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Sample records for factor ix delivery

  1. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated coagulation factor IX prevents inhibitor formation and fatal anaphylaxis in hemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Moghimi, Babak; LoDuca, Paul A; Singh, Harminder D; Hoffman, Brad E; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-13

    To address complications of pathogenic antibody or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in protein replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia or other inherited protein deficiencies, we have developed a prophylactic protocol using a murine hemophilia B model. Oral delivery of coagulation factor IX fused with cholera toxin beta-subunit (with or without a furin cleavage site; CTB-FFIX or CTB-FIX), expressed in chloroplasts (up to 3.8% soluble protein or 0.4 mg/g leaf tissue), bioencapsulated in plant cells, effectively blocked formation of inhibitory antibodies (undetectable or up to 100-fold less than controls). Moreover, this treatment eliminated fatal anaphylactic reactions that occurred after four to six exposures to intravenous F.IX. Whereas only 20-25% of control animals survived after six to eight F.IX doses, 90-93% of F.IX-fed mice survived 12 injections without signs of allergy or anaphylaxis. Immunostaining confirmed delivery of F.IX to Peyer's patches in the ileum. Within 2-5 h, feeding of CTB-FFIX additionally resulted in systemic delivery of F.IX antigen. This high-responder strain of hemophilia B mice represents a new animal model to study anaphylactic reactions. The protocol was effective over a range of oral antigen doses (equivalent to 5-80 microg recombinant F.IX/kg), and controlled inhibitor formation and anaphylaxis long-term, up to 7 months (approximately 40% life span of this mouse strain). Oral antigen administration caused a deviant immune response that suppressed formation of IgE and inhibitory antibodies. This cost-effective and efficient approach of antigen delivery to the gut should be applicable to several genetic diseases that are prone to pathogenic antibody responses during treatment.

  2. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Ultrasound-targeted hepatic delivery of factor IX in hemophiliac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C D; Moisyadi, S; Avelar, A; Walton, C B; Shohet, R V

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was used to direct the delivery of plasmid and transposase-based vectors encoding human factor IX (hFIX) to the livers of hemophilia B (FIX-/-) mice. The DNA vectors were incorporated into cationic lipid microbubbles, injected intravenously, and transfected into hepatocytes by acoustic cavitation of the bubbles as they transited the liver. Ultrasound parameters were identified that produced transfection of hepatocytes in vivo without substantial damage or bleeding in the livers of the FIX-deficient mice. These mice were treated with a conventional expression plasmid, or one containing a piggyBac transposon construct, and hFIX levels in the plasma and liver were evaluated at multiple time points after UTMD. We detected hFIX in the plasma by western blotting from mice treated with either plasmid during the 12 days after UTMD, and in the hepatocytes of treated livers by immunofluorescence. Reductions in clotting time and improvements in the percentage of FIX activity were observed for both plasmids, conventional (4.15±1.98%), and transposon based (2.70±.75%), 4 to 5 days after UTMD compared with untreated FIX (-/-) control mice (0.92±0.78%) (P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively). Reduced clotting times persisted for both plasmids 12 days after treatment (reflecting percentage FIX activity of 3.12±1.56%, P=0.02 and 3.08±0.10%, P=0.001, respectively). Clotting times from an additional set of mice treated with pmGENIE3-hFIX were evaluated for long-term effects and demonstrated a persistent reduction in average clotting time 160 days after a single treatment. These data suggest that UTMD could be a minimally invasive, nonviral approach to enhance hepatic FIX expression in patients with hemophilia.

  4. Novel electric power-driven hydrodynamic injection system for gene delivery: safety and efficacy of human factor IX delivery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, T; Kamimura, K; Suda, T; Kanefuji, T; Oda, M; Zhang, G; Liu, D; Aoyagi, Y

    2013-08-01

    The development of a safe and reproducible gene delivery system is an essential step toward the clinical application of the hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) method. For this purpose, we have developed a novel electric power-driven injection system called the HydroJector-EM, which can replicate various time-pressure curves preloaded into the computer program before injection. The assessment of the reproducibility and safety of gene delivery system in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the precise replication of intravascular time-pressure curves and the reproducibility of gene delivery efficiency. The highest level of luciferase expression (272 pg luciferase per mg of proteins) was achieved safely using the time-pressure curve, which reaches 30 mm Hg in 10 s among various curves tested. Using this curve, the sustained expression of a therapeutic level of human factor IX protein (>500 ng ml(-1)) was maintained for 2 months after the HGD of the pBS-HCRHP-FIXIA plasmid. Other than a transient increase in liver enzymes that recovered in a few days, no adverse events were seen in rats. These results confirm the effectiveness of the HydroJector-EM for reproducible gene delivery and demonstrate that long-term therapeutic gene expression can be achieved by automatic computer-controlled hydrodynamic injection that can be performed by anyone.

  5. Factor IX gene haplotypes in Amerindians.

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    Franco, R F; Araújo, A G; Zago, M A; Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S

    1997-02-01

    We have determined the haplotypes of the factor IX gene for 95 Indians from 5 Brazilian Amazon tribes: Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, Kayapó, Arára, and Yanomámi. Eight polymorphisms linked to the factor IX gene were investigated: MseI (at 5', nt -698), BamHI (at 5', nt -561), DdeI (intron 1), BamHI (intron 2), XmnI (intron 3), TaqI (intron 4), MspI (intron 4), and HhaI (at 3', approximately 8 kb). The results of the haplotype distribution and the allele frequencies for each of the factor IX gene polymorphisms in Amerindians were similar to the results reported for Asian populations but differed from results for other ethnic groups. Only five haplotypes were identified within the entire Amerindian study population, and the haplotype distribution was significantly different among the five tribes, with one (Arára) to four (Wayampí) haplotypes being found per tribe. These findings indicate a significant heterogeneity among the Indian tribes and contrast with the homogeneous distribution of the beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes but agree with our recent findings on the distribution of alpha-globin gene cluster haplotypes and the allele frequencies for six VNTRs in the same Amerindian tribes. Our data represent the first study of factor IX-associated polymorphisms in Amerindian populations and emphasizes the applicability of these genetic markers for population and human evolution studies.

  6. Evaluation of factor IX deficiency by interdigitated electrode (IDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, Uda; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Factor IX deficiency is the main cause of hemophilia A and B. This a severe excessive bleeding disorder that can even kill the patient if not treated with the right prescription of Factor IX hormone to stop the bleeding. The bleeding can be caused by an injury or even a sudden bleeding in some very rare cases. To find the Factor IX effectiveness and to understand the deficiency more carefully for the future of medicine, experiments are conducted to test the Factor IX using the Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) and gold Nanoparticle with the help of Nanoelectrical technology.

  7. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume

  8. Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B

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    Sushrusha eNayak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

  9. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3 H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl 2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3 H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3 H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3 H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3 H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant

  10. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Immunosuppressive effects of factor IX products: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, A B; McGregor, J R; Samlowski, W E; Rodgers, G M

    1999-11-01

    The effects of a recombinant factor IX product (BeneFix), and of five plasma-derived factor IX products, AlphaNine, Immunine, Konyne, Mononine and Replinine on in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) immune function were compared in a blinded study. We assessed the effects of these products on Con-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 and interleukin-10 secretion, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, and nitric oxide secretion by stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. At 1 mL-1 for 48 h, Konyne reduced Con-A-induced mitogenesis by 50% (P < 0.05); AlphaNine, Mononine and BeneFix had no effect. At 10 IU mL-1, Con-A-induced mi- togenesis was at control levels with Mononine and BeneFix, but was reduced to <15% (P < 0.05) with each of the other products. IL-2 and IL-10 secretion by Con-A-stimulated lymphocytes was also markedly depressed by all the products tested except Mononine and BeneFix. Dialysis of these products did not substantially affect these results. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte activation markers following Con-A stimulation showed that Konyne also decreased IL-2 receptor alpha and beta chain (CD25 and CD122) induction on PBMC. Konyne also inhibited nitric oxide secretion to levels <18% of controls. These results indicate that certain factor IX products, including some of purported higher purity, substantially depress in vitro immune function. The importance of these findings to in vivo immune function in haemophilia B patients remains to be established.

  12. Variability of in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrates in patients with hemophilia B. The Mononine Study Group.

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    White, G C; Shapiro, A D; Kurczynski, E M; Kim, H C; Bergman, G E

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate, Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Kankakee, Illinois, USA), is a recently developed replacement factor concentrate for the treatment of patients with hemophilia B. The pharmacokinetic properties of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate (MAb Factor IX concentrate) have been evaluated in only small samples of patients, and little is known about those factors that might influenced in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion is a larger patient population. In vivo recovery of factor IX was therefore evaluated for 80 different indications in 72 patients who received MAb Factor IX concentrate for the management of spontaneous or trauma-induced bleeding, or as prophylaxis with surgery. The average recovery after infusions for presurgical pharmacokinetic analysis (mean +/- standard deviation) was 1.28 +/- 0.56 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range 0.41-2.80), and the average recovery after all infusions for treatment was 1.23 +/- 0.49 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range - 0.35-2.92). Recovery values for multiple MAb Factor IX doses in a given patient were also variable; the average recovery was 1.22 +/- 0.53 U/dl rise per U/kg given, and standard deviations ranged from 0.03 to 1.26. Patient age, weight, and MAb Factor IX concentrate dose minimally but significantly influenced factor IX recovery. There was no significant effect of either race, history of previous thrombotic complications during treatment with other replacement factor concentrates, or bleeding state on recovery. All of the patients treated with this preparation experienced excellent hemostasis, and no thrombotic complications were observed.

  13. In vitro characterization of high purity factor IX concentrates for the treatment of hemophilia B.

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    Limentani, S A; Gowell, K P; Deitcher, S R

    1995-04-01

    This study employed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and immunoblotting to assess the purity of seven high purity factor IX concentrates: Aimafix (Aima), AlphaNine-SD (Alpha Therapeutic), Factor IX VHP (Biotransfusion), Immunine (Immuno), Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical), Nanotiv (Kabi Pharmacia), and 9MC (Blood Products Laboratory). The mean specific activity of these products ranged from 68 U factor IX/mg (Aimafix) to 246 U factor IX/mg (Mononine). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the highest purity product, Mononine, had a single contaminating band under non-reducing conditions. Two additional bands were detected when this product was analyzed under reducing conditions. All other products had multiple contaminating bands that were more apparent under reducing than non-reducing conditions. The immunoblot for factor IX showed a dominant factor IX band for all products. In addition, visible light chain of factor IX was detected for AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Mononine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, suggesting that the factor IX in these products had undergone partial activation to factor IXa. Another contaminating band was visible at 49,500 for all of the products except 9MC. In addition to this band, high molecular weight contaminants were apparent for some products, most notably AlphaNine-SD. The identity of these bands is unknown. Immunoblotting failed to demonstrate factor VII as a contaminant of any of the high purity products, although factor VIIa could be detected in some lots of Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC by a clot-based assay. Factor X contaminated Aimafix, AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, but activation products of factor X were not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Functional consequences of an arginine180 to glutamine mutation in factor IX Hilo.

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    Monroe, D M; McCord, D M; Huang, M N; High, K A; Lundblad, R L; Kasper, C K; Roberts, H R

    1989-05-01

    Factor IX Hilo is a variant factor IX molecule that has no detectable coagulant activity. The defect in factor IX Hilo arises from a point mutation in the gene such that in the protein Arg180 is converted to a Gln. Activation of factor IX Hilo by factor Xla was monitored using the fluorescent active site probe p-aminobenzamidine. Normal factor IX showed complete activation in one hour as determined by measuring the increase in fluorescence when p-aminobenzamidine bound to activated factor IX. Factor IX Hilo showed no increase in fluorescence even after 24 hours, indicating that the active site was not exposed. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that factor IX Hilo was cleaved to a light chain plus a larger peptide with a molecular weight equivalent to a heavy chain covalently linked to an activation peptide. Amino terminal amino acid sequencing of factor IX Hilo cleaved by factor Xla showed cleavage only at Arg145-Ala146, indicating that the Gln180-Val181 bond was not cleaved and that the active site was thus not exposed. The presence of factor IX Hilo in patient plasma was responsible for the patient having a very long ox brain prothrombin time characteristic of severe hemophilia Bm. Patient plasma had an ox brain prothrombin time of 100 seconds using a Thrombotest kit, significantly prolonged over the normal control value of 45 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was depleted from patient plasma using an immunoaffinity column, the ox brain prothrombin time decreased to 41 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was added back to depleted patient plasma, to normal plasma depleted of factor IX by the same affinity column, or to plasma from a CRM- hemophilia B patient, the ox brain prothrombin time was significantly prolonged. We conclude that the Arg180 to Gln mutation in factor IX Hilo results in a molecule that cannot be activated by factor Xla. Further, our data suggest that the mutation results in a molecule that interacts with components of the extrinsic pathway to give

  15. The feasibility of using concentrates containing factor IX for continuous infusion.

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    Schulman, S; Gitel, S; Zivelin, A; Katsarou, O; Mandalaki, T; Varon, D; Martinowitz, U

    1995-04-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of continuous infusion of undiluted factor IX (F IX) over several days using minipumps. The stabilities of seven different reconstituted F IX products were substantially better than those declared by the manufacturers. Several concentrates maintained factor activities 80% of baseline for the entire period of 4 weeks at 4-8d̀C as did one product at 20-23d̀A. At 37d̀C the latter concentrate was stable for at least 1 week. The stability seemed to correlate with the purity of the product. Analysis of two prothrombin comples concentrates by gel electrophoresis demonstrated degradation of prothrombin to prethrombin-1 and fragment 1 at 37d̀C and in one of the concentrates also at 20-23d̀C. In two F IX concentrates the corresponding analysis did not reveal any degradation. Four patients were treated with continuous infusion with a pure F IX concentrate (Mononine™, Armour) after surgery or for serious haemorrhage (two each) with good haemostatic effect, an initial progressive decrease of the F IX clearance, and no side-effects. Continuous infusion with F IX, using a minipump and undiluted reconstituted factor, is therefore feasible and effective, and can be conveniently prepared for several days at a time. Pure F IX products are more stable and probably safer for this purpose.

  16. Activation of 125I-Factor IX and 125I-Factor X: Effect of tissue factor and Factor VII, Factor Xsub(a) and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterud, B.; Rapaport, S.I.

    Activation of Factor IX and Factor X was studied by adding 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X to reaction mixtures and quantitating cleavage products by reduced sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Thrombin failed to activate Factors IX or X; Factor Xsub(a) produced insignificant amounts of cleavage products of both factors. In contrast, the reaction product of tissue factor and Factor VII cleaved large amounts of both Factor IX and Factor X in purified systems and in plasma. In incubation mixtures of plasma containing added 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X, tissue factor and Ca 2+ ions, the percentage of total radioactivity in the heavy chain peak of 125 I-IXsub(a) and the heavy chain of 125 I-Xsub(a) increased at a similar rate. When the tissue factor was diluted, similar curves were obtained for percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor IX and percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor X plotted against tissue factor concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that activation of Factor IX by the tissue factor-Factor VII reaction product represents a physiologically significant step in normal haemostasis. (author)

  17. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  18. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

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    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  19. Haemophilia B caused by mutation of a potential thrombin cleavage site in factor IX

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    Winship, P.R. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1990-03-11

    Haemophilia B is a blood coagulation disorder caused by mutations in the factor IX gene giving functionally defective or reduced levels of factor IX protein circulating in the plasma. The mutation in the Caucasian patient under investigation, Haemophilia B Oxford h5 (Oxh5), was characterized at the DNA level by constructing a genomic library using leucocyte-derived DNA from the patient. Overlapping recombinant clones spanning the entire factor IX locus were isolated which then allowed the generation of a series of sub-clones across all eight exons (a-h) plus the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences known to be important in regulation of the gene and polyadenylation of the mRNA species.

  20. Model of a ternary complex between activated factor VII, tissue factor and factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Schved, Jean-François; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel

    2002-07-01

    Upon binding to tissue factor, FVIIa triggers coagulation by activating vitamin K-dependent zymogens, factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). To understand recognition mechanisms in the initiation step of the coagulation cascade, we present a three-dimensional model of the ternary complex between FVIIa:TF:FIX. This model was built using a full-space search algorithm in combination with computational graphics. With the known crystallographic complex FVIIa:TF kept fixed, the FIX docking was performed first with FIX Gla-EGF1 domains, followed by the FIX protease/EGF2 domains. Because the FIXa crystal structure lacks electron density for the Gla domain, we constructed a chimeric FIX molecule that contains the Gla-EGF1 domains of FVIIa and the EGF2-protease domains of FIXa. The FVIIa:TF:FIX complex has been extensively challenged against experimental data including site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitory peptide data, haemophilia B database mutations, inhibitor antibodies and a novel exosite binding inhibitor peptide. This FVIIa:TF:FIX complex provides a powerful tool to study the regulation of FVIIa production and presents new avenues for developing therapeutic inhibitory compounds of FVIIa:TF:substrate complex.

  1. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which >95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male

  2. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  3. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  4. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R W; Yang, E Y; Couto, L B; Hagstrom, J N; Elwell, D; Fields, P A; Burton, M; Bellinger, D A; Read, M S; Brinkhous, K M; Podsakoff, G M; Nichols, T C; Kurtzman, G J; High, K A

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a severe X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by the absence of functional blood coagulation factor IX, and is an excellent candidate for treatment of a genetic disease by gene therapy. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, we demonstrate sustained expression (>17 months) of factor IX in a large-animal model at levels that would have a therapeutic effect in humans (up to 70 ng/ml, adequate to achieve phenotypic correction, in an animal injected with 8.5x10(12) vector particles/kg). The five hemophilia B dogs treated showed stable, vector dose-dependent partial correction of the whole blood clotting time and, at higher doses, of the activated partial thromboplastin time. In contrast to other viral gene delivery systems, this minimally invasive procedure, consisting of a series of percutaneous intramuscular injections at a single timepoint, was not associated with local or systemic toxicity. Efficient gene transfer to muscle was shown by immunofluorescence staining and DNA analysis of biopsied tissue. Immune responses against factor IX were either absent or transient. These data provide strong support for the feasibility of the approach for therapy of human subjects.

  5. The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.L.; Lind, T.J.; Thorland, E.C.; Sommer S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of [ge]21 bp) are uncommon. The authors have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3-kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For a sample of 203 independent mutations, the authors estimate the [open quotes]baseline[close quotes] rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb)I deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversion, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA. 58 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Prophylactic use of factor IX concentrate in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Daniel; Sreeram, Gautam; Duncan, Alexander; Molinaro, Ross J; Szlam, Fania; Chen, Edward P; Tanaka, Kenichi A

    2009-11-01

    In Jehovah's Witness patients, the use of red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is not optional. Various blood conservation techniques are available, but complex cardiac surgery remains a major challenge. The feasibility of fractions of "primary components" has not been fully considered in published case reports. For Jehovah's Witness patients who preoperatively give consent, factor IX concentrates may be acceptable for hemostatic therapy. We hereby describe a combination of "secondary components" to prevent excessive bleeding in a Jehovah's Witness patient undergoing complex replacement of the aortic arch.

  7. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  8. Hemophilia B with mutations at glycine-48 of factor IX exhibited delayed activation by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P C; Hamaguchi, N; Yu, Y S; Shen, M C; Lin, S W

    2000-10-01

    Gly-48 is in the conserved DGDQC sequence (residues 47-51 of human factor IX) of the first EGF (EGF-1)-like domain of factor IX. The importance of the Gly-48 is manifested by two hemophilia B patients; factor IXTainan and factor IXMalmo27, with Gly-48 replaced by arginine (designated IXG48R) and valine (IXG48V), respectively. Both patients were CRM+ exhibiting mild hemophilic episodes with 25% (former) and 19% (latter) normal clotting activities. We characterize both factor IX variants to show the roles of Gly-48 and the conservation of the DGDQC sequence in factor IX. Purified plasma and recombinant factor IX variants exhibited approximately 26%-27% normal factor IX's clotting activities with G48R or G48V mutation. Both variants depicted normal quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence by increasing concentrations of calcium ions and Tb3+, indicating that arginine and valine substitution for Gly-48 did not perturb the calcium site in the EGF-1 domain. Activation of both mutants by factor XIa appeared normal. The reduced clotting activity of factors IXG48R and IXG48V was attributed to the failure of both mutants to cleavage factor X: in the presence of only phospholipids and calcium ions, both mutants showed a 4 to approximately 7-fold elevation in Km, and by adding factor VIIIa to the system, although factor VIIIa potentiated the activation of factor X by the mutants factor IXaG48R and factor IXaG48V, a 2 to approximately 3-fold decrease in the catalytic function was observed with the mutant factor IXa's, despite that they bound factor VIIIa on the phospholipid vesicles with only slightly reduced affinity when compared to wild-type factor IXa. The apparent Kd for factor VIIIa binding was 0.83 nM for normal factor IXa, 1.74 nM for IXaG48R and 1.4 nM for IXaG48V. Strikingly, when interaction with the factor VIIa-TF complex was examined, both mutations were barely activated by the VIIa-TF complex and they also showed abnormal interaction with VIIa-TF in bovine

  9. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Zhu, Liqing; Sherman, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Shina; Kamesh, Aditya; Norikane, Joey H; Streatfield, Stephen J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies (inhibitors) developed by hemophilia B patients against coagulation factor IX (FIX) are challenging to eliminate because of anaphylaxis or nephrotic syndrome after continued infusion. To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated by endogenous psbA sequences. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds and pentamer assembly when stored ∼2 years at ambient temperature. Feeding lettuce cells to hemophilia B mice delivered CTB-FIX efficiently to the gut immune system, induced LAP(+) regulatory T cells and suppressed inhibitor/IgE formation and anaphylaxis against FIX. Lyophilized cells enabled 10-fold dose escalation studies and successful induction of oral tolerance was observed in all tested doses. Induction of tolerance in such a broad dose range should enable oral delivery to patients of different age groups and diverse genetic background. Using Fraunhofer cGMP hydroponic system, ∼870 kg fresh or 43.5 kg dry weight can be harvested per 1000 ft(2) per annum yielding 24,000-36,000 doses for 20-kg pediatric patients, enabling first commercial development of an oral drug, addressing prohibitively expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and short shelf life of current protein drugs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Zhu, Liqing; Sherman, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Shina; Kamesh, Aditya; Norikane, Joey H.; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies (inhibitors) developed by hemophilia B patients against coagulation factor IX (FIX) are challenging to eliminate because of anaphylaxis or nephrotic syndrome after continued infusion. To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated by endogenous psbA sequences. CTB-FIX (~1mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds and pentamer assembly when stored ~2 years at ambient temperature. Feeding lettuce cells to hemophilia B mice delivered CTB-FIX efficiently to the gut immune system, induced LAP+ regulatory T cells and suppressed inhibitor/IgE formation and anaphylaxis against FIX. Lyophilized cells enabled 10-fold dose escalation studies and successful induction of oral tolerance was observed in all tested doses. Induction of tolerance in such a broad dose range should enable oral delivery to patients of different age groups and diverse genetic background. Using Fraunhofer cGMP hydroponic system, ~870 kg fresh or 43.5 kg dry weight can be harvested per 1000 ft2 per annum yielding 24,000–36,000 doses for 20-kg pediatric patients, enabling first commercial development of an oral drug, addressing prohibitively expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and short shelf life of current protein drugs. PMID:26302233

  11. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  12. In silico evaluation of limited blood sampling strategies for individualized recombinant factor IX prophylaxis in hemophilia B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preijers, T.; Hazendonk, H. C. A. M.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Leebeek, F. W. G.; Cnossen, M. H.; Mathôt, R. A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with severe hemophilia B regularly administer prophylactic intravenous doses of clotting factor IX concentrate to maintain a trough level of at least 0.01 IU mL(-1) in order to prevent joint bleeds. Assessment of individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters allows individualization

  13. Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector 5-human factor IX in adults with hemophilia B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Meijer, Karina; Coppens, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    Hemophilia B gene therapy aims to ameliorate bleeding risk and provide endogenous factor IX (FIX) activity/synthesis through a single treatment, eliminating the requirement for FIX concentrate. AMT-060 combines an adeno-associated virus-5 (AAV5) vector with a liver-specific promoter driving expre...

  14. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  15. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  16. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M.; Flake, Alan W.; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX–encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier ...

  17. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of a high-purity factor IX concentrate in hemophilia B patients undergoing surgery Eficácia do concentrado de alta pureza do fator IX em pacientes cirúrgicos portadores de hemofilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Rasi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma derived, high purity, solvent-detergent treated and subsequently nanofiltered factor IX concentrate (BEMOFIL was evaluated in 19 hemophilia B patients, including four with severe, thirteen with mild or moderate type of disease and two hemophilia B carriers undergoing 31 surgical procedures. The mean in vivo recovery was 52 %, range 36 - 76 %. The mean preoperative plasma factor IX activity after the initial loading dose was 0.86 IU mL-1, range 0.59 - 1.32 IU mL-1. In eight major orthopedic procedures, the mean usage of factor IX was 44600 IU or 574 IU kg-1 during the hospital stay, mean 11.6 days. Thromboprophylaxis was not used. The hemostatic efficacy was evaluated good in all cases and there were no thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, BEMOFIL used as bolus dosing was found to be safe and effective in achieving hemostasis in subjects with hereditary F IX deficiency undergoing surgery.O concentrado de fator IX ( Bemofil , um derivado plasmático de alta pureza tratado com solventes- detergente e nano-filtrado , foi avaliado em 19 pacientes portadores de Hemofilia B .Quatro pacientes apresentavam a forma grave da moléstia, 13 a forma leve e moderada e dois portadores em um total de 31 atos cirúrgicos.A recuperação média "in vivo" foi de 52% (36-76%. A atividade plasmática média pré-operatória do fator IX após a dose inicial foi de 0,86 UI ml -1 , média de 0,59 - 1,32 UI ml-1. Em oito procedimentos ortopédicos extensos , a média de utilização do fator IX foi de 44.600 UI ou 574 UI kg -1 durante a hospitalização que teve a média de 11,6 dias. A tromboprofilaxia não foi utilizada. A eficácia hemostática avaliada em todos os casos foi boa ,e não ocorreu nenhum tipo de complicação tromboembólica. Concluímos que o Bemofil em bolus foi considerado seguro e eficaz para a hemostasia em pacientes portadores de hemofilia B que necessitam de um procedimento cirúrgico.

  19. A new manufacturing process to remove thrombogenic factors (II, VII, IX, X, and XI) from intravenous immunoglobulin gamma preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Hwarn; Kang, Gil Bu; Kang, Dae Eun; Hong, Jeung Woon; Lee, Min Gyu; Kim, Ki Yong; Han, Jeung Whan

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and particularly XIa) remaining in high concentrations in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations can form thrombi, causing thromboembolic events, and in serious cases, result in death. Therefore, manufacturers of biological products must investigate the ability of their production processes to remove procoagulant activities. Previously, we were able to remove coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X from our IVIG preparation through ethanol precipitation, but factor XIa, which plays an important role in thrombosis, remained in the intermediate products. Here, we used a chromatographic process using a new resin that binds with high capacity to IgG and removes procoagulant activities. The procoagulant activities were reduced to low levels as determined by the thrombin generation assay: 250 s, FXI/FXIa ELISA: <0.31 ng/mL. Even after spiking with FXIa at a concentration 32.5 times higher than the concentration in normal specimens, the procoagulant activities were below the detection limit (<0.31 ng/mL). These results demonstrate the ability of our manufacturing process to remove procoagulant activities to below the detection limit (except by NaPTT), suggesting a reduced risk of thromboembolic events that maybe potentially caused by our IVIG preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  1. Results of a phase I/II open-label, safety and efficacy trial of coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein in haemophilia B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinowitz, U; Lissitchkov, T; Lubetsky, A; Jotov, G; Barazani-Brutman, T; Voigt, C; Jacobs, I; Wuerfel, T; Santagostino, E

    2015-11-01

    rIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market. This prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B. The study consisted of a 10-14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis. Seventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry. This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated. © 2015 CSL Behring. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantitative model calculation of the time-dependent protoporphyrin IX concentration in normal human epidermis after delivery of ALA by passive topical application or lontophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, Willem M.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Sac, Arnoldo; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a mathematical layer model to quantitatively calculate the diffusion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the skin in vivo, its uptake into the cells and its conversion to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and subsequently to heme. The model is a modification and extension of a recently presented

  3. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Investigations into, and development of, a lyophilized and formulated recombinant human factor IX produced from CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aline G; Pinto, Rodrigo C V; Smales, C Mark; Castilho, Leda R

    2017-08-01

    To develop a recombinant human factor IX (rFIX) formulation equivalent to commercially available products in terms of cake appearance, residual moisture, proportion of soluble aggregates and activity maintenance for 3 months at 4-8 °C. NaCl and low bulking agent/cryoprotectant mass ratio had a negative impact on cake quality upon lyophilisation for a wide range of formulations tested. Particular devised formulations maintained rFIX activity after lyophilization with a similar performance when compared with the rFIX formulated using the excipients reported for a commercially available FIX formulation (Benefix). rFIX remained active after 3 months when stored at 4 °C, though this was not the case with samples stored at 40 °C. Interestingly, particular formulations had an increase in residual moisture after 3 months storage, but not above a 3% threshold. All four formulations tested were equivalent to the Benefix formulation in terms of particle size distribution and cake appearance. Three specific formulations, consisting of surfactant polysorbate-80, sucrose or trehalose as cryoprotectant, mannitol or glycine as bulking agent, L-histidine as buffering agent, and NaCl added in the reconstitution liquid at 0.234% (w/v) were suitable for use with a CHO cell-derived recombinant FIX.

  6. RISK FACTORS FOR VERY PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Витальевна Батырева

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  7. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc. © 2014 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Title IX Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  9. Risk factors for cesarean delivery and adverse neonatal outcome in twin pregnancies attempting vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter-Safrai, Natali; Karavani, Gilad; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Porat, Shay

    2018-02-24

    Twin vaginal delivery presents a unique clinical challenge for obstetricians. The Twin Birth Study demonstrated the safety of planned vaginal delivery regarding neonatal outcomes. However, that study lacked a description of the risk factors associated with and the outcome of unplanned cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors for cesarean section and delivery related neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with twin pregnancy attempting vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study including 1070 women with twin pregnancy that underwent a trial of labor between 2003 and 2015. The study population was divided according to the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery, combined vaginal-cesarean and intrapartum cesarean delivery of both twins. Several risk factors and neonatal outcomes were examined by both univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The rate of vaginal delivery of both twins was 88.3%, whereas the rates of combined vaginal cesarean and unplanned cesarean delivery were 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be independently associated with cesarean delivery for both twins. Additionally, nonvertex presentation of twin B was independently associated with combined vaginal-cesarean delivery. The proportion of neonates with Apgar score cesarean group compared with those delivered by the vaginal route alone. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery in twin pregnancies. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index pregnancy. Determinants of choice of delivery place include cost of hospital bill ... thus achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Keywords: Factors, delivery, birth attendants, pregnant women, MDGs ...

  11. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  12. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  13. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  14. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  15. Evolutionary pattern of mutation in the factor IX genes of great apes: How does it compare to the pattern of recent germline mutation in patients with hemophilia B?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grouse, L.H.; Ketterling, R.P.; Sommer, S.S. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Most mutations causing hemophilia B have arisen within the past 150 years. By correcting for multiple biases, the underlying rates of spontaneous germline mutation have been estimated in the factor IX gene. From these rates, an underlying pattern of mutation has emerged. To determine if this pattern compares to a underlying pattern found in the great apes, sequence changes were determined in intronic regions of the factor IX gene. The following species were studied: Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmacus (orangutan) and Homo sapiens. Intronic sequences at least 200 bp from a splice junction were randomly chosen, amplified by cross-species PCR, and sequenced. These regions are expected to be subject to little if any selective pressure. Early diverged species of Old World monkeys were also studied to help determine the direction of mutational changes. A total of 62 sequence changes were observed. Initial data suggest that the average pattern since evolution of the great apes has a paucity of transitions at CpG dinucleotides and an excess of microinsertions to microdeletions when compared to the pattern observed in humans during the past 150 years (p<.05). A larger study is in progress to confirm these results.

  16. Delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy by newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries represent a low percentage of delivery complications. Most newborns fully recover from the injury, very few retain a permanent neurological deficit whereas some remain unnoticed. An objective of this study was to establish delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics and relation between the deficits with length of delivery, the length of delivery periods, induction of delivery and surgical interventions at delivery. The analysed group involved 90 newborn babies with an injury of brachial plexus made at the delivery in the period between 01.01.1996 and 31.12.2005. The controlled group included 90 newborns randomly selected. The comparison was made using an χ2 test. The incidence of injuries of plexus brachialis was 1.72 per 1,000 newborns. Analysing the length of delivery there was no difference found between the analysed and controlled group (p > 0.05. In the group of newborns with the injury of brachial plexus it was found that the second delivery period was significantly shorter (p < 0.01. In the analysed group 89 (98.8% newborn babies were delivered vaginally and one (1.2% was delivered by the cesarean section. 13 newborns (14.4% from the analysed group were delivered with application of vacuum extractor and in the controlled group it was the case with one (1.2% newborn baby (p < 0.01. The delivery of 98.8% newborns from the analysed group started spontaneously and two deliveries (1.2% were induced. Risk factors for injuries of plexus brachialis in newborns at the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the University Clinical Centre Tuzla include shortened second delivery period and completion of deliveries applying the vacuum extractor.

  17. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Drug-protein binding; haemoglobin; myoglobin; protoporphyrin IX; red blood cells ... haemoglobin and myoglobin are potentiated by the protein-porphyrin complexation. Possible ...... 1985 Uptake and delivery of the respiratory gases; in Best ...

  18. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  19. Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments, secondary structure, and location of the calcium binding site in the first epidermal growth factor like domain of blood coagulation factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.H.; Cheng, H.; Sweeney, W.V.; Pardi, A.; Tam, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Factor IX is a blood clotting protein that contains three regions, including a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two tandemly connected epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, and a serine protease region. The protein exhibits a high-affinity calcium binding site in the first EGF0like domain, in addition to calcium binding in the Gla domain. The first EGF-like domain, factor IX (45-87), has been synthesized. Sequence-specific resonance assignment of the peptide has been made by using 2D NMR techniques, and its secondary structure has been determined. The protein is found to have two antiparallel β-sheets, and preliminary distance geometry calculations indicate that the protein has two domains, separated by Trp 28 , with the overall structure being similar to that of EGF. An NMR investigation of the calcium-bound first EGF-like domain indicates the presence and location of a calcium binding site involving residues on both strands of one of the β-sheets as well as the N-terminal region of the peptide. These results suggest that calcium binding in the first EGF-like domain could induce long-range (possibly interdomain) conformational changes in factor IX, rather than causing structural alterations in the EGF-like domain itself

  20. Risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Manuck, Tracy A; Eller, Alexandra G; Simons, Marilee; Silver, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Patients with suspected placenta accreta have improved outcomes with scheduled delivery. Our objective was to identify risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with suspected placenta accreta. This was a cohort study of women with antenatally suspected placenta accreta. Women who delivered prior to a planned delivery date were compared with women who had a scheduled delivery. Data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2), logistic regression, and survival analyses. Variables included in the analyses were episodes of antenatal vaginal bleeding, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), uterine contractions, prior cesarean deliveries, interpregnancy interval, parity, and patient demographic factors. A value of P accreta were identified. Thirty-eight (49.4%) had an unscheduled delivery. Demographics were similar between groups. Unscheduled patients delivered earlier (mean 32.3 vs 35.7 weeks, P accreta, those with antenatal vaginal bleeding were more likely to require unscheduled delivery. This risk increases further in the setting of PPROM and/or uterine contractions. These clinical factors should be considered when determining the optimal delivery gestational age for women with placental accreta. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Choice of type of delivery: factors reported by puerperal woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Raquel Ramos Pinto do; Arantes, Sandra Lucia; Souza, Eunice Delgado Cameron de; Contrera, Luciana; Sales, Ana Paula Assis

    2015-01-01

    To know the factors listed by puerperal woman that influenced the choice in type of delivery. Qualitative research, developed with 25 puerperal women in a University Hospital of Mato Grosso do Sul, between September and November 2014. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection and the Collective Subject Discourse was used to organize and tabulate the data collected. The Collective Subject Discourses resulted in the following categories: Desire for the type of delivery; Respect for the chosen type of delivery and Factors that influenced the choice. Most of the women interviewed (76%) expressed a preference for normal birth due to rapid recovery, less pain and suffering. The influence of family members, previous experience with childbirth, professional-customer interaction and internet information influenced the type of delivery chosen, which reinforces the importance of health education since the pre-natal stage, highlighting the need to equip women to perform a conscious choice.

  2. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery

  3. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k Q factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of coagulation factor IX-binding protein from habu snake venom at pH 6.5 and 4.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Shikamoto, Yasuo; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Crystals of habu coagulation factor IX-binding protein have been obtained at pH 6.5 and 4.6 and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Coagulation factor IX-binding protein isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (IX-bp) is a C-type lectin-like protein. It is an anticoagulant protein consisting of homologous subunits A and B. The subunits both contain a Ca 2+ -binding site with differing affinity (K d values of 14 and 130 µM at pH 7.5). These binding characteristics are pH-dependent; under acidic conditions, the affinity of the low-affinity site was reduced considerably. In order to identify which site has high affinity and also to investigate the Ca 2+ -releasing mechanism, IX-bp was crystallized at pH 6.5 and 4.6. The crystals at pH 6.5 and 4.6 diffracted to 1.72 and 2.29 Å resolution, respectively; the former crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 63.5, c = 66.9 Å, β = 117.0°, while the latter belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with a = 134.1, b = 37.8, c = 55.8 Å, β = 110.4°

  5. Vaginismus as an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Tomer; Levy, Amalia; Sheiner, Eyal; Goldsmith, Tomer; Levy, Amalia; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate pregnancy outcome of patients with vaginismus, and specifically the relationship between vaginismus and cesarean delivery. A population based study comparing all pregnancies in patients with and without vaginismus was conducted. Patients lacking prenatal care were excluded from the analysis. Deliveries occurred during the years 1988-2007. A multivariate logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed to find independent risk factors associated with vaginismus. During the study period there were 192,954 deliveries, of which 118 occurred in patients with vaginismus. Patients with vaginismus tended to be younger (26.04+/-4.89 vs. 28.61+/-5.83; p vaginismus. Patients with vaginismus had higher rates of infertility treatments (5.9%vs. 2.7%, odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.9; p = 0.04) and labor induction (37.3%vs. 27.4%, OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.3; p = 0.02), vacuum extraction (9.3%vs. 2.8%, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-6.7; p vaginismus remained as an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery (OR 7.1; 95% CI 4.5-11.1; p Vaginismus is an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery.

  6. Tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation is enhanced following delivery irrespective of the mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; den Hollander, I. A.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of thrombosis is clearly increased in the postpartum period. Mice with a targeted deletion of the transmembrane domain of tissue factor (TF) develop serious activation of blood coagulation and widespread thrombosis after delivery. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We hypothesized that TF,

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-α/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Interplay Sustains Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Apoliprotein E Expression in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Alessio; Storci, Gianluca; Guarnieri, Tiziana; De Carolis, Sabrina; Bertoni, Sara; Avenia, Nicola; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Sidoni, Angelo; Santini, Donatella; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Taffurelli, Mario; Orlandi, Marina; Bonafé, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cancer stem cell biology is tightly connected to the regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine network. The concept of cancer stem cells “inflammatory addiction” leads to envisage the potential role of anti-inflammatory molecules as new anti-cancer targets. Here we report on the relationship between nuclear receptors activity and the modulation of the pro-inflammatory phenotype in breast cancer stem cells. Methods Breast cancer stem cells were expanded as mammospheres from normal and tumor human breast tissues and from tumorigenic (MCF7) and non tumorigenic (MCF10) human breast cell lines. Mammospheres were exposed to the supernatant of breast tumor and normal mammary gland tissue fibroblasts. Results In mammospheres exposed to the breast tumor fibroblasts supernatant, autocrine tumor necrosis factor-α signalling engenders the functional interplay between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (PPARα/HIF1α). The two proteins promote mammospheres formation and enhance each other expression via miRNA130b/miRNA17-5p-dependent mechanism which is antagonized by PPARγ. Further, the PPARα/HIF1α interplay regulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, the hypoxia survival factor carbonic anhydrase IX and the plasma lipid carrier apolipoprotein E. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the importance of exploring the role of nuclear receptors (PPARα/PPARγ) in the regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways, with the aim to thwart breast cancer stem cells functioning. PMID:23372804

  8. Measuring factor IX activity of nonacog beta pegol with commercially available one-stage clotting and chromogenic assay kits: a two-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, A E; Hillarp, A; Ezban, M; Persson, P; Kitchen, S

    2016-07-01

    Essentials Validated assays are required to precisely measure factor IX (FIX) activity in FIX products. N9-GP and two other FIX products were assessed in various coagulation assay systems at two sites. Large variations in FIX activity measurements were observed for N9-GP using some assays. One-stage and chromogenic assays accurately measuring FIX activity for N9-GP were identified. Background Measurement of factor IX activity (FIX:C) with activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays is associated with a large degree of interlaboratory variation in samples containing glycoPEGylated recombinant FIX (rFIX), i.e. nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP). Validation and qualification of specific assays and conditions are necessary for the accurate assessment of FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP. Objectives To assess the accuracy of various one-stage clotting and chromogenic assays for measuring FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP as compared with samples containing rFIX or plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX) across two laboratory sites. Methods FIX:C, in severe hemophilia B plasma spiked with a range of concentrations (from very low, i.e. 0.03 IU mL(-1) , to high, i.e. 0.90 IU mL(-1) ) of N9-GP, rFIX (BeneFIX), and pdFIX (Mononine), was determined at two laboratory sites with 10 commercially available one-stage clotting assays and two chromogenic FIX:C assays. Assays were performed with a plasma calibrator and different analyzers. Results A high degree of variation in FIX:C measurement was observed for one-stage clotting assays for N9-GP as compared with rFIX or pdFIX. Acceptable N9-GP recovery was observed in the low-concentration to high-concentration samples tested with one-stage clotting assays using SynthAFax or DG Synth, or with chromogenic FIX:C assays. Similar patterns of FIX:C measurement were observed at both laboratory sites, with minor differences probably being attributable to the use of different analyzers. Conclusions These results suggest that, of the

  9. Factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District, Dodoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2009 in which women of child-bearing age were interviewed. The variables mainly included: accessibility of maternal health care, practicing TBA's, existence of ...

  10. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α, Glucose Transporter-1, (GLUT-1 and Carbon Anhydrase IX in Endometrial Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sadlecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, and carbon anhydrase IX (CAIX are important molecules that allow adaptation to hypoxic environments. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and CAIX protein level with the clinicopathological features of endometrial cancer patients. Materials and Methods. 92 endometrial cancer patients, aged 37–84, were enrolled to our study. In all patients clinical stage, histologic grade, myometrial invasion, lymph node, and distant metastases were determined. Moreover, the survival time was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on archive formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results. High significant differences (P=0.0115 were reported between HIF-1α expression and the histologic subtype of cancer. Higher HIF-1α expression was associated with the higher risk of recurrence (P=0.0434. The results of GLUT-1 and CAIX expression did not reveal any significant differences between the proteins expression in the primary tumor and the clinicopathological features. Conclusion. The important role of HIF-1α in the group of patients with the high risk of recurrence and the negative histologic subtype of the tumor suggest that the expression of this factor might be useful in the panel of accessory pathomorphological tests and could be helpful in establishing more accurate prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

  11. [Relationship between factors of labour pain and delivery outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui-jun; Jiang, Yan-jiao; Ruan, Zhi-fang

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate factors associated with labor pain and delivery outcomes. From Jul. to Dec. 2009, 111 normal singleton cephalic presentation pregnancies (including 5 elderly parturient) who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University were enrolled in this study to evaluate the relationship between factors of labor pain and delivery outcomes. The labor pain of latent phase and active phase were scored by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Factors associated with pain included the age of parturient, the number of gravidity and parity, occupation, education profile, dwell location, etc. The questionnaire was designed by ourselves. Childbirth awareness, psychological preparation of delivery, emotional controllability, couple relationship, the relationship of parturient and mother-in-law, the relationship of parturient and parents, family economic status, use of sedative during the labor process and delivery outcomes were collected and analyzed. (1) Factors associated with pain: in the latent phase, the rate of moderate labour pain of 1/5 in women with more than 35 years old was statistically lower than 76.4% (81/106) in suitable age group (P emotion control expressed significantly severe labour pain (59.0%, 36/61) than 35.6% (16/45) in well-prepared group. The rate of severe labour pain in good control of emotion group of 44.8% (43/96) was a statistically lower than 9/10 in poor control group. There was a statistically lower severe labour pain in women given by sedatives (29.2%, 7/24) than 54.9% (45/82) in women without sedatives treatment (P emotion control, young age and uniparous have severe labour pain. Sedative use could alleviate pain in active phase. Women with mild labour pain have good delivery outcomes.

  12. Risk factors for cesarean delivery in primigravida during spontaneous labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hc, C.; Yahya, M.S.; Mooi, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors for cesarean delivery among primigravida at Hospital Serdang. Methodology: This was a case control study which involved total 260 of 130 primigravida patients that underwent cesarean section (cases) and 130 primigravida patients that underwent vaginal delivery (control) at obstetrics and gynaecology department of Hospital Serdang, Malaysia from January until June 2013. A standardized proforma was used to collect the data of each primigravida patient presenting in spontaneous labour at term with singleton pregnancy with either caesarean or vaginal delivery. Results: Majority of the cases were Malaysian (86.9%) and mostly were from Malay ethnic group (75.4%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of hypertension status (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% CI; 1.56-20.84) and gestational age less than 40 weeks (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.34-5.02), fetal weight more than 3000 gm (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.95), were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. Conclusion: Primigravida with presence of hypertension, having gestational age less than 40 weeks and heavier fetus were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. (author)

  13. The rates of G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G transversions at CpG dinucleotides in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The authors have identified eight independent transversions at CpG in 290 consecutive families with hemophilia B. These eight transversions account for 16.3% of all independent transversions in the sample, yet the expected frequency of CpG transversions at random in the factor IX gene is only 2.6% (P<0.1). The aggregate data suggest that the two types of CpG transversions (G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G) possess similar mutation rates (24.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] and 20.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]10], respectively), which are about fivefold greater than the comparable rates for transversions at non-CpG dinucleotides. The enhancement of transversions at CpG suggest that the model by which mutations occur at CpG may need to be reevaluated. The relationship, if any, between deamination of 5-methyl cytosine and enhancement of transversions at CpG remains to be defined. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Efficient detection of factor IX mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography in Taiwanese hemophilia B patients, and the identification of two novel mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chin Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia B (HB is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mutations in the clotting factor IX (FIX gene that result in FIX deficiency. Previous studies have shown a wide variation of FIX gene mutations in HB. Although the quality of life in HB has greatly improved mainly because of prophylactic replacement therapy with FIX concentrates, there exists a significant burden on affected families and the medical care system. Accurate detection of FIX gene mutations is critical for genetic counseling and disease prevention in HB. In this study, we used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC, which has proved to be a highly informative and practical means of detecting mutations, for the molecular diagnosis of our patients with HB. Ten Taiwanese families affected by HB were enrolled. We used the DHPLC technique followed by direct sequencing of suspected segments to detect FIX gene mutations. In all, 11 FIX gene mutations (8 point mutations, 2 small deletions/insertions, and 1 large deletion, including two novel mutations (exon6 c.687–695, del 9 mer and c.460–461, ins T were found. According to the HB pedigrees, 25% and 75% of our patients were defined as familial and sporadic HB cases, respectively. We show that DHPLC is a highly sensitive and cost-effective method for FIX gene analysis and can be used as a convenient system for disease prevention.

  15. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alemi Kebede,1 Kalkidan Hassen,2 Aderajew Nigussie Teklehaymanot1 1Department of Population and Family Health, 2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home.Objective: The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test.Results: People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68, with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively, who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39, and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57 showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization.Conclusion and recommendation: Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available

  16. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  17. Local Delivery of Growth Factors Using Coated Suture Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Fuchs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of healing processes in a wide range of tissues represents a central point for surgical research. One approach is to stimulate healing processes with growth factors. These substances have a short half-life and therefore it seems useful to administer these substances locally rather than systemically. One possible method of local delivery is to incorporate growth factors into a bioabsorbable poly (D, L-lactide suspension (PDLLA and coat suture material. The aim of the present study was to establish a procedure for the local delivery of growth factors using coated suture material. Sutures coated with growth factors were tested in an animal model. Anastomoses of the colon were created in a rat model using monofilament sutures. These were either untreated or coated with PDLLA coating alone or coated with PDLLA incorporating insulin—like growth factor-I (IGF-I. The anastomoses were subjected to biomechanical, histological, and immunohistochemical examination. After 3 days the treated groups showed a significantly greater capacity to withstand biomechanical stress than the control groups. This finding was supported by the results of the histomorphometric. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to deliver bioactive growth factors locally using PDLLA coated suture material. Healing processes can thus be stimulated locally without subjecting the whole organism to potentially damaging high systemic doses.

  18. Comparative field study: impact of laboratory assay variability on the assessment of recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jurg M; Buyue, Yang; Bardan, Sara; Peters, Robert T; Jiang, Haiyan; Kamphaus, George D; Gray, Elaine; Pierce, Glenn F

    2014-11-01

    Due to variability in the one-stage clotting assay, the performance of new factor IX (FIX) products should be assessed in this assay. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the accuracy of measuring recombinant FIX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) activity in clinical haemostasis laboratories using the one-stage clotting assay. Human haemophilic donor plasma was spiked with rFIXFc or BeneFIX® at 0.80, 0.20, or 0.05 IU/ml based on label potency. Laboratories tested blinded samples using their routine one-stage assay and in-house FIX plasma standard. The mean spike recoveries for BeneFIX (n=30 laboratories) were 121 %, 144 %, and 168 % of expected at nominal 0.80, 0.20, and 0.05 IU/ml concentrations, respectively. Corresponding rFIXFc spike recoveries were 88 %, 107 %, and 132 % of expected, respectively. All BeneFIX concentrations were consistently overestimated by most laboratories. rFIXFc activity was reagent-dependent; ellagic acid and silica gave higher values than kaolin, which underestimated rFIXFc. BeneFIX demonstrated significantly reduced chromogenic assay activity relative to one-stage assay results and nominal activity, while rFIXFc activity was close to nominal activity at three concentrations with better dilution linearity than the typical one-stage assay. In conclusion, laboratory- and reagent-specific assay variabilities were revealed, with progressively higher variability at lower FIX concentrations. Non-parallelism against the FIX plasma standard was observed in all one-stage assays with rFIXFc and BeneFIX, leading to significant overestimation of FIX activity at lower levels and generally high inter-laboratory variability. Compared to the accuracy currently achieved in clinical laboratories when measuring other rFIX products, most laboratories measured rFIXFc activity with acceptable accuracy and reliability using routine one-stage assay methods and commercially available plasma standards.

  19. Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unplanned Deliveries at Home: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catak, Binali; Oner, Can

    2015-01-01

    Unplanned home deliveries can vary with social and cultural factors. The aim of this study was to define the risk factors of unplanned home births. This case control study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey. The study group was composed of 229 women who had unplanned home delivery. Six factors (presence of health insurance, duration of living in Istanbul, educational status of the woman, the number of individuals living in the household, the age of the woman at the time of current delivery, and the status of having received care prior to delivery) were determined as independent risk factors for unplanned deliveries at home.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) mediates tumor cell interactions with microenvironment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závadová, Zuzana; Závada, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 977-982 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * cell adhesion * microenvironment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  1. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PLWAs are getting pregnant and may require operative delivery on account of Preventing ... abnormalities such as bone marrow depression, anaemia9 and ... operative clinical status up to 48 hours post-delivery or death. Transfusion rate was.

  2. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we

  3. Risk factors for wound disruption following cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N

    2014-08-01

    Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ≥24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ≥30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). RESULTS for composite wound morbidity were similar. Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption.

  4. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  5. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The in vitro experiments indicate that it would be incorrect to equate delivery with recovery of puerarin in in vivo microdialysis experiments. Keywords: Microdialysis, Puerarin, Recovery, Probe delivery. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  6. Increased production of functional recombinant human clotting factor IX by baby hamster kidney cells engineered to overexpress VKORC1, the vitamin K 2,3-epoxide-reducing enzyme of the vitamin K cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajih, Nadeem; Hutson, Susan M; Owen, John; Wallin, Reidar

    2005-09-09

    Some recombinant vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors (factors VII, IX, and protein C) have become valuable pharmaceuticals in the treatment of bleeding complications and sepsis. Because of their vitamin K-dependent post-translational modification, their synthesis by eukaryotic cells is essential. The eukaryotic cell harbors a vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system that converts the proteins to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins. However, the system in eukaryotic cells has limited capacity, and cell lines overexpressing vitamin K-dependent clotting factors produce only a fraction of the recombinant proteins as fully gamma-carboxylated, physiologically competent proteins. In this work we have used recombinant human factor IX (r-hFIX)-producing baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, engineered to stably overexpress various components of the gamma-carboxylation system of the cell, to determine whether increased production of functional r-hFIX can be accomplished. All BHK cell lines secreted r-hFIX into serum-free medium. Overexpression of gamma-carboxylase is shown to inhibit production of functional r-hFIX. On the other hand, cells overexpressing VKORC1, the reduced vitamin K cofactor-producing enzyme of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system, produced 2.9-fold more functional r-hFIX than control BHK cells. The data are consistent with the notion that VKORC1 is the rate-limiting step in the system and is a key regulatory protein in synthesis of active vitamin K-dependent proteins. The data suggest that overexpression of VKORC1 can be utilized for increased cellular production of recombinant vitamin K-dependent proteins.

  7. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However ..... seling services on the benefit of institutional delivery ... housewives, due to their outdoor exposure.

  8. Contributing Factors to Poor Service Delivery by Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor service delivery by local government is crippling South African businesses .... main categories: one focuses on an employee's internal attributes (content ... admitted that their attitude to work was adversely affected by the poor quality.

  9. Effects of delivery mode and sociodemographic factors on postpartum stress urinary incontinency in primipara women: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kokabi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Vaginal delivery is associated with a twofold increased risk of postpartum SUI in primipara women compared with elective cesarean section. Age and birth weight are the main risk factors of postpartum SUI in both modes of delivery. Tool-assisted delivery and episiotomy were determined as the risk factors of postpartum SUI in vaginal delivery.

  10. Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus anal incontinence 4years after first delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritel , Xavier; Khoshnood , Babak; Fauconnier , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Delivery can be complicated by urinary or anal incontinence (UI or AI). We hypothesized that the mechanisms of injury may differ for UI and AI. Hence, obstetrical risk factors may be specific for different types of incontinence. DESIGN: Data on maternal characteristics were collected at first delivery. Data on incontinence were obtained by a questionnaire completed by 627 women 4years after first delivery. UI was defined by "Do you have involuntary loss of urine" ...

  11. Influence of protoporphyrin IX loaded phloroglucinol succinic acid dendrimer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Suresh; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity. The usefulness of photosensitizers can be made possible by reducing its dark toxicity nature. In such scenario, biocompatible carriers can be used as a drug delivery system to evade the problems that arises while using free (dark toxic) drugs. So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free PpIX in HeLa cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using 2‧,7‧-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA)- ROS Marker with phase contrast microscopy for the IC50 values of free and dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation. Similarly, the mode of cell death has been confirmed by cell cycle analysis for the same. For the in vitro PDT application, we have used a simple light source (Light Emitting Diode) with a power of 30-50 mW for 20 min irradiation. Hence, in this study we have taken steps to report this anionic drug delivery system is good to consider for the photodynamic therapy applications with the photosensitizer, PpIX which satisfied the prime requirement of PDT.

  12. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    characteristics and the choice of a planned place of delivery. RESULTS. A total of 140 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, they were within the ages of 16 and 40 years. Most (74.3%) were christians, married (71.4%) with the highest educational level being primary school education (45%). The women were more of ...

  13. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    pregnant women in Russia village of Jos North, Nigeria: achieving the ... deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index .... index is an indication that poverty is also the ... location from a national survey in India.

  14. Factors Affecting the Place of Delivery among Mothers Residing in Jhorahat VDC, Morang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Dhakal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Nepal, the maternal mortality ratio is 281 per thousand live births, among which 40% mortality occurs during home delivery. Home delivery increases the risk of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity due to the birth not assisted by skilled attendant. This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting the place of delivery among the mothers residing in Jhorahat VDC, Morang district, Nepal. Methods: A mixed method study using interviews based on semi-structured questionnaire (n=93 among mothers and two focus group discussion among decision makers of the house and female community health volunteers was conducted between November to December 2012. For quantitative data, Chi-square test and Fischer’s Exact test were used to examine the association between the selected variables and place of delivery. Results: More than half (58.1% of the mothers had institutional delivery and 41.9% of them had home delivery. The most common reason for home delivery was easy and convenient environment (66.7% and that for institutional delivery was safety (77.8%. There was a significant association between caste, education of mothers, education of spouse, occupation of spouse, per capita income, time to reach the nearest health center, parity, previous place of delivery, number of antenatal visit, knowledge about place of delivery, planned place of delivery, and place of delivery. Conclusion: Maternal health services, such as prenatal care, skilled assistance during delivery and post-natal care, along with adequately equipped health institutions, play a major role in the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality. Concerted efforts should be made both at community and government levels to increase institutional delivery.

  15. Online Course Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqiri, Mirjeta S.; Chase, Nancy M.; Bishka, Atena

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated potential factors impacting students' satisfaction with online course delivery using business students as participants. The findings suggest that the student who would be more satisfied with the delivery of online courses fits the following profile: graduate, married, resides more than 1 mile away from campus, and male.…

  16. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery following Labor Induction in Multiparous Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Uytrecht, Cedric T.; Porath, Martina M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the

  17. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  18. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  19. A study of factors influencing surgical cesarean delivery times in an academic tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Fiol, A; Meng, M-L; Danhakl, V; Kim, M; Miller, R; Smiley, R

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of hospital-specific average cesarean delivery operative times, and factors influencing length of surgery, can serve as a guide for anesthesiologists when choosing the optimal anesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to determine operative times and the factors influencing those times for cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective review of all 1348 cesarean deliveries performed at an academic hospital in 2011. The primary outcome was mean operative time for first, second, third and fourth or more cesarean deliveries. The secondary goal was to identify factors influencing operative time. Variables included age, body mass index, previous surgery, gestational age, urgency of cesarean delivery, anesthesia type, surgeon's seniority, layers closed, and performance of tubal ligation. Mean (standard deviation) operative times for first (n=857), second (n=353), third (n=108) and fourth or more (n=30) cesarean deliveries were 56 (19), 60 (19), 69 (28) and 82 (31) minutes, respectively (P cesarean delivery or the presence of other factors that could increase operative time may warrant catheter-based anesthetic techniques or the addition of adjunctive medications to prolong spinal anesthetic block. Institutional and individual surgeon factors may play an even more important role in determining surgical time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  1. Outcomes and risk factors for unplanned delivery at home and before arrival to the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Zlatko; Takač, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes and risk factors for unplanned delivery at home and before arrival to the hospital in Maribor region, Slovenia. We used data from medical records of all deliveries in Maribor region from the year 1997 to the year 2005. We analysed a total of 17,846 births from annual reports of the Maribor University Hospital. Among the total of 17,846 births, there were 58 (3.2‰) unplanned births at home and on the way to the hospital. The study based on the data from medical records on safety of unplanned home birth reveals that hospital delivery is approximately 7 times safer than unplanned home delivery. This conclusion is reached by comparing perinatal mortality, which was 68‰ for unplanned deliveries at home versus 8.8‰ for deliveries at hospital. The prematurity was more common in unplanned home deliveries: 13 (22%) versus 1399 (8%) for hospital deliveries. Unplanned deliveries at home and on the way to the hospital were more common in multiparous women (ratio 4:1 compared to 1:1 for hospital births). When for all hospital deliveries the pregnancies were followed, for one third of unplanned deliveries at home or on the way to the hospital the pregnancies were not monitored. Mothers who gave birth at home or on the way to the hospital were without higher education (i.e. 55.2%) and mothers who gave birth in hospital were with higher education (i.e. 87.4%). There was higher rate of perinatal morbidity for unplanned home deliveries compared to hospital deliveries. Factors that make unplanned home deliveries more common are high parity, absence or inadequacy of antenatal care, marital status and lower education. Some conditions in newborn, such as hypothermia, were clearly the result of unplanned birth at home. Additional effort to improve antenatal care and also identifying social vulnerabilities would possibly decrease the number of unplanned deliveries and improve the perinatal outcomes.

  2. Soluble form of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in the serum and urine of renal carcinoma patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, Jan; Závadová, Zuzana; Zaťovičová, M.; Hyršl, L.; Kawaciuk, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2003), s. 1067-1071 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/99/0356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * tumor antigens * cancer diagnostics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2003

  3. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predisposing to increased risk for blood transfusion identified from previous ... This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for blood transfusion during anaesthesia for caesarean section. ... study which could fall into either of the following conditions: satisfactory post- operative clinical status up to 48 hours ...

  4. Factors influencing the place of delivery in rural Meghalaya, India: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sarkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Meghalaya, only 51.4% expectant mothers go for any institutional delivery with a wide rural-urban gap causing morbidity and mortality in the mothers and the neonates. Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the factors influencing the choice of the place of delivery in rural women. Methodology: The present qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2016 in Bhoirymbong community health center (CHC and the area catered to by it. This CHC was selected by purposive sampling. Data collection methods included focused group discussions and in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed manually using thematic content analysis. Results: Most of the women in the study area opted for home delivery by traditional birth attendants (TBAs, on whose skills the community had strong faith. Financial constraints, fear of out-of-pocket expenditure, ignorance of available schemes, unavailability of transport, bad roads, and distant hospitals were found to be important causes of this choice. Home delivery apparently offered the women privacy and the opportunity to attend to their household chores and older children. Illiteracy, increasing age, and parity were risk factors for home delivery. Perceived need for institutional delivery was low. Staff attitudes and unnecessary referrals had an impact on the choice of place of delivery. Conclusion: In the rural areas of this study, home deliveries are the preferred norm. The wide range of factors identified in this study for the preference of TBA and home deliveries could help policy makers and program implementers to adopt socially and culturally appropriate community-based interventions that can contribute to the reduction of maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality and morbidity and increase service utilization.

  5. Factors contributing to low institutional deliveries in the Marondera district of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mugweni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify factors contributing to low institutional deliveries in the Marondera District, Zimbabwe, among women who attended antenatal clinics, in order to enhance the number of institutional deliveries. A quantitative descriptive survey, gathering data by conducting structured interviews with 80 women, was used in this study. All 80 women attended ante-natal clinics but 40 delivered at home and 40 delivered at an institution.

  6. Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Room from a Tertiary Level Hospital: Risk Factors and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Timely identification and prompt resuscitation of newborns in the delivery room may cause a decline in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We try to identify risk factors in mother and fetus that result in birth of newborns needing resuscitation at birth. Methods Case notes of all deliveries and neonates born from April 2010 to March 2011 in Mahdieh Medical Center (Tehran, Iran), a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, were reviewed; relevant maternal, fetal and perinatal data was e...

  7. A biomimetic growth factor delivery strategy for enhanced regeneration of iliac crest defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgor Huri, Pinar; Huri, Gazi; Yasar, Umit; Dikmen, Nurten; Ucar, Yurdanur; Hasirci, Nesrin; Hasirci, Vasif

    2013-01-01

    The importance of provision of growth factors in the engineering of tissues has long been shown to control the behavior of the cells within the construct and several approaches were applied toward this end. In nature, more than one type of growth factor is known to be effective during the healing of tissue defects and their peak concentrations are not always simultaneous. One of the most recent strategies includes the delivery of a combination of growth factors with the dose and timing to mimic the natural regeneration cascade. The sequential delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-7 which are early and late appearing factors during bone regeneration, respectively, was shown in vitro to enhance osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, the aim was to study the effectiveness of this delivery strategy in a rabbit iliac crest model. 3D plotted poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds were loaded with BMP carrying nanoparticles to achieve: (a) single BMP-2 or BMP-7 delivery, and (b) their combined delivery in a simultaneous or (c) sequential (biomimetic) fashion. After eight weeks of implantation, computed tomography and biomechanical tests showed better mineralized matrix formation and bone-implant union strength at the defect site in the case of sequential delivery compared to single or simultaneous delivery modes. Bone mineral density (BMD) and push-out stress were: 33.65±2.25 g cm −3 and 14.5±2.28 MPa, respectively, and almost 2.5 fold higher in comparison to those without growth factors (BMD: 14.14±1.21 g cm −3 ; PS: 6.59±0.65 MPa). This study, therefore, supports those obtained in vitro and emphasizes the importance of mimicking the natural timing of bioavailability of osteogenic factors in improving the regeneration of critical-sized bone defects. (paper)

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Preterm Delivery after Fetoscopic Laser Surgery for Twin Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAPANNA, Ramesha; BLOCK-ABRAHAM, Dana; Mann, Lovepreet K; BUHIMSCHI, Irina A.; BEBBINGTON, Michael; GARCIA, Elisa; KAHLEK, Nahla; HARMAN, Christopher; JOHNSON, Anthony; BASCHAT, Ahmet; MOISE, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite improved perinatal survival following fetoscopic laser surgery (FLS) for twin twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), prematurity remains an important contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity. The objective of the study was to identify risk factors for complicated preterm delivery after FLS. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on maternal/fetal demographics and pre-operative, operative and post-operative variables of 459 patients treated in 3 U.S. fetal centers. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify significant risk factors associated with preterm delivery, which was cross-validated using K-fold method. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for early vs. late preterm delivery based on median gestational age at delivery of 32 weeks. RESULTS There were significant differences in case selection and outcomes between the centers. After controlling for the center of surgery, a multivariate analysis indicated a lower maternal age at procedure, history of previous prematurity, shortened cervical length, use of amnioinfusion, 12 Fr cannula diameter, lack of a collagen plug placement and iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes (iPPROM) were significantly associated with a lower gestational age at delivery. CONCLUSION Specific fetal/maternal and operative variables are associated with preterm delivery after FLS for the treatment of TTTS. Further studies to modify some of these variables may decrease the perinatal morbidity after laser therapy. PMID:24013922

  9. Online, Instructional Television and Traditional Delivery: Student Characteristics and Success Factors in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Douglas P.; Rochelle, Carolyn F.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education has surged in recent years while research on student characteristics and factors leading to successful outcomes has not kept pace. This study examined characteristics of regional university students in undergraduate Business Statistics and factors linked to their success based on three modes of delivery - Online, Instructional…

  10. Factors Associated with Teacher Delivery of a Classroom-Based Tier 2 Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S; Conroy, Maureen A; McLeod, Bryce D; Algina, James; Kunemund, Rachel L

    2018-01-01

    Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher…

  11. Blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: Risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group specific blood is often cross-matched ready for all patients scheduled for caesarean section in anticipation of haemorrhage during the surgery. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for blood transfusion during anaesthesia for caesarean section. Methods: This was a prospective ...

  12. Factors affecting delivery and transient expression of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors investigated were the helium pressure, target distance, macrocarrier flight distance to stopping screen, distance from stopping screen to target tissues, vacuum pressure, gold microparticles size, spermidine and calcium on DNA precipitation, and the number of bombardments. Two days after bombardment, the ...

  13. Is prophylaxis required for delivery in women with factor VII deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann Kreuziger, L M; Morton, Colleen T; Reding, Mark T

    2013-11-01

    Factor VII (fVII) deficiency is a rare congenital bleeding disorder in which fVII activity level and bleeding tendency do not completely correlate. Pregnancy and delivery present a significant haemostatic challenge to women with fVII deficiency. Treatment with recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) carries a thrombotic risk and the literature is not clear whether prophylaxis is necessary prior to delivery. The aim of this study was to define management, haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications of pregnant women with fVII deficiency through a systematic review. Medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched using "factor VII deficiency" and "pregnancy" or "surgery." Overall 34 articles, four abstracts, and three institutional cases were reviewed. Literature from 1953 to 2011 reported 94 live births from 62 women with fVII deficiency. The median fVII activity was 5.5%. Haemostatic prophylaxis was used in 32% of deliveries. Without prophylaxis, 40 vaginal deliveries and 16 caesarean sections were completed. The odds of receiving prophylaxis were 2.9 times higher in women undergoing caesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Post-partum haemorrhage occurred in 10% of deliveries with prophylaxis and 13% of deliveries without prophylaxis. The fVII level did not significantly differ between women who did and did not receive prophylaxis. We present the only systematic review of the management of pregnancy in fVII deficient women. No difference in post-partum haemorrhage was seen in deliveries with and without prophylaxis. Therefore, we recommend that rfVIIa be available in the case of haemorrhage or surgical intervention, but not as mandatory prophylaxis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Growth factor delivery: How surface interactions modulate release in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively used to deliver growth factors to induce new bone formation. The pharmacokinetics of growth factor delivery has been a critical regulator of their clinical success. This review will focus on the surface interactions that control the non-covalent incorporation of growth factors into scaffolds and the mechanisms that control growth factor release from clinically relevant biomaterials. We will focus on the delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from materials currently used in the clinical practice, but also suggest how general mechanisms that control growth factor incorporation and release delineated with this growth factor could extend to other systems. A better understanding of the changing mechanisms that control growth factor release during the different stages of preclinical development could instruct the development of future scaffolds for currently untreatable injuries and diseases. PMID:22433783

  15. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery following Labor Induction in Multiparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine J. Verhoeven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child in cephalic position. Results. Between 1995 and 2010, labor was induced in 2548 parous women, of whom 80 had a cesarean delivery (3%. These 80 cases were compared to the data of 160 parous women with a successful induction of labor. In the multivariate analysis history of preterm delivery (odds ratio (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 25, maternal height (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.95 and dilatation at the start of induction (OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.98 were associated with failed induction. Conclusion. In multiparous women, the risk of cesarean delivery following labor induction increases with previous preterm delivery, short maternal height, and limited dilatation at the start of induction.

  16. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Growth Factors and Cells for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tiffany N.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2012-01-01

    The controlled delivery of growth factors and cells within biomaterial carriers can enhance and accelerate functional bone formation. The carrier system can be designed with preprogrammed release kinetics to deliver bioactive molecules in a localized, spatiotemporal manner most similar to the natural wound healing process. The carrier can also act as an extracellular matrix-mimicking substrate for promoting osteoprogenitor cellular infiltration and proliferation for integrative tissue repair. This review discusses the role of various regenerative factors involved in bone healing and their appropriate combinations with different delivery systems for augmenting bone regeneration. The general requirements of protein, cell and gene therapy are described, with elaboration on how the selection of materials, configurations and processing affects growth factor and cell delivery and regenerative efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo applications for bone tissue engineering. PMID:22342771

  17. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Negusie, Azezu Asres

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, about 85% of mothers in Ethiopia deliver at home. To assess factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among women who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Dangila district. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01-28, 2015. A total of 763 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Crude and adjusted Odds ratios were computed for selected variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Only 18.3% of mothers gave birth at health facilities. Knowledge on danger signs [AOR=2.0, 95% CI: (1.1, 3.4)], plan to give birth at health institution [AOR=5.4, 95% CI: (3.0, 9.6)], having ANC follow up during pregnancy [AOR=12.9, 95% CI: (5.0, 33.3)] and time taken to get to a nearby health institution [AOR=5.1, 95% CI: (2.9, 9.1)] were associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Institutional delivery was very low. Knowledge about danger signs, having ANC visits, and time were factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Thus, the findings recommend repeated re-enforcement of institutional delivery service utilization through professionals. And also, the findings recommend promotion of institutional delivery service utilization through mass media.

  18. Innovations in gene and growth factor delivery systems for diabetic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiva, Ashang Luwang; O'Brien, Fergal J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The rise in lower extremity amputations due to nonhealing of foot ulcers in diabetic patients calls for rapid improvement in effective treatment regimens. Administration of growth factors (GFs) are thought to offer an off‐the‐shelf treatment; however, the dose‐ and time‐dependent efficacy of the GFs together with the hostile environment of diabetic wound beds impose a major hindrance in the selection of an ideal route for GF delivery. As an alternative, the delivery of therapeutic genes using viral and nonviral vectors, capable of transiently expressing the genes until the recovery of the wounded tissue offers promise. The development of implantable biomaterial dressings capable of modulating the release of either single or combinatorial GFs/genes may offer solutions to this overgrowing problem. This article reviews the state of the art on gene and protein delivery and the strategic optimization of clinically adopted delivery strategies for the healing of diabetic wounds. PMID:28482114

  19. [Prevention of shoulder dystocia risk factors before delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether it is possible to prevent the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia before or during pregnancy. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Studied measures were exercise before or during pregnancy, dietary management, and gestational diabetes management in obese and non-obese patients. No study has proven that the correction of these risk factors (except gestational diabetes) would reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the general population, physical exercise is recommended either before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (physical activity before pregnancy) (grade B), fetal macrosomia (grade C) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (grade C). No dietary regimen is recommended to reduce these issues (grade B). In overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]>25), physical activity coupled with dietary management is recommended (grade A) because it reduces fetal macrosomia (EL1). In addition, it allows a modest reduction in maternal weight gain during pregnancy (EL2), but did have an effect on the occurrence of gestational diabetes (EL1). In case of gestational diabetes, diabetes care is recommended (diabetic diet, glucose monitoring, insulin if needed) (grade A) as it reduces the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia (EL1). The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11.5 kg to 16 kg for normal BMI patients (grade B). Obese patients should be aware of the importance of controlling their weight gain during pregnancy (professional consensus). It is recommended that patients regain their pre-conception weight, and ideally a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2), 6 months postpartum (grade B) to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and macrosomia in a subsequent pregnancy (EL2). Physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia

  20. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  1. Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus anal incontinence 4 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritel, X; Khoshnood, B; Fauconnier, A

    2013-09-01

    Delivery can be complicated by urinary or anal incontinence (UI or AI). We hypothesized that the mechanisms of injury may differ for UI and AI. Hence, obstetrical risk factors may be specific for different types of incontinence. Data on maternal characteristics were collected at first delivery. Data on incontinence were obtained by a questionnaire completed by 627 women 4 years after first delivery. UI was defined by "Do you have involuntary loss of urine" and AI by "Do you have involuntary loss of flatus or stool". A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess risk factors for UI only, AI only, and UI+AI. Twenty-two percent of women reported UI only, 6.5% AI only, and 6.5% both. Risk factors associated with UI only were age (at first delivery)≥ 30 (OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.47-3.49]), pre-existing UI (6.44 [2.19-19.0]) and pregnancy UI (3.64 [2.25-5.91]). Risk factors associated with AI only were length of the second active stage> 20minutes (2.86 [1.15-7.13]) and third degree perineal tear (20.9 [1.73-252]). Significant predictors of UI+AI were age ≥ 30 (2.65 [1.29-5.46]), no epidural (4.29 [1.65-11.1]), third degree perineal tear (20.0 [1.28-314]), and UI before pregnancy (32.9 [9.00-120]). Cesarean delivery was not significantly associated with UI, AI, or UI+AI, although for all three outcomes, the adjusted odds ratios were substantially less than one. We found specific associations between obstetrical risk factors and urinary versus anal incontinence 4 years after first delivery. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the underlying mechanisms of injury differ for UI and AI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal and obstetric risk factors associated with preterm delivery at a referral hospital in northern-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia B. Temu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The risk factors for preterm delivery identified in this study are consistent with previous studies. Clinicians and other health care providers should routinely assess women at high risk of preterm delivery during prenatal care to prevent the occurrence of preterm delivery and associated adverse perinatal outcomes.

  3. DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Protoporphyrin IX in Sarcoma 180 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyrin derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy as effective sensitizers. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a well-known hematoporphyrin derivative component, shows great potential to enhance light induced tumor cell damage. However, PpIX alone could also exert anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underlying those direct effects are incompletely understood. This study thus investigated the putative mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of PpIX on sarcoma 180 (S180 cells. Methods: S180 cells were treated with different concentrations of PpIX. Following the treatment, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay; Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry; The trans-location of apoptosis inducer factor (AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by DNA content with flow cytometry; Cell cycle associated proteins were detected by western blotting. Results: PpIX (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced viability of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PpIX rapidly and significantly triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, AIF (apoptosis inducer factor translocation from mitochondria to nucleus and DNA damage, effects partially relieved by the specific inhibitor of MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, S phase arrest and upregulation of the related proteins of P53 and P21 were observed following 12 and 24 h PpIX exposure. Conclusion: PpIX could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

  4. Double emulsion electrospun nanofibers as a growth factor delivery vehicle for salivary gland regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraida, Zahraa I.; Sharikova, Anna; Peerzada, Lubna N.; Khmaladze, Alexander; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors, proteins, drugs and other biologically active molecules is necessary for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers are attractive tissue engineering scaffolds as they partially mimic the topography of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they do not provide continuous nourishment to the tissue. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we previously developed a blend nanofiber scaffold composed of the protein elastin and the synthetic polymer polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The nanofiber scaffold promoted in vivo-like salivary epithelial cell tissue organization and apicobasal polarization. However, in order to enhance the salivary cell proliferation and biomimetic character of the scaffold, sustained growth factor delivery is needed. The composite nanofiber scaffold was optimized to act as a growth factor delivery system using epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a model protein. The nanofiber/EGF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by double emulsion electrospinning where EGF is emulsified within a water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsion system. Successful incorporation of EGF was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. EGF release profile was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of the EGF content. Double emulsion electrospinning resulted in slower release of EGF. We demonstrated the potential of the proposed double emulsion electrospun nanofiber scaffold for the delivery of growth factors and/or drugs for tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Clinical impact of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence in women 5 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Wu, Ming-Ping; Lin, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Wang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence (UI) in women 5 years after their first birth and to evaluate the associations of UI with delivery mode and quality of life. Between 2005 July and 2006 March, primiparous women who delivered at term in a tertiary hospital were recruited into this cohort study. Immediately postpartum, the women completed a structured urogynecological questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms. Then the same urogynecological questionnaire, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were mailed to them 5 years later to follow up on UI. Three hundred and twelve women responding to the mailed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The prevalence 5 years after first delivery of stress (SUI) and urge (UUI) UI were 43.6 % and 19.2 %, respectively. Women with UI during their first pregnancy were more likely to develop UI 5 years postpartum than those without it; women who delivered their first child vaginally had a greater incidence of UI than those having cesarean birth; UUI in women following cesarean delivery more negatively impacted emotional health than it did following vaginal birth, whereas the impact of SUI did not significantly differ between delivery groups. UI during the first pregnancy and vaginal delivery in primiparous women may predict an increased risk of having UI 5 years after delivery. UUI adversely affected women's emotional health, especially in those undergoing cesarean section.

  6. Predisposing factors for bacterial vaginosis, treatment efficacy and pregnancy outcome among term deliveries; results from a preterm delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsson Tell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery but little is known about factors that could predict BV. We have analyzed if it is possible to identify a category of pregnant women that should be screened for BV, and if BV would alter the pregnancy outcome at term; we have also studied the treatment efficacy of clindamycin. Methods Prospective BV screening and treatment study of 9025 women in a geographically defined region in southeast Sweden. BV was defined as a modified Nugent score of 6 and above. Data was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Women allocated to treatment were supplied with vaginal clindamycin cream. The main outcome goals were to identify factors that could predict BV. Results Vaginal smears were consistent with BV criteria in 9.3%. Logistic regression indicates a significant correlation between smoking and BV (p Conclusion BV is more than twice as common among smokers, and there is a higher prevalence in the younger age group. However these two markers for BV do not suffice as a tool for screening, and considering the lack of other risk factors associated with BV, screening of all pregnant women might be a strategy to follow in a program intended to reduce the number of preterm births.

  7. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M. J.; de Groot, Christianne J.; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the

  8. Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Prediction of Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...

  9. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function

  10. Factors influencing women's preference for health facility deliveries in Jharkhand state, India: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Srivastava, Aradhana; Roy, Reetabrata; Avan, Bilal I

    2016-03-07

    Expanding institutional deliveries is a policy priority to achieve MDG5. India adopted a policy to encourage facility births through a conditional cash incentive scheme, yet 28% of deliveries still occur at home. In this context, it is important to understand the care experience of women who have delivered at home, and also at health facilities, analyzing any differences, so that services can be improved to promote facility births. This study aims to understand women's experience of delivery care during home and facility births, and the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their next place of delivery. A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a district of Jharkhand state in India. Interviews with 500 recently delivered women (210 delivered at facility and 290 delivered at home) included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of their recent delivery, and preference of future delivery site. Data analysis included frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regressions. There is no major difference in the experience of care between home and facility births, the only difference in care being with regard to pain relief through massage, injection and low cost of delivery for those having home births. 75% women wanted to deliver their next child at a facility, main reasons being availability of medicine (29.4%) and perceived health benefits for mother and baby (15%). Women with higher education (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.04-3.07), women who were above 25 years (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.26-3.64), who currently delivered at facility (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI = 2.97-9.08) and had health problem post-delivery (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.08-3.19) were significant predictors of future facility-based delivery. The predictors for facility deliveries include, availability of medicines and supplies, potential health benefits for the mother and newborn and the perception of good care from the providers. There is a growing

  11. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Fantu; Berhane, Yemane; Girma, Belaineh

    2012-11-24

    In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women's preferences for delivery places are not well known. A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited either postnatal care or sought immunization services were included. Cases (n = 108) were mothers who gave birth at home and controls (n = 216) were those who delivered at health facility. Pre-tested and standardized questionnaires were used to collect relevant data by trained data collectors. Logistic regression model was used to control for confounding. The likelihood of delivering at home was greater among mothers with inadequate knowledge of pregnancy related services (AOR = 62, 95% CI: 3, 128.4), those who started attending ANC after 24 weeks of gestation (AOR 8.7, 95% CI: 2.2, 33.3), mothers having no formal education (Adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.63, 11.27) and rural residents (AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.4, 9.0). The predominant factors associated with home delivery services were lack of knowledge about obstetrics care, delay in starting Antenatal Care (ANC) follow up, having, Illiteracy and rural residence. Audience specific behavioral change communication should be designed to improve the demand for delivery services. Health professionals should take the opportunity to encourage mothers attend delivery services during ANC follow up. Improvements should be made in social conditions including literacy and major social mobilization endeavors.

  12. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fantu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women’s preferences for delivery places are not well known. Method A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited either postnatal care or sought immunization services were included. Cases (n = 108 were mothers who gave birth at home and controls (n = 216 were those who delivered at health facility. Pre-tested and standardized questionnaires were used to collect relevant data by trained data collectors. Logistic regression model was used to control for confounding. Result The likelihood of delivering at home was greater among mothers with inadequate knowledge of pregnancy related services (AOR = 62, 95% CI: 3, 128.4, those who started attending ANC after 24 weeks of gestation (AOR 8.7, 95% CI: 2.2, 33.3, mothers having no formal education (Adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.63, 11.27 and rural residents (AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.4, 9.0. Conclusion The predominant factors associated with home delivery services were lack of knowledge about obstetrics care, delay in starting Antenatal Care (ANC follow up, having, Illiteracy and rural residence. Audience specific behavioral change communication should be designed to improve the demand for delivery services. Health professionals should take the opportunity to encourage mothers attend delivery services during ANC follow up. Improvements should be made in social conditions including literacy and major social mobilization endeavors.

  13. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditte, Zuzana; Ditte, Peter; Labudova, Martina; Simko, Veronika; Iuliano, Filippo; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA IX in carnosine-mediated antitumor activity and whether the underlying mechanism involves transcriptional and translational modulation of HIF-1α and CA IX and/or altered CA IX function. The effect of carnosine was studied using two-dimensional cell monolayers of several cell lines with endogenous CA IX expression as well as Madin Darby canine kidney transfectants, three-dimensional HeLa spheroids, and an in vivo model of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. mRNA and protein expression and protein localization were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Cell viability was measured by a flow cytometric assay. Expression of HIF-1α and CA IX in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Real-time measurement of pH was performed using a sensor dish reader. Binding of CA IX to specific antibodies and metabolon partners was investigated by competitive ELISA and proximity ligation assays, respectively. Carnosine increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and HIF targets and increased the extracellular pH, suggesting an inhibitory effect on CA IX-mediated acidosis. Moreover, carnosine significantly inhibited the growth of three-dimensional spheroids and tumor xenografts compared with untreated controls. Competitive ELISA showed that carnosine disrupted binding between CA IX and antibodies specific for its catalytic domain. This finding was supported by reduced formation of the functional metabolon of CA IX and anion exchanger 2 in the

  14. Motives and periods in Bianchi IX gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2018-05-01

    We show that, when considering the anisotropic scaling factors and their derivatives as affine variables, the coefficients of the heat-kernel expansion of the Dirac-Laplacian on SU(2) Bianchi IX metrics are algebro-geometric periods of motives of complements in affine spaces of unions of quadrics and hyperplanes. We show that the motives are mixed Tate and we provide an explicit computation of their Grothendieck classes.

  15. Delivery Practices and Associated Factors among Mothers Seeking Child Welfare Services in Selected Health Facilities in Nyandarua South District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjira Carol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measure of the proportion of deliveries assisted by skilled attendants is one of the indicators of progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5, which aims at improving maternal health. This study aimed at establishing delivery practices and associated factors among mothers seeking child welfare services at selected health facilities in Nyandarua South district, Kenya to determine whether mothers were receiving appropriate delivery care. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered while in the study area was carried out between August and October 2009. Binary Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted mothers' delivery practice. Results Among the 409 mothers who participated in the study, 1170 deliveries were reported. Of all the deliveries reported, 51.8% were attended by unskilled birth attendants. Among the deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants, 38.6% (452/1170 were by neighbors and/or relatives. Traditional Birth Attendants attended 1.5% (17/1170 of the deliveries while in 11.7% (137/1170 of the deliveries were self administered. Mothers who had unskilled birth attendance were more likely to have Conclusion Among the mothers interviewed, utilization of skilled delivery attendance services was still low with a high number of deliveries being attended by unqualified lay persons. There is need to implement cost effective and sustainable measures to improve the quality of maternal health services with an aim of promoting safe delivery and hence reducing maternal mortality.

  16. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines. IX. Application of the concentration-concentration structure factor to the study of binary mixtures containing pyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2009-10-10

    Binary mixtures formed by a pyridine base and an alkane, or an aromatic hydrocarbon, or a 1-alkanol have been studied in the framework of the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), formalism. Deviations between experimental data and those provided by the DISQUAC model are discussed. Systems containing alkanes are characterized by homocoordination. In pyridine + alkane mixtures, S{sub CC}(0) decreases with the chain length of the longer alkanes, due to size effects. For a given alkane, S{sub CC}(0) also decreases with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base. This has been interpreted assuming that the number of amine-amine interactions available to be broken upon mixing also decreases similarly, probably as steric hindrances exerted by the methyl groups of the aromatic amine increase with the number of these groups. Homocoordination is higher in mixtures with 3,5-dimethylpyridine than in those with 2,6-dimethylpyridine. That is, steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 3 and 5 are stronger than when they are in positions 2 and 6. Similarly, from the application of the DISQUAC (dispersive-quasichemical) model, it is possible to conclude that homocoordination is higher in systems with 3- or 4-methylpyridine than in those involving 2-methylpyridine. Systems including aromatic hydrocarbons are nearly ideal, which seems to indicate that there is no specific interaction in such solutions. Mixtures with 1-alkanols show heterocoordination. This reveals the existence of interactions between unlike molecules, characteristic of alkanol + amine mixtures. Methanol systems show the lowest S{sub CC}(0) values due, partially, to size effects. This explains the observed decrease of homocoordination in such solutions in the order: pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,6-dimethylpyridine. Moreover, as the energies of the OH-N hydrogen bonds are practically independent of the pyridine base considered when mixed with methanol, it suggests that

  17. Crucial factors and emerging concepts in ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Bart; Dewitte, Heleen; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Lentacker, Ine

    2012-12-28

    Time and space controlled drug delivery still remains a huge challenge in medicine. A novel approach that could offer a solution is ultrasound guided drug delivery. “Ultrasonic drug delivery” is often based on the use of small gas bubbles (so-called microbubbles) that oscillate and cavitate upon exposure to ultrasound waves. Some microbubbles are FDA approved contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and are nowadays widely investigated as promising drug carriers. Indeed, it has been observed that upon exposure to ultrasound waves, microbubbles may (a) release the encapsulated drugs and (b) simultaneously change the structure of the cell membranes in contact with the microbubbles which may facilitate drug entrance into cells. This review aims to highlight (a) major factors known so far which affect ultrasonic drug delivery (like the structure of the microbubbles, acoustic settings, etc.) and (b) summarizes the recent preclinical progress in this field together with a number of promising new concepts and applications.

  18. Nanotechnological strategies for nerve growth factor delivery: Therapeutic implications in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Célia; Rijo, Patrícia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with amyloid-β peptide misfolding and aggregation. Neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), can prevent neuronal damage and rescue the cholinergic neurons that undergo cell death in AD, reverse deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques and improve cognitive deficits. However, NGF administration is hampered by the poor pharmacokinetic profile of the therapeutic protein and its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier, which requires specialised drug delivery systems (DDS) for efficient NGF delivery to the brain. This review covers the main therapeutic approaches that have been developed for NGF delivery targeting the brain, from polymeric implants to gene and cell-based therapies, focusing on the role of nanoparticulate systems for the sustained release of NGF in the brain as a neuroprotective and disease-modifying approach toward AD. Lipid- and polymer-based delivery systems, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots are specifically addressed as promising nanotechnological strategies to overcome the current limitations of NGF-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  20. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  1. Factors Associated with Home Delivery in West Pokot County of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Otieno Ogolla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper sought to estimate the percentage of women who deliver at home in West Pokot County and establish the factors associated with home delivery in the area. Design and Methods. The cross-sectional survey targeted 18,174 households between the months of April and July 2013. Six hundred mothers participated in the study. Association between predictors and the place where the delivery took place was analysed by chi-square test (χ2 at 95% confidence interval. Factors with P value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. These factors were entered into multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for confounding to ascertain how each one influenced home delivery. Odds ratio was used to determine the extent of association. Results. Based on the mother’s most recent births, 200 (33.3% women delivered in a health facility while 400 (66.7% delivered at home. Factors associated with home delivering were housewives (OR: 4.5, 95% CI: 2.1–9.5; P=0.001 and low socioeconomic status of 10 km (OR: 0.5, 9.5% CI: 0.3–0.7; P=0.001. Conclusions. The findings of this study provide novel information for stakeholders responsible for maternal and child health in West Pokot County.

  2. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  3. Profile of atrial fibrillation inpatients: Cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation programme delivery and referral patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robyn; Zhang, Ling; Roach, Kellie; Sadler, Leonie; Belshaw, Julie; Kirkness, Ann; Proctor, Ross; Neubeck, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common; however, the cardiovascular risk factor profile and the patterns of delivery and referral to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in this population are poorly described. We conducted an audit of medical records (n = 145) of patients admitted with AF in one local health district in Sydney, Australia. Patients were aged a mean 72 years, and 51% were male. Lack of risk factor documentation was common. Despite this, 65% had two or more modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension (63%) and hypercholesterolaemia (52%). Referral to Phase II CR occurred for 25% and was decreased with permanent AF diagnosis and increased with more risk factors. AF patients admitted to hospital have multiple cardiovascular risk factors but limited risk factor screening and/or referral to outpatient CR programmes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Key factors regulating the mass delivery of macromolecules to model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Richard A.; Watkins, Erik B.; Jagalski, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    We show that both gravity and electrostatics are key factors regulating interactions between model cell membranes and self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates of dendrimers and phospholipids. The system is a proxy for the trafficking of reservoirs of therapeutic drugs to cell membranes for slow...... of the aggregates to activate endocytosis pathways on specific cell types is discussed in the context of targeted drug delivery applications....

  5. Reviewing Sexual Function After Delivery and Its Association with Some of the Demographic Marital Satisfaction Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Broumandfar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples. Sexual disorders can cause mental pressure and affect quality of life and marital relationship. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study in one group and one phase covering multivariables. The study sample included 384 women after delivery period that had the following inclusion criteria: the age of at least 18 years, delivery in 38-42 pregnancy weeks, primiparous and multiparous women, living in the city, single pregnancy, and twelve months elapsed from the delivery. The required data such demographic, marital satisfaction and sexual function index were collected through reporting questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using software SPSS. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the most prevalent disorder of the sexual relationship in postpartum was dyspareunia and the least prevalent was the sexual desire. There was no significant association between sexual function and, age, education degree , body mass index ,body size and job, but there was a significant association for other factors such as the economic, residence and marital satisfaction (p<0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended that sexual problems after delivery be placed on the list of health teaching issues to pass easily this period of time. Women should be assured that these problems gradually would be improved and they should learn using proper techniques to decrease dyspareunia which is a sexual disorder in postpartum period.

  6. Risk Factors for Uterine Atony/Postpartum Hemorrhage Requiring Treatment after Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetta, Luisa A; Szychowski, Jeff M; Seals, Ms. Samantha; Mancuso, Melissa S; Biggio, Joseph R; Tita, Alan TN

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for uterine atony or hemorrhage. Study Design Secondary analysis of a 3-arm double-blind randomized trial of different dose-regimens of oxytocin to prevent uterine atony after vaginal delivery. The primary outcome was uterine atony or hemorrhage requiring treatment. Twenty-one potential risk factors were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors using 2 complementary pre-defined model selection strategies. Results Among 1798 women randomized to 10, 40 or 80U prophylactic oxytocin after vaginal delivery, treated uterine atony occurred in 7%. Hispanic (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3–3.4) and non-Hispanic whites (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.5), preeclampsia (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.0–4.9) and chorioamnionitis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.6–5.0) were consistent independent risk factors. Other risk factors based on the specified selection strategies were obesity, induction/augmentation of labor, twins, hydramnios, anemia, and arrest of descent. Amnioinfusion appeared to be protective against uterine atony (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29–0.98). Conclusion Independent risk factors for uterine atony requiring treatment include Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis. PMID:23507549

  7. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w_1(t),w_2(t),w_3(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a_0,a_2,a_4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  8. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-13

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w{sub 1}(t),w{sub 2}(t),w{sub 3}(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a{sub 0},a{sub 2},a{sub 4} of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  9. Fibrin matrices with affinity-based delivery systems and neurotrophic factors promote functional nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D; MacEwan, Matthew R; French, Alexander R; Moore, Amy M; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E; Moran, Daniel W; Borschel, Gregory H; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

    2010-08-15

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have both been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration following injury and target different neuronal populations. The delivery of either growth factor at the site of injury may, therefore, result in quantitative differences in motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In this study we evaluated the effect of affinity-based delivery of GDNF or NGF from fibrin-filled nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) on motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a 13 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Seven experimental groups were evaluated consisting of GDNF or NGF and the affinity-based delivery system (DS) within NGCs, control groups excluding the DS and/or growth factor, and nerve isografts. Groups with growth factor in the conduit demonstrated equivalent or superior performance in behavioral tests and relative muscle mass measurements compared to isografts at 12 weeks. Additionally, groups with GDNF demonstrated greater specific twitch and tetanic force production in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle than the isograft control, while groups with NGF produced demonstrated similar force production compared to the isograft control. Assessment of motor axon regeneration by retrograde labeling further revealed that the number of ventral horn neurons regenerating across NGCs containing GDNF and NGF DS was similar to the isograft group and these counts were greater than the groups without growth factor. Overall, the GDNF DS group demonstrated superior functional recovery and equivalent motor nerve regeneration compared to the isograft control, suggesting it has potential as a treatment for motor nerve injury.

  10. The role of insulin-like growth factor in prediction and prevention of preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Prediction and prevention of preterm delivery remain great challenge. It is important to include in everyday medical practice determination of certain markers that could help identifying pregnant women with preterm delivery. Insulin like growth factor (IGF is involved in the control mechanism of fetal and placental growth and development. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 in cervicovaginal secretion of pregnant women with symptoms of preterm labor, but with apparently intact fetal membranes and to point out a possible application of the strip test for detection of phIGFBP-1 in diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of total membranes (PPROM in everyday medical practice. Methods. The study was performed at the Department for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clinical Center of Vojvodina between October 2008 and May 2009. The study included 54 pregnant women between 20-35 weeks of gestation (WG, divided into two groups: the study group (16 pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery that gave birth before 37 WG and the control group (38 pregnant women with the normal course of pregnancy that gave birth on term. In cervicovaginal secretion of the examined pregnant women the level of IGFBP-1 was determined by the immunochromatographic assay with monoclonal antibodies 6303 as a detecting antibody (Actim PROM test, Medix Biochemica, Kauniainen, Finland. Results. Gestational age (GA at delivery in the study group was 32.6 WG and in the control group it was 38.4 WG. Weight of newborns in the study group was 2,021 g and in the control group 3,430 g. IGFBP test was positive in 15 women (93.75% of the study group, while in the control group it was positive only in 1 woman (2.63%. Conclusion. Test on phIGFBP-1 in cervicovaginal mucus was positive in 93.75% women with preterm delivery, suggesting that this test could be used in diagnosis of silent rupture of fetal

  11. Factors associated with the utilization of institutional delivery services in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A. However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target. Effective policymaking to promote the utilization of MHS can be greatly facilitated by the identification of the factors that hinder service uptake. In this study, we therefore aim to measure the prevalence of institutional delivery services and explore the factors associated with their utilization in Bangladesh.Data for this study were extracted from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011; participants were 7,313 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, selected from both urban and rural households. Data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis, and conditional logistic regression.According to the findings, fewer than one in three women reported delivering at a health facility. The multivariable regression analysis showed that participants from rural areas were 46.9% less likely to have institutional deliveries compared to urban dwellers (OR = 0.531; p<0.001; 95%CI: 0.467-0.604, and participants aged between 30 and 49 years had a 23.6% higher prevalence of institutional delivery service utilization compared to those aged 15 to 29 years (OR = 1.236; p = 0.006; 95%CI: 1.062-1.437. Moreover, participants with higher educational attainment were about twice as likely to deliver at a standard health facility when compared to those without formal education (OR = 2.081; p<0.001; 95%CI: 1.650-2.624, and similarly, husbands with higher educational attainment exhibited an approximately 71% higher service utilization of institutional

  12. Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Room from a Tertiary Level Hospital: Risk Factors and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Timely identification and prompt resuscitation of newborns in the delivery room may cause a decline in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We try to identify risk factors in mother and fetus that result in birth of newborns needing resuscitation at birth. Methods Case notes of all deliveries and neonates born from April 2010 to March 2011 in Mahdieh Medical Center (Tehran, Iran), a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, were reviewed; relevant maternal, fetal and perinatal data was extracted and analyzed. Findings During the study period, 4692 neonates were delivered; 4522 (97.7%) did not require respiratory assistance. One-hundred seven (2.3%) newborns needed resuscitation with bag and mask ventilation in the delivery unit, of whom 77 (1.6%) babies responded to bag and mask ventilation while 30 (0.65%) neonates needed endotracheal intubation and 15 (0.3%) were given chest compressions. Epinephrine/volume expander was administered to 10 (0.2%) newborns. In 17 patients resuscitation was continued for >10 mins. There was a positive correlation between the need for resuscitation and following risk factors: low birth weight, preterm labor, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, prolonged rupture of membranes, abruptio placentae, prolonged labor, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, multiple pregnancy and fetal distress. On multiple regression; low birth weight, meconium stained liquor and chorioamnionitis revealed as independent risk factors that made endotracheal intubation necessary. Conclusion Accurate identification of risk factors and anticipation at the birth of a high-risk neonate would result in adequate preparation and prompt resuscitation of neonates who need some level of intervention and thus, reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:24910747

  13. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Optical-sectioning microscopy of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in human gliomas: standardization and quantitative comparison with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linpeng; Chen, Ye; Yin, Chengbo; Borwege, Sabine; Sanai, Nader; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2017-04-01

    Systemic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid leads to enhanced fluorescence image contrast in many tumors due to the increased accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a fluorescent porphyrin that is associated with tumor burden and proliferation. The value of PpIX-guided resection of malignant gliomas has been demonstrated in prospective randomized clinical studies in which a twofold greater extent of resection and improved progression-free survival have been observed. In low-grade gliomas and at the diffuse infiltrative margins of all gliomas, PpIX fluorescence is often too weak to be detected with current low-resolution surgical microscopes that are used in operating rooms. However, it has been demonstrated that high-resolution optical-sectioning microscopes are capable of detecting the sparse and punctate accumulations of PpIX that are undetectable via conventional low-power surgical fluorescence microscopes. To standardize the performance of high-resolution optical-sectioning devices for future clinical use, we have developed an imaging phantom and methods to ensure that the imaging of PpIX-expressing brain tissues can be performed reproducibly. Ex vivo imaging studies with a dual-axis confocal microscope demonstrate that these methods enable the acquisition of images from unsectioned human brain tissues that quantitatively and consistently correlate with images of histologically processed tissue sections.

  15. Factors influencing the delivery of the fundamentals of care: Perceptions of nurses, nursing leaders and healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Tiffany

    2017-11-17

    To explore the factors described by nurses and consumer representatives influencing the delivery of the fundamentals of care. An ongoing challenge facing nursing is ensuring the "basics" or fundamentals of care are delivered optimally. The way nurses and patients perceive the delivery of the fundamentals of care had not been explored. Once identified, the factors that promote the delivery of the fundamentals of care may be facilitated. Inductive content analysis of scenario based focus groups. A qualitative approach was taken using three stages, including direct observation, focus groups and interviews. This paper reports the second stage. Focus groups discussed four patient care scenarios derived from the observational data. Focus groups were conducted separately for registered nurses, nurses in leadership roles and consumer representatives. Content analysis was used. The analysis of the focus group data resulted in three themes: Organisational factors; Individual nurse or patient factors; and Interpersonal factors. Organisational factors include nursing leadership, the context of care delivery and the availability of time. Individual nurse and patient factors include the specific care needs of the patient and the individual nurse and patient characteristics. Interpersonal factors include the nurse-patient relationship; involving the patient in their care, ensuring understanding and respecting choices; communication; and setting care priorities. Seeking the perspective of the people involved in delivering and receiving the fundamentals of care showed a shared understanding of the factors influencing the delivery of the fundamentals of care. The influence of nursing leadership and the quality of the nurse-patient relationship were perceived as important factors. Nurses and consumers share a common perspective of the factors influencing the delivery of the fundamentals of care and both value a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. Clinical nursing leaders must

  16. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were

  17. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-04-02

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural), parity, maternal education and age. Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9%) had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25-34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39]) more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87]) less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be

  18. Factors associated with the utilization of institutional delivery services in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR) over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A). However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B) and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS) such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target. Effective policymaking to promote the utilization of MHS can be greatly facilitated by the identification of the factors that hinder service uptake. In this study, we therefore aim to measure the prevalence of institutional delivery services and explore the factors associated with their utilization in Bangladesh. Data for this study were extracted from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011); participants were 7,313 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, selected from both urban and rural households. Data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis, and conditional logistic regression. According to the findings, fewer than one in three women reported delivering at a health facility. The multivariable regression analysis showed that participants from rural areas were 46.9% less likely to have institutional deliveries compared to urban dwellers (OR = 0.531; pdelivery service utilization compared to those aged 15 to 29 years (OR = 1.236; p = 0.006; 95%CI: 1.062-1.437). Moreover, participants with higher educational attainment were about twice as likely to deliver at a standard health facility when compared to those without formal education (OR = 2.081; pservice utilization of institutional delivery facilities compared to those without formal education (OR = 1.709; pdelivery service use, with participants belonging to the highest economic stratum being more likely to receive skilled care compared to the lowest economic stratum (OR = 2

  19. Impact of Psychosocial Risk Factors on Prenatal Care Delivery: A National Provider Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; Housey, Michelle T.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate providers’ perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. Methods A random, national sample of 2095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents’ practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤ 19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (> 13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Results Approximately 60% of Ob/Gyns, 48.4% of midwives and 32.2% of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR=2.15; 95% CI 1.14–4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00–4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Conclusions Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719

  20. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor co-delivery by endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, E.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314061894

    2011-01-01

    A defect in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) results in the inherited bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Current treatment of hemophilia A is hampered by the need of frequent administration of costly FVIII products. Therefore gene therapy is an attractive alternative for protein replacement to treat

  1. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  2. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  3. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5550-D-12] Order of Succession for HUD Region IX... Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region IX. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  4. Long-distance delivery of bacterial virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Bomberger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a mechanism for the long-distance delivery of multiple bacterial virulence factors, simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm, thus obviating the need for direct interaction of the pathogen with the host cell to cause cytotoxicity. We show that outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMV secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa deliver multiple virulence factors, including beta-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, hemolytic phospholipase C, and Cif, directly into the host cytoplasm via fusion of OMV with lipid rafts in the host plasma membrane. These virulence factors enter the cytoplasm of the host cell via N-WASP-mediated actin trafficking, where they rapidly distribute to specific subcellular locations to affect host cell biology. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial derived OMV deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner.

  5. Providing Transparency to the Title IX Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry

    2017-01-01

    When U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos announced Sept. 7, 2017, that her department would revisit how Title IX rules are enforced with respect to campus sexual assault, she said the first step would be a "transparent notice and comment process" to replace the 2011 "guidance" (and follow up 2014 guidance) that has been…

  6. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  7. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD+ and NADP+. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.

  8. Human factors that derail extension services delivery in developing countries: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ajani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines human factors derailing extension services delivery in developing countries. Poor management of rewards and incentives; quality of work life; poor assessment system; limited quality of human resource; inadequate extension support training materials; inconsistencies of government programmes; inadequate staff training and poor extension programme evaluation were viewed as major constraints. Considering the role of extension to agricultural development, the paper recommends that efforts should be made by the various stakeholders in agricultural extension services to improve the capability of human resources involved in extension services and highlights the need for government agricultural programmes to be consistent to enable the beneficiaries of such programmes derive the benefits that will boost productivity in agriculture.

  9. Ante natal care services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in tribal area of North Maharashtra

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    Sachin S Mumbare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of Ante natal care (ANC services is poor in the tribal areas, causing increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was carried out to find out ANC services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in a tribal area of North Maharashtra in Nashik district. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two tribal blocks of Nashik district. Cluster sampling technique was used. 210 mothers in the selected clusters, who had delivered within last 1 year, were interviewed. Information about the ANC services utilization and place of delivery was recorded. Relevant socio-demographic data were also collected. Results: Adequate ANC services utilization was found to be 64.76%. Home deliveries were 34.29% and home deliveries conducted by untrained persons were 15.24%. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC services and deliveries at health centers were significantly associated with education of the women and their spouses, and the socioeconomic status of the family. Main reasons for inadequate utilization of ANC services were financial, unawareness about ANC services, etc. Place of delivery was associated with the type of the family. Traditional practices were the most common reason for conducting the deliveries at home.

  10. Utilization of institutional delivery service and associated factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: community based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Niguse; Lamaro, Tafesse

    2017-02-01

    At the end of Millennium development goals, Ethiopia was included among 10 countries which constitutes about 59% of maternal deaths due to complications of pregnancy and/or childbirth every year globally. Institutional delivery, which is believed to contribute in reduction of maternal mortality is still low. Hence this study was conducted in order to assess utilization of institutional delivery and related factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was employed from September 1st - 30th, 2015 in Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia where 765 mothers who deliver 2 years preceding the study provided data for this research. Data were collected by enumerators who were trained. In addition to descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value delivery which was significant. In Bench Maji Zone institutional delivery was shown to be comparatively good compared to other studies in the region and in Ethiopia in general even though it is below the health sector transformation plan of Ethiopia which aimed to increase deliveries attended by skilled health personnel to 95%. Empowering women, increasing awareness about institutional delivery and proper scaling up of antenatal care services which is an entry point for institutional delivery are recommended.

  11. Decision Making on the Labor and Delivery Unit: An Investigation of Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Feitosa, Jennifer; Benishek, Lauren E; Hughes, Ashley M; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1). In Study 2, we observed the influence of state NA, state decision-making style, state time stress, and their relationship with decision quality on real clinical decisions. Results In Study 1, we found that trait NA significantly predicted avoidant decision-making style. Furthermore, those who were higher on trait time stress and trait avoidant decision-making style exhibited poorer decisions. In Study 2, we observed associations between state NA with state avoidant and analytical decision-making styles. We also observed that these decision-making styles, when considered in tandem with time stress, were influential in predicting clinical decision quality. Conclusion NA predicts some decision-making styles, and decision-making style can affect decision quality under time stress. This is particularly true for state factors. Application Individual differences, such as affect and decision-making style, should be considered during selection. Training to reduce time stress perceptions should be provided.

  12. The prevalence of very preterm deliveries, risk factors, and neonatal complications in Arash women hospital: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootaleb Beigi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very preterm birth (26-32 weeks has an important effect on infant morta-lity and disability of infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of very preterm delivery and early neonatal morbidity (the first 28 days after birth.Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, among 4393 delivery in Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, 59 deliveries were very preterm that resulted in 79 very preterm neonate births. We assessed maternal risk factors and neonatal complications in women who were admitted for delivery from March 2009 to March 2010.Results: Among 59 pregnant women, 17 (12/27% had multiple pregnancies and 17 (12/27% had premature rupture of fetal membranes. Caesarean section method was more common than normal vaginal delivery (46 cases- 97/77%. Women aged 18 to 35 had the highest rate of preterm delivery (45/86%. Among 79 very preterm neonates about half of them were very low birth weight, 74 neonates (93/67% suffered from respiratory distress syndrome and 13 deaths were reported.Conclusion: Premature birth is a multi-factorial phenomenon. Identifying maternal risk factors and increasing knowledge about it can decrease the rate of preterm labor. The prevention of premature labor is better than cure. Further prospective studies with large number of patients and long-term follow-up are recommended for better understanding of the phenomenon.

  13. Maternal and neonatal factors associated with mode of delivery under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Solanke Olumuyiwa A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and perinatal mortality but may also include outcomes that undermine optimal early childhood development of the surviving newborns. However, the potential pathways for this association have not been reported particularly in the context of a resource-poor setting. This study therefore set out to establish the pattern of delivery and the associated neonatal outcomes under a UNHS programme. Methods A cross-sectional study in which all consenting mothers who delivered in an inner-city tertiary maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from May 2005 to December 2007 were enrolled during the UNHS programme. Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal factors independently associated with vaginal, elective and emergency caesarean deliveries were determined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 4615 mothers enrolled, 2584 (56.0% deliveries were vaginal, 1590 (34.4% emergency caesarean and 441 (9.6% elective caesarean section. Maternal age, parity, social class and all obstetric factors including lack of antenatal care, maternal HIV and multiple gestations were associated with increased risk of emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Only parity, lack of antenatal care and prolonged/obstructed labour were associated with increased risk of emergency compared with elective caesarean delivery. Infants delivered by vaginal method or by emergency caesarean section were more likely to be associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss but less likely to be associated with hyperbilirubinaemia compared with infants delivered by elective caesarean section. Emergency caesarean delivery was also associated with male gender, low five-minute Apgar scores and admission into special care baby unit compared

  14. Risk factors for blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Jessica; Mourad, Mirella; Melka, Stephanie; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Rebarber, Andrei; Saltzman, Daniel H; Fox, Nathan S

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to identify risk factors associated with blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery (CD). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing third or more CD by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between 2005 and 2016. We compared risk factors between women who did and did not receive a red blood cell transfusion during the operation or before discharge. Repeat analysis was performed after excluding women with placenta previa. A total of 514 patients were included, 18 of whom (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%-5.5%) received a blood transfusion. Placenta previa was the most significant risk factor for transfusion (61.1% of patients who received a transfusion vs. 1% of patients who did not; p blood transfusion. After women who had placenta previa were excluded, the incidence of blood transfusion was seven of 498 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-2.9%). Risk factors significantly associated with blood transfusion in the absence of previa were prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy and having labored. The incidence of transfusion in patients with no placenta previa, no anticoagulation, and no labor was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%). Placenta previa was the most predictive risk factor for transfusion with a positive predictive value of 68.8% and a negative predictive value of 98.4%. In patients undergoing a third or more CD, only placenta previa, prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy, and having labored are independently associated with requiring a blood transfusion. These data can be used to guide physician ordering of prepared blood products preoperatively. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Identifying Critical Factors Influencing the Rents of Public Rental Housing Delivery by PPPs: The Case of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.

  16. Factors associated with preterm delivery and low birth weight: a study from rural Maharashtra, India [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ahankari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW have been studied in India, findings may not be generalisable to rural areas such as the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. There is limited information available on maternal and child health indicators from this region. We aimed to present some local estimates of preterm delivery and LBW in the Osmanabad district of Marathwada and assess available maternal risk factors.   Methods The study used routinely collected data on all in-hospital births in the maternity department of Halo Medical Foundation’s hospital from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for preterm delivery and LBW according to each maternal risk factor.   Results We analysed 655 live births, of which 6.1% were preterm deliveries. Of the full term births (N=615, 13.8% were LBW (<2.5 kilograms at birth. The odds of preterm delivery were three times higher (OR=3.23, 95% CI 1.36 to 7.65 and the odds of LBW were double (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.60 among women <22 years of age compared with older women. The odds of both preterm delivery and LBW were reduced in multigravida compared with primigravida women regardless of age. Anaemia (Hb<11g/dl, which was prevalent in 91% of women tested, was not significantly related to these birth outcomes.   Conclusions The odds of preterm delivery and LBW were much higher in mothers under 22 years of age in this rural Indian population. Future studies should explore other related risk factors and the reasons for poor birth outcomes in younger mothers in this population, to inform the design of appropriate public health policies that address this issue.

  17. Risk factors for urinary incontinence 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of primiparous Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    second questionnaire was filled out 1 year later. Additional data were obtained from the medical records. The first questionnaire was completed by 1,018 women (63 %) and the second by 859 women (84 %). The study group comprised the 575 women without any UI before the pregnancy and who had a vaginal...... delivery. The primary analysis comprised 117 women with either SUI or MUI 1 year after the vaginal delivery and 403 women without any UI. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the following factors were associated with SUI or MUI: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (p ...INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence (UI) 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in primiparous women. METHODS: Participants in this prospective...

  18. Overweight in epilepsy as a risk factor for pregnancy and delivery complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Eivind; Veiby, Gyri; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Bjørk, Marte

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to women without epilepsy with and without overweight (n = 30,516 and n = 67,977, respectively). The risks of pregnancy and delivery complications were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for adverse socioeconomic factors, age, parity, and smoking. Women with epilepsy were more often overweight than women without epilepsy (38.4% vs. 31.3%, p < 0.001). The majority of pregnancy and delivery complications were more frequent in overweight women with epilepsy. Compared to overweight women without epilepsy, the risk was increased for cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001), excessive bleeding (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.04), peripartum anxiety and depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, p < 0.001), small for gestational age children (OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8, p = 0.02), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2, p = 0.02). Compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy, the risk of cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3, p < 0.05), gestational hypertension (OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.5, p < 0.05), preeclampsia (OR 2.3, CI 1.2-4.5, p < 0.05), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 2.2, CI 1.3-3.6, p < 0.01) was increased. Prepregnancy overweight in combination with epilepsy entails a strong negative effect on risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. In women with epilepsy and overweight referral to a nutritionist should be considered when an antiepileptic drug is started as well as

  19. Risk factors for urinary incontinence 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of primiparous Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence (UI) 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in primiparous women. Participants in this prospective cohort were recruited consecutively from June 2003 to July 2005 from all eligible women who delivered in the department. A validated questionnaire, the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) was completed by all participants 2-3 days after delivery, and a similar second questionnaire was filled out 1 year later. Additional data were obtained from the medical records. The first questionnaire was completed by 1,018 women (63 %) and the second by 859 women (84 %). The study group comprised the 575 women without any UI before the pregnancy and who had a vaginal delivery. The primary analysis comprised 117 women with either SUI or MUI 1 year after the vaginal delivery and 403 women without any UI. In univariate analyses, the following factors were associated with SUI or MUI: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (p pregnancy (p pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.9-7.7) and inversely associated with oxytocin augmentation (adjusted OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.3-0.9). SUI or MUI 1 year after the first vaginal delivery was strongly associated with UI during the pregnancy and inversely associated with oxytocin augmentation.

  20. Obstetric anal sphincter injury, risk factors and method of delivery - an 8-year analysis across two tertiary referral centers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) represents a major cause of maternal morbidity and is a risk factor for the development of fecal incontinence. We set out to analyze the incidence of OASIS and its association with mode of delivery in two large obstetric hospitals across an 8-year study period.

  1. Social class, ethnicity and other risk factors for small for gestational age and preterm delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.H.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and

  2. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Tornøe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device...

  3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of 10 B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10 5 -10 6 EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10 8 boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight (∼ 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing ∼ 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule 3 , which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using 131 I- or 99m T c -labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma

  4. Critical success factor (CSF) service delivery for tahfiz institution teaching & learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridza, B. H.; Jalil, R. A.; Sipan, I.; Nukman, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The exceptional existence of tahfiz institutions (TI) by a government and the private sector in Malaysia indicates that tahfiz education at par to fill mainstream education. Nevertheless, the level of TI facilities management (FM) provided is unstandardized since its infrastructure and establishment is initiated by the varied background of TI organizer. Thus, the effectiveness of TI education system is immeasurable. The significance of this research is to explore the critical success factor (CSF) of service delivery for TI teaching and learning environment. This research adopts both qualitative and quantitative method through survey instrument in order to review and analyze to achieve the research goal. The findings showed several important criteria for a transformation of TI education teaching and learning environment such top management of TI needs to be more responsible in providing better FM practice to achieve efficiency of manpower in providing a conducive learning environment for students for producing excellent huffaz. Thus, TI education system needs to have clear standard guidelines in operating their activities in producing huffaz that capable implement Islamic knowledge to the development of the country.

  5. Neuropeptide delivery to the brain: a von Willebrand factor signal peptide to direct neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Backer Marijke WA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple neuropeptides, sometimes with opposing functions, can be produced from one precursor gene. To study the roles of the different neuropeptides encoded by one large precursor we developed a method to overexpress minigenes and establish local secretion. Results We fused the signal peptide from the Von Willebrand Factor (VWF to a furin site followed by a processed form of the Agouti related protein (AgRP, AgRP83-132 or α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. In vitro, these minigenes were secreted and biologically active. Additionally, the proteins of the minigenes were not transported into projections of primary neurons, thereby ensuring local release. In vivo administration of VWF-AgRP83-132 , using an adeno-associated viral vector as a delivery vehicle, into the paraventricular hypothalamus increased body weight and food intake of these rats compared to rats which received a control vector. Conclusions This study demonstrated that removal of the N-terminal part of full length AgRP and addition of a VWF signal peptide is a successful strategy to deliver neuropeptide minigenes to the brain and establish local neuropeptide secretion.

  6. Factors influencing deliveries at health facilities in a rural Maasai Community in Magadi sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Sarah; Gichuki, Richard; Igunza, Patrick; Muhula, Samuel; Ofware, Peter; Lesiamon, Josephine; Leshore, Lepantas; Kyomuhangi-Igbodipe, Lenny Bazira; Nyagero, Josephat; Binkin, Nancy; Ojakaa, David

    2018-01-03

    In response to poor maternal, newborn, and child health indicators in Magadi sub-county, the "Boma" model was launched to promote health facility delivery by establishing community health units and training community health volunteers (CHVs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as safe motherhood promoters. As a result, health facility delivery increased from 14% to 24%, still considerably below the national average (61%). We therefore conducted this study to determine factors influencing health facility delivery and describe barriers and motivators to the same. A mixed methods cross-sectional study involving a survey with 200 women who had delivered in the last 24 months, 3 focus group discussions with health providers, chiefs and CHVs and 26 in-depth interviews with mothers, key decision influencers and TBAs. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression were calculated to identify predictive factors for health facility delivery. Thematic analysis was done to describe barriers and motivators to the same. Of the women interviewed, 39% delivered at the health facility. Factors positively associated with health facility deliveries included belonging to the highest wealth quintiles [aOR 4.9 (95%CI 1.5-16.5)], currently not married [aOR 2.4 (95%CI 1.1-5.4)] and living near the health facility [aOR 2.2 (95%CI 1.1 = 4.4)]. High parity [aOR 0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9)] was negatively associated with health facility delivery. Barriers to health facility delivery included women not being final decision makers on place of birth, lack of a birth plan, gender of health provider, unfamiliar birthing position, disrespect and/or abuse, distance, attitude of health providers and lack of essential drugs and supplies. Motivators included proximity to health facility, mother's health condition, integration of TBAs into the health system, and health education/advice received. Belonging to the highest wealth quintile, currently not married and

  7. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapohunda B

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolaji Fapohunda,1 Nosakhare Orobaton1,21International Division, John Snow Inc, Rosslyn, VA, USA; 2Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP, Bauchi, NigeriaAbstract: This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women's autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother's socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1 the use of cash subsidies to augment women's incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2 a structural improvement that will increase women's economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation.Keywords: Sokoto State, delivery attendance, maternal mortality rate, maternal health, reproductive health, demographic and health surveys, poverty

  8. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs

  9. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  10. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  11. Title IX--Beyond Compliance to Personal Commitment and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    In order to move beyond legal compliance to real equality of opportunity, every educational leader must develop some systematic means of extending his or her personal knowledge and skills with respect to Title IX. Provides a check list for self evaluation of educational leaders and a guide for developing an implementation plan for Title IX.…

  12. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  13. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  14. The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX. 2016 Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report, an evaluation of the history and current uses of Title IX, is the result of a joint effort by a subcommittee that included members of the AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure and the Committee on Women in the Academic Profession. The report identifies tensions between current interpretations of Title IX and the academic…

  15. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  17. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report

  18. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezmur, Markos; Navaneetham, Kannan; Letamo, Gobopamang; Bariagaber, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005) and 624 (in the year 2011) communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and women in the

  19. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Mezmur

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005 and 624 (in the year 2011 communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and

  20. From Molecular to Nanotechnology Strategies for Delivery of Neurotrophins: Emphasis on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géral, Claire; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. The therapeutic use of neurotrophins has been restrained by their instability and rapid degradation in biological medium. A variety of strategies has been proposed for the administration of these leading therapeutic candidates, which are essential for the development, survival and function of human neurons. In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Biomimetic peptides of BDNF have emerged as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders. Polymer-based carriers have provided sustained neurotrophin delivery, whereas lipid-based particles have contributed also to potentiation of the BDNF action. Nanotechnology offers new possibilities for the design of vehicles for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Recent developments in nanoscale carriers for encapsulation and transport of BDNF are highlighted. PMID:24300402

  1. Investigation of sequential growth factor delivery during cuprizone challenge in mice aimed to enhance oligodendrogliogenesis and myelin repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Sabo

    Full Text Available Repair in multiple sclerosis involves remyelination, a process in which axons are provided with a new myelin sheath by new oligodendrocytes. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs are a family of growth factors that have been shown to influence the response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs in vivo during demyelination and remyelination in the adult brain. We have previously shown that BMP4 infusion increases numbers of OPCs during cuprizone-induced demyelination, while infusion of Noggin, an endogenous antagonist of BMP4 increases numbers of mature oligodendrocytes and remyelinated axons following recovery. Additional studies have shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 promotes the survival of OPCs during cuprizone-induced demyelination. Based on these data, we investigated whether myelin repair could be further enhanced by sequential infusion of these agents firstly, BMP4 to increase OPC numbers, followed by either Noggin or IGF-1 to increase the differentiation and survival of the newly generated OPCs. We identified that sequential delivery of BMP4 and IGF-1 during cuprizone challenge increased the number of mature oligodendrocytes and decreased astrocyte numbers following recovery compared with vehicle infused mice, but did not alter remyelination. However, sequential delivery of BMP4 and Noggin during cuprizone challenge did not alter numbers of oligodendrocytes or astrocytes in the corpus callosum compared with vehicle infused mice. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis revealed no change in average myelin thickness in the corpus callosum between vehicle infused and BMP4-Noggin infused mice. Our results suggest that while single delivery of Noggin or IGF-1 increased the production of mature oligodendrocytes in vivo in the context of demyelination, only Noggin infusion promoted remyelination. Thus, sequential delivery of BMP4 and Noggin or IGF-1 does not further enhance myelin repair above what occurs with delivery of Noggin

  2. The role of treatment delivery factors in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Kordt, Anne; Hamm, Alfons O; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Pauli, Paul; Rief, Winfried; Lang, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) are considered to be important for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In the current study, four independent raters conducted process evaluations based on 168 two-hour videotapes of 84 patients with PD/AG treated with exposure-based CBT. Two raters evaluated patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1. Two raters evaluated treatment delivery factors in Session 6, in which therapists provided the rationale for conducting exposure exercises. At the 6-month follow-up, therapists' adherence (r=0.54) and therapeutic alliance (r=0.31) were significant predictors of changes in agoraphobic avoidance behavior; therapist competence was not associated with treatment outcomes. Patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1 was a significant predictor of the therapeutic alliance in Session 6 (r=0.17). The findings demonstrate that treatment delivery factors, particularly therapist adherence, are relevant to the long-term success of CBT for PD/AG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Delivery management for the prevention of shoulder dystocia in case of identified risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T

    2015-12-01

    To determine the impact of (i) computed tomographic (CT) pelvimetry for the choice of the mode of delivery, (ii) cesarean, (iii) induction of labor, and of (iv) various delivery managements on the risk of shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia, with or without maternal diabetes, and in women with previous history of shoulder dystocia. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In case of clinically suspected macrosomia, a sonography should be performed to increase diagnostic performances and to assist in decision-making (Professional consensus). Because CT pelvimetry is associated with high false positive rates and increases cesarean deliveries, its use is not recommended to prevent shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia (Professional consensus). To avoid the neonatal complications of shoulder dystocia, mainly permanent brachial plexus palsy, cesarean delivery is recommended in case of estimated fetal weight (EFW) greater than 4500 g if associated with maternal diabetes (grade C), and greater than 5000 g in the absence of maternal diabetes (grade C). The published data do not provide definitive evidences to recommend systematic labor induction in case of impending fetal macrosomia (Professional consensus). In case of favourable cervix and gestational age greater than 39 weeks of gestation, labor induction should be promoted (Professional consensus). Prophylactic McRoberts maneuver is not recommended to prevent shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia (grade C). Because data are lacking, no recommendation is possible regarding the use of episiotomy. In case of fetal macrosomia and failure to progress in the second stage of labor, midpelvic and higher instrumental deliveries are not recommended and a cesarean delivery should be preferred (grade C), if the fetal head is at or lower than a +2 station, cesarean delivery is not recommended and an

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  5. [Risk factors of teenage pregnancies, deliveries and post-partum in the department of Loiret].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouini, S; Randriambololona, D; Randriamboavonjy, R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancies compared to adult women in the department of Loiret. A retrospective study of adolescents (10-19 years) delivered after 22 weeks compared to adult women aged 20-35 years (controls) from the first January to the 31 December 2012 in a maternity level 3. The two groups were compared by the Chi(2) test or the exact test of Fisher. A P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Adolescent had less prenatal consultations than controls (4 versus 7). They used more tobacco during pregnancy than adult controls. Urinary infections and preterm threat and births were more frequent in the adolescent group compared to the controls (P=0.04 and 0.018). However, the gestational diabetes was less frequent in the adolescent group versus controls (P=0.0005, OR: 0.16 [IC95%: 0.03-0.54]). The adolescent group represented 2.38 of total deliveries. The rate of vaginal deliveries and caesarean section was similar in the two groups. Vaginal tears were significantly more frequent among adolescents than controls (P=0.0019). The adolescents were more likely to preterm delivery and to have urinary infections than the adult women (controls). They are less likely to have gestational diabetes than older women. The rates of vaginal deliveries are comparable; however, the adolescents are more likely to experience vaginal tears than controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  7. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  8. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  9. Factors that determine the use of skilled care during delivery in India: implications for achievement of MDG-5 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual level factors that determine the use of skilled birth attendants in India. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based NFHS 3 Survey 2005-06 was used. A sample of 31,797 women, aged 15-49 years, who gave births in the 3 months preceding the survey and for whom information was available on most variables, were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to determine factors associated with the use of skilled attendants at birth. In the study we found that wealth is one of the strongest determinants of skilled birth attendant use, with the poor being at a disadvantage. There are significant differences in the use of skilled delivery care among the urban and rural populations in India. Women in urban areas are more likely to use skilled attendants. Muslim women and women with lower levels of education are also less likely to avail skilled delivery services. The use of skilled care depended significantly on the place of delivery. Women who gave history of antenatal visits were more likely to have skilled attendants at birth. Our analysis demonstrates that there are several financial, social, regional and cultural barriers to skilled birth attendant use in India. Effective strategies need to be planned to generate demand for skilled birth attendants and reduce barriers to care seeking, especially among rural poor.

  10. Intranasal Delivery of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Its Neuroprotective Effects Against Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Liang; He, Mei-Qing; Han, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Jing-Yi; Yang, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Hui; Fan, Cun-Dong; Zhang, Shuai; Mao, Lei-Lei; Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Zheng, Cheng-Bi; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yang V; Stetler, R Anne; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor with strong neuroprotective properties. However, it has limited capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus potentially limiting its protective capacity. Recent studies demonstrated that intranasal drug administration is a promising way in delivering neuroprotective agents to the central nervous system. The current study therefore aimed at determining whether intranasal administration of G-CSF increases its delivery to the brain and its neuroprotective effect against ischemic brain injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat was induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Our resulted showed that intranasal administration is 8-12 times more effective than subcutaneous injection in delivering G-CSF to cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma. Intranasal delivery enhanced the protective effects of G-CSF against ischemic injury in rats, indicated by decreased infarct volume and increased recovery of neurological function. The neuroprotective mechanisms of G-CSF involved enhanced upregulation of HO-1 and reduced calcium overload following ischemia. Intranasal G-CSF application also promoted angiogenesis and neurogenesis following brain ischemia. Taken together, G-CSF is a legitimate neuroprotective agent and intranasal administration of G-CSF is more effective in delivery and neuroprotection and could be a practical approach in clinic.

  11. Temporally controlled growth factor delivery from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel and electrospun nanofibre composite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Kiara F; Wang, Yi; Maclean, Francesca L; Parish, Clare L; Williams, Richard J; Nisbet, David R

    2017-09-21

    Tissue-specific self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels designed based on biologically relevant peptide sequences have great potential in regenerative medicine. These materials spontaneously form 3D networks of physically assembled nanofibres utilising non-covalent interactions. The nanofibrous structure of SAPs is often compared to that of electrospun scaffolds. These electrospun nanofibers are produced as sheets that can be engineered from a variety of polymers that can be chemically modified to incorporate many molecules including drugs and growth factors. However, their macroscale morphology limits them to wrapping and bandaging applications. Here, for the first time, we combine the benefits of these systems to describe a two-component composite scaffold from these biomaterials, with the design goal of providing a hydrogel scaffold that presents 3D structures, and also has temporal control over drug delivery. Short fibres, cut from electrospun scaffolds, were mixed with our tissue-specific SAP hydrogel to provide a range of nanofibre sizes found in the extracellular matrix (10-300 nm in diameter). The composite material maintained the shear-thinning and void-filling properties of SAP hydrogels that have previously been shown to be effective for minimally invasive material injection, cell delivery and subsequent in vivo integration. Both scaffold components were separately loaded with growth factors, important signaling molecules in tissue regeneration whose rapid degradation limits their clinical efficacy. The two biomaterials provided sequential growth factor delivery profiles: the SAP hydrogel provided a burst release, with the release rate decreasing over 12 hours, while the electrospun nanofibres provided a more constant, sustained delivery. Importantly, this second release commenced 6 days later. The design rules established here to provide temporally distinct release profiles can enable researchers to target specific stages in regeneration, such as the

  12. Factors associated with utilization of skilled service delivery among women in rural Northern Ghana: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudu, William; Addo, Bright

    2017-05-31

    Ghana's current Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 319 per 100,000 live births makes achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal of 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births or less by 2030 appear to be illusory. Skilled assistance during childbirth is a critical strategy to reducing maternal mortality, yet the proportion of deliveries taking place within health facilities where such assistance is provided is very low in Ghana, with huge disparity between urban and rural women. To address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region, the Ghana Health Service (GHS) in 2005 piloted a program that involved training of Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives. This study explored factors associated with skilled delivery services utilization in a predominantly rural district in Ghana. A cross-sectional study, data was collected from a sample of 400 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years who had given birth a year prior to the study. We used frequencies and percentages for descriptive analysis and chi-square (χ 2 ) test for relationship between independents factors and utilization of skilled delivery services. Of the 400 women included in the analysis, 93.3% of them delivered in a health facility. Almost all of the mothers (97.3%) attended or received antenatal care at their last pregnancy with 75.0% of them having four or more ANC visits. The proportion of women who received ANC and utilized skilled delivery services was high (91.5%). Mother's educational attainment, ANC attendance, frequency of ANC visits, satisfaction with ANC services and possession of valid NHIS card significantly associated with utilisation of skilled delivery services. For a predominantly rural district, the percentage of women who deliver within health facilities where skilled assistance is available is very encouraging and a significant stride towards reducing Ghana's overall MMR. Having four or more ANC visits and improving on the quality of care provided has a great

  13. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  14. Risk factors for the increasing trend in low birth weight among live births born by vaginal delivery, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Marco A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for low birth weight (LBW among live births by vaginal delivery and to determine if the disappearance of the association between LBW and socioeconomic factors was due to confounding by cesarean section. METHODS: Data were obtained from two population-based cohorts of singleton live births in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil. The first one comprised 4,698 newborns from June 1978 to May 1979 and the second included 1,399 infants born from May to August 1994. The risks for LBW were tested in a logistic model, including the interaction of the year of survey and all independent variables under analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of LBW among vaginal deliveries increased from 7.8% in 1978--79 to 10% in 1994. The risk was higher for: female or preterm infants; newborns of non-cohabiting mothers; newborns whose mothers had fewer prenatal visits or few years of education; first-born infants; and those who had smoking mothers. The interaction of the year of survey with gestational age indicated that the risk of LBW among preterm infants fell from 17.75 to 8.71 in 15 years. The mean birth weight decreased more significantly among newborns from qualified families, who also had the highest increase in preterm birth and non-cohabitation. CONCLUSIONS: LBW among vaginal deliveries increased mainly due to a rise in the proportion of preterm births and non-cohabiting mothers. The association between cesarean section and LBW tended to cover up socioeconomic differences in the likelihood of LBW. When vaginal deliveries were analyzed independently, these socioeconomic differences come up again.

  15. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  16. Legal Forum: Title IX: Does It Apply to Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    1981-01-01

    Briefly reviews a number of Federal court cases that have dealt with Title IX, considering the issue of whether the 1974 regulations prohibiting sex discrimination in employment practices accurately reflect the intent of the 1972 law. (GC)

  17. Trial of labor compared to repeat cesarean section in women with no other risk factors than a prior cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studsgaard, Anne; Skorstengaard, Malene; Glavind, Julie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes with trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or elective repeat cesarean delivery on maternal request (ERCD-MR). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish university hospital. POPULATION: Women with TOLAC (n = 1161) and women with ERCD-MR (n = 622) between 2003...... registration of the deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal outcomes, risk factors for emergency cesarean, and uterine rupture in case of TOLAC. RESULTS: TOLAC was associated with an increased risk of neonatal depression [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-19.1] and neonatal...... vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), index emergency cesarean during labor (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), maternal age ≥35 years (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8), pre-pregnancy body mass index ≥30 (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3), and birthweight 4000-4499 g (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1...

  18. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  19. Sendai viroplexes for epidermal growth factor receptor-directed delivery of interleukin-12 and salmosin genes to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Seok; Kim, Min Woo; Jeong, Hwa Yeon; Kang, Seong Jae; Park, Sang Il; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hong Sung; Kim, Keun Sik; Park, Yong Serk

    2016-07-01

    The effective delivery of therapeutic genes to target cells has been a fundamental goal in cancer gene therapy because of its advantages with respect to both safety and transfection efficiency. In the present, study we describe a tumor-directed gene delivery system that demonstrates remarkable efficacy in gene delivery and minimizes the off-target effects of gene transfection. The system consists of a well-verified cationic O,O'-dimyristyl-N-lysyl glutamate (DMKE), Sendai virus fusion (F) protein and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, referred to as cationic Sendai F/HN virosomes. To achieve tumor-specific recognition, anti-epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor antibody was coupled to the surface of the virosomes containing interleukin-12 (IL-12) and/or salmosin genes that have potent anti-angiogenetic functions. Among the virosomal formulations, the anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) viroplexes, prepared via complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic DMKE lipid, exhibited more efficient gene transfection to tumor cells over-expressing EGF receptors compared to the neutrally-charged anti-EGFR virosomes encapsulating pDNA. In addition, the anti-EGFR viroplexes with IL-12 and salmosin genes exhibited the most effective therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Especially when combined with doxorubicin, transfection of the two genes via the anti-EGFR viroplexes exhibited an enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor growth and metastasis in lungs. The results of the present study suggest that anti-EGFR viroplexes can be utilized as an effective strategy for tumor-directed gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neutron capture therapy of epidermal growth factor (+) gliomas using boronated cetuximab (IMC-C225) as a delivery agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rolf F. E-mail: barth.1@osu.edu; Wu Gong; Yang Weilian; Binns, Peter J.; Riley, Kent J.; Patel, Hemant; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Tjarks, Werner; Bandyopadhyaya, A.K.; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Ciesielski, Michael J.; Fenstermaker, Robert A

    2004-11-01

    Cetuximab (IMC-C225) is a monoclonal antibody directed against both the wild-type and mutant vIII isoform of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the monoclonal antibody (MoAb), cetuximab, as a boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy (NCT) of brain tumors. Twenty-four hours following intratumoral (i.t.) administration of boronated cetuximab (C225-G5-B{sub 1100}), the mean boron concentration in rats bearing either F98{sub EGFR} or F98{sub WT} gliomas were 92.3{+-}23.3 {mu}g/g and 36.5{+-}18.8 {mu}g/g, respectively. In contrast, the uptake of boronated dendrimer (G5-B{sub 1000}) was 6.7{+-}3.6 {mu}g/g. Based on its favorable in vivo uptake, C225-G5-B{sub 1100} was evaluated as a delivery agent for BNCT in F98{sub EGFR} glioma bearing rats. The mean survival time (MST) of rats that received C225-G5-B{sub 1100}, administered by convection enhanced delivery (CED), was 45{+-}3 d compared to 25{+-}3 d for untreated control animals. A further enhancement in MST to >59 d was obtained by administering C225-G5-B{sub 1100} in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA). These data are the first to demonstrate the efficacy of a boronated MoAb for BNCT of an intracerebral (i.c.) glioma and are paradigmatic for future studies using a combination of boronated MoAbs and low molecular weight delivery agents.

  1. Novel drug delivery systems for releasing growth factors to the CNS: focus on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, E; Igartua, M; Pedraz, J L; Hernandez, R M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) represent the most common neurodegenerative disorders and affect more than 35 million people. Due to the limited effectiveness of available treatments in halting the neurodegenerative process, new therapies, such therapies based on growth factors (GFs), have been investigated. Nevertheless, the efficacies of these new treatments depend not only on the application of neurotrophins but also on the approaches used to deliver these proteins such that they can reach the brain. This review summarises the most widely used drug delivery systems (DDSs) for releasing GFs as possible treatments for AD and PD.

  2. Factors associated with delivery at or after 28 weeks gestation in women with bulging fetal membranes before 26 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Maseki, Yoshiaki; Ikeda, Sayako; Tezuka, Atsuko; Kuribayashi, Momoko; Furuhashi, Madoka

    2017-09-01

    To elucidate the factors that contribute to prolonged pregnancy and promote neonate survival in women with bulging fetal membranes. A database was reviewed to identify women with singleton pregnancies who underwent amniocentesis on admission to determine amniotic fluid neutrophil elastase levels before 26 + 0 weeks gestation between July 2001 and January 2015. Following delivery, the placentas of these patients were examined for histologic chorioamnionitis. Ninety-seven women delivered before 28 weeks gestation, and 117 women delivered at or after 28 weeks gestation. Rescue cerclage performed via the McDonald procedure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-11.80) was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching at least 28 weeks gestation before delivery, whereas protruding membranes (aOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.78), elevated amniotic neutrophil elastase levels (≥0.15 μg/ml) (aOR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) and elevated peripheral C-reactive protein levels (≥0.4 mg/dl) (aOR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.180.65) were associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of reaching this gestational age before delivery. Among women who underwent rescue cerclage, amniorrhexis was associated with a negative prognosis (aOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51). Intra-amniotic inflammation, protrusion of fetal membranes and amniorrhexis are factors that may prevent pregnancy prolongation. Rescue cerclage improves pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Homoclinic chaos in axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmologies reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I. Damiao; Stuchi, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of Bianchi IX models with two scale factors A(t) and B(t) is reexamined. The matter content of the model is assumed to be comoving dust plus a positive cosmological constant. We make a complete numerical construction of topological structures present in the phase space of the model, as the center manifold of periodic orbits and the stable and unstable cylinders of orbits that emerge from the center manifold, associated to a saddle-center critical point. We exhibit the homoclinic intersections of the unstable and stable cylinders that produce homoclinic chaos in the models. A=0 is not a singularity of the Hamiltonian dynamics and any truncation of the dynamics at A=0 is bound to a loss of information. We make an explicit construction of a set with a horseshoe structure in the A>0 region, of initial conditions corresponding to initially expanding universes. We show that the dynamics of this set is chaotic even if restricted to the region A>0 and has the Einstein universe configuration as a chaotic scatterer. The result however demands the information of the Hamiltonian dynamics in whole phase space, including the region A<0. This refutes recent claims that no homoclinic chaos is present in the dynamics of the model

  4. Management of Labour and Delivery in a Patient With Acquired Factor VII Deficiency With Inhibitor: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Anca; Dolan, Sean; Andrews, James; Rivard, Georges-Étienne

    2016-02-01

    Acquired factor VII (FVII) deficiency with inhibitor increases the risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy. However, there are no published reports guiding its management in the peripartum period. A 24-year-old woman with inhibitory antibodies to FVII delivered at 34 weeks of gestation. The patient was administered recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and tranexamic acid. There were no bleeding-related complications; however, the FVII level was supratherapeutic. The patient returned during a second pregnancy. A reduced dose of rFVIIa was administered. The delivery was complicated by postpartum hemorrhage, which resolved with the addition of uterotonic agents. Recombinant FVIIa and tranexamic acid offer an effective peripartum treatment in women with inhibitory antibody to FVII. Further research should delineate the optimal time of administration. Copyright © 2016 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal and Cord Blood Levels of Serum Amyloid A, C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin -1β, and Interleukin-8 During and After Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marzzullo Cicarelli

    2005-01-01

    after delivery and try to correlate these proteins with tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin -1β, and interleukin-8. Acute-phase proteins and cytokines were measured by ELISA in 24 healthy pregnant women undergoing vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. Cord blood samples in addition to maternal blood were collected. SAA and CRP reached the maximum maternal serum levels 24 hours after delivery, while cytokines remained constant over time. SAA and CRP were significantly higher in maternal serum than in newborn's (P<.001 at the moment of delivery. SAA and CRP, regardless of the type of delivery, reproduce the common pattern observed in most inflammatory conditions. Proinflammatory cytokine serum levels do not mirror the increase in SAA and CRP levels.

  6. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr 3 ) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of Pp-Ix

  7. Clinical Factors Associated With Presentation Change of the Second Twin After Vaginal Delivery of the First Twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panelli, Danielle M; Easter, Sarah Rae; Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N; Carusi, Daniela A

    2017-11-01

    To identify clinical factors associated with a change from vertex to nonvertex presentation in the second twin after vaginal birth of the first. We assembled a retrospective cohort of women with viable vertex-vertex twin pregnancies who delivered the presenting twin vaginally. Women whose second twin changed from vertex to nonvertex after vaginal birth of the first were classified as experiencing an intrapartum change in presentation. Characteristics associated with intrapartum presentation change in a univariate analysis with a P value ≤.10 were then evaluated in a multivariate logistic regression model. Four-hundred fifty women met inclusion criteria, of whom 55 (12%) had intrapartum presentation change of the second twin. Women experiencing intrapartum presentation change were more likely to be multiparous (69% compared with 47%, Ppresentation of the second twin between the most recent antepartum ultrasonogram and the ultrasonogram done on admission to labor and delivery (11% compared with 4%, P=.04). In an adjusted analysis, multiparity and gestational age less than 34 weeks were significantly associated with presentation change (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.6 and adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.9, respectively). Women with intrapartum presentation change were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for their second twin (44% compared with 7%, Ppresentation. Twenty of the 24 (83%) cesarean deliveries performed in the intrapartum presentation change group were done for issues related to malpresentation. Multiparity and gestational age less than 34 weeks are associated with intrapartum presentation change of the second twin.

  8. Drug delivery system of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel for restoration of acute vocal fold scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    There continue to be therapeutic challenges in the management of vocal fold scarring. We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection has therapeutic potential for vocal fold scarring. However, the working time of bFGF is relatively short, and multiple injections were required in many cases to obtain the regenerative effect. An efficacious delivery system for bFGF has yet to be established. We designed a method of sustained drug delivery system (DDS) of bFGF by using a gelatin hydrogel. Hydrogel has been developed for targeted delivery and controlled release of bFGF. Hydrogel of the particle type is also injectable and commercially available. The current study aims to investigate the effects of a single injection of bFGF-DDS on acute vocal fold scarring using a canine model. Vocal folds from eight beagles were unilaterally scarred by stripping the lamina propria. One month later, hydrogels (0.5ml) containing 10μg of bFGF were injected into the scarred vocal folds of four beagles (FGF-hydrogel group). Saline (0.5ml) was injected into the other four beagles (sham group). Vibratory and histological examination of excised larynges was performed 5 months after treatment. Comparative analysis between the current data and our previous data with repeated injection of bFGF solution was also completed. Vibratory examination demonstrated significantly improved vibration in the bFGF hydrogel-treated group. Histological examination of the bFGF hydrogel group showed restoration of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria as compared to sham. Comparison between the DDS system and our previous bFGF solution injection indicated better effects of the DDS system on vibratory amplitude. A single injection of bFGF hydrogel has regenerative effects on acute vocal fold scarring, which is at least similar to repeated injection of bFGF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  10. Influence of electrical and chemical factors on transdermal iontophoretic delivery of three diclofenac salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J Y; Wang, R J; Huang, Y B; Wu, P C; Tsai, Y H

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the in vitro transdermal iontophoretic delivery of three diclofenac salts--diclofenac sodium (DFS), diclofenac potassium (DFP), and diclofenac diethylammonium (DFD). A series of physicochemical and electrical variables which might affect iontophoretic permeation of diclofenac salts was studied. Application of 0.3 mA/cm2 current density significantly increased the transdermal flux of diclofenac salts as compared to passive transport. The iontophoretic enhancement increased in the order of DFS>DFP>DFD. The permeability coefficient of diclofenac salts all decreased with increasing donor concentration during iontophoresis. The addition of buffer ions and salt ions such as NaCl, KCl, and C4H12ClN reduced the permeation of diclofenac salts due to competition. However, this effect was lesser for DFD than for DFS and DFP. Comparing the various application modes of iontophoresis, the discontinuous on/off mode showed lower but more constant flux than the continuous mode.

  11. Influence of Electron Irradiation Factor on Haruan Traditional Extract (HTE) for Oral Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Abdul Manan, M.J.; Kamaruddin Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Haruan or Channa striatus is source of protein, Haruan extract is well known in the region for having a medicinal quality and widely consumed. It is great advantage if this product could be administered by oral rather than injection because oral route of drug delivery is still preferred by the vast majority of patients. However protein and peptides can be denatured or degraded by conditions included the acidic pH of the stomach and presence of endogenous enzymes. In order to protect or prevent digestion and degradation of the protein in the stomach and to ensure the protein reach to gastro intestinal (GI) tract, CMS nano gel system was developed using electron irradiation method. However stability of HTE toward radiation needed to be ensured before being used for the next level. In this study, the HTE was radiated with electron radiation. Its stability was analysed in term of physical aspect by looking at the colour difference, melting point by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in terms of chemical aspect which include molecular bonds by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results of this study were that no apparent colour difference was seen on the HTE before and after irradiation. Those are supported by FTIR and DSC analysis results that showed that there were no change of molecular bonds and melting point, compared between no irradiation and irradiation HTE during electron irradiation up to 10 kGy. Statistically the test showed no significant difference at p<0.005 within melting temperatures. (author)

  12. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  13. Dual growth factor delivery from biofunctionalized allografts: Sequential VEGF and BMP-2 release to stimulate allograft remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Farzana; McDermott, Casey; Lieberman, Jay; Sanjay, Archana; Khan, Yusuf

    2017-05-01

    Autografts have been shown to stimulate osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and angiogenesis, and subsequent rapid graft incorporation. Large structural allografts, however, suffer from limited new bone formation and remodeling, both of which are directly associated with clinical failure due to non-unions, late graft fractures, and infections, making it a priority to improve large structural allograft healing. We have previously shown the osteogenic ability of a polymer-coated allograft that delivers bone morphogenetic protein-2 both in vitro and in vivo through both burst release and sustained release kinetics. In this study, we have demonstrated largely sequential delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor from the same coated allograft. Release data showed that loading both growth factors onto a polymeric coating with two different techniques resulted in short-term (95% release within 2 weeks) and long-term (95% release within 5 weeks) delivery kinetics. We have also demonstrated how released VEGF, traditionally associated with angiogenesis, can also provide a stimulus for allograft remodeling via resorption. Bone marrow derived mononuclear cells were co-cultured with VEGF released from the coated allograft and showed a statistically significant (p exposed to VEGF released from the allografts over controls (p < 0.05). These results indicate that by using different loading protocols temporal control can be achieved when delivering multiple growth factors from a polymer-coated allograft. Further, released VEGF can also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that may enhance allograft incorporation, and thus mitigate long-term clinical complications. © 2017 Orthopedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1086-1095, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  15. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  16. Killing malignant melanoma cells with protoporphyrin IX-loaded polymersome-mediated photodynamic therapy and cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2017-05-01

    first time that PpIX-loaded polymersomes together with CAP posttreatment could be a promising tool for skin cancer drug delivery with selective toxicity toward melanoma cells sparing healthy fibroblasts. Keywords: melanoma, polymersomes, protoporphyrin IX, cold atmospheric plasma, photodynamic therapy

  17. From nano- to macro-scale: nanotechnology approaches for spatially controlled delivery of bioactive factors for bone and cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2012-07-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bioactive systems for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Spatial cues are displayed in the 3D extracellular matrix and can include signaling gradients, such as those observed during chemotaxis. Architectures range from the nanometer to the centimeter length scales as exemplified by extracellular matrix fibers, cells and macroscopic shapes. The main focus of this review is the application of a biomimetic approach by the combination of architectural cues, obtained through the application of micro- and nanofabrication techniques, with the ability to sequester and release growth factors and other bioactive agents in a spatiotemporal controlled manner for bone and cartilage engineering.

  18. Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Lee, E.J.; Seyednejad, H.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the

  19. Airway delivery of soluble factors from plastic-adherent bone marrow cells prevents murine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lavinia I; Alphonse, Rajesh S; Arizmendi, Narcy; Morgan, Beverly; Abel, Melanie; Eaton, Farah; Duszyk, Marek; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Aprahamian, Tamar R; Walsh, Kenneth; Thébaud, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and accounts for 1 of 250 deaths and 15 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually. Plastic-adherent bone marrow-derived cell (BMC) administration holds therapeutic promise in regenerative medicine. However, given the low cell engraftment in target organs, including the lung, cell replacement cannot solely account for the reported therapeutic benefits. This suggests that BMCs may act by secreting soluble factors. BMCs also possess antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and may therefore be beneficial for asthma. Our objective was to investigate the therapeutic potential of BMC-secreted factors in murine asthma. In a model of acute and chronic asthma, intranasal instillation of BMC conditioned medium (CdM) prevented airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. In the chronic asthma model, CdM prevented airway smooth muscle thickening and peribronchial inflammation while restoring blunted salbutamol-induced bronchodilation. CdM reduced lung levels of the T(H)2 inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and increased levels of IL-10. CdM up-regulated an IL-10-induced and IL-10-secreting subset of T regulatory lymphocytes and promoted IL-10 expression by lung macrophages. Adiponectin (APN), an antiinflammatory adipokine found in CdM, prevented AHR, airway smooth muscle thickening, and peribronchial inflammation, whereas the effect of CdM in which APN was neutralized or from APN knock-out mice was attenuated compared with wild-type CdM. Our study provides evidence that BMC-derived soluble factors prevent murine asthma and suggests APN as one of the protective factors. Further identification of BMC-derived factors may hold promise for novel approaches in the treatment of asthma.

  20. Perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery in expanding programmes in a primary healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnoi. A. Xaba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery regarding expansion programmes in a primary healthcare setting, using a qualitative approach. The registered nurses, who have been working in the clinics for more than two years and have been exposed to the expansion programmes there, were purposively sampled. Two focus group interviews were conducted in a neutral place and the data collected by the researcher Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X.. Data were analysed by the researcher and an independent co-coder using the Tesch method. Categories, subcategories and themes were identified; those that formed the basis of discussion were disabling factors, enabling factors, client-related factors, service-related factors and solutions to problems. It is recommended that integration of programmes and coordination be done at a provincial level and planned together with the training centres in order to alleviate problems in service delivery. Training on expansion programmes in the form of in-service education should be carried out continually in the region.Die doel van die studie was om die persepsie van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges met betrekking tot die faktore wat dienslewering van die uitbreidingsprogramme in ‘n primêre gesondheid opset beinvloed; te eksploreer en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg in die iutvoering van die studie. ‘n Doelgerigte steekproef is uitgevoer vanuit geregistreerde verpleegkundiges wat vir langer as twee jaar in die klinieke werksaam was en blootgestel is aan die uitbreiding programme. Twee fokus groep onderhoude is deur die navorser Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X. in ‘n neutrale opset uitgevoer. Data is deur die navorser en ʼn onafhanklike kodeerder ontleed volgens Tesch se metode van analise. Kategorieë, sub-kategorieë en temas was geidentifiseer. Die kategorieë fundamenteel tot die bespreking behels: remmende faktore, bydraende faktore

  1. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle (Figure 14). This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration. The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles.

  2. Synthesis of [119mSn]-mesoporphyrin IX dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (Sn-MPCl 2 ) is a heme oxygenase inhibitor of current clinical interest for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The synthesis of [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 for drug metabolism and disposition studies is reported. [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 was prepared in 60% radiochemical yield by metalation of the porphyrin nucleus of mesoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride with tin(II)-119m acetate. The product had a specific activity of 43.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99%, as determined by radio-HPLC analysis. (author)

  3. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restores erectile function after cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint; Mergen, Max R D; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B.; Orbell, John D.; Merle, Tony; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA

  5. Lack of prognostic and predictive value of CA IX in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with known modifiable hypoxia: An evaluation of the DAHANCA 5 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CA IX is suggested to be an endogenous marker of hypoxia in tumours like squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CA IX served as a prognostic factor for outcome in a large population of HNSCC and if CA IX...... was able to discriminate the tumours that did benefit from hypoxic modification with nimorazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed pre-treatment tumour tissue was available from 320 of the 414 patients treated in the randomized DAHANCA 5 protocol with primary radiotherapy...

  6. In vitro evaluation of photodynamic therapy using redox-responsive nanoparticles carrying PpIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Leite, Ilaiáli; Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Lyles, Zachary; Salvador Bagnato, Vanderlei; Mayumi Inada, Natalia

    2018-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that combines light's interaction with a photoactive substance to promote cellular death and that has been used to treat a wide range of maladies. Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide and has been a central issue assessed by PDT research and clinical trials over the last 35 years, but its efficiency has been hampered by photosensitizer buildup at treatment site. Nanotechnology has been addressing drug delivery problems by the development of distinct nanostructured platforms capable of increasing pharmacological properties of molecules. The association of nanotechnology's potential to enhance photosensitizer delivery to target tissues with PDT's oxidative damage to induce cell death has been rising as a prospect to optimize cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to verify and compare the efficiency of PDT using redox-responsive silica-based nanoparticles carrying protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in vitro, in both tumor and healthy cells. Dose-response experiments revealed the higher susceptibility of murine melanoma cells (B16-F10 cell line) to PDT (630 nm, 50 J/cm2) when compared to human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn): after 24 h of incubation with 50 μg/mL nanoparticles solutions, approximately 80 % of B16- F10 cells were killed, while similar results were obtained in HDFn cultures when solutions over 150 μg/mL were used. Uptake and ROS generation assays suggest increased nanoparticle internalization in the tumor cell line, in comparison with the healthy cells, and greater ROS levels were observed in B16-F10 cells.

  7. Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitui John

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya

  8. Factors Impacting Program Delivery: The Importance of Implementation Research in Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Gagnon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Extension is in a unique position, given its relationship with research-based, Land-Grant Universities, to advance the scholarship of implementation research. A stronger shift towards evidence-based practice has been occurring, oriented towards the assessment of programs for outcomes. This paper explores core concepts related to program implementation and delves into factors that influence successful implementation of Extension programs and services. The importance of implementation within the Extension Program Development Model is explored, along with emerging issues and trends.

  9. Microporous silk fibroin scaffolds embedding PLGA microparticles for controlled growth factor delivery in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Esther; Meinel, Anne J; Wildy, Sarah; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz

    2009-05-01

    The development of prototype scaffolds for either direct implantation or tissue engineering purposes and featuring spatiotemporal control of growth factor release is highly desirable. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds with interconnective pores, carrying embedded microparticles that were loaded with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), were prepared by a porogen leaching protocol. Treatments with methanol or water vapor induced water insolubility of SF based on an increase in beta-sheet content as analyzed by FTIR. Pore interconnectivity was demonstrated by SEM. Porosities were in the range of 70-90%, depending on the treatment applied, and were better preserved when methanol or water vapor treatments were prior to porogen leaching. IGF-I was encapsulated into two different types of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles (PLGA MP) using uncapped PLGA (50:50) with molecular weights of either 14 or 35 kDa to control IGF-I release kinetics from the SF scaffold. Embedded PLGA MP were located in the walls or intersections of the SF scaffold. Embedment of the PLGA MP into the scaffolds led to more sustained release rates as compared to the free PLGA MP, whereas the hydrolytic degradation of the two PLGA MP types was not affected. The PLGA types used had distinct effects on IGF-I release kinetics. Particularly the supernatants of the lower molecular weight PLGA formulations turned out to release bioactive IGF-I. Our studies justify future investigations of the developed constructs for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Epidermal Growth Factor: Revisiting the Local Delivery Route for a Successful Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after epidermal growth factor (EGF discovery, some in vivo models appeared demonstrating its property to enhance cutaneous wound healing. EGF was the first growth factor (GF introduced in the clinical arena as a healing enhancer, exerting its mitogenic effects on epithelial, fibroblastoid, and endothelial cells via a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor. Compelling evidences from the 90s documented that, for EGF, locally prolonged bioavailability and hourly interaction with the receptor were necessary for a successful tissue response. Eventually, the enthusiasm on the clinical use of EGF to steer the healing process was wiped out as the topical route to deliver proteins started to be questioned. The simultaneous in vivo experiments, emphasizing the impact of the parenterally administered EGF on epithelial and nonepithelial organs in terms of mitogenesis and cytoprotection, rendered the theoretical fundamentals for the injectable use of EGF and shaped the hypothesis that locally infiltrating the diabetic ulcers would lead to an effective healing. Although the diabetic chronic wounds microenvironment is hostile for local GFs bioavailability, EGF local infiltration circumvented the limitations of its topical application, thus expanding its therapeutic prospect. Our clinical pharmacovigilance and basic studies attest the significance of the GF local infiltration for chronic wounds healing.

  11. Real-World Analysis of Dispensed IUs of Coagulation Factor IX and Resultant Expenditures in Hemophilia B Patients Receiving Standard Half-life Versus Extended Half-life Products and Those Switching from Standard Half-life to Extended Half-life Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Bartholomew J; Alvir, José; McDonald, Margaret; Spurden, Dean; Fogarty, Patrick F; Chhabra, Amit; Pleil, Andreas M

    2018-01-24

    Hemophilia B requires replacement therapy with factor IX (FIX) coagulation products to treat and prevent bleeding episodes. A recently introduced extended half-life (EHL) recombinant FIX replacement product provided the opportunity to compare the amount of dispensed factor and expenditures for EHL treatment compared with a standard half-life (SHL) product. To determine factor international units (IUs) dispensed and expenditures associated with switching from nonacog alfa, the most commonly used SHL replacement product, to eftrenonacog alfa, an EHL FIX replacement product. Two U.S. claims databases were analyzed. A large national specialty pharmacy dispensation claims database was used to identify the number of IUs dispensed and monthly charges for all patients with hemophilia B from April 2015 to June 2016. Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases (January 2010-July 2016) were used to identify IUs and expenditures for patients with claims data for at least 3 months before and after switching from the SHL to the EHL product. Medians for IUs and expenditures are presented to accommodate for skewness of data distribution. The national specialty pharmacy database analysis included 296 patients with moderate or severe hemophilia B (233 on SHL; 94 on EHL). Median monthly factor dispensed was 11% lower (2,142 IU) in the EHL versus SHL cohort over the study period, while individual monthly reductions ranged from 32% to 47% (9,838 IU to 16,514 IU). Using the wholesale acquisition cost, the median per-patient monthly factor expenditures over the 15-month study period were 94% higher ($23,005) for the EHL than for the SHL product. Individual median monthly expenditure differences ranged from 15% ($6,562) to 49% ($19,624). In the Truven database, 14 patients switched from the SHL to the EHL product. The amount of factor dispensed was variable; in the 1-year period before and after the switch from the SHL to the EHL product, mean IUs dispensed decreased by 3,005 IU, while

  12. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  13. Dynamic of exact perturbations in Bianchi IX type cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Neto, J.R.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic of Bianchi IX type cosmological models is studied, after reducing Einstein equations to Hamiltonian system. Using the Melnikov method, the existence of chaos in the dynamic of these models is proved, and some numerical experiments are carried out. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Phase-space dynamics of Bianchi IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    The complex phase-space dynamical behaviour of a class of Biachi IX cosmological models is discussed, as the chaotic gravitational collapse due Poincare's homoclinic phenomena, and the n-furcation of periodic orbits and tori in the phase space of the models. Poincare maps which show this behaviour are constructed merically and applications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  16. 23. IX korraldab Vaala galerii kunstioksjoni "Väliseesti eri"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Oksjonil on esindatud Eerik Haamer, Jaan Grünberg, Arno Vihalemm, Eduard Wiiralt, Ruth Tulving, Endel Kõks, Harald Jürissaar, Otto Paas, Ville Tops, Otto Puusta. Töödega saab tutvuda alates 18. IX, traditsiooniline sügisoksjon toimub 18. XI

  17. IX Congress of Spanish radiation protection Society (Bilbao, May-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present book contains the papers presented to the IX Congress of Spanish Radiation Protection Society. The main sessions were : 1.- Scientific area of Radiation Protection and Regulation, Social aspects, Radioactive waste management and Dismantling. 2.- Radiation protection in Medical applications. 3.- Physics of radiations and their measurements

  18. Study of primitive universe in the Bianchi IX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, G.E.A.

    1988-03-01

    The theory of general relativity is used to study the homogeneous cosmological model Bianch IX with isometry group SO(3) near the cosmological singularity. The Bogoyavlenskii-Novikov formalism to explain the anusual behaviour of the Liapunov exponent associated with this chaotic system, is introduced. (author) [pt

  19. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  20. Counselor Education and Title IX: Current Perceptions and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welfare, Laura E.; Wagstaff, Jennifer; Haynes, Jenna R.

    2017-01-01

    This national survey of counselor educator perceptions of the Title IX requirement to report student disclosures of gender-based discrimination revealed the need for greater clarity about faculty strategies for serving counseling program students while upholding the federal law. The authors describe the recent expansion of the requirements and…

  1. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liang Tang [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Yan, E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 {mu}m were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Liang Tang; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Jin Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 μm were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Prolonged controlled delivery of nerve growth factor using porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilony, Neta; Rosenberg, Michal; Holtzman, Liran; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Segal, Ester

    2017-07-10

    Although nerve growth factor (NGF) is beneficial for the treatment of numerous neurological and non-neurological diseases, its therapeutic administration represents a significant challenge, due to the difficulty to locally deliver relevant doses in a safe and non-invasive manner. In this work, we employ degradable nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) films as carriers for NGF, allowing its continuous and prolonged release, while retaining its bioactivity. The PSi carriers exhibit high loading efficacy (up to 90%) of NGF and a continuous release, with no burst, over a period of>26days. The released NGF bioactivity is compared to that of free NGF in both PC12 cells and dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We show that the NGF has retained its bioactivity and induces neurite outgrowth and profound differentiation (of >50% for PC12 cells) throughout the period of release within a single administration. Thus, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates the immense therapeutic potential of these tunable carriers as long-term implants of NGF reservoirs and paves the way for new localized treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M E; Kountanis, J A; Tsen, L C; Greenfield, M L; Mhyre, J M

    2012-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates evidence for seven risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia. Online scientific literature databases were searched using a strategy which identified observational trials, published between January 1979 and May 2011, which evaluated risk factors for failed conversion of epidural analgesia to anesthesia or documented a failure rate resulting in general anesthesia. 1450 trials were screened, and 13 trials were included for review (n=8628). Three factors increase the risk for failed conversion: an increasing number of clinician-administered boluses during labor (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.5), greater urgency for cesarean delivery (OR=40.4, 95% CI 8.8-186), and a non-obstetric anesthesiologist providing care (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.5). Insufficient evidence is available to support combined spinal-epidural versus standard epidural techniques, duration of epidural analgesia, cervical dilation at the time of epidural placement, and body mass index or weight as risk factors for failed epidural conversion. The risk of failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia is increased with an increasing number of boluses administered during labor, an enhanced urgency for cesarean delivery, and care being provided by a non-obstetric anesthesiologist. Further high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the many potential risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sub-optimal delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: influence of provider factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoka Chima A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the delivery of IPTp in Nigeria. Methods Data were collected from heads of maternal health units of 28 public and six private health facilities offering antenatal care (ANC services in two districts in Enugu State, south-east Nigeria. Provider knowledge of guidelines for IPTp was assessed with regard to four components: the drug used for IPTp, time of first dose administration, of second dose administration, and the strategy for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP administration (directly observed treatment, DOT. Provider practices regarding IPTp and facility-related factors that may explain observations such as availability of SP and water were also examined. Results Only five (14.7% of all 34 providers had correct knowledge of all four recommendations for provision of IPTp. None of them was a private provider. DOT strategy was practiced in only one and six private and public providers respectively. Overall, 22 providers supplied women with SP in the facility and women were allowed to take it at home. The most common reason for doing so amongst public providers was that women were required to come for antenatal care on empty stomachs to enhance the validity of manual fundal height estimation. Two private providers did not think it was necessary to use the DOT strategy because they assumed that women would take their drugs at home. Availability of SP and water in the facility, and concerns about side effects were not considered impediments to delivery of IPTp. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge of the guidelines for implementation of IPTp by all providers, especially those in the private sector. This had negative effects such as non-practice of DOT strategy by most of the providers

  7. Pregnant women's preference and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Debra Markos Town, North West Ethiopia: a community based follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, Hinsermu; Adefris, Mulatu; Amano, Abdella; Abuhay, Mulunesh

    2015-02-05

    Majority of deaths from obstetric complications are preventable. But every pregnant woman face risks which may not always be detected through the risk assessment approach during antenatal care (ANC). Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant in every delivery is the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel, is very low, even for women who have access to the services. A community-based follow up study was conducted from January 17, 2012 to July 30, 2012, among 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester's pregnant women in Debre-Markos town, east Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia. Simple random sampling technique was used to get a total sample size of 422 participants. A total of 393 pregnant women were included in the study. The study revealed that 292(74.3%) of the pregnant women planned to deliver in a health institution. Of these 292 pregnant women 234 (80.14%) actually delivered in a health facility. Age range from 15-19 year (AOR = 4.83, 95% CI = 1.562-12.641), college and above education of the pregnant women (AOR = 12.508, 95% CI = 1.082-14.557), ANC visit during the current pregnancy (AOR = 1.975, 95% CI = 1.021-3.392),perceived susceptibility and severity of pregnancy and delivery complication (AOR = 3.208, 95% CI = 1.262-8.155) and intention (preference) of pregnant women for place of delivery (AOR = 7.032, 95% CI = 3.045-10.234) are predictors of institutional delivery service utilization. Preference for institutional delivery is low in the study area. Sociodemographic factors, perception about delivery complication, ANC follow up and their intentions for institutional delivery are among important predictors of institutional delivery.

  8. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and collagen IX null mouse cartilage reveals altered extracellular matrix composition and novel components of the collagen IX interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F; Wilson, Richard

    2013-05-10

    Collagen IX is an integral cartilage extracellular matrix component important in skeletal development and joint function. Proteomic analysis and validation studies revealed novel alterations in collagen IX null cartilage. Matrilin-4, collagen XII, thrombospondin-4, fibronectin, βig-h3, and epiphycan are components of the in vivo collagen IX interactome. We applied a proteomics approach to advance our understanding of collagen IX ablation in cartilage. The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level

  10. Oxygen delivery to the fish eye: root effect as crucial factor for elevated retinal PO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, W; Heisler, N

    2005-11-01

    successively with standardized red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in Ringer, using trout (with Root) and human (lacking any Root effect) RBC suspension. To optimize perfusate conditions for maximal Root effect, the Root effect of trout RBCs was determined in vitro via graded acidification of individual samples equilibrated with standardized gas mixtures. During perfusion with trout RBC, PO2 at the outer retinal limit was 99 mmHg (13.2 kPa), but fell by a factor of 3.3 upon perfusion with human RBC in spite of higher total oxygen content (TO2 2.8 for trout vs 3.9 mmol l-1 for human RBC). Upon reperfusion with trout RBC, PO2 was restored immediately to the original value. This regularly observed pattern indicated a highly significant difference (P=0.003) between perfusion with trout (with Root effect; high retinal PO2) and perfusion with human (no Root effect; low retinal PO2) RBC suspension, thus clearly demonstrating that the Root effect is directly involved and a crucial prerequisite for the enhancement of PO2 in the retina of the teleost eye.

  11. Local myocardial insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) delivery with biotinylated peptide nanofibers improves cell therapy for myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael E.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Song, Qing; Zhang, Shuguang; Kamm, Roger D.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Anversa, Piero; Lee, Richard T.

    2006-05-01

    Strategies for cardiac repair include injection of cells, but these approaches have been hampered by poor cell engraftment, survival, and differentiation. To address these shortcomings for the purpose of improving cardiac function after injury, we designed self-assembling peptide nanofibers for prolonged delivery of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation factor, to the myocardium, using a "biotin sandwich" approach. Biotinylated IGF-1 was complexed with tetravalent streptavidin and then bound to biotinylated self-assembling peptides. This biotin sandwich strategy allowed binding of IGF-1 but did not prevent self-assembly of the peptides into nanofibers within the myocardium. IGF-1 that was bound to peptide nanofibers activated Akt, decreased activation of caspase-3, and increased expression of cardiac troponin I in cardiomyocytes. After injection into rat myocardium, biotinylated nanofibers provided sustained IGF-1 delivery for 28 days, and targeted delivery of IGF-1 in vivo increased activation of Akt in the myocardium. When combined with transplanted cardiomyocytes, IGF-1 delivery by biotinylated nanofibers decreased caspase-3 cleavage by 28% and increased the myocyte cross-sectional area by 25% compared with cells embedded within nanofibers alone or with untethered IGF-1. Finally, cell therapy with IGF-1 delivery by biotinylated nanofibers improved systolic function after experimental myocardial infarction, demonstrating how engineering the local cellular microenvironment can improve cell therapy. engineering | maturation | scaffold

  12. Emerging role of human factors and ergonomics in healthcare delivery – A new field of application and influence for the IEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments of research and application of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) are described, in particular the domain of healthcare delivery. HFE activities in this domain are highlighted and challenges for the discipline and the International Ergonomics Association are presented. PMID:22317500

  13. [Delivery during time of shift change is not a risk factor for obstetric complication: a historical cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Orna; Samueloff, Arnon; Gdansky, Efraim; Yekel, Yael; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2015-03-01

    The time of shift change is a unique time because the continuity of routine care is interrupted. The association between delivery during time of shift change and obstetric complications has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that delivery during time of shift change is at risk for obstetric complications. A historical cohort study was performed of all women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing a trial of labor at term during 2006-2010. Data was extracted from a computerized database that is continuously updated during Labor. The hour of delivery was divided into two categories: "morning shift" (09:30-15:00) and "time of shift change" which was defined 30 minutes prior to and 90 minutes past the official time of shift change, which occurs twice daily at 07:30 and 15:30. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to estimate the association between deliveries during "time of shift change" compared to "morning weekdays", with instrumental delivery (primary outcome) and prolonged second stage, unplanned cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, 5 minutes Apgar score deliveries were included in the cohort. No statistical difference in instrumental vaginal delivery was documented for women delivering during "time of shift change compared to morning shift weekdays (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83- 1.11, p = 0.605). None of the secondary outcomes were found at risk for women delivering during "time of shift change". Delivery during "time of shift change" does not pose additional risk for obstetric complications.

  14. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania; Rocchi, A.; Cesca, F.; Tan, H.; Miele, E.; Giugni, Andrea; Orlando, M.; Perrone Donnorso, M.; Perozziello, G.; Benfenati, Fabio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  15. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2018-04-04

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  16. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: Risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIMS: Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. METHODS: Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) wome...

  17. Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai; Li Libing; Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang; Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun; Wang Hua; Wang Lisheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 ± 9.01 vs. 41.94 ± 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 ± 1303 vs. 1667 ± 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 ± 1084 vs. 1566 ± 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

  18. Implementation of Brazil's "family health strategy": factors associated with community health workers', nurses', and physicians' delivery of drug use services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogério M; Rahman, Rahbel; da Fonseca, Aline

    2015-05-01

    Brazil's "family health strategy" (ESF), provides primary care, mostly to individuals in impoverished communities through teams of physicians, nurses, and community health workers (CHWs). ESF workers are called upon to offer drug use services (e.g., referrals, counseling) as drug use represents an urgent public health crisis. New federal initiatives are being implemented to build capacity in this workforce to deliver drug use services, yet little is known about whether ESF workers are providing drug use services already. Guided by social cognitive theory, this study examines factors associated with ESF workers' provision of drug use services. Cross-sectional surveys were collected from 262 ESF workers (168 CHWs, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians) in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State and Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State. provision of drug-use services. capacity to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP), resource constraints, peer support, knowledge of EBP, and job title. Logistic regression was used to determine relative influence of each predictor upon the outcome. Thirty-nine percent reported providing drug use services. Younger workers, CHWs, workers with knowledge about EBP and workers that report peer support were more likely to offer drug use services. Workers that reported resource constraints and more capacity to implement EBP were less likely to offer drug use services. ESF workers require education in locating, assessing and evaluating the latest research. Mentorship from physicians and peer support through team meetings may enhance workers' delivery of drug use services, across professional disciplines. Educational initiatives aimed at ESF teams should consider these factors as potentially enhancing implementation of drug use services. Building ESF workers' capacity to collaborate across disciplines and to gain access to tools for providing assessment and treatment of drug use issues may improve uptake of new initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Targeted delivery of polyamidoamine-paclitaxel conjugate functionalized with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengkai Ma,1 Xuemei Zhang,1 Ling Ni,2 Jinming Li,2 Fengpu Zhang,1 Zheng Wang,1 Shengnan Lian,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Antibody-dendrimer conjugates have the potential to improve the targeting and release of chemotherapeutic drugs at the tumor site while reducing adverse side effects caused by drug accumulation in healthy tissues. In this study, trastuzumab (TMAB, which binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, was used as a targeting agent in a TMAB-polyamidoamine (PAMAM conjugate carrying paclitaxel (PTX specifically to cells overexpressing HER2. Methods: TMAB was covalently linked to a PAMAM dendrimer via bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG. PTX was conjugated to PAMAM using succinic anhydride as a cross-linker, yielding TMAB-PEG-PAMAM-PTX. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the conjugates. The cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution were studied by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and Carestream In Vivo FX, respectively. Results: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that PEG, PTX, fluorescein isothiocyanate, and cyanine7 were conjugated to PAMAM. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that TMAB was conjugated to PEG-PAMAM. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the different conjugates ranged in size between 10 and 35 nm and had a spherical shape. In vitro cellular uptake demonstrated that the TMAB-conjugated PAMAM was taken up by HER2-overexpressing BT474 cells more efficiently than MCF-7 cells that expressed lower levels of HER2. Co-localization experiments indicated that TMAB-conjugated PAMAM was

  20. Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinases LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 Are Functional Analogs in Regulating Phytophthora Resistance and Plant Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Shan, Weixing; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-09-01

    L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are potential immune receptors. Here, we characterized two closely-related Arabidopsis LecRK, LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2, of which T-DNA insertion mutants showed compromised resistance to Phytophthora brassicae and Phytophthora capsici, with double mutants showing additive susceptibility. Overexpression of LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana increased Phytophthora resistance but also induced cell death. Phytophthora resistance required both the lectin domain and kinase activity, but for cell death, the lectin domain was not needed. Silencing of the two closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase genes NbSIPK and NbNTF4 in N. benthamiana completely abolished LecRK-IX.1-induced cell death but not Phytophthora resistance. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protein complexes coimmunoprecipitated in planta with LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 as bait, resulted in the identification of the N. benthamiana ABC transporter NbPDR1 as a potential interactor of both LecRK. The closest homolog of NbPDR1 in Arabidopsis is ABCG40, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that ABCG40 associates with LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 in planta. Similar to the LecRK mutants, ABCG40 mutants showed compromised Phytophthora resistance. This study shows that LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 are Phytophthora resistance components that function independent of each other and independent of the cell-death phenotype. They both interact with the same ABC transporter, suggesting that they exploit similar signal transduction pathways.

  1. Factors associated with perinatal mortality among public health deliveries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, an unmatched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getiye, Yemisrach; Fantahun, Mesganaw

    2017-07-26

    perinatal mortality is the sum of still birth (fetal death) and early neonatal death (ENND) i.e. death of live newborn before the age of 7 completed days. Perinatal mortality accounts three fourth of the deaths of the neonatal period and is one of the major challenges for under-five mortality. Therefore this study was conducted to better understand the common and avoidable factors that affect perinatal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An unmatched case control study design using secondary data as a source of information was conducted. Cases were still births or early neonatal deaths and controls were live births and neonates who were discharged alive from the hospital and did not die before the age of 7 days. The study period was from 1st January up to 30th February 2015. Epi-Info version 7.0 and SPSS Version 21 were used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, proportions and diagrams were used to check the distribution of outcome variable and describe the study population. Logistic regression model was used to identify the important factors that are associated with perinatal mortality. A total of 1113(376 cases and 737 controls) maternal charts were reviewed. The mean age of the mothers for cases and controls were 26.47 ± 4.87 and 26.95 ± 4.68 respectively. Five hundred ninety seven (53.6%) mothers delivered for the first time. Factors that are significantly associated with increased risk of perinatal mortality were birth interval less than 2 years, preterm delivery, anemia, congenital anomaly, previous history of early neonatal death and low birth weight. Use of partograph was also associated with decreased risk of perinatal mortality. From factors that are associated with perinatal mortality, some of them can be prevented with early investigation of pregnant mothers on their antenatal care follow. Appropriate labor follow-up and monitoring with regular use of partograph, immediate newborn care and interventions to delay

  2. Factors determining choice of delivery place among women of child bearing age in Dega Damot District, North West of Ethiopia: a community based cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, AlemayehuSayih; Sendo, EndalewGemechu

    2016-08-17

    In the latest report of Ethiopia Demography and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, the Maternal Mortality Ratio was estimated at 676/100,000 live births. Most of these deaths are preventable. Increasing the proportion of women who deliver in a health facility can be an important means in reducing maternal mortality in low-income settings including Ethiopia. We aimed to identify factors determining choice of delivery place among child bearing age women. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Dega Damot District from April- May, 2014. Mixed methods were employed in the study. Multistage sampling method was used. The primary outcome variable for this study was women who delivered their most recent baby in a health facility. Three hundred sixty one women who gave birth in the past 1 year were included in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 30.9 [SD ±6.006]. One hundred seven (29.6 %) of the respondents were in the age range of 25-29 years. In our study, the proportion of women assisted by skilled health workers during institutional delivery was 89.1 % followed by Health extension workers (8.0 %). Most women (87.4 %) who did not deliver in health facilities were assisted by families, friends or neighbors followed by Health extension workers (7.2 %), and traditional birth attendants (5.4 %), respectively. The qualitative data has described and gave an insight of the contributing factors that influence the women using the health institutions for delivery. These included: ANC attendance, Positive attitude of Health workers and complications during labor and delivery. The preference for a health facility delivery was largely due to the understanding that if complications occurred either during labor or delivery, this was the only place where they could be managed. The study revealed that women's institutional delivery service utilization in the study area is low. Based on these findings, improving the utilization of health facility for delivery

  3. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

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    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  4. Magnitude of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Luelseged; Alemayehu, Mussie; Debie, Ayal

    2018-03-02

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.

  5. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery services: A community-based cross-sectional study in far-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidoony, Leila; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Won; Doh, Young Ah

    2018-01-01

    Use of institutional delivery services can be effective in reducing maternal and infant mortality. In Nepal, however, the majority of women deliver at home. Using Andersen's behavioral model of use of health care services, this cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors associated with use of institutional delivery services in four villages and one municipality in Kailali district, Nepal. Mothers (N = 500) who had given birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (conducted between January and February 2015) were randomly selected by cluster sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Bivariate analyses and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the women surveyed, 65.6% had used institutional delivery services for their last delivery, a higher proportion than the national average. Primiparity, having a secondary or higher education level, living in the Durgauli village, having husbands with occupations other than agriculture or professional/technical jobs, and having attended four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits had significantly increased use of institutional deliveries. Also, belonging to the richest 20% of the community and having experienced pregnancy complications were marginally significantly associated. These findings demonstrate the need for improving mother's education, encouraging them to attend ANC visits and addressing disparities between different regions.

  6. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-01-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N   =   V and N   =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k   =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII 0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII 0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour. (paper)

  7. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-03-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N  =  V and N  =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k  =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.

  8. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  9. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX.

  10. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  11. Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosolized salbutamol delivery via a metered dose inhaler and equine spacer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; McGorum, B C; Owen, C; Carr, O; Oakley, H; McLachlan, G

    2017-06-01

    Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer. Although this aerosol had a high [89.6% (±2.4)] fine particle (aerodynamic diameter [2.52 (±0.29) μm], and particle size variability [geometric SD - 1.66 (±0.16) μm], within all particle size fractions, there was a high coefficient of variance (31-79%) of the percentage salbutamol delivered between experimental runs, thus impeding any effort to predict drug delivery to the patient during equine inhalation therapy. Despite observable trends and with the exception of minor statistically significant changes in the least abundant particle sizes, none of the deviations from a 'best practice' delivery technique significantly altered the relative salbutamol delivery beyond the spacer, a finding which has potential relevance with regard to maintaining user compliance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2% and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

  13. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Ghana: the role of decision-making autonomy and community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Story, William T; Singh, Kavita

    2014-11-27

    In Ghana, the site of this study, the maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate remain high indicating the need to focus on maternal and child health programming. Ghana has high use of antenatal care (95%) but sub-optimum levels of institutional delivery (about 57%). Numerous barriers to institutional delivery exist including financial, physical, cognitive, organizational, and psychological and social. This study examines the psychological and social barriers to institutional delivery, namely women's decision-making autonomy and their perceptions about social support for institutional delivery in their community. This study uses cross-sectional data collected for the evaluation of the Maternal and Newborn Referrals Project of Project Fives Alive in Northern and Central districts of Ghana. In 2012 and 2013, a total of 2,527 women aged 15 to 49 were surveyed at baseline and midterm (half in 2012 and half in 2013). The analysis sample of 1,606 includes all women who had a birth three years prior to the survey date and who had no missing data. To determine the relationship between institutional delivery and the two key social barriers-women's decision-making autonomy and community perceptions of institutional delivery-we used multi-level logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions between community-level attitudes and individual-level autonomy. All analyses control for the clustered survey design by including robust standard errors in Stata 13 statistical software. The findings show that women who are more autonomous and who perceive positive attitudes toward facility delivery (among women, men and mothers-in-law) were more likely to deliver in a facility. Moreover, the interactions between autonomy and community-level perceptions of institutional delivery among men and mothers-in-law were significant, such that the effect of decision-making autonomy is more important for women who live in communities that are less supportive of

  14. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) women continent 4 and 12 years after first delivery; (B) women continent at 4 and incontinent at 12 years; (C) women incontinent at 4 and continent at 12 years; and (D) women incontinent at 4 and 12 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors of UI prevalence (groups B + D vs. A + C), incidence (B vs. A), remission (C vs. D), and onset of UI (D vs. Factors associated with UI 12 years after first pregnancy were: BMI (OR = 1.17 [95%CI: 1.04-1.32], by 1 kg/m(2) ) and increasing BMI (1.43 [1.19-1.73]), first child's weight (1.08 [1.001-1.16], by 100 g) and UI during first pregnancy (3.77 [1.83-7.76]). Factors associated with UI incidence were age at first delivery (0.86 [0.75-0.98]) and high BMI (1.24 [1.05-1.45]). Increasing BMI, UI during first pregnancy, and heavy first child reduce the likelihood of UI remission (0.37 [0.20-0.68], 0.11 [0.02-0.63], and 0.73[0.59-0.91], respectively). UI during first pregnancy could be indicative of individual susceptibility to UI. Obesity appears to be a modifiable factor for remission of UI in women. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  16. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and risk factors for positive HIV RNA at delivery: a single-cohort observational study (Brescia, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoni Michele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants. Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003. Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively. A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ≤30 days before labour was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/ml at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9% had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099. However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ≥14 days antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p 3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant

  17. Identification of five novel 14-3-3 isoforms interacting with the GPIb-IX complex in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, P H; Receveur, N; Wurtz, V; David, T; Gachet, C; Lanza, F

    2009-09-01

    Binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex initiates a signaling cascade leading to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a key process in hemostasis and thrombosis. Interaction of 14-3-3zeta with the intracytoplasmic domain of GPIb appears to be a major effector of this activation pathway. The aim of our study was to determine whether other members of the 14-3-3 family bind to GPIb-IX. In this study, western blot analyses showed that platelets also contain the 14-3-3beta, 14-3-3gamma, 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3theta isoforms, but lack 14-3-3sigma. Coimmunoprecipitation studies in platelets and CHO transfectants demonstrated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in platelets, including, as previously reported, 14-3-3zeta, bind to GPIb-IX. In addition, their interaction was found to critically require the same GPIbalpha domains (580-590 and 605-610) already identified as essential for 14-3-3zeta binding, in agreement with the conservation of the sequence of the I-helix among these different isoforms. Pull-down experiments indicated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms present in platelets bind to GPIbbeta. In contrast, deletion or mutation of the GPIbbeta intracytoplasmic tail did not affect the interaction of GPIb-IX with the 14-3-3 isoforms, questioning the importance of this domain. Our study suggests that, to inhibit GPIb-induced integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a more appropriate strategy than inhibiting individual 14-3-3 isoforms would be to target the 14-3-3-binding motif on GPIb or, alternatively, the conserved 14-3-3 I-helix.

  18. What Health Service Provider Factors Are Associated with Low Delivery of HIV Testing to Children with Acute Malnutrition in Dowa District of Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitete, Lusungu; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    The Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition is the national program for treating acute malnutrition in Malawi. Under this program's guidelines all children enrolled should undergo an HIV test, so that those infected can receive appropriate treatment and care. However, the national data of 2012 shows a low delivery of testing. Prior studies have investigated client-related factors affecting uptake of HIV testing in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition program. Lacking is the information on the service provider factors that are associated with the delivery of testing. This study investigated service provider factors that affect delivery of HIV testing among children enrolled in the program and explored ways in which this could be improved. A descriptive study that used qualitative methods of data collection. Client registers were reviewed to obtain the number of children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and the number of children who were tested for HIV over a 12-month period. In-depth interviews were conducted with Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and HIV Testing and Counselling focal persons to investigate factors affecting HIV test delivery. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data from client registers. Information from interviews was analyzed using a thematic approach. Quantitative data revealed that 1738 (58%) of 2981 children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition were tested for HIV. From in-depth interviews four themes emerged, that is, lack of resources for HIV tests; shortage of staff skilled in HIV testing and counseling; lack of commitment among staff in referring children for HIV testing; and inadequately trained staff. There is a need for a functioning health system to help reduce child mortality resulting from HIV related conditions.

  19. Missed opportunities for institutional delivery and associated factors among urban resident pregnant women in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia: a community-based follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Bayu, Hinsermu; Fisseha, Girmastion; Mulat, Amlaku; Yitayih, Gebre; Wolday, Mengistu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Every pregnant woman is considered to be at risk and some risks may not always be foreseeable or detectable. Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant at every delivery is considered to be the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in urban settings can be as low as 10%. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting unplanned home delive...

  20. The Structure of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Adapted for Low-pH Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Brian P; Bhatt, Avni; Socorro, Lilien; Driscoll, Jenna M; Okoh, Cynthia; Lomelino, Carrie L; Mboge, Mam Y; Kurian, Justin J; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Frost, Susan C; McKenna, Robert

    2016-08-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) expression in many cancers is associated with hypoxic tumors and poor patient outcome. Inhibitors of hCA IX have been used as anticancer agents with some entering Phase I clinical trials. hCA IX is transmembrane protein whose catalytic domain faces the extracellular tumor milieu, which is typically associated with an acidic microenvironment. Here, we show that the catalytic domain of hCA IX (hCA IX-c) exhibits the necessary biochemical and biophysical properties that allow for low pH stability and activity. Furthermore, the unfolding process of hCA IX-c appears to be reversible, and its catalytic efficiency is thought to be correlated directly with its stability between pH 3.0 and 8.0 but not above pH 8.0. To rationalize this, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of hCA IX-c to 1.6 Å resolution. Insights from this study suggest an understanding of hCA IX-c stability and activity in low-pH tumor microenvironments and may be applicable to determining pH-related effects on enzymes.

  1. Embryonic chicken cornea and cartilage synthesize type IX collagen molecules with different amino-terminal domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, K K; Nishimura, I; Sugrue, S P; Ninomiya, Y; Olsen, B R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed embryonic chicken cornea for the presence of type IX collagen mRNA and protein. Using RNA transfer blot analysis, we demonstrate that alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(IX) mRNAs are expressed by corneal epithelial cells at the time that the primary stromal components are synthesized. The levels of the mRNAs decrease with increasing developmental age and are barely detectable at day 11 of development. In contrast, type IX collagen protein is detectable by immunofluorescence at days 5 an...

  2. The spectroscopy analyses of PpIX by ultrasound irradiation and its sonotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Kaili; Song, Ming; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been used as a sensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as well as in sonodynamic therapy (SDT). The photo-bleaching of PpIX has been well investigated in many experimental systems and some photo-products have also been identified in PDT. But until now, little information has been reported about the sono-damage of PpIX in SDT. So, the present study was to investigate changes of PpIX properties before and after different ultrasound treatment, and the potential interactions between PpIX, ultrasound and the irradiated cells. In cell-free system, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of PpIX in different solutions were measured by ultraviolet spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The terephthalic acid dosimetry was applied to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound cavitation by monitoring hydroxyl radical (OH) production on the thermolysis of H2O in the ultrasound field. In in vitro study, confocal microscopy was applied to detect the sub-cellular localization of PpIX in S180 cells before and after ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during PpIX-SDT. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability of S180 cells after SDT treatment with or without ROS scavengers. The results show that PpIX displayed different spectral patterns in different solutions. PpIX was decomposed by ultrasound exposure as measured by the decreased absorption and fluorescence peak values in RPMI-1640 medium. In addition, the decomposition of PpIX was found to be simultaneously accompanied by OH production with increasing output power from ultrasound generator. PpIX at 1μg/ml significantly enhanced the ultrasound induced cavitation as measured by OH generation, and which was greatly eliminated by NaN3, histidine, mannitol, EDTA and catalase, but not by SOD. The in vitro study indicates more PpIX entered into S180 cells after ultrasound exposure. And, the extra-cellular PpIX

  3. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  4. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS): Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasica, Anna M.; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Madej, Mariusz; Potempa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM). Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo proteins is

  5. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS: Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Lasica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS, a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM. Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo

  6. 6. Home deliveries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    determine factors associated with home deliveries. Main outcome ... deliver at home than a health facility compared to those who .... regression analysis, women who had four years of schooling or .... by report bias, the burden of home deliveries is a real challenge .... Journal of Econometrics 1987; 36: 185-204. 14. Michelo ...

  7. Fe IX CALCULATIONS FOR THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Adam R.; Testa, Paola

    2011-01-01

    New calculations of the energy levels, radiative transition rates, and collisional excitation rates of Fe IX have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code, paying close attention to experimentally identified levels and extending existing calculations to higher energy levels. For lower levels, R-matrix collisional excitation rates from earlier work have been used. Significant emission is predicted by these calculations in the 5f-3d transitions, which will impact analysis of Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations using the 94 A filter.

  8. The Bianchi IX model in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Date, Ghanashyam; Hossain, Golam Mortuza

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi IX model has been used often to investigate the structure close to singularities of general relativity. Its classical chaos is expected to have, via the BKL scenario, implications even for the approach to general inhomogeneous singularities. Thus, it is a popular model to test consequences of modifications to general relativity suggested by quantum theories of gravity. This paper presents a detailed proof that modifications coming from loop quantum gravity lead to a non-chaotic effective behaviour. The way this is realized, independently of quantization ambiguities, suggests a new look at initial and final singularities

  9. [Methods and Applications to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for nurse-midwife's delivery service in the national health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Jung, Yoomi

    2009-08-01

    This paper analyzed alternative methods of calculating the conversion factor for nurse-midwife's delivery services in the national health insurance and estimated the optimal reimbursement level for the services. A cost accounting model and Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) model were developed to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) for nurse-midwife's services, depending on the scope of revenue considered in financial analysis. The data and sources from the government and the financial statements from nurse-midwife clinics were used in analysis. The cost accounting model and SGR model showed a 17.6-37.9% increase and 19.0-23.6% increase, respectively, in nurse-midwife fee for delivery services in the national health insurance. The SGR model measured an overall trend of medical expenditures rather than an individual financial status of nurse-midwife clinics, and the cost analysis properly estimated the level of reimbursement for nurse-midwife's services. Normal vaginal delivery in nurse-midwife clinics is considered cost-effective in terms of insurance financing. Upon a declining share of health expenditures on midwife clinics, designing a reimbursement strategy for midwife's services could be an opportunity as well as a challenge when it comes to efficient resource allocation.

  10. Missed opportunities for institutional delivery and associated factors among urban resident pregnant women in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia: a community-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, Hinsermu; Fisseha, Girmastion; Mulat, Amlaku; Yitayih, Gebre; Wolday, Mengistu

    2015-01-01

    Every pregnant woman is considered to be at risk and some risks may not always be foreseeable or detectable. Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant at every delivery is considered to be the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in urban settings can be as low as 10%. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting unplanned home delivery in urban settings, where there is relatively good access in principle to modern healthcare institutions. A community-based follow-up study was conducted from 17 January 2014 to 30 August 2014, among second- and third-trimester pregnant women who had planned for institutional delivery in South Tigray Zone. A systematic sampling technique was used to get a total of 522 study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Bivariate and multivariate data analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The study revealed that among 465 pregnant women who planned for institutional delivery, 134 (28.8%) opted out and delivered at their home (missed opportunity). Single women (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.17-4.68), illiterate mothers (AOR 6.14, 95% CI 2.20-17.2), absence of antenatal clinic visit for indexed pregnancy (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.72-5.61), absence of obstetric complications during the index pregnancy (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.47-5.97), poor autonomy (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.27-3.49), and absence of birth preparedness and complication readiness (AOR 3.83, 95% CI 2.19-6.70) were significant predictors of unplanned home delivery. A significant proportion of pregnant women missed the opportunity of modern delivery assistance. Educational status, antenatal care status, lack of obstetric complications, poor autonomy, and lack of birth preparedness and complication readiness were among the important predictors of unplanned home delivery.

  11. Missed opportunities for institutional delivery and associated factors among urban resident pregnant women in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia: a community-based follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every pregnant woman is considered to be at risk and some risks may not always be foreseeable or detectable. Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant at every delivery is considered to be the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in urban settings can be as low as 10%. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting unplanned home delivery in urban settings, where there is relatively good access in principle to modern healthcare institutions. Design: A community-based follow-up study was conducted from 17 January 2014 to 30 August 2014, among second- and third-trimester pregnant women who had planned for institutional delivery in South Tigray Zone. A systematic sampling technique was used to get a total of 522 study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Bivariate and multivariate data analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The study revealed that among 465 pregnant women who planned for institutional delivery, 134 (28.8% opted out and delivered at their home (missed opportunity. Single women (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.17–4.68, illiterate mothers (AOR 6.14, 95% CI 2.20–17.2, absence of antenatal clinic visit for indexed pregnancy (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.72–5.61, absence of obstetric complications during the index pregnancy (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.47–5.97, poor autonomy (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.27–3.49, and absence of birth preparedness and complication readiness (AOR 3.83, 95% CI 2.19–6.70 were significant predictors of unplanned home delivery. Conclusions: A significant proportion of pregnant women missed the opportunity of modern delivery assistance. Educational status, antenatal care status, lack of obstetric complications, poor autonomy, and lack of birth preparedness and complication readiness were among the important

  12. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2013-07-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  13. Freeze-dried allograft-mediated gene or protein delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 reduces reconstructed murine flexor tendon adhesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Sys Hasslund; Dadali, Tulin; Ulrich-Vinther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and in vivo bioluminescent imaging. We then reconstructed flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons of the mouse hindlimb with allografts loaded with low and high doses of recombinant GDF-5 protein and r......Advances in allograft processing have opened new horizons for clinical adaptation of flexor tendon allografts as delivery scaffolds for antifibrotic therapeutics. Recombinant adeno-associated-virus (rAAV) gene delivery of the growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) has been previously...... associated with antifibrotic effects in a mouse model of flexor tendoplasty. In this study, we compared the effects of loading freeze-dried allografts with different doses of GDF-5 protein or rAAV-Gdf5 on flexor tendon healing and adhesions. We first optimized the protein and viral loading parameters using...

  14. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX.......Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX....

  15. Factors associated with utilization of skilled service delivery among women in rural Northern Ghana: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gudu, William; Addo, Bright

    2017-01-01

    Background Ghana?s current Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 319 per 100,000 live births makes achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal of 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births or less by 2030 appear to be illusory. Skilled assistance during childbirth is a critical strategy to reducing maternal mortality, yet the proportion of deliveries taking place within health facilities where such assistance is provided is very low in Ghana, with huge disparity between urban and rural women....

  16. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  17. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2006-01-01

    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting…

  18. Why, What and Where To? Title IX, Educational Amendment of 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi

    Three years after Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 became law, the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare provided regulations for the implementation of Title IX. This report reviews the implications of these regulations as well as several of the court cases in which discrimination on the basis of sex has been declared…

  19. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  20. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  1. 4p-5s transitions in YVII, VIII, ZrVIII, IX, NbIX, X and MoX, XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimullah, K.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of Y VII, VIII, Zr VIII, IX, Nb X and Mo X, XI are studied for the first time and the 1971 analysis of Nb IX is improved. By analyses of the transitions 4s 2 4psup(k)-4s 2 4psup(k-1)5s all the levels of the configurations 4p 3 , 4p 2 5s, 4p 2 and 4p5s are established in the spectra concerned. (Auth.)

  2. Molecular and electronic structure of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shelly R.; White, Henry S.

    1991-11-01

    Electrochemical, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and tunneling spectroscopy studies of the molecular and electronic properties of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl (abbreviated as PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes are reported. PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl films are prepared by two different methods: (1) adsorption, yielding an electrochemically-active film, and (2) irreversible electrooxidative polymerization, yielding an electrochemically-inactive film. STM images, in conjunction with electro-chemical results, indicate that adsorption of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl from aqueous solutions onto freshly cleaved HOPG results in a film comprised of molecular aggregates. In contrast, films prepared by irreversible electrooxidative polymerization of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl have a denser, highly structured morphology, including what appear to be small pinholes (approx. 50A diameter) in an otherwise continuous film.

  3. Lansoprazole and carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors sinergize against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Marino, Maria Lucia; Carta, Fabrizio; Iessi, Elisabetta; Azzarito, Tommaso; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) reduce tumor acidity and therefore resistance of tumors to drugs. Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitors have proven to be effective against tumors, while tumor acidity might impair their full effectiveness. To analyze the effect of PPI/CA IX inhibitors combined treatment against human melanoma cells. The combination of Lansoprazole (LAN) and CA IX inhibitors (FC9-399A and S4) has been investigated in terms of cell proliferation inhibition and cell death in human melanoma cells. The combination of these inhibitors was more effective than the single treatments in both inhibiting cell proliferation and in inducing cell death in human melanoma cells. These results represent the first successful attempt in combining two different proton exchanger inhibitors. This is the first evidence on the effectiveness of a new approach against tumors based on the combination of PPI and CA IX inhibitors, thus providing an alternative strategy against tumors.

  4. The importance of protoporphyrin IX efflux for ALA-PDT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanetto, M C; Imasato, H; Perussi, J R

    2009-01-01

    One of the major advances in PDT is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the production of an endogenous photosensitizer inside the cells using intracellular enzymatic pathways. ALA is the first intermediate in heme biosynthesis and a precursor of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). When activated by light, this efficient photosensitizer accumulated in the target cells can produce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to find the best conditions for cell killing using ALA to temporarily increase the concentration of PpIX in two cell lines. It was shown that a considerable efflux of synthesized PpIX occurs. Since this efflux is time-dependent, it is essential to know the optimum time for irradiation after ALA administration. So, the efflux of PpIX from the cells is an important parameter to be considered for ALA-PDT dosimetry

  5. 19.-25. IX toimub Rüütelkonna hoones Kumu pärlite nädal...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    23. IX kõneleb Anu Allikvee teemal "Eestlane baltisaksa kunstnike vaatepiiris"; 24. IX tutvustab Mai Levin Eugen Dückeri maale, 25. IX Ene Lamp Konrad Mäge. Vt. ka lk. 24 Tähtede nädal 26. IX-2. X - kohtumisõhtutel esinevad Marika ja Heinz Valk, Jüri Kuuskemaa, Sirje Helme, Pekka Vapaavuori, Inge Teder, Rain Lõhmus

  6. Inactivation of Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses by heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção-Miranda, I; Cruz-Oliveira, C; Neris, R L S; Figueiredo, C M; Pereira, L P S; Rodrigues, D; Araujo, D F F; Da Poian, A T; Bozza, M T

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX and SnPPIX), macrocyclic structures composed by a tetrapyrrole ring with a central metallic ion, on Dengue Virus (DENV) and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) infection. Treatment of HepG2 cells with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX after DENV infection reduced infectious particles without affecting viral RNA contents in infected cells. The reduction of viral load occurs only with the direct contact of DENV with porphyrins, suggesting a direct effect on viral particles. Previously incubation of DENV and YFV with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX resulted in viral particles inactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Biliverdin, a noncyclical porphyrin, was unable to inactivate the viruses tested. Infection of HepG2 cells with porphyrin-pretreated DENV2 results in a reduced or abolished viral protein synthesis, RNA replication and cell death. Treatment of HepG2 or THP-1 cell lineage with heme or CoPPIX after DENV infection with a very low MOI resulted in a decreased DENV replication and protection from death. Heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX possess a marked ability to inactivate DENV and YFV, impairing its ability to infect and induce cytopathic effects on target cells. These results open the possibility of therapeutic application of porphyrins or their use as models to design new antiviral drugs against DENV and YFV. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Cycloamylose-nanogel drug delivery system-mediated intratumor silencing of the vascular endothelial growth factor regulates neovascularization in tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidetaka; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Takeda, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Adachi, Tetsuya; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Miki, Tsuneharu; Mazda, Osam

    2014-12-01

    RNAi enables potent and specific gene silencing, potentially offering useful means for treatment of cancers. However, safe and efficient drug delivery systems (DDS) that are appropriate for intra-tumor delivery of siRNA or shRNA have rarely been established, hindering clinical application of RNAi technology to cancer therapy. We have devised hydrogel polymer nanoparticles, or nanogel, and shown its validity as a novel DDS for various molecules. Here we examined the potential of self-assembled nanogel of cholesterol-bearing cycloamylose with spermine group (CH-CA-Spe) to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific short interfering RNA (siVEGF) into tumor cells. The siVEGF/nanogel complex was engulfed by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells through the endocytotic pathway, resulting in efficient knockdown of VEGF. Intra-tumor injections of the complex significantly suppressed neovascularization and growth of RCC in mice. The treatment also inhibited induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while it decreased interleukin-17A production. Therefore, the CH-CA-Spe nanogel may be a feasible DDS for intra-tumor delivery of therapeutic siRNA. The results also suggest that local suppression of VEGF may have a positive impact on systemic immune responses against malignancies. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  9. Fatores prognósticos para o parto transvaginal em pacientes com cesárea anterior Prognostic factors for vaginal delivery after cesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos

    1998-07-01

    prognostic factors for vaginal delivery in pregnant women after previous cesarean section admitted to CAM-IMIP in labor.Patients and Methods: a case-control study was performed, analyzing all deliveries of patients with previous cesarean section admitted to CAM-IMIP between January 1991 and December 1994. Patients who had a cesarean section (n=156 were considered cases while patients with a vaginal birth were the controls (n=338. Inclusion criteria were: gestational age > 36 weeks, previous cesarean section at least 1 year before, alive fetus, spontaneous labor and vertex presentation. Patients with high-risk pregnancies, acute fetal distress and a previous vaginal delivery after cesarean section were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed with in Epi-Info 6.0 and Epi-Soft, using c² test, Fisher's exact test and Student's "t" test. Odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval was calculated and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the control of confounding factors. Results: overall rate of cesarean section was 31.6%. Maternal factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were age 35 years (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36-0.82, history of vaginal delivery (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55 and complications of pregnancy as indication for previous cesarean section (OR = 3.67, 95% CI =1.19-12.02. A significant association with vaginal delivery could not be detected for other variables: interval between previous cesarean section and present delivery, other indications for cesarean section and type of uterine suture. In a multiple logistic regression model the variables that remained associated with vaginal delivery were maternal age and previous vaginal delivery. Conclusions: maternal age below 20 years, previous cesarean section indicated due to gestational complications and previous vaginal delivery were favorably associated with vaginal delivery in patients with prior cesarean section. Risk of repeated cesarean section is increased in pregnant women aged

  10. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  11. Acceptability of delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting to address obesity in pre-school children: a case study of the Common Risk Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.

  12. Increase in protoporphyrin IX after 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy is due to local re-synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Henriëtte S.; Kruijt, Bastiaan; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angélique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2007-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence that is bleached during aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) increases again in time after treatment. In the present study we investigated if this increase in PpIX fluorescence after illumination is the result of local re-synthesis or of

  13. Induction of protoporphyrin IX by aminolaevulinic acid in actinic keratosis, psoriasis and normal skin: preferential porphyrin enrichment in differentiated cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Staassen, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In photodynamic therapy the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is synthesized following topical application of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). However, different tissues have distinct PpIX-accumulating properties, due to differences in penetration of ALA through the stratum

  14. Validation of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique for mitochondrial oxygen measurements in the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); S.I.A. Bodmer (Sander I. A.); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMitochondrial oxygen tension can be measured in vivo by means of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) can be measured in the skin of a rat after topical application of the PpIX precursor

  15. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were ma...

  16. THE IX EUROPEAN FORUM ON ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V Seredavkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of the proceedings of the IX European Forum on antiphospholipid antibodies held in May 2013 in Krakow (Poland. The aim of the Forum is to coordinate multicenter projects focused on antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, both clinical and fundamental research, based on cooperation between the European countries. The main purpose is to stimulate research into all aspects of aPL, to facilitate the exchange of information between institutions, and to involve many centers in different countries into scientific research on this issue. The issues of standardization of the diagnostic criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, primarily serological markers (their specificity, sensitivity and correlation with clinical manifestations, as well as non-criterial manifestations of APS, were considered at the meeting. In addition, the therapy problems were discussed.

  17. The order of chaos on a Bianch IX cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, H; da Silva, A R; Ramos, J S

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the chaotic behavior that can arise on a type-IX cosmological model using methods from dynamic systems theory and symbolic dynamics. Specifically, instead of the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifschitz model, we use the iterates of a monotonously increasing map of the circle with a discontinuity, and for the Hamiltonian dynamics of Misner's Mixmaster model we introduce the iterates of a noninvertible map. An equivalence between these two models can easily be brought upon by translating them in symbolic dynamical terms. The resulting symbolic orbits can be inserted in an ordered tree structure set, and so we can present an effective counting and referentation of all period orbits.

  18. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent/triangulation design. Feasibility trial of the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention (ISRCTN49875385), delivered in primary care physiotherapy. 60 SOLAS sessions were delivered across seven sites by nine physiotherapists. Fidelity of delivery of prespecified intervention components was evaluated using (1) audio-recordings (n=60), direct observations (n=24) and self-report checklists (n=60) and (2) individual interviews with physiotherapists (n=9). Quantitatively, fidelity scores were calculated using percentage means and SD of components delivered. Associations between fidelity scores and physiotherapist variables were analysed using Spearman's correlations. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis to explore potential reasons for fidelity scores. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data occurred at an interpretation level using triangulation. Quantitatively, fidelity scores were high for all assessment methods; with self-report (92.7%) consistently higher than direct observations (82.7%) or audio-recordings (81.7%). There was significant variation between physiotherapists' individual scores (69.8% - 100%). Both qualitative and quantitative data (from physiotherapist variables) found that physiotherapists' knowledge (Spearman's association at p=0.003) and previous experience (p=0.008) were factors that influenced their fidelity. The qualitative data also postulated participant-level (eg, individual needs) and programme-level factors (eg, resources) as additional elements that influenced fidelity. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. This study contributes

  19. Syntheses of carbon-13 labeled protoporphyrin-IX for spectroscopic studies of heme proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinari, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of various methodologies for synthesis of selectively tailored protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester are presented. The iron(II) complex of protoporphyrin-IX is the heme, the prosthetic group for Hb, Mb, cytochromes and peroxidases. The significance of this research is to provide direct means to establish definitive carbon-13 NMR assignments of heme proteins in order to study not only the structure-function relationships, but also protein dynamics of these vital systems. Carbon-13 labeling at the beta-vinyl position was first achieved by ozonolysis of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Column LC method were used to first isolate 2,4-diformyldeuteroporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Concomitantly, monofomyl-monovinyl porphyrins were obtained as a mixture of two isomers. This mixture was separated by MPLC or prep HPLC to afford the isomerically pure products, Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester and Iso-Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester. A Wittig reaction to each of these porphyrins with 13 C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide gave 2,4-bis[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, 2-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, and the 4-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, respectively

  20. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanei, A.; Sazgarnia, A.; Hassanzadeh-Kayyat, M.; Eshghi, H.; Soudmand, S.; Attaran Kakhki, N.

    2012-01-01

    When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nano conjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX and gold nanoparticles, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated sonochemiluminescence signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. sonochemiluminescence signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the sonochemiluminescence signal level.

  1. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  2. Modulation of the endogenous production of protoporphyrin IX in a yeast-based model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniová, Jaroslava; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Wagnières, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess conditions at which simple yeast-based model organism produces maximal levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after an exogenous administration of its precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and the ferrous-ion chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl. We observed that the fluorescing porphyrin, produced after these administrations, was likely to be PpIX since fluorescence spectroscopy of the porphyrins produced endogenously in yeast cells resembles that of PpIX in DMSO and in vivo in the chick's chorioallantoic membrane model. Also, fluorescence lifetimes of these porphyrins are very similar to that of PpIX in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that PpIX is the main fluorescent compound produced by yeast in our conditions. We found that the conditions at which yeast produces the maximal PpIX were a synchronous administration of 5 μM ALA and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl for yeast incubated in aqueous glucose and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl in the presence of YPD medium. Such a simple model is of high interest to study basic mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial respiration since PpIX, which is produced in this organelle, can be used as an oxygen sensor, or to perform photodynamic therapy and photodiagnosis. Since the absorption and scattering coefficients of this model are much smaller than those of soft tissues over the visible part of the spectrum, a version of this model loaded with appropriated amounts of light absorbing and scattering particles could be designed as a phantom to mimic tumors containing PpIX, a useful tool to optimize certain cancer photodetection set-ups.

  3. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However...... (P = 0·001 and P = 0·002, respectively). However, the median total clearance rates did not improve accordingly: 3hC+ (55·0%), 21hC- (55·0%) and 21hC+ (53·6%). Conversely, insufficient PpIX accumulation in the 3hC- regimen led to a significantly lower clearance rate (33·3%) than the other regimens (P...

  4. Isoxanthohumol, a constituent of hop (Humulus lupulus L.), increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans dependent on the transcription factor DAF-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchter, Christian; Havermann, Susannah; Koch, Karoline; Wätjen, Wim

    2016-02-01

    The flavanone isoxanthohumol (IX) has gained attention as antioxidative and chemopreventive agent, but the molecular mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated effects of this secondary plant compound in vivo using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans nematodes were incubated with IX, and then, the stress resistance was analysed in the SYTOX assay; lifespan was monitored by touch-provoked movement method, the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured in the DCF assay, and the nuclear localisation of the transcription factor DAF-16 was analysed by using a transgenic strain. By the use of a DAF-16 loss-of-function strain, we analysed whether the effects are dependent on DAF-16. IX increases the resistance of the nematode against thermal stress. Additionally, a reduction in ROS in vivo was caused by IX. Since the flavanone only has a marginal radical-scavenging capacity (TEAC assay), we suggest that IX mediates its antioxidative effects indirectly via activation of DAF-16 (homologue to mammalian FOXO proteins). The nuclear translocation of this transcription factor is increased by IX. In the DAF-16-mutated strain, the IX-mediated increase in stress resistance was completely abolished; furthermore, an increased formation of ROS and a reduced lifespan was mediated by IX. IX or a bacterial metabolite of IX causes antioxidative effects as well as an increased stress resistance in C. elegans via activation of DAF-16. The homologous pathway may have implications in the molecular mechanism of IX in mammals.

  5. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  6. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    . The prevalence of asthma was 4.7%. The prevalence odds ratio of asthma in conscripts with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 1.5 (95% confidence interval = 0.7–3.1) compared with conscripts with a birth weight of 3,001–3,500 g, adjusted for gestational age and potential confounders. The adjusted prevalence odds...... ratio among conscripts born before 34 gestational weeks was 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.3–2.0) compared with conscripts born at term. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 1.0%. The prevalence odds ratio of atopic dermatitis among those with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 3.0 (95% confidence...... interval = 0.8–11.9) compared with those whose birth weight was between 3,001 and 3,500 g. Men whose gestational age had been below 34 weeks had an adjusted prevalence odds ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.0–3.1). These findings indicate that fetal growth retardation rather than preterm delivery...

  7. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, North West of Ethiopia: A community - based cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teferra Alemayehu; Alemu Fekadu; Woldeyohannes Solomon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecti...

  8. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhi, Mehdi; Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ai, Jafar; Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit

  9. Thermoreversible gelation polymer as an embolic material for aneurysm treatment: a delivery device for dermal fibroblasts and basic fibroblast growing factor into experimental aneurysms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Hisashi; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Yuki, Ichiro; Arai, Takao; Ohashi, Hiroki; Murayama, Yuichi; Takao, Hiroyuki; Abe, Toshiaki

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates whether thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) can be used as a delivery device to deploy dermal fibroblasts and cytokines into experimental aneurysms in rats. The right common iliac artery of rats was surgically ligated and an experimental aneurysm was created by applying exogenous elastase. Seven days later, two aneurysms were harvested and used as controls (Group A), two were embolized with pure TGP (Group B), two were embolized with TGP and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (Group C) and two were embolized with TGP loaded with rat dermal fibroblasts (Group D). The aneurysms were also embolized with TGP mixed with dermal fibroblasts and bFGF at different concentrations (10 ng/ml: Group E (n=2), 100 ng/ml: Group F (n=2), 1000 ng/ml: Group G (n=2)). Each aneurysm sample was harvested after 7 days and histologic analyses were performed. The most advanced thrombus organization in the aneurysm, such as prominent fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, was observed in Groups E, F and G, although there was no noticeable difference between the groups. Moderate thrombus organization was seen in Group D and minimal thrombus organization was seen in Groups B and C. TGP mixed with both dermal fibroblasts and bFGF induced the most advanced thrombus organization in the experimental aneurysms followed by TGP mixed only with dermal fibroblasts. TGP may be useful as a delivery device to deploy fibroblasts and cytokines into aneurysms.

  10. Utilization of clean and safe delivery service package of health services extension program and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21(st) to February 25(th), 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. Phistory of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose.

  11. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  12. Novel drug delivery strategies for porphyrins and porphyrin precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, D. I. J.; Donnelly, R. F.

    2009-06-01

    superficial lesions, such as actinic keratosis. In addition, photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is attracting increasing interest for the treatment of infection. However, delivery strategies for topical PDT and PACT are still based on application of rather simplistic cream and solution formulations, with little consideration given to thermodynamics, targeting or the physicochemical properties of the active agent. Purpose-designed dosage forms for topical delivery of aminolevulinic acid or its esters include creams containing penetration enhancers and/or iron chelators, pressure sensitive patches and bioadhesive patches. Such systems aim to enhance drug delivery across the stratum corneum and keratinised debris overlying neoplastic lesions and improve subsequent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production. The alternative to using porphyrin precursors is the use of pre-formed photosensitisers. However, owing to their relatively high molecular weights, conventional topical application is not appropriate. Innovative strategies, such as the use of needle-free injections and microneedle arrays, bypass the stratum corneum, enabling rapid and targeted delivery not only porphyrin precursors but also pre-formed photosensitisers. This presentation will review drug delivery work published to date in the fields of PDT and PACT. In addition, the benefits of employing the latest advances in pharmaceutical technology will be highlighted.

  13. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization. Methods Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT. Patients with acne were illuminated using......) patients with acne had a pain score of 6 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-7] compared with 8 (IQR 6-10) when using a fluence rate of 68 mW cm(-2) (P = 0.018). After correcting the pain score for PpIX fluorescence no differences in pain scores were found between first and second acne treatment, locations of AK...... lesions or between the two types of lesions. Conclusions Pain during PDT was correlated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area prior to illumination. Pain was reduced using a lower fluence rate during PDT of acne Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  14. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; D'Mello-Guyett, Lauren; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Steketee, Rick; Smith, Helen; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women. We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations. Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery of IPTp. Many

  15. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women.We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations.Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery

  16. Mechanism of Diphtheria Toxin Catalytic Domain Delivery to the Eukaryotic Cell Cytosol and the Cellular Factors that Directly Participate in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Research on diphtheria and anthrax toxins over the past three decades has culminated in a detailed understanding of their structure function relationships (e.g., catalytic (C), transmembrane (T), and receptor binding (R) domains), as well as the identification of their eukaryotic cell surface receptor, an understanding of the molecular events leading to the receptor-mediated internalization of the toxin into an endosomal compartment, and the pH triggered conformational changes required for pore formation in the vesicle membrane. Recently, a major research effort has been focused on the development of a detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between each of these toxins and eukaryotic cell factors that play an essential role in the efficient translocation of their respective catalytic domains through the trans-endosomal vesicle membrane pore and delivery into the cell cytosol. In this review, I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain is delivered to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. While much work remains, it is becoming increasingly clear that the entry process is facilitated by specific interactions with a number of cellular factors in an ordered sequential fashion. In addition, since diphtheria, anthrax lethal factor and anthrax edema factor all carry multiple coatomer I complex binding motifs and COPI complex has been shown to play an essential role in entry process, it is likely that the initial steps in catalytic domain entry of these divergent toxins follow a common mechanism. PMID:22069710

  17. Utilization of health care services in rural and urban areas: a determinant factor in planning and managing health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Jimoh Ayanda

    2014-06-01

    Disparities in use of healthcare services between rural and urban areas have been empirically attributed to several factors. This study explores the existence of this disparity and its implication for planning and managing healthcare delivery systems. The objectives determine the relative importance of the various predisposing, enabling, need and health services factors on utilization of health services; similarity between rural and urban areas; and major explanatory variables for utilization. A four-stage model of service utilization was constructed with 31 variables under appropriate model components. Data is collected using cross-sectional sample survey of 1086 potential health services consumers in selected health facilities and resident milieu via questionnaire. Data is analyzed using factor analysis and cross tabulation. The 4-stage model is validated for the aggregate data and data for the rural areas with 3-stage model for urban areas. The order of importance of the factors is need, enabling, predisposing and health services. 11 variables are found to be powerful predictors of utilization. Planning of different categories of health care facilities in different locations should be based on utilization rates while proper management of established facilities should aim to improve health seeking behavior of people.

  18. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  19. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shanei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence (SCL and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nanoconjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and gold nanoparticles (GNP, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Materials and Methods The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated SCL signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. Results SCL signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. Conclusion This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the SCL signal level.

  20. Factors associated with successful magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound treatment: efficiency of acoustic energy delivery through the skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Zadicario, Eyal; Rachmilevitch, Itay; Tlusty, Tal; Vitek, Shuki; Chang, Jin Woo

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) was recently introduced as treatment for movement disorders such as essential tremor and advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Although deep brain target lesions are successfully generated in most patients, the target area temperature fails to increase in some cases. The skull is one of the greatest barriers to ultrasonic energy transmission. The authors analyzed the skull-related factors that may have prevented an increase in target area temperatures in patients who underwent MRgFUS. The authors retrospectively reviewed data from clinical trials that involved MRgFUS for essential tremor, idiopathic PD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Data from 25 patients were included. The relationships between the maximal temperature during treatment and other factors, including sex, age, skull area of the sonication field, number of elements used, skull volume of the sonication field, and skull density ratio (SDR), were determined. Among the various factors, skull volume and SDR exhibited relationships with the maximum temperature. Skull volume was negatively correlated with maximal temperature (p = 0.023, r(2) = 0.206, y = 64.156 - 0.028x, whereas SDR was positively correlated with maximal temperature (p = 0.009, r(2) = 0.263, y = 49.643 + 11.832x). The other factors correlate with the maximal temperature, although some factors showed a tendency to correlate. Some skull-related factors correlated with the maximal target area temperature. Although the number of patients in the present study was relatively small, the results offer information that could guide the selection of MRgFUS candidates.

  1. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  2. Effect of Photon Radiations in Semi-Rigid Artificial Tissue Sensitized by Protoporphyrin IX Encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb N.; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.

    2018-02-01

    This study involves the synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for Photodynamic therapy. Semi-rigid artificial tissues with optical features similar to human tissue were used as sample materials to ascertain the efficacy of PpIX encapsulated with SiNPs. The disparity in optical characteristics (transmittance, reflectance, scattering, and absorption) of tissues treated with encapsulated PpIX and naked PpIX under light exposure (Intensity at 408 nm ~1.19 mW/cm2) was explored. The optimal exposure times required for naked PpIX and SiNPs encapsulated PpIX to engulf Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue were subsequently measured. Comparative analysis showed that the encapsulated PpIX has a 91.5 % higher efficacy than naked PpIX. The results prove the applicability of PpIX encapsulated with SiNP on artificial tissue and possible use on human tissue.

  3. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; do Carmo Leal, Maria

    2016-10-17

    The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns. Information and support for vaginal birth during antenatal care, avoiding early admission, and promoting the use of good practices during labor assistance can reduce unnecessary CD. Considering the experience of other countries, incorporation of nurse midwives in childbirth care may increase the use of good practices during labor.

  4. Significant Microsynteny with New Evolutionary Highlights Is Detected through Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of Maize CCCH IX Gene Subfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CCCH zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by the presence of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, play important roles in RNA processing in plants. Subfamily IX CCCH proteins were recently shown to function in stress tolerances. In this study, we analyzed CCCH IX genes in Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor. These genes, which are almost intronless, were divided into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed microsynteny in regions of some gene pairs, indicating that segmental duplication has played an important role in the expansion of this gene family. In addition, we calculated the dates of duplication by Ks analysis, finding that all microsynteny blocks were formed after the monocot-eudicot divergence. We found that deletions, multiplications, and inversions were shown to have occurred over the course of evolution. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the genes in these three grass species are under strong purifying selection. Finally, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of some gene pairs conferring tolerance to abiotic stress, laying the foundation for future functional studies of these transcription factors.

  5. Oscillating Bianchi IX universe in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Yosuke; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We study a vacuum Bianchi IX universe in the context of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. In particular, we focus on the classical dynamics of the universe and analyze how anisotropy changes the history of the universe. For small anisotropy, we find an oscillating universe as well as a bounce universe just as the case of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime. However, if the initial anisotropy is large, we find the universe which ends up with a big crunch after oscillations if a cosmological constant Λ is zero or negative. For Λ>0, we find a variety of histories of the universe, that is a de Sitter expanding universe after oscillations in addition to the oscillating solution and the previous big crunch solution. This fate of the universe shows sensitive dependence of initial conditions, which is one of the typical properties of a chaotic system. If the initial anisotropy is near the upper bound, we find the universe starting from a big bang and ending up with a big crunch for Λ≤0, and a de Sitter expanding universe starting from a big bang for Λ>0.

  6. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk (BM is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs and fatty acids (FAs is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  7. After Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...

  8. Local delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor improves facial nerve regeneration after late repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, Florian M; Kuntzer, Thierry; Zurn, Anne D; Pasche, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Facial nerve regeneration is limited in some clinical situations: in long grafts, by aged patients, and when the delay between nerve lesion and repair is prolonged. This deficient regeneration is due to the limited number of regenerating nerve fibers, their immaturity and the unresponsiveness of Schwann cells after a long period of denervation. This study proposes to apply glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on facial nerve grafts via nerve guidance channels to improve the regeneration. Two situations were evaluated: immediate and delayed grafts (repair 7 months after the lesion). Each group contained three subgroups: a) graft without channel, b) graft with a channel without neurotrophic factor; and c) graft with a GDNF-releasing channel. A functional analysis was performed with clinical observation of facial nerve function, and nerve conduction study at 6 weeks. Histological analysis was performed with the count of number of myelinated fibers within the graft, and distally to the graft. Central evaluation was assessed with Fluoro-Ruby retrograde labeling and Nissl staining. This study showed that GDNF allowed an increase in the number and the maturation of nerve fibers, as well as the number of retrogradely labeled neurons in delayed anastomoses. On the contrary, after immediate repair, the regenerated nerves in the presence of GDNF showed inferior results compared to the other groups. GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor to improve facial nerve regeneration in grafts performed several months after the nerve lesion. However, GDNF should not be used for immediate repair, as it possibly inhibits the nerve regeneration.

  9. Bianchi IX dynamics in bouncing cosmologies: homoclinic chaos and the BKL conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Damião Soares, Ivano; Valentino Tonini, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    We examine the dynamics of a Bianchi IX model with three scale factors on a 4-dim Lorentzian brane embedded in a 5-dim conformally flat empty bulk with a timelike extra dimension. The matter content is a pressureless perfect fluid restricted to the brane, with the embedding consistently satisfying the Gauss-Codazzi equations. The 4-dim Einstein equations on the brane reduce to a 6-dim Hamiltonian dynamical system with additional terms (due to the bulk-brane interaction) that avoid the singularity and implement nonsingular bounces in the model. We examine the complex Bianchi IX dynamics in its approach to the neighborhood of the bounce which replaces the cosmological singularity of general relativity. The phase space of the model presents (i) two critical points (a saddle-center-center and a center-center-center) in a finite region of phase space, (ii) two asymptotic de Sitter critical points at infinity, one acting as an attractor to late-time acceleration and (iii) a 2-dim invariant plane, which together organize the dynamics of the phase space. The saddle-center-center engenders in the phase space the topology of stable and unstable 4-dim cylinders R × S 3, where R is a saddle direction and S 3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits, the latter being the nonlinear extension of the center-center sector. By a proper canonical transformation the degrees of freedom of the dynamics are separated into one degree connected with the expansion/contraction of the scales of the model, and two rotational degrees of freedom associated with the center manifold S 3. The typical dynamical flow is thus an oscillatory mode about the orbits of the invariant plane. The stable and unstable cylinders are spanned by oscillatory orbits about the separatrix towards the bounce, leading to the homoclinic transversal intersection of the cylinders, as shown numerically in two distinct simulations. The homoclinic intersection manifold has the topology of R × S 2 consisting of

  10. Hořava-Lifshitz bouncing Bianchi IX universes: A dynamical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Soares, Ivano Damião

    2017-11-01

    We examine the Hamiltonian dynamics of bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies with three scale factors in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. We assume a positive cosmological constant plus noninteracting dust and radiation as the matter content of the models. In this framework the modified field equations contain additional terms which turn the dynamics nonsingular. The six-dimensional phase space presents (i) two critical points in a finite region of the phase space, (ii) one asymptotic de Sitter attractor at infinity and (iii) a two-dimensional invariant plane containing the critical points; together they organize the dynamics of the phase space. We identify four distinct parameter domains A , B , C and D for which the pair of critical points engenders distinct features in the dynamics, connected to the presence of centers of multiplicity 2 and saddles of multiplicity 2. In the domain A the dynamics consists basically of periodic bouncing orbits, or oscillatory orbits with a finite number of bounces before escaping to the de Sitter attractor. The center with multiplicity 2 engenders in its neighborhood the topology of stable and unstable cylinders R ×S3 of orbits, where R is a saddle direction and S3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits. We show that the stable and unstable cylinders coalesce, realizing a smooth homoclinic connection to the center manifold, a rare event of regular/nonchaotic dynamics in bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies. The presence of a saddle of multiplicity 2 in the domain B engenders a high instability in the dynamics so that the cylinders emerging from the center manifold about P2 towards the bounce have four distinct attractors: the center manifold itself, the de Sitter attractor at infinity and two further momentum-dominated attractors with infinite anisotropy. In the domain C we examine the features of invariant manifolds of orbits about a saddle of multiplicity 2 P2. The presence of the saddle of multiplicity 2 engenders bifurcations

  11. Leading causes of preterm delivery as risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants: results of the EPIPAGE 2 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Pierrat, Veronique; Delorme, Pierre; Kayem, Gilles; Durox, Mélanie; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stephane; Ancel, Pierre Yves

    2017-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, few studies have investigated how pregnancy complications responsible for preterm delivery are related to intraventricular hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the association between the main causes of preterm delivery and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants born in France during 2011 between 22-31 weeks of gestation. The study included 3495 preterm infants from the national EPIPAGE 2 cohort study who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units and had at least 1 cranial ultrasound assessment. The primary outcome was grade I-IV intraventricular hemorrhage according to the Papile classification. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the leading causes of preterm delivery: vascular placental diseases, isolated intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes, with or without associated maternal inflammatory syndrome. The overall frequency of grade IV, III, II, and I intraventricular hemorrhage was 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.5), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9), 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.3), and 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 15.7-18.4), respectively. After adjustment for gestational age, antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy, level of care in the maternity unit, antenatal corticosteroids, and chest compressions, infants born after placental abruption had a higher risk of grade IV and III intraventricular hemorrhage compared to those born under placental vascular disease conditions, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.0) and 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.6), respectively. Similarly, preterm labor with concurrent inflammatory syndrome was associated with an increased risk of grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio

  12. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  13. Annual bulletin of coal statistics for Europe. Vol. IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Tables are presented giving the following information: Production, imports, exports, and deliveries of solid fuels with the subdivisions: hard coal, patent fuel, and cokeoven coke; gas coke; brown coal, brown coal briquets, and brown coal coke; and pech coal (hard brown coal produced in the area between the rivers Inn and Lech); Hard coal mines (structure of production, employment and productivity of labor); Brown coal mines (production, employment and productivity of labor); Imports of solid fuels, by country; Exports of solid fuels, by country; and Production of hydroelectric energy and natural gas, and deliveries of petroleum products for inland consumption.

  14. Differential Delivery of Genomic Double-Stranded RNA Causes Reovirus Strain-Specific Differences in Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Johnasha D; Holm, Geoffrey H; Boehme, Karl W

    2018-05-01

    Serotype 3 (T3) reoviruses induce substantially more type 1 interferon (IFN-I) secretion than serotype 1 (T1) strains. However, the mechanisms underlying differences in IFN-I production between T1 and T3 reoviruses remain undefined. Here, we found that differences in IFN-I production between T1 and T3 reoviruses correlate with activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor for the production of IFN-I. T3 strain rsT3D activated IRF3 more rapidly and to a greater extent than the T1 strain rsT1L, in simian virus 40 (SV40) immortalized endothelial cells (SVECs). Differences in IRF3 activation between rsT1L and rsT3D were observed in the first hours of infection and were independent of de novo viral RNA and protein synthesis. NF-κB activation mirrored IRF3 activation, with rsT3D inducing more NF-κB activity than rsT1L. We also found that IRF3 and NF-κB are activated in a mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-dependent manner. rsT1L does not suppress IRF3 activation, as IRF3 phosphorylation could be induced in rsT1L-infected cells. Transfected rsT1L and rsT3D RNA induced IRF3 phosphorylation, indicating that genomic RNA from both strains has the capacity to activate IRF3. Finally, bypassing the normal route of reovirus entry by transfecting in vitro -generated viral cores revealed that rsT1L and rsT3D core particles induced equivalent IRF3 activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that entry-related events that occur after outer capsid disassembly, but prior to deposition of viral cores into the cytoplasm, influence the efficiency of IFN-I responses to reovirus. This work provides further insight into mechanisms by which nonenveloped viruses activate innate immune responses. IMPORTANCE Detection of viral nucleic acids by the host cell triggers type 1 interferon (IFN-I) responses, which are critical for containing and clearing viral infections. Viral RNA is sensed in the cytoplasm by cellular receptors that initiate

  15. Factors associated with women’s intention to request caesarean delivery in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kamala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the past decade, the rate of caesarean section (CS has increased dramatically in many parts of the world. At Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH there has been a dramatic rise in the caesarean section rate over the past decade.Objective. To determine the incidence of maternal request for CS and factors associated with intention to request caesarean section at the MNH antenatal clinic.Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to October 2014. A structured questionnaire gathered participants’ background and obstetric information, perceptions and opinions regarding a request for caesarean section, and the respective reasons for the request. Confidence intervals were calculated and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results. The incidence of CS on maternal request was about 6%. The intention to request for CS in the index pregnancy was 8%. Higher-level education and formal-sector employment had higher odds for requesting CS (p=0.01 and p=0.05, respectively. Half of the participants agreed that maternal request for CS should be allowed; more private patients agreed that it could affect the doctor-patient relationship (p=0.02; more private patients agreed that request for CS was due to fear of losing a child (p=0.03. Previous history of CS was an independent predictor of maternal request for caesarean section (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.7 - 15.4 and (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.6 - 20.1, respectively.Conclusion. Maternal requests for CS exist at the national referral hospital in Tanzania. This was associated with factors other than women’s preferences, including perceived fear of child loss and events associated with previous CS.

  16. Obstetricians' knowledge of periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mariano da Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about the knowledge and attitudes of physicians regarding oral care. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of obstetricians about the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm/low birth weight. A questionnaire was emailed to members of the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FEBRASGO. The questionnaire elicited both personal information and knowledge and attitudes regarding the relationship between periodontal diseases and preterm labor. A total of 875 obstetricians responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were female (54.1%, resided in the Southeast (45.6%, worked in both the public and private sectors (61.4%, and had over 15 years of experience in obstetrics (48.9%. A large proportion of obstetricians (93.4% stated that bacteria were associated with periodontal disease, and 94% reported that periodontitis was a condition more severe than gingivitis. In total, over 80% of participating obstetricians reported smoking, preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease as risk factors or possible risk factors for preterm birth or low birth weight. A correlation between the experience of the obstetricians and referral of their patients for dental examinations (p < 0.001 was observed. Also, obstetricians who had had their own dental visits more recently were more likely to recommend the same for their patients (p < 0.001. It is concluded that, although obstetricians were aware of the association between gingival inflammation and adverse obstetric outcomes, the attitudes of these professionals were not in agreement with their apparent knowledge regarding periodontal diseases and their possible repercussions.

  17. Factors During Pregnancy, Delivery and Birth Affecting Global Quality of Life of the Adult Child at Long-term Follow-up. Results from the Prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and delivery, while the follow-up questionnaire was completed by the adult children 31-33 years later. The main outcome measures were objective factors describing pregnancy and delivery along with global quality of life, including: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life's temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective measures. Results showed two main factors in pregnancy that seemed to be associated with a reduced quality of life for the child 31-33 years later: the mother's smoking habits and the mother's medication–especially painkillers and different psychopharmacological drugs with the association being most prevalent early in pregnancy. Considering what can and do go wrong during the various stages of labour and delivery and considering how few connections we found between the factors examined and the later global QOL, it seems that the child is remarkably resilient to external influences during pregnancy and delivery concerned with global QOL, as an adult.

  18. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of cesarean delivery (CD in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Methods This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with < 4 cm of dilatation, a decision late in pregnancy for CD, and the use of analgesia were associated with a greater risk for CD. Favorable advice for vaginal birth during antenatal care, induction of labor, and the use of any good practices during labor were protective factors for CD. The type of professional who attended birth was not significant in the final analyses, but bivariate analysis showed a higher use of good practices and a smaller proportion of epidural analgesia in women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. Conclusions The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns

  20. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  1. Co-delivery of a growth factor and a tissue-protective molecule using elastin biopolymers accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devalliere, Julie; Dooley, Kevin; Hu, Yong; Kelangi, Sarah S; Uygun, Basak E; Yarmush, Martin L

    2017-10-01

    Growth factor therapy is a promising approach for chronic diabetic wounds, but strategies to efficiently and cost-effectively deliver active molecules to the highly proteolytic wound environment remain as major obstacles. Here, we re-engineered keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and the cellular protective peptide ARA290 into a protein polymer suspension with the purpose of increasing their proteolytic resistance, thus their activity in vivo. KGF and ARA290 were fused with elastin-like peptide (ELP), a protein polymer derived from tropoelastin, that confers the ability to separate into a colloidal suspension of liquid-like coacervates. ELP fusion did not diminish peptides activities as demonstrated by ability of KGF-ELP to accelerate keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and ARA290-ELP to protect cells from apoptosis. We examined the healing effect of ARA290-ELP and KGF-ELP alone or in combination, in a full-thickness diabetic wound model. In this model, ARA290-ELP was found to accelerate healing, notably by increasing angiogenesis in the wound bed. We further showed that co-delivery of ARA290 and KGF, with the 1:4 KGF-ELP to ARA290-ELP ratio, was the most effective wound treatment with the fastest healing rate, the thicker granulation tissue and regenerated epidermis after 28 days. Overall, this study shows that ARA290-ELP and KGF-ELP constitute promising new therapeutics for treatment of chronic wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intranasal Delivery of Plasma and Platelet Growth Factors Using PRGF-Endoret System Enhances Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pascual, Consuelo; Pérez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Antequera, Desiree; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka; Carro, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret), an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU), doublecortin (DCX), and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD. PMID:24069173

  3. Intranasal delivery of plasma and platelet growth factors using PRGF-Endoret system enhances neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret, an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1 mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU, doublecortin (DCX, and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD.

  4. Intranasal delivery of plasma and platelet growth factors using PRGF-Endoret system enhances neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pascual, Consuelo; Pérez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Antequera, Desiree; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka; Carro, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret), an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU), doublecortin (DCX), and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD.

  5. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, north west of Ethiopia: a community-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret

    2012-07-31

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%), home delivery is usual practice (57.7%), unexpected labour (33.4%), not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6%) and family influence (14.4%). Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9]), ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4]), maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4]) and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6]) had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of knowledge on pregnancy and delivery services were found to

  6. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, North West of Ethiopia: A community - based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferra Alemayehu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%, home delivery is usual practice (57.7%, unexpected labour (33.4%, not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6% and family influence (14.4%. Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9], ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4], maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4] and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6] had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusions Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of

  7. Factors influencing HPV vaccine delivery by healthcare professionals at public health posts in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Downing, Daniella; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Baker, Misha L; Dias De Oliveira Chiang, Ellen; Villa, Luisa L; Eluf Neto, Jose; Evans, Dabney P; Bednarczyk, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between Brazilian healthcare providers' characteristics and their knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding the HPV vaccine. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at five public health posts in São Paulo between July 28 and August 8, 2014. Healthcare professionals directly involved in patient care were asked to complete a written survey. Factors associated with routine verification of HPV vaccination status were evaluated using Poisson regression. Among 200 participants included, 74 (38.5%) reported never and 70 (36.5%) reported always asking about HPV immunization status. Doctors were significantly less likely to report always asking than were community health agents (5/39 [12.8%] vs 32/60 [53.3%]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.91]). Knowledge about the correct dosing schedule was associated with always rather than never verifying vaccination status (aPR 2.46 [95% CI 1.06-5.70]). Knowledge and attitude played secondary roles in influencing HPV vaccine verification. Community health agents were crucial for vaccine promotion; continued education and support of this group is essential for the sustained success of HPV immunization efforts in Brazil. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  9. Inhibitory effects on bone resorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis model mice by delivery of serum calcium decreasing factor (caldecrin) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Michi; Kido, Seisui; Hasegawa, Hiroya; Fujimoto, Kengo; Tomomura, Mineko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Suda, Naoto; Tomomura, Akito

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common condition in which decrease in the bone volume and strength occurs due to increased bone resorption. Caldecrin is a serine protease, with a molecular weight of 28kDa, and it is the causative factor of hypocalcemia frequently seen in acute pancreatitis. Recent reports have shown that caldecrin also acts to inhibit both differentiation of the osteoclasts and function of the mature osteoclasts. In this study, the osteoporosis model mice were used and bilateral ovariectomy was conducted in these mice. Effect of bone absorption was estimated after introducing genetically the pCaldecrin-IRES-hrGFP expressing vector into the femoral muscle by use of the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposomes. After the bilateral ovariectomy, serum calcium levels were raised and the bone mass of the femur was decreased. However, in the genetically introduced groups of the model mice, serum calcium levels were significantly lowered. Concomitantly, significant increase in bone density, trabecular width and number of trabecular was observed. Moreover, based on the histological findings, inhibition of bone resorption in the caldecrin-introduced osteoporosis model mice was confirmed. The present study indicates that caldecrin can be expected to become a novel cure for osteoporosis. (author)

  10. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  11. Robust, flexible, and bioadhesive free-standing films for the co-delivery of antibiotics and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunqiu; Pan, Tiezheng; Zhang, Bing; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi; Sun, Junqi

    2014-11-25

    Free-standing polymer films that adhere strongly to tissue and can codeliver multiple therapeutic agents in a controlled manner are useful as medical plasters. In this study, a bilayer polymer film comprising a drug reservoir layer and a supporting layer is fabricated by spin-coating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on top of a layer-by-layer assembled film of poly(β-amino esters) (PAE), alginate sodium (ALG), and recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Apart from bFGF, the bilayer film can also load antibiotic drug ceftriaxone sodium (CTX) by a postdiffusion process. The PLGA supporting layer facilitates the direct peeling of the bilayer film from substrate to produce a robust and flexible free-standing film with excellent adhesion onto the human skin and porcine liver. The excellent adhesion of the bilayer film originates from the ALG component in the drug reservoir layer. CTX is quickly released by easily breaking its electrostatic interaction with the drug reservoir layer, whereas the sustained release of bFGF is due to the slow degradation of PAE component in the drug reservoir layer. Wounds can be synergetically treated by fast release of CTX to effectively eradicate invasive bacteria and by sustained release of bFGF to accelerate wound healing. Our results serve as a basis for designing multifunctional free-standing films with combination therapy for biomedical applications.

  12. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age...... assessed. Treatment efficacy in relation to age was evaluated in 100 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) treated with MAL-PDT. RESULTS: Both photosensitizers induced significantly more PpIX formation in the younger group. Linear regression revealed a significant age-related decline in PpIX formation after...

  13. Nerve growth factor delivery by ultrasound-mediated nanobubble destruction as a treatment for acute spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaojun; Wang, Zhigang; Shen, Jieliang; Xu, Shengxi; Hu, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can cause severe disability or death. Treatment options include surgical intervention, drug therapy, and stem cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these methods for functional recovery remains unsatisfactory. Purpose This study was conducted to explore the effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated destruction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs) expressing nerve growth factor (NGF) (NGF/PLGA NBs) on nerve regeneration in rats following SCI. Materials and methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups after Allen hit models of SCI were established. The groups were normal saline (NS) group, NGF and NBs group, NGF and US group, and NGF/PLGA NBs and US group. Histological changes after SCI were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Neuron viability was determined by Nissl staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining was used to examine cell apoptosis. NGF gene and protein expressions were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Green fluorescent protein expression in the spinal cord was examined using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The recovery of neural function was determined using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan test. Results NGF therapy using US-mediated NGF/PLGA NBs destruction significantly increased NGF expression, attenuated histological injury, decreased neuron loss, inhibited neuronal apoptosis in injured spinal cords, and increased BBB scores in rats with SCI. Conclusion US-mediated NGF/PLGA NBs destruction effectively transfects the NGF gene into target tissues and has a significant effect on the injured spinal cord. The combination of US irradiation and gene therapy through NGF/PLGA NBs holds great promise for the future of nanomedicine and the development of noninvasive treatment options for SCI and other diseases. PMID:28280337

  14. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster; Evaluacion del potencial inhibidor de la protoporfirina IX (PP-IX) del dano genetico inducido por rayos gama administrados a diferentes razones de dosis en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  15. Controlled delivery of fibroblast growth factor-1 and neuregulin-1 from biodegradable microparticles promotes cardiac repair in a rat myocardial infarction model through activation of endogenous regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Fabio R; Pelacho, Beatriz; Garbayo, Elisa; Imbuluzqueta, Izaskun; Díaz-Herráez, Paula; Abizanda, Gloria; Gavira, Juan J; Simón-Yarza, Teresa; Albiasu, Edurne; Tamayo, Esther; Prósper, Felipe; Blanco-Prieto, Maria J

    2014-01-10

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) are growth factors involved in cardiac development and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs) mediate cytokine sustained release, and can be utilized to overcome issues related to the limited therapeutic protein stability during systemic administration. We sought to examine whether the administration of microparticles (MPs) containing FGF1 and NRG1 could promote cardiac regeneration in a myocardial infarction (MI) rat model. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to the beneficial effects of this therapy, especially those linked to endogenous regeneration. FGF1- and NRG1-loaded MPs were prepared using a multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Seventy-three female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, and MPs were intramyocardially injected in the peri-infarcted zone four days later. Cardiac function, heart tissue remodeling, revascularization, apoptosis, cardiomyocyte proliferation, and stem cell homing were evaluated one week and three months after treatment. MPs were shown to efficiently encapsulate FGF1 and NRG1, releasing the bioactive proteins in a sustained manner. Three months after treatment, a statistically significant improvement in cardiac function was detected in rats treated with growth factor-loaded MPs (FGF1, NRG1, or FGF1/NRG1). The therapy led to inhibition of cardiac remodeling with smaller infarct size, a lower fibrosis degree and induction of tissue revascularization. Cardiomyocyte proliferation and progenitor cell recruitment were detected. Our data support the therapeutic benefit of NRG1 and FGF1 when combined with protein delivery systems for cardiac regeneration. This approach could be scaled up for use in pre-clinical and clinical studies. © 2013.

  16. Bovine adenovirus type 3 containing heterologous protein in the C-terminus of minor capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchouk, Alexander; Connors, Wayne; Van Kessel, Andrew; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Earlier, we detected pIX of BAdV-3 as a 14-kDa protein in purified virions. Analysis of BAdV-3 pIX using different region antibodies revealed that the N-terminus and central domain of the pIX contain immunogenic sites and are not exposed on the surface of BAdV-3 virion. This suggested that the C-terminus of BAdV-3 pIX (125 amino acid) may be exposed on the virion and may be used as a site for incorporation of heterologous peptides or proteins. We constructed recombinant BAV950 containing a small peptide (21 amino acid), including the RGD motif or recombinant BAV951 containing enhanced yellow-green fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused to the C-terminus of pIX. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the chimeric pIX-RGD was incorporated into virion capsids. Incorporation of the RGD motif into the pIX resulted in significant augmentation of BAdV-3 fiber knob-independent infection of the integrin-positive cells, suggesting that RGD motifs are displayed on the surface of virion capsids and are accessible for binding to integrins. Analysis of BAV951 revealed that the chimeric pIX is incorporated into virion capsids and EYFP containing the C-terminus of pIX is exposed on the surface of the virion. Moreover, insertion of chimeric pIXs was maintained without change through successive rounds of viral replication. These results suggested that in contrast to major capsid proteins (hexon, penton, fiber), the minor capsid protein IX can be use for the incorporation of targeting ligands based on either small peptides or longer polypeptides

  17. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Elaine

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent\\/triangulation design.

  18. Effect of IX column maintenance on carbon-14 concentration in moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, C.L.; Tripple, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide 14 C is produced in CANDU reactors primarily by the (n,α) reaction with 17 O. Because of high neutron fluxes in the core, the majority of the 14 C (94.5%) is produced in the moderator. In the moderator system, 14 C is present mainly as CO 2 in the cover gas in dynamic equilibrium with dissolved carbonates, bicarbonates and CO 2 in the moderator water. Emissions of 14 C from reactors occur through venting or leakage of the cover gas. By controlling the dissolved carbonates in the moderator water with an ion exchange (IX) purification system, the amount of 14 C in the cover gas is minimized and thus the emissions of 14 C can be reduced. A study was conducted to measure the 14 C concentrations in the moderator system at Gentilly 2 in order to determine the effectiveness of the purification system in removing 14 C. Moderator water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of the purification system from 2004 January 14 to July 12, covering the operation of two IX columns (IX-1 and IX-3). The moderator water samples contained high levels of tritium (∼2 TBq·L -1 ). As both tritium and 14 C are β-radiation emitters, direct counting of moderator water for 14 C is impossible as the signal due to tritium dominates over that of other β-emitters. Therefore, a procedure developed by Caron et al. was used in this study, which involved acidifying the sample to release the dissolved 14 CO 2 as gas and collecting the 14 CO 2 in a base (NaOH), which could then be measured by liquid scintillation counting to determine the 14 C concentration. Both of the IX columns started with 14 C removal efficiencies of about 95%. The efficiency began to decrease almost immediately with the IX-1 column dropping to 80% efficiency after ∼1115 hours. This drop in efficiency also led to an increase in the inlet concentration over time. IX-1 column was removed from service after ∼1745 hours with a 14 C removal efficiency of ∼31%. IX-3 column was then placed in service

  19. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  20. Formulation and optimization of niosomes for topical diacerein delivery using 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design for the management of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghddam, Seyedeh Raziyeh Mahdavi; Ahad, Abdul; Aqil, Mohd; Imam, Syed Sarim; Sultana, Yasmin

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed towards the design of preparations of diacerein loaded cholesterol rich niosomes by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design. Results indicated that Span 60 (90mg) and cholesterol (10mg), and 45min of hydration time were found to be optimum for niosomes preparation. The prepared cholesterol rich niosomes were uniform and spherical in size. Optimized formulation F2 entrapped the drug with 83.02% efficiency in the cholesterol rich niosomes of the size 477.8nm, presented the flux of 2.820μg/cm(2)/h, followed Higuchi model and non Fickian transport mechanism. The confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that niosomes accentuated the penetration of diacerein in the epidermal and dermal layer of rat skin. Stability study confirmed that cholesterol rich niosomes were stable for 2months at 4°C. Concisely, the results showed that targeted diacerein delivery might be achieved using topically applied niosomes for enhanced treatment of psoriasis, which might eliminate adverse side effects associated with systemic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  2. Hubungan Gaya Kepemimpinan Orang Tua terhadap Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelfi Erlinda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPenelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh rendahnya hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Faktor penyebabnya ada yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa dan dari luar diri siswa. Faktor yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa seperti malas belajar. Faktor luar diri siswa seperti faktor lingkungan keluarga yang terdiri dari faktor orang tua, suasana keluarga, lingkungan keluarga, kondisi keluarga yang tidak sehat atau broken home. Hal ini berpengaruh dalam proses belajar dan hasil belajar siswa di sekolah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif. Populasi penelitian adalah semua siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai yang terdaftar dalam tahun ajaran  2016/2017. Sampel penelitian adalah semua kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan total sampling. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa angket atau kuesioner yang diberikan ke siswa. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis adalah analisis korelasi dengan menggunakan uji chi kuadrat untuk melihat antara hubungan gaya kepemimpinan oramg tua dengan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Berdasarkan analisis data didapatkan dua gaya kepemimpimam yaitu otoriter dan demokratis. Hasil uji hipotesis diperoleh X2hitung < X2tabel = 0,004 < 3,841  sehingga hipotesis Ho diterima pada taraf nyata 0,05 dan hipotesis Hi ditolak. Jadi tidak ada hubungan yang berarti antara gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Kata kunci :  Gaya kepemimpinan orang tua, hasil belajar.

  3. IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores

    OpenAIRE

    Barredo Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bisquerra Alzina, Rafael; Blanco Cuch, Aida; Giner, Antoni; Pérez Escoda, Núria; Tey, Amèlia

    2013-01-01

    Barredo Gutierrez, B.; Bisquerra Alzina, R.; Blanco Cuch, A.; Giner Tarrida, A.; Perez Escoda, N.; Tey Teijón, A. (eds.) IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors / IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic.valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic

  4. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries.

  5. Factores asociados a la demanda de servicios para la atención del parto en México Factors associated with the demand for delivery care in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel González-Block

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los factores asociados a la utilización de la institución de atención del parto en México para documentar el proceso de integración funcional de instituciones de salud. Material y métodos. Se utilizó información de mujeres con último parto entre 2000 y 2005 en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se aplicó la prueba de ji cuadrada para probar diferencias entre institución utilizada y aseguramiento. Se usó regresión logística para identificar factores que favorecieron la demanda de instituciones diferentes a las de afiliación de la mujer. Resultados. El 62.6% de mujeres con seguridad social utilizó instituciones de afiliación y 13.4% instituciones públicas. Entre no aseguradas 43.3% utilizó instituciones públicas y 19% seguridad social; 64.3% de afiliadas al Seguro Popular se atendieron en instituciones públicas. Variables de acceso, nivel socioeconómico y condiciones de vida influyeron en la demanda referida. Conclusiones. El traslape para atención de partos institucionales documenta la existencia de integración funcional de facto entre instituciones de salud mexicanas.Objective. Analyze the factors associated with the utilization of delivery care institutions in Mexico in order to document the functional integration of health institutions. Materials and Methods. Based on the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, information from women whose last birth was between 2000 and 2005 was used. Chi square was used to test differences between institutions used and health insurance type. A logistic regression was carried out to identify factors associated with the demand for institutions with which women were not affiliated. Results. Women with social security used in 62% of the cases the institution of their affiliation and 13.4% used public institutions. For uninsured women, 43.3% used public institutions and 19.0% social security institutions; 64.3% of the Seguro Popular affiliates were

  6. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  7. Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Robles, C.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In fluorescence diagnosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced porphyrins (FDAP), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation can be macroscopically visualized. Interpretation of these data is still problematic because of the low reproducibility of the procedure and poor understanding of the

  8. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  9. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  10. Big Men on Campus: Administrative Response to Title IX and the Development of Women's Sports in the Big Ten Conference, 1972-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Signed into law in 1972, Title IX of the Education Amendments was designed to eliminate gender discrimination throughout the American educational system. Title IX applied to all educational programs at any level of schooling including admissions, financial aid, academic programs, and social organizations. However, Title IX has primarily been…

  11. Systemic component of protoporphyrin IX production in nude mouse skin upon topical application of aminolevulinic acid depends on the application conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Johanna T. H. M.; Iani, Vladimir; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Moan, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer is generally considered not to induce systemic side effects because PpIX is supposed to be formed locally. However, earlier studies with topically applied ALA have revealed that

  12. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell recruitment by stromal derived factor-1-delivery systems based on chitosan/poly(γ-glutamic acid) polyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Raquel M; Antunes, Joana C; Barbosa, Mário A

    2012-04-10

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have an enormous potential for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. With a potential of differentiation into multiple lineages and immune-suppression, these cells play a key role in tissue remodelling and regeneration. Here a method of hMSC recruitment is described, based on the incorporation of a chemokine in Chitosan (Ch)/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) complexes. Ch is a non-toxic, cationic polysaccharide widely investigated. γ-PGA is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biodegradable and negatively charged poly-amino acid. Ch and γ-PGA, being oppositely charged, can be combined through electrostatic interactions. These biocompatible structures can be used as carriers for active substances and can be easily modulated in order to control the delivery of drugs, proteins, DNA, etc. Using the layer-by-layer method, Ch and γ-PGA were assembled into polyelectrolyte multilayers films (PEMs) with thickness of 120 nm. The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was incorporated in these complexes and was continuously released during 120 h. The method of SDF-1 incorporation is of crucial importance for polymers assembly into PEMs and for the release kinetics of this chemokine. The Ch/γ-PGA PEMs with SDF-1 were able to recruit hMSCs, increasing the cell migration up to 6 fold to a maximum of 16.2 ± 4.9 cells/mm2. The controlled release of SDF-1 would be of great therapeutic value in the process of hMSC homing to injured tissues. This is the first study suggesting Ch/γ-PGA PEMs as SDF-1 reservoirs to recruit hMSCs, describing an efficient method of chemokine incorporation that allows a sustained released up to 5 days and that can be easily scaled-up.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell recruitment by stromal derived factor-1-delivery systems based on chitosan/poly(γ-glutamic acid polyelectrolyte complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs have an enormous potential for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. With a potential of differentiation into multiple lineages and immune-suppression, these cells play a key role in tissue remodelling and regeneration. Here a method of hMSC recruitment is described, based on the incorporation of a chemokine in Chitosan (Ch/Poly(γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA complexes. Ch is a non-toxic, cationic polysaccharide widely investigated. γ-PGA is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biodegradable and negatively charged poly-amino acid. Ch and γ-PGA, being oppositely charged, can be combined through electrostatic interactions. These biocompatible structures can be used as carriers for active substances and can be easily modulated in order to control the delivery of drugs, proteins, DNA, etc. Using the layer-by-layer method, Ch and γ-PGA were assembled into polyelectrolyte multilayers films (PEMs with thickness of 120 nm. The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 was incorporated in these complexes and was continuously released during 120 h. The method of SDF-1 incorporation is of crucial importance for polymers assembly into PEMs and for the release kinetics of this chemokine. The Ch/γ-PGA PEMs with SDF-1 were able to recruit hMSCs, increasing the cell migration up to 6 fold to a maximum of 16.2 ± 4.9 cells/mm2. The controlled release of SDF-1 would be of great therapeutic value in the process of hMSC homing to injured tissues. This is the first study suggesting Ch/γ-PGA PEMs as SDF-1 reservoirs to recruit hMSCs, describing an efficient method of chemokine incorporation that allows a sustained released up to 5 days and that can be easily scaled-up.

  15. Transition properties of the Be-like X-ray from Mg IX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Hu

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Transition properties of the Be-like Kα X-ray from Mg IX. FENG HU1,3,∗ ... 1. Introduction. Magnesium is one of the most abundant elements in the. Universe, and its .... sion coefficients for the configuration state functions are optimized to ..... The absorption oscillator strengths ( fij) and radiative rate Aji for a ...

  16. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the ... The self-bound state appears to be at ρ ... The observations suggest that the Hubble expansion of the Universe ... Taking motivation from.

  17. Suggestions for Local School District Compliance with Title IX Rules and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This guidebook is designed to help local districts determine how well they comply with the spirit of the Title IX requirements against sex discrimination, which in turn could aid in compliance with the letter of the law. The document's first section presents samples of required antidiscrimination policy statements issued by two districts. The…

  18. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  20. Kinetic data bank for Ramona of the Siemens 9x9-IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1993-12-01

    With the purpose of making the transitory analyses of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station when Siemens fuel of the type 9x9-IX is used, proposed for the cycle 2 of the Unit 2, the kinetic data bank in hot condition for the Ramona code has been generated. (Author)

  1. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiromasa; Seki, Masahiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  2. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  3. Sex Discrimination and Intercollegiate Athletics: Putting Some Muscle on Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the general language of the Title IX statute, together with certain specific features of it, strongly suggests that the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare should develop more stringent and demanding regulations based on social policy considerations concerning sex discrimination in intercollegiate sports. Available from Yale…

  4. The Fourth Circuit Kicks a Hole through the Contact-Sport Exception to Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszczewicz, James

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a recent Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decision that when individuals are allowed to try out for or join a team participating in a contact sport and operated for members of the other sex, then discrimination against because of their sex is prohibited by Title IX. (22 footnotes) (MLF)

  5. Title IX: Does Help for Women Come at the Expense of African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    1997-01-01

    Federal law that forbids sex discrimination in educational institutions receiving federal funds (Title IX) has created opportunities for women athletes, but some say men's sports have lost ground. Since athletics provide major educational opportunities for black men, less so for black women, critics are concerned blacks may be losing. (MSE)

  6. Comparison of nitric oxide binding to different pure and mixed protoporphyrin IX monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, W.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) binding properties of monolayers of four different protoporphyrins IX adsorbed on aluminum oxide surfaces have been investigated. XPS and AFM results are consistent with the presence of a monolayer of porphyrins, bound to the surface by their carboxylic acid groups and with the

  7. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  8. One of Gibbs's ideas that has gone unnoticed (comment on chapter IX of his classic book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Alexander D; Rudoi, Yurii G

    2006-01-01

    We show that contrary to the commonly accepted view, Chapter IX of Gibbs's book [1] contains the prolegomena to a macroscopic statistical theory that is qualitatively different from his own microscopic statistical mechanics. The formulas obtained by Gibbs were the first results in the history of physics related to the theory of fluctuations in any macroparameters, including temperature. (from the history of physics)

  9. The Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion: Highlights from FEPPCON IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enslin, Johan H.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Tan, Don F.D.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1991, every second year the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) has organized the technical long-range planning meeting "Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion" (FEPPCON). FEPPCON IX was held 12-16 June 2017 in beautiful Kruger Park in South Africa (Figure 1). The overall go...

  10. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  11. Singlet oxygen feedback delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárek, Ivo S; Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-04-12

    Delayed fluorescence (DF) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been recently proposed as a tool for monitoring of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo as well as for observation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) [E. G. Mik, Anesth. Analg., 2013, 117, 834-346; F. Piffaretti et al., J. Biomed. Opt., 2012, 17, 115007]. However, the efficiency of the mechanism of thermal activation (E-type DF), which was considered in the papers, is limited due to a large energy gap between the first excited singlet and the first triplet state of PpIX at room or body temperatures. Moreover, the energy gap is roughly equal to other porphyrinoid photosensitizers that generate DF mostly through the Singlet Oxygen Feedback-Induced mechanism (SOFDF) under certain conditions [M. Scholz and R. Dědic, Singlet Oxygen: Applications in Biosciences and Nanosciences, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 63-81]. The mechanisms of delayed fluorescence of PpIX dissolved either in dimethylformamide (DMF) or in the mixture of DMF with ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated at atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen by means of a simultaneous time-resolved detection of 1 O 2 phosphorescence and PpIX DF which makes a direct comparison of the kinetics and lifetimes of both the luminescence channels possible. Samples of PpIX (100 μM) exhibit concave DF kinetics, which is a typical footprint of the SOFDF mechanism. The dramatic decrease in the DF intensity after adding a selective 1 O 2 quencher sodium azide (NaN 3 , 10 mM) proves that >90% of DF is indeed generated through SOFDF. Moreover, the analysis of the DF kinetics in the presence of NaN 3 implies that the second significant mechanism of DF generation is the triplet-triplet annihilation (P-type DF). The bimolecular mechanism of DF was further confirmed by the decrease of the DF intensity in the more viscous mixture DMF/EG and by the increase of the ratio of DF to the prompt fluorescence (PF) intensity with the increasing excitation intensity. These results

  12. Effect of PpIX photoproducts formation on pO2 measurement by time-resolved delayed fluorescence spectroscopy of PpIX in solution and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntosova, Veronika; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Zellweger, Matthieu; Wagnières, Georges

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetime is a minimally invasive method for monitoring the levels of oxygen in cells and tissues. The excitation of Protoporphyrin IX during this measurement can lead to the formation of photoproducts in vitro and in vivo. The influence of their luminescence on the measured Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetimes was studied in solution and in vivo on the Chick's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model under various oxygen enriched air conditions (0mmHg, 37mmHg and 155mmHg). The presence of photoproducts disturbs such measurements since the delayed fluorescence emission of some of them spectrally overlaps with that of Protoporphyrin IX. One possible way to avoid this obstacle is to detect Protoporphyrin IX's delayed fluorescence lifetime in a very specific spectral range (620-640nm). Another possibility is to excite Protoporphyrin IX with light doses much lower than 10J/cm 2 , quite possibly as low as a fraction 1J/cm 2 at 405nm. This leads to an increased accuracy of pO 2 detection. Furthermore, this method allows combination of diagnosis and therapy in one step. This helps to improve detection systems and real-time identification of tissue respiration, which is tuned for the detection of PpIX luminescence and not its photoproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  14. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kumari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX. DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF. The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT applications as well as photocatalytic reactions.

  15. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  16. Ceramic drug-delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, A; Bajpai, P K

    1998-01-01

    A variety of ceramics and delivery systems have been used to deliver chemicals, biologicals, and drugs at various rates for desired periods of time from different sites of implantation. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ceramics can successfully be used as drug-delivery devices. Matrices, inserts, reservoirs, cements, and particles have been used to deliver a large variety of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, anticoagulants, analgesics, growth factors, hormones, steroids, and vaccines. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of conventional drug-delivery systems and the different approaches used to deliver chemical and biological agents by means of ceramic systems will be reviewed.

  17. Factors influencing women's perceptions of shared decision making during labor and delivery: Results from a large-scale cohort study of first childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura B; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2018-06-01

    To examine correlates of shared decision making during labor and delivery. Data were from a cohort of women who gave birth to their first baby in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011 (N = 3006). We used logistic regression models to examine the association between labor induction and mode of delivery in relation to women's perceptions of shared decision making, and to investigate race/ethnicity and SES as potential moderators. Women who were Black and who did not have a college degree or private insurance were less likely to report high shared decision making, as well as women who underwent labor induction, instrumental vaginal or cesarean delivery. Models with interaction terms showed that the reduction in odds of shared decision making associated with cesarean delivery was greater for Black women than for White women. Women in marginalized social groups were less likely to report shared decision making during birth and Black women who delivered by cesarean had particularly low odds of shared decision making. Strategies designed to improve the quality of patient-provider communication, information sharing, and shared decision making must be attentive to the needs of vulnerable groups to ensure that such interventions reduce rather than widen disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  19. Spatial analysis of instream nitrogen loads and factors controlling nitrogen delivery to streams in the southeastern United States using spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) and regional classification frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; McMahon, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how nitrogen transport across the landscape varies with landscape characteristics is important for developing sound nitrogen management policies. We used a spatially referenced regression analysis (SPARROW) to examine landscape characteristics influencing delivery of nitrogen from sources in a watershed to stream channels. Modelled landscape delivery ratio varies widely (by a factor of 4) among watersheds in the southeastern United States—higher in the western part (Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi) than in the eastern part, and the average value for the region is lower compared to other parts of the nation. When we model landscape delivery ratio as a continuous function of local-scale landscape characteristics, we estimate a spatial pattern that varies as a function of soil and climate characteristics but exhibits spatial structure in residuals (observed load minus predicted load). The spatial pattern of modelled landscape delivery ratio and the spatial pattern of residuals coincide spatially with Level III ecoregions and also with hydrologic landscape regions. Subsequent incorporation into the model of these frameworks as regional scale variables improves estimation of landscape delivery ratio, evidenced by reduced spatial bias in residuals, and suggests that cross-scale processes affect nitrogen attenuation on the landscape. The model-fitted coefficient values are logically consistent with the hypothesis that broad-scale classifications of hydrologic response help to explain differential rates of nitrogen attenuation, controlling for local-scale landscape characteristics. Negative model coefficients for hydrologic landscape regions where the primary flow path is shallow ground water suggest that a lower fraction of nitrogen mass will be delivered to streams; this relation is reversed for regions where the primary flow path is overland flow.

  20. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX, which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon, pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies, can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX, or alternatively, through the use of polymer

  1. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  2. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: konst@citedi.mx [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2011-08-22

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  3. Revisitation of chaos in Bianchi IX Universe and in generalized scalar-tensor cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Thierry; Di Menza, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    We show that there is a threshold for the onset of chaos in cosmology for the Universe described as a dynamical system derived from the Einstein equations of general relativity (GR). In the case of the mixmaster model (homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology with a Bianchi IX metric) the chaos occurs precisely at the prescribed necessary value H vac =0 of the GR for the energy of the Universe while the system is found regular for H vac >0 and chaotic for H vac <0 with respect to its pure vacuum part. In the case of generalized scalar tensor theories within the Bianchi IX model we show using the ADM formalism and a conformal transformation that the energy of the dynamical system as compared to vacuum lies below the threshold thus the system is not exhibiting chaos and the conclusion still holds in the presence of ordinary matter as well. The suppression of chaos occurs in a similar way for stiff matter alone

  4. The transitions 4p-5s in Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With the help of the spectra recorded in the Physics Department of Lund University, Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX are freshly analysed. The five 4s 2 4p 4 ground levels and the ten 4s 2 4p 3 5s levels of previous analyses are confirmed in the first three spectra, except for revising in Y VI the 4p 4 1 S 0 and 4p 3 5s( 4 Ssub(3/2)) 2 levels and interchanging 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 1 with 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 2 . All level values are improved due to the new measurements. A new analysis of Mo IX establishing all the 4p 4 and 4p 3 5s levels is being reported. (Auth.)

  5. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  6. PROFIL PERTANYAAN SISWA TUNANETRA KELAS IX SMPLB YKAB SURAKARTA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Khoiriyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thinking can be drilled to the student by developing question skill during teaching process. Personal life quality is determined from question quality; the more qualified a question the more success a person in life. Therefore, this study analyzed the students question to find out the students question quality. The subject of this study is IX class of SMPLB YKAB students Surakarta. The data was found by observation with handy cam. The data analysis was conducted through data reductio...

  7. Puzzle of the particles and the universe. The inner life of the elementary particles IX d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geitner, Uwe W.

    2013-01-01

    The series The Inner Life of the Elementary Particles attempts to develop the elementary particles along of a genealogical tree, which begins before the ''big bang''. The simple presentation without mathematics opens also for the interested layman a plastic understanding. Volume IX discusses the known puzzles of particle physics and cosmology and offers for many of them explanation models. Explanation approaches are among others the ''DNA'' of the elementary particles and the interpretation of the quanta and the spin.

  8. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the de-Sitter universe, the Taub-NUT solutions etc. are of Bianchi Type-IX space- times. In these models, neutrino viscosity does not guarantee isotropy at the present ..... The model (2.11) starts with a big-bang at T = 0 where α > 0 and m < 2, and the expansion in the model decreases as time increases. The expansion in the ...

  9. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Williams, S.A.; Roth, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (M r , 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (M r , 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A) + RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  10. Assisted delivery with forceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  11. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  12. Aplikasi Peta Kendali p sebagai Pengendalian Kualitas Karet di PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Khomah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of global rubber consumption is an opportunity as well as a challenge for Indonesian rubber produsers to increase the quantity and the quality of production. Faced the competition between countries, the quality of rubber products should be enhanced adapted to consumer demand. This study aims to determine whether the quality of the rubber produced in PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/Kerjoarum still within the control or not. This study uses time series data, in the form of rubber production data during March 2012 - February 201, that were analyzed descriptively using Control p Chart Analysis. Control p Chart describe the proportion of production damage that can be tolerated as a tool for statistical Control p Chart Application as Quality Control Tools for Rubber Production in PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum process control. This study shows that the quality of the rubber produced by PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/ Kerjoarum is out of the control. The Control p Chart proves that there are still many points that are outside the production control line. The production domination of the third RSS type (RSS 3 cause this problem, so that the profit and the efficiency of the company can be increased if the RSS 3 product can be controlled and be changed with the production of RSS 1.

  13. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  14. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  15. Analyses of the Sn IX-Sn XII spectra in the EUV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S S; Ryabtsev, A N

    2006-01-01

    The Sn IX-Sn XII spectra excited in a vacuum spark have been analysed in the 130-160 A wavelength region. The analysis was based on the energy parameter extrapolation in the isonuclear Sn VI-VIII and Sn XIII-XIV sequence. 266 spectral lines belonging to the 4d m -(4d m-1 4f+4p 5 4d m+1 ) (m=6-3) transition arrays were classified in the Sn IX-Sn XII spectra for the first time. All 18 level energies of the 4d 3 configuration and 39 level energies of the strongly interacting 4d 2 4f and 4p 5 4d 4 configurations were established in the Sn XII spectrum. The energy differences between the majority of the 4d m levels and about 40 levels of the 4d m-1 4f+4p 5 4d m+1 configurations were determined in each of the Sn IX, Sn X and Sn XI spectra (m=6-4). As a result, all intense lines were classified in the 130-140 A region relevant to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It was shown that the most of the intense lines in the 2% bandwidth at 135 A belong to the transitions in the Sn XI-Sn XIII spectra

  16. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  17. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  18. In vivo wide-field multispectral dosimeter for use in ALA-PpIX based photodynamic therapy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRochelle, Ethan P. M.; Davis, Scott C.; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Actinic Kertoses (AK) using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment, which is generally effective, yet response rates vary. The origin of the variability is not well characterized, but may be related to inter-patient variability in the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). While fiber-based point probe systems provide a method for measuring PpIX production, these measurements have demonstrated large spatial and inter-operator variability. Thus, in an effort to improve patient-specific dosimetry and treatment it is important to develop a robust system that accounts for spatial variability and reduces the chance of operator errors. To address this need, a wide-field multispectral imaging system was developed that is capable of quantifying maps of PpIX in both liquid phantoms and in vivo experiments, focusing on high sensitivity light signals. The system uses both red and blue excitation to elicit a fluorescent response at varying skin depths. A ten-position filter wheel with bandpass filters ranging from 635nm to 710nm are used to capture images along the emission band. A linear least-square spectral fitting algorithm provides the ability to decouple background autofluorescence from PpIX fluorescence, which has improved the system sensitivity by an order of magnitude, detecting nanomolar PpIX concentrations in liquid phantoms in the presence of 2% whole blood and 2% intralipid.

  19. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response.

  20. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  1. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  2. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  3. Prevalência e fatores associados à prematuridade entre gestantes submetidas à inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro Prevalence and risk factors associated to preterm delivery among pregnant women submitted to preterm labor inhibition treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Coca Bezerra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência de parto prematuro em gestantes submetidas ao tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro e analisar os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com dados coletados de 163 prontuários de gestantes submetidas a tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro atendidas em 1995-2000, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A variável dependente constituiu-se na ocorrência de parto prematuro e as independentes foram: idade, escolaridade, ocupação, paridade, companheiro, tabagismo, infecção urinária prévia, número de consultas pré-natal e intervalo interpartal. A análise foi feita pelo teste de associação pelo Qui-quadrado e modelos de regressão logística univariado e múltiplo. RESULTADOS: 66,3% das gestantes tiveram filhos prematuros e, em 22,7% dos casos, o parto ocorreu antes de 34 semanas. Houve associação estatística significativa entre parto prematuro e ser nulípara e apresentar número baixo de consultas pré-natal. CONCLUSÕES: atenção especial deve ser dada às gestantes nulíparas e com número reduzido de consulta pré-natal submetidas ao tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro, com a finalidade de prevenir esse evento.OBJECTIVES: to identify preterm delivery prevalence in pregnant women submitted to preterm delivery inhibition treatment and to analyze associated factors. METHODS: cross sectional study with data collected from 163 pregnant women medical files seen from 1995-2000 at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The dependent variable was preterm delivery and the independent ones were: age, education, job, parity, companion, smoking, prior urinary infection, number of prenatal medical visits and birth interval. Analysis was performed through association by the Chi-square test and univariate and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: 66.3% of the women had preterm

  4. Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz......, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description...... of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses...

  5. The retrograde delivery of adenovirus vector carrying the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects neurons and oligodendrocytes from apoptosis in the chronically compressed spinal cord of twy/twy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Hirai, Takayuki; Yayama, Takafumi; Chen, Kebing; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Johnson, William Eustace; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2012-12-15

    The twy/twy mouse undergoes spontaneous chronic mechanical compression of the spinal cord; this in vivo model system was used to examine the effects of retrograde adenovirus (adenoviral vector [AdV])-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to spinal neural cells. To investigate the targeting and potential neuroprotective effect of retrograde AdV-mediated BDNF gene transfection in the chronically compressed spinal cord in terms of prevention of apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Several studies have investigated the neuroprotective effects of neurotrophins, including BDNF, in spinal cord injury. However, no report has described the effects of retrograde neurotrophic factor gene delivery in compressed spinal cords, including gene targeting and the potential to prevent neural cell apoptosis. AdV-BDNF or AdV-LacZ (as a control gene) was injected into the bilateral sternomastoid muscles of 18-week old twy/twy mice for retrograde gene delivery via the spinal accessory motor neurons. Heterozygous Institute of Cancer Research mice (+/twy), which do not undergo spontaneous spinal compression, were used as a control for the effects of such compression on gene delivery. The localization and cell specificity of β-galactosidase expression (produced by LacZ gene transfection) and BDNF expression in the spinal cord were examined by coimmunofluorescence staining for neural cell markers (NeuN, neurons; reactive immunology protein, oligodendrocytes; glial fibrillary acidic protein, astrocytes; OX-42, microglia) 4 weeks after gene injection. The possible neuroprotection afforded by retrograde AdV-BDNF gene delivery versus AdV-LacZ-transfected control mice was assessed by scoring the prevalence of apoptotic cells (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells) and immunoreactivity to active caspases -3, -8, and -9, p75, neurofilament 200 kD (NF), and for the oligodendroglial progenitor marker, NG2. RESULTS

  6. Levels of serum-circulating angiogenic factors within 1 week prior to delivery are closely related to conditions of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and/or fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Sakiko; Minami, Sawako; Mizoguchi, Mika; Yamamoto, Madoka; Yahata, Tamaki; Toujima, Saori; Shiro, Michihisa; Kobayashi, Aya; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate maternal serum angiogenic marker profiles within 1 week prior to delivery in cases of gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) with different clinical conditions. We enrolled 165 women with singleton pregnancy. The participants were classified based on three characteristics: (i) proteinuria (GH and PE); (ii) FGR (PE with FGR [PE + FGR], PE alone, and FGR alone); and (iii) onset (early onset PE [EO PE] and late-onset PE [LO PE]). All sera were obtained within 1 week prior to delivery, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng), and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (i) In PE, a significantly increased sFlt-1, sEng, and sFlt-1 to PlGF ratio (sFlt-1/PlGF) and significantly decreased PlGF were observed compared with GH and Term control, whereas in GH, only sFlt-1/PlGF was significantly higher than Term control. (ii) In PE + FGR, similar changes were more markedly shown compared with PE alone. The FGR alone group exhibited similar tendencies as PE, although significant differences were found in PlGF and sEng levels. (iii) In EO PE, significant changes were observed in all factors compared with LO PE or Term control, while no significant change in PlGF levels was observed between LO PE and Term control. We demonstrated that the levels of circulating angiogenic factors just before delivery are correlated with the severity of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and FGR. Profiling these specific markers may contribute to better understanding of the clinical conditions in individual patients and their pathogenesis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Factors associated with the use of supplemental oxygen or positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room, in infants born with a gestational age ≥ 34 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 5–10 % of newborns require some form of resuscitationupon delivery; several factors, such as maternal abnormal conditions, gestational age and type of delivery could be responsible for this trend. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with the need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental O2 in newborns with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks in Brazil. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study and obtained data from the Birth in Brazil Survey. The inclusion criterion was a gestational age ≥34 weeks. Exclusion criteria were newborns with congenital malformations, and cases with undetermined gestational age or type of delivery (vaginal, pre labor cesarean section and cesarean section during labor. The primary outcomes were need of PPV via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental oxygen without PPV. Confounding variables, including maternal age, source of birth payment, years of maternal schooling, previous birth, newborn presentation, multiple pregnancy, and maternal obstetric risk, were analyzed. Results We included 22,720 newborns. Of these, 2974 (13.1 % required supplementary oxygen. PPV with a bag and mask was used for 727 (3.2 % newborns and tracheal intubation for 192 (0.8 % newborns. Chest compression was necessary for 136 (0.6 % newborns and drugs administered in 114 (0.5 %. 51.3 % of newborns were delivered by cesarean section, with the majority of cesarean sections (88.7 % being performed prior to labor. Gestational age (late preterm infants: (Relative Risk-(RR 2.46; 95 % (Confidence interval-CI 1.79–3.39, maternal obstetric risk (RR 1.59; 95 % CI1.30–1.94, and maternal age of 12–19 years old (RR 1.36; 95 % CI1.06–1.74 contributed to rates of PPV in the logistic regression analysis. Newborns aged between 37–38 weeks of gestaional age weren´t less likely to require PPV compared with

  8. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.

    2015-01-01

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  9. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  10. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  11. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: → We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. → Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. → A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. → Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  12. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tonder, D.; Kotze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U 3 O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U 3 O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  13. Transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...

  14. Absence of collagen IX accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in the embryonic mouse spine through a disturbance of the Ihh-PTHrP feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamper, Matthias; Paulsson, Mats; Zaucke, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Collagen IX (Col IX) is a component of the cartilage extracellular matrix and contributes to its structural integrity. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the Col IX ɑ2- and ɑ3-chains are associated with early onset of disc degeneration. Col IX-deficient mice already display changes in the spine at the newborn stage and premature disc degeneration starting at 6 months of age. To determine the role of Col IX in early spine development and to identify molecular mechanisms underlying disc degeneration, the embryonic development of the spine was analyzed in Col IX -/- mice. Histological staining was used to show tissue morphology at different time points. Localization of extracellular matrix proteins as well as components of signaling pathways were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Developing vertebral bodies of Col IX -/- mice were smaller and already appeared more compact at E12.5. At E15.5, vertebral bodies of Col IX -/- mice revealed an increased number of hypertrophic chondrocytes as well as enhanced staining for the terminal differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase and collagen X. This correlates with an imbalance in the Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway at this time point, reflected by an increase of Ihh and a concomitant decrease of PTHrP expression. An accelerated hypertrophic differentiation caused by a disturbed Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway may lead to a higher bone mineral density in the vertebral bodies of newborn Col IX -/- mice and, as a result, to the early onset of disc degeneration.

  15. Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase IX by Ureidosulfonamide Inhibitor U104 Reduces Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, But Does Not Modulate Daunorubicin or Cisplatin Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Anne; Güttler, Antje; Haupt, Verena; Wichmann, Henri; Reime, Sarah; Bache, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk; Thews, Oliver

    2018-03-05

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy. It is highly upregulated in hypoxic regions and mediates pH regulation critical for tumor cell survival as well as extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment, which promotes tumor aggressiveness via various mechanisms, such as augmenting metastatic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the complex interdependency between CA IX and the tumor microenvironment in prostate tumor cells with regard to potential therapeutic implications. CA IX was upregulated by hypoxia as well as acidosis in prostate cancer cells. This induction did not modulate intracellular pH but led to extracellular acidification. Pharmacological inhibition of CA IX activity by U104 (SLC-0111) resulted in a reduction in tumor cell growth and an increase in apoptotic cell death. Intracellular pH was reduced under normoxic and even more so under hypoxic conditions when CA IX level was high. However, although intracellular pH regulation was disturbed, targeting CA IX in combination with daunorubicin or cisplatin did not intensify apoptotic tumor cell death. Hence, targeting CA IX in prostate cancer cells can lead to intracellular pH dysregulation and, consequently, can reduce cellular growth and elevate apoptotic cell death. Attenuation of extracellular acidification by blocking CA IX might additionally impede tumor progression and metastasis. However, no beneficial effect was seen when targeting CA IX in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  16. Alternative pathways of thromboplastin-dependent activation of human factor X in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlar, R.A.; Griffin, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the interrelationships of the major coagulation pathways, the activation of 3H-labeled factor X in normal and various deficient human plasmas was evaluated when clotting was triggered by dilute rabbit or human thromboplastin. Various dilutions of thromboplastin and calcium were added to plasma samples containing 3H-factor X, and the time course of factor X activation was determined. At a 1/250 dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin, the rate of factor X activation in plasmas deficient in factor VIII or factor IX was 10% of the activation rate of normal plasma or of factor XI deficient plasma. Reconstitution of the deficient plasmas with factors VIII or IX, respectively, reconstituted normal factor X activation. Similar results were obtained when various dilutions of human thromboplastin replaced the rabbit thromboplastin. From these plasma experiments, it is inferred that the dilute thromboplastin-dependent activation of factor X requires factors VII, IX, and VIII. An alternative extrinsic pathway that involves factors IX and VIII may be the physiologic extrinsic pathway and hence help to explain the consistent clinical observations of bleeding diatheses in patients deficient in factors IX or VIII

  17. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  18. Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakeah, Evelyn; Doctor, Henry V; McCloskey, Lois; Bernstein, Judith; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Mills, Samuel

    2014-04-10

    The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated men must be targeted with health

  19. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  20. Transdermal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767

  1. The 3d84s-3d84p transitions in Br IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Livingston, A.E.; Westerlind, M.; Engstroem, L.; Martinson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of bromine was studied in the region 450-1100 A, using the beam-foil method with 6 MeV ions from a tandem accelerator. On the basis of isoelectronic extrapolations and theoretical calculations, 32 lines were classified as transitions between the 3p 6 3d 8 4s and 3p 6 3d 8 4p configurations of Co-like BrIX. Fo the 16 possible 4s levels 13 have been located, and 11 new 4p levels have been added to the previously known ones. Only 4 of all the 4p levels (45 in total) remain to be found. (orig.)

  2. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX regioselectivity carbon-13 labelled at the alpha-vinyl carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.M.; Fujinari, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for transformation of readily available beta-vinyl 99% carbon-13 enriched derivatives of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester into the less accessible alpha-vinyl labelled isomers is described. The procedure involves thallium(III) promoted vinyl carbon rearrangement, and proceeds through 2,2-dimethoxyethyl, formylmethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl and 2-chloroethyl porphyrins; the rearranged vinyl groups are regenerated from 2-chloroethyl in the last step by treatment with base. No evidence of vinyl carbon scrambling in the sequence is observed, and spectroscopic data of the products are given. (author)

  3. IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Abadía Bayona, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Del 10 al 13 de Septiembre de 2002 se celebró el IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas en el Campus de Aula Dei de Zaragoza. El Simposio se realizó bajo los auspicios de la Sociedad Española de Fisiología Vegetal, el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), el Instituto Agronómico Mediterráneo de Zaragoza-Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos (CIHEAM-IAMZ), la Asociación Internacional para la Optimización de...

  4. Spectral analysis of the 4d96s configuration in eight times ionized xenon, Xe IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, M.; Gallardo, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    A capillary light source was used to observe the spectrum of eight times ionized xenon, Xe IX, in the vacuum ultraviolet range, 270-2000 A. Sixteen transitions have been identified as combinations between energy levels of the 4d 9 6s with 4d 9 5p configuration, and all 4d 9 6s levels have been determined. The present analysis is based on an accurate extrapolation of energy parameters and experimental energy level values in the Pd I isoelectronic sequence. The energy parameters were obtained with Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. Least-squares parametric calculation has been carried out to study the fit between experimental and theoretical values

  5. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S IX and S X spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multi configuration Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S IX and S X spectral lines

  6. The Ripple Effect of Title IX on Women's Health Issues: Treating an Increasingly Active Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Patricia D

    2003-04-01

    Perhaps no area in sports medicine has changed as dramatically in the last 30 years as women's health. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in all curricular and extracurricular activities at educational institutions that receive federal funding. Before 1972, many assumed that women were not interested in sports and that there was no need to provide programs for girls and women, and most primary care physicians had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women.

  7. Collateral patient doses in the Varian 21iX