    For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the

  16. A Second Generation Nonlinear Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi-Amoli, Jamshid; McDonald, Roderick P.

    1983-01-01

    Nonlinear common factor models with polynomial regression functions, including interaction terms, are fitted by simultaneously estimating the factor loadings and common factor scores, using maximum likelihood and least squares methods. A Monte Carlo study gives support to a conjecture about the form of the distribution of the likelihood ratio…

  17. Infrared Scales and Factorization in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Manohar, A V

    2006-01-01

    Effective field theory methods are used to study factorization of the deep inelastic scattering cross-section. The cross-section is shown to factor in QCD, even though it does not factor in perturbation theory for some choices of the infrared regulator. Messenger modes are not required in soft-collinear effective theory for deep inelastic scattering as x -> 1.

  18. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  19. Factor Composition of the Suicide Intent Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tammy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed Suicide Intent Scale using data from 98 psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide. Analysis resulted in two-factor solution: Lethal Intent factor contained items pertaining to subjective level of lethal intent; Planning factor contained items related to objective planning for attempt. Findings suggest that Suicide Intent Scale can…

  20. Eysenck Personality Inventory Item Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, Andrew L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three methods were used to test the factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory administered to 583 Australians. The preferred method was to extract factors by the minimum residual method, use the Tandem Criteria Method, and then rotate that number of factors by the Tandem Criteria I method. (SLD)