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Sample records for factor ix delivery

  1. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated coagulation factor IX prevents inhibitor formation and fatal anaphylaxis in hemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Moghimi, Babak; LoDuca, Paul A; Singh, Harminder D; Hoffman, Brad E; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-13

    To address complications of pathogenic antibody or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in protein replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia or other inherited protein deficiencies, we have developed a prophylactic protocol using a murine hemophilia B model. Oral delivery of coagulation factor IX fused with cholera toxin beta-subunit (with or without a furin cleavage site; CTB-FFIX or CTB-FIX), expressed in chloroplasts (up to 3.8% soluble protein or 0.4 mg/g leaf tissue), bioencapsulated in plant cells, effectively blocked formation of inhibitory antibodies (undetectable or up to 100-fold less than controls). Moreover, this treatment eliminated fatal anaphylactic reactions that occurred after four to six exposures to intravenous F.IX. Whereas only 20-25% of control animals survived after six to eight F.IX doses, 90-93% of F.IX-fed mice survived 12 injections without signs of allergy or anaphylaxis. Immunostaining confirmed delivery of F.IX to Peyer's patches in the ileum. Within 2-5 h, feeding of CTB-FFIX additionally resulted in systemic delivery of F.IX antigen. This high-responder strain of hemophilia B mice represents a new animal model to study anaphylactic reactions. The protocol was effective over a range of oral antigen doses (equivalent to 5-80 microg recombinant F.IX/kg), and controlled inhibitor formation and anaphylaxis long-term, up to 7 months (approximately 40% life span of this mouse strain). Oral antigen administration caused a deviant immune response that suppressed formation of IgE and inhibitory antibodies. This cost-effective and efficient approach of antigen delivery to the gut should be applicable to several genetic diseases that are prone to pathogenic antibody responses during treatment.

  2. Platelets contain releasable coagulation factor IX antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romp, K G; Monroe, D M; Hoffman, M

    1993-12-01

    Platelets take up plasma proteins into their alpha granules. Platelet activation releases the alpha granule contents. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that human platelets also contain some coagulation factor IX in their alpha granules. Platelets were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Activated and unactivated platelets were quick frozen on to slides and dehydrated in situ to preserve optimal morphology. The slides were stained by indirect immunofluorescence for factors V and IX. Unactivated platelets showed coarsely granular staining for factor V and finely granular staining for factor IX. Staining for factor V was diffuse after activation, while staining for factor IX disappeared. Thus, the results support the conclusion that platelets contain factor IX which can be released upon activation. Immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted to more precisely localize the site of the platelet factor IX. As expected, factor V was primarily localized in the alpha granules of unactivated platelets. By contrast, factor IX was observed both in alpha granules and diffusely in the platelet cytoplasm and membrane-bounded vesicles. After activation, staining for both factors V and IX was primarily in the open canalicular system. The physiological importance of this small amount of factor IX is unknown. However, it may be significant since only a few percent of normal IX levels are required to support haemostasis in the absence of trauma, and platelet factor IX could be released at sites of active coagulation.

  3. [Human coagulation factor IX gene therapy in murine hemophilia B by hydrodynamic delivery and site-specific genomic integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gu, Dong-Sheng; DU, Wei-Ting; Liu, Peng-Xia; Lu, Shi-Hong; Yang, Ren-Chi

    2010-05-01

    To investigate whether the plasmid bearing attB and human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) coding sequence could insert into hemophilia B mice genome and persistently express hFIX with co-injected integrase. The plasmid attB-hFIX-pIRES2-EGFP was constructed, which bore attB site and hFIX coding sequence and was proved in vitro to express hFIX. The plasmid and CMV-int expressing integrase was co-infused rapidly in a large-volume solution through tail vein of hemophilia B mice. Mice infused with the plasmid alone served as controls. ELISA was performed to determine serum hFIX level. Correction of coagulation defect in vivo by plasmid infusion was assessed by bleeding time. Genomic integration of the plasmid was determined by nested PCR. The plasmid attB-hFIX-pIRES2-EGFP was successfully constructed. The hemophilia B mice produced (1533 ± 239) ng/ml hFIX at 24 hour after infusion of the hFIX encoding plasmid and the bleeding diathesis of the hemophilia B mice was significantly corrected as measured by clotting assays. However, whether or not co-injected with CMV-int, the serum hFIX level decreased to background level in 10 days after infusion. Nested-PCR results indicated that the integrase phiC31 resulted in the integration of the plasmid in the mouse liver chromosomes. Integrase phiC31 can catalyze recombination of 34 bp attB and pseudo-attP. Human FIX driven by CMV promoter can be transiently and highly expressed after infusion, but rapidly silenced in vivo.

  4. Three distinct point mutations in the factor IX gene of three Japanese CRM+ hemophilia B patients (factor IX BMNagoya 2, factor IX Nagoya 3 and 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, M; Matsushita, T; Tanimoto, M; Takahashi, I; Yamamoto, K; Sugiura, I; Takamatsu, J; Ogata, K; Kamiya, T; Saito, H

    1991-05-06

    Enzymatic DNA amplification and complete sequence analysis were used to investigate human factor IX coding sequences in three CRM+ hemophilia B patients. In a patient with severe hemophilia B and a markedly prolonged ox-brain prothrombin time, a C to T transition in exon VI changed the codon for Arg180 to Trp (factor IX BMNagoya 2). This mutation would impair the cleavage by factor XIa required for activation of the zymogen. In a patient with mild hemophilia B, a G to A transition in exon VI changed the codon for Arg145 to His(factor IX Nagoya 3). This substitution also would be predicted to preclude the cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa at this peptide bond (Arg145-Ala146). Furthermore, this point mutation creates a new NlaIII restriction site which provides a quick and reliable method for carrier detection in the affected family members. A patient with severe hemophilia B (factor IX Nagoya 4) had a G to A transition in exon II changing the codon for Glu21 to Lys. This novel point mutation is assumed to impair the function of factor IX by disrupting the calcium binding of factor IX.

  5. Evaluation of factor IX deficiency by interdigitated electrode (IDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, Uda; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Factor IX deficiency is the main cause of hemophilia A and B. This a severe excessive bleeding disorder that can even kill the patient if not treated with the right prescription of Factor IX hormone to stop the bleeding. The bleeding can be caused by an injury or even a sudden bleeding in some very rare cases. To find the Factor IX effectiveness and to understand the deficiency more carefully for the future of medicine, experiments are conducted to test the Factor IX using the Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) and gold Nanoparticle with the help of Nanoelectrical technology.

  6. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume

  7. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3 H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl 2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3 H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3 H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3 H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3 H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant

  8. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Variability of in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrates in patients with hemophilia B. The Mononine Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G C; Shapiro, A D; Kurczynski, E M; Kim, H C; Bergman, G E

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate, Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Kankakee, Illinois, USA), is a recently developed replacement factor concentrate for the treatment of patients with hemophilia B. The pharmacokinetic properties of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate (MAb Factor IX concentrate) have been evaluated in only small samples of patients, and little is known about those factors that might influenced in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion is a larger patient population. In vivo recovery of factor IX was therefore evaluated for 80 different indications in 72 patients who received MAb Factor IX concentrate for the management of spontaneous or trauma-induced bleeding, or as prophylaxis with surgery. The average recovery after infusions for presurgical pharmacokinetic analysis (mean +/- standard deviation) was 1.28 +/- 0.56 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range 0.41-2.80), and the average recovery after all infusions for treatment was 1.23 +/- 0.49 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range - 0.35-2.92). Recovery values for multiple MAb Factor IX doses in a given patient were also variable; the average recovery was 1.22 +/- 0.53 U/dl rise per U/kg given, and standard deviations ranged from 0.03 to 1.26. Patient age, weight, and MAb Factor IX concentrate dose minimally but significantly influenced factor IX recovery. There was no significant effect of either race, history of previous thrombotic complications during treatment with other replacement factor concentrates, or bleeding state on recovery. All of the patients treated with this preparation experienced excellent hemostasis, and no thrombotic complications were observed.

  10. In vitro characterization of high purity factor IX concentrates for the treatment of hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limentani, S A; Gowell, K P; Deitcher, S R

    1995-04-01

    This study employed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and immunoblotting to assess the purity of seven high purity factor IX concentrates: Aimafix (Aima), AlphaNine-SD (Alpha Therapeutic), Factor IX VHP (Biotransfusion), Immunine (Immuno), Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical), Nanotiv (Kabi Pharmacia), and 9MC (Blood Products Laboratory). The mean specific activity of these products ranged from 68 U factor IX/mg (Aimafix) to 246 U factor IX/mg (Mononine). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the highest purity product, Mononine, had a single contaminating band under non-reducing conditions. Two additional bands were detected when this product was analyzed under reducing conditions. All other products had multiple contaminating bands that were more apparent under reducing than non-reducing conditions. The immunoblot for factor IX showed a dominant factor IX band for all products. In addition, visible light chain of factor IX was detected for AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Mononine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, suggesting that the factor IX in these products had undergone partial activation to factor IXa. Another contaminating band was visible at 49,500 for all of the products except 9MC. In addition to this band, high molecular weight contaminants were apparent for some products, most notably AlphaNine-SD. The identity of these bands is unknown. Immunoblotting failed to demonstrate factor VII as a contaminant of any of the high purity products, although factor VIIa could be detected in some lots of Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC by a clot-based assay. Factor X contaminated Aimafix, AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, but activation products of factor X were not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The feasibility of using concentrates containing factor IX for continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, S; Gitel, S; Zivelin, A; Katsarou, O; Mandalaki, T; Varon, D; Martinowitz, U

    1995-04-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of continuous infusion of undiluted factor IX (F IX) over several days using minipumps. The stabilities of seven different reconstituted F IX products were substantially better than those declared by the manufacturers. Several concentrates maintained factor activities 80% of baseline for the entire period of 4 weeks at 4-8d̀C as did one product at 20-23d̀A. At 37d̀C the latter concentrate was stable for at least 1 week. The stability seemed to correlate with the purity of the product. Analysis of two prothrombin comples concentrates by gel electrophoresis demonstrated degradation of prothrombin to prethrombin-1 and fragment 1 at 37d̀C and in one of the concentrates also at 20-23d̀C. In two F IX concentrates the corresponding analysis did not reveal any degradation. Four patients were treated with continuous infusion with a pure F IX concentrate (Mononine™, Armour) after surgery or for serious haemorrhage (two each) with good haemostatic effect, an initial progressive decrease of the F IX clearance, and no side-effects. Continuous infusion with F IX, using a minipump and undiluted reconstituted factor, is therefore feasible and effective, and can be conveniently prepared for several days at a time. Pure F IX products are more stable and probably safer for this purpose.

  12. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  13. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

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    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  14. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which >95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male

  15. Genetic fusion to albumin improves the pharmacokinetic properties of factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Hubert J; Weimer, Thomas; Kronthaler, Ulrich; Lang, Wiegand; Schulte, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Haemophilia B is a X-chromosome linked disease characterised by a deficiency of functionally active coagulation Factor IX (FIX). Patients with severe haemophilia B at risk of recurrent bleeding are treated approximately twice a week in a prophylactic setting by application of FIX concentrates. To increase convenience and compliance of the therapy it is desirable to reduce the dosing frequency by improving the pharmacokinetic properties of FIX. Here a concept of rFIX (recombinant factor IX) albumin fusion proteins (rIX-FPs) with cleavable linker peptides derived from the FIX activation sequence is presented. Constructs of the genetic fusion of FIX to albumin via cleavable linkers were expressed in mammalian cells and characterised after purification. In vitro activation studies with FXIa demonstrated that cleavage of the linker and the activation peptide proceeded comparably well. In a clotting assay the rIX-FPs with cleavable linker showed a 10- to 30-fold increase in the molar specific clotting activity compared to fusion proteins with non-cleavable linkers. Furthermore, in-vivo recovery, terminal half-life and the AUC of rIX-FPs in rats and rabbits as determined by FIX antigen measurements were significantly increased compared to rFIX (BeneFIX). In FIX deficient (FIX(-/-)) mice the in-vivo recovery and the AUC were also significantly increased. The efficacy in reducing bleeding time was shown in FIX(-/-) mice by a tail tip bleeding model. The results suggest that rIX-FPs with a cleavable linker between FIX and albumin are a promising concept that may support the use of the albumin fusion technology to extend the half-life of FIX.

  16. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  17. Incidence of factor IX inhibitor development in severe haemophilia B patients treated with only one brand of high purity plasma derived factor IX concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parquet, A; Laurian, Y; Rothschild, C; Navarro, R; Guérois, C; Gay, V; Durin, A; Peynet, J; Sultan, Y

    1999-10-01

    Fifteen previously untreated patients (Pups) with severe haemophilia B (factor IX activity brand of plasma-derived high purity factor IX concentrate (FIX LFB) were studied. Age at first injection varied from 1 to 137 months and follow-up since this first injection from 21 to 86 months (median: 35). Cumulative exposure days (CED) were from 4 to over 100 (median: 26). Among these 15 Pups only one developed an inhibitor. Mutation analysis performed in all patients showed total gene deletion in the patient with inhibitor, partial gene deletion in another one, and missense mutations in 9 families. Mutation was not found in one patient. Actually, according to the data already published, only two patients were at high risk for inhibitor development in our population. Our study, although rather small, confirms the previously reported low incidence of inhibitors in haemophilia B. Large studies on incidence of FIX inhibitors are indeed difficult to perform, due to both the overall small number of severe haemophilia B patients and the low incidence of FIX inhibitors. Consequently, the impact of bias, such as prevalence of different types of gene defects in a given population, is major. Therefore, any study, dealing with incidence of FIX inhibitors in severe haemophilia B should report, for each patient, the type of gene defect.

  18. The Malmö polymorphism of factor IX: establishing the genotypes by rapid analysis of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J B; Kunkel, G R; Tennyson, G S; Lord, S T; Fowlkes, D M

    1989-06-01

    A DNA polymorphism in the coding region of coagulation factor IX--potentially valuable for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and population studies--was described in 1985. It had been discovered with monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between threonine and alanine as the 148th residue of the peptide. Its use as a diagnostic tool has been limited because threonine-containing factor IX (Malmö A) is dominant to alanine-containing factor IX (Malmö B) in immunoassays of plasma; therefore, detection of Malmö heterozygotes is not possible in all instances. A DNA method for recognizing all heterozygotes has been developed, but it also has limitations. We report the development of another DNA procedure based on amplification of the relevant DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method is quick, avoids the use of isotopes and x-ray film, and specifically identifies all the Malmö genotypes: hemizygotes, homozygotes, and heterozygotes. The procedure can be performed satisfactorily on small samples of blood (less than 1 mL) as suggested by Kogan et al (N Engl J Med 317:985, 1987). The method described is applicable to any genetic polymorphism that overlaps a restriction enzyme recognition site.

  19. Factor Activity Assays for Monitoring Extended Half-Life FVIII and Factor IX Replacement Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Steve; Tiefenbacher, Stefan; Gosselin, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The advent of modified factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) molecules with extended half-lives (EHLs) compared with native FVIII and FIX represents a major advance in the field of hemophilia care, with the potential to reduce the frequency of prophylactic injections and/or to increase the trough level prior to subsequent injections. Monitoring treatment through laboratory assays will be an important part of ensuring patient safety, including any tailoring of prophylaxis. Several approaches have been used to extend half-lives, including PEGylation, and fusion to albumin or immunoglobulin. Some of these modifications affect factor assays as routinely performed in hemophilia centers; so, laboratories will need to use FVIII and FIX assays which have been shown to be suitable on a product-by-product basis. For some products, there are marked differences between results obtained using one-stage or chromogenic assays and results obtained using different reagents in the one-stage assay. The laboratory should use an assay in which the recovery of the product closely aligns with the assay used by the pharmaceutical company to assign potency to the product, so that the units reported by the laboratory agree with those used to demonstrate efficacy of the product during clinical trials. Reported assay differences in relation to several of the EHL FVIII and FIX molecules will be reviewed in this article. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Recombinant to modified factor VIII and factor IX - chromogenic and one-stage assays issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, S; Kershaw, G; Tiefenbacher, S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development of modified recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) therapeutic products with extended half-lives will create challenges for the haemostasis laboratory in obtaining recovery estimates of these products in clinical samples using existing assays. The new long-acting therapeutic concentrates contain molecular modifications of Fc fusion, site-specific of polyethylene glycol or albumin fusion. The optimum methods for monitoring each new product will need to be assessed individually and laboratories should select an assay which gives similar results to the assay used to assign potency to the product in question. For some extended half-life FVIII and FIX products some one stage assays are entirely unsuitable for monitoring purposes. For most products and assay reagents studied so far, and reviewed in this manuscript, chromogenic FVIII or FIX assays can be safely used with conventional plasma standards. If one stage assays are used then they should be performed using carefully selected reagents/methods which have been shown to recover activity close to the labelled potency for the specific product being monitored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.L.; Lind, T.J.; Thorland, E.C.; Sommer S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of [ge]21 bp) are uncommon. The authors have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3-kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For a sample of 203 independent mutations, the authors estimate the [open quotes]baseline[close quotes] rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb)I deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversion, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA. 58 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  3. Hemophilia B with mutations at glycine-48 of factor IX exhibited delayed activation by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P C; Hamaguchi, N; Yu, Y S; Shen, M C; Lin, S W

    2000-10-01

    Gly-48 is in the conserved DGDQC sequence (residues 47-51 of human factor IX) of the first EGF (EGF-1)-like domain of factor IX. The importance of the Gly-48 is manifested by two hemophilia B patients; factor IXTainan and factor IXMalmo27, with Gly-48 replaced by arginine (designated IXG48R) and valine (IXG48V), respectively. Both patients were CRM+ exhibiting mild hemophilic episodes with 25% (former) and 19% (latter) normal clotting activities. We characterize both factor IX variants to show the roles of Gly-48 and the conservation of the DGDQC sequence in factor IX. Purified plasma and recombinant factor IX variants exhibited approximately 26%-27% normal factor IX's clotting activities with G48R or G48V mutation. Both variants depicted normal quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence by increasing concentrations of calcium ions and Tb3+, indicating that arginine and valine substitution for Gly-48 did not perturb the calcium site in the EGF-1 domain. Activation of both mutants by factor XIa appeared normal. The reduced clotting activity of factors IXG48R and IXG48V was attributed to the failure of both mutants to cleavage factor X: in the presence of only phospholipids and calcium ions, both mutants showed a 4 to approximately 7-fold elevation in Km, and by adding factor VIIIa to the system, although factor VIIIa potentiated the activation of factor X by the mutants factor IXaG48R and factor IXaG48V, a 2 to approximately 3-fold decrease in the catalytic function was observed with the mutant factor IXa's, despite that they bound factor VIIIa on the phospholipid vesicles with only slightly reduced affinity when compared to wild-type factor IXa. The apparent Kd for factor VIIIa binding was 0.83 nM for normal factor IXa, 1.74 nM for IXaG48R and 1.4 nM for IXaG48V. Strikingly, when interaction with the factor VIIa-TF complex was examined, both mutations were barely activated by the VIIa-TF complex and they also showed abnormal interaction with VIIa-TF in bovine

  4. Expression of functional recombinant human factor IX in milk of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisauskas, Sharon F C; Cunha, Nicolau B; Vianna, Giovanni R; Mendes, Erica A; Ramos, Gustavo L; Maranhão, Andréia Q; Brígido, Marcelo M; Almeida, Jussara O S C; Baptista, Heloisa A; Motta, Fabiana L T; Pesquero, João B; Aragão, Francisco J L; Rech, Elíbio L

    2008-12-01

    Human factor IX is synthesized in the liver and secreted in the blood, where it participates in a group of reactions involving coagulation factors and proteins that permit sanguinary coagulation. In this work two lines of transgenic mice were developed to express the FIX gene in the mammalian glands under control of milk beta-casein promoter. The founding females secreted the FIX in their milk (3% total soluble protein). The stable integration of transgene was confirmed by southern blot analysis. The presence of the FIX recombinant protein in the milk of transgenic females was confirmed by western blot and the clotting activity was revealed in blood-clotting assays. The coagulation activity in human blood treated with recombinant FIX increased while the time of coagulation decreased. Our results confirm the production of a large amount of recombinant biologically active FIX in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

  5. Complexity of immune responses to AAV transgene products - Example of factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Roland W

    2017-05-29

    After two decades of research, in vivo gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has now resulted in successful treatments and even cures for several human diseases. However, the potential for immune responses against the therapeutic gene products remains one of the concerns as this approach is broadened to more patients, diverse diseases, and target organs. Immune responses following gene transfer of coagulation factor IX (FIX) for the treatment of the bleeding disorder hemophilia B has been extensively investigated in multiple animal models. Findings from these studies have not only influenced clinical trial design but have broader implications for other diseases. The impact of vector design and dose, as well as target organ/route of administration on humoral and cellular immune responses are reviewed. Furthermore, the potential for tolerance induction by hepatic gene transfer or combination with immune modulation is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Zhu, Liqing; Sherman, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Shina; Kamesh, Aditya; Norikane, Joey H; Streatfield, Stephen J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies (inhibitors) developed by hemophilia B patients against coagulation factor IX (FIX) are challenging to eliminate because of anaphylaxis or nephrotic syndrome after continued infusion. To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated by endogenous psbA sequences. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds and pentamer assembly when stored ∼2 years at ambient temperature. Feeding lettuce cells to hemophilia B mice delivered CTB-FIX efficiently to the gut immune system, induced LAP(+) regulatory T cells and suppressed inhibitor/IgE formation and anaphylaxis against FIX. Lyophilized cells enabled 10-fold dose escalation studies and successful induction of oral tolerance was observed in all tested doses. Induction of tolerance in such a broad dose range should enable oral delivery to patients of different age groups and diverse genetic background. Using Fraunhofer cGMP hydroponic system, ∼870 kg fresh or 43.5 kg dry weight can be harvested per 1000 ft(2) per annum yielding 24,000-36,000 doses for 20-kg pediatric patients, enabling first commercial development of an oral drug, addressing prohibitively expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and short shelf life of current protein drugs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  8. Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector 5-human factor IX in adults with hemophilia B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Meijer, Karina; Coppens, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    Hemophilia B gene therapy aims to ameliorate bleeding risk and provide endogenous factor IX (FIX) activity/synthesis through a single treatment, eliminating the requirement for FIX concentrate. AMT-060 combines an adeno-associated virus-5 (AAV5) vector with a liver-specific promoter driving...

  9. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  10. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  11. Transgenic mice can express mutant human coagulation factor IX with higher level of clotting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Bin; Wang, Shu; Huang, Wen-Ying; Xiao, Yan-Ping; Ren, Zhao-Rui; Huang, Shu-Zheng; Zeng, Yi-Tao

    2006-10-01

    To improve the available values of transgenic animals, we produced a mutant human coagulation factor IX minigene (including cDNA and intron I) with arginine at 338 changed to alanine (R338A-hFIX) by using a direct mutation technique. The R338A-hFIX minigene was then cloned into a plasmid carrying the goat beta-casein promoter to get a mammary gland-specific expression vector. The clotting activity in the supernatant of the transfected HC-11 cells increased to approximately three times more than that of wild-type hFIX. Nine transgenic mice (three females and six males) were produced, and the copy number of the foreign gene was very different, ranging from 1 to 43 in different lines. ELISA, Western blot, and clotting assay experiments showed that the transgenic mice could express R338A-hFIX, showing higher average levels of clotting activity than wild-type hFIX in the milk (103.76% vs. 49.95%). The highest concentration and clotting activity of hFIX reached 26 mug/mL and 1287% in one founder (F(0)-7), which was over 10 times higher than that in human plasma. Furthermore, RT-PCR, APTT assay, and histological analysis indicated that hFIX was expressed specifically in the mammary gland without affecting the intrinsic coagulation pathway and physiologic performance of the local tissue.

  12. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  13. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of a high-purity factor IX concentrate in hemophilia B patients undergoing surgery Eficácia do concentrado de alta pureza do fator IX em pacientes cirúrgicos portadores de hemofilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Rasi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma derived, high purity, solvent-detergent treated and subsequently nanofiltered factor IX concentrate (BEMOFIL was evaluated in 19 hemophilia B patients, including four with severe, thirteen with mild or moderate type of disease and two hemophilia B carriers undergoing 31 surgical procedures. The mean in vivo recovery was 52 %, range 36 - 76 %. The mean preoperative plasma factor IX activity after the initial loading dose was 0.86 IU mL-1, range 0.59 - 1.32 IU mL-1. In eight major orthopedic procedures, the mean usage of factor IX was 44600 IU or 574 IU kg-1 during the hospital stay, mean 11.6 days. Thromboprophylaxis was not used. The hemostatic efficacy was evaluated good in all cases and there were no thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, BEMOFIL used as bolus dosing was found to be safe and effective in achieving hemostasis in subjects with hereditary F IX deficiency undergoing surgery.O concentrado de fator IX ( Bemofil , um derivado plasmático de alta pureza tratado com solventes- detergente e nano-filtrado , foi avaliado em 19 pacientes portadores de Hemofilia B .Quatro pacientes apresentavam a forma grave da moléstia, 13 a forma leve e moderada e dois portadores em um total de 31 atos cirúrgicos.A recuperação média "in vivo" foi de 52% (36-76%. A atividade plasmática média pré-operatória do fator IX após a dose inicial foi de 0,86 UI ml -1 , média de 0,59 - 1,32 UI ml-1. Em oito procedimentos ortopédicos extensos , a média de utilização do fator IX foi de 44.600 UI ou 574 UI kg -1 durante a hospitalização que teve a média de 11,6 dias. A tromboprofilaxia não foi utilizada. A eficácia hemostática avaliada em todos os casos foi boa ,e não ocorreu nenhum tipo de complicação tromboembólica. Concluímos que o Bemofil em bolus foi considerado seguro e eficaz para a hemostasia em pacientes portadores de hemofilia B que necessitam de um procedimento cirúrgico.

  15. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  16. Results of a phase I/II open-label, safety and efficacy trial of coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein in haemophilia B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinowitz, U; Lissitchkov, T; Lubetsky, A; Jotov, G; Barazani-Brutman, T; Voigt, C; Jacobs, I; Wuerfel, T; Santagostino, E

    2015-11-01

    rIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market. This prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B. The study consisted of a 10-14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis. Seventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry. This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated. © 2015 CSL Behring. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A pilot study on potential plasma hypoxia markers in the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostheimer, C.; Bache, M.; Guettler, A.; Vordermark, D. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Kotzsch, M. [Technical University Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Hypoxic radioresistance plays a critical role in the radiotherapy of cancer and adversely impacts prognosis and treatment response. This prospective study investigated the interrelationship and the prognostic significance of several hypoxia-related proteins in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Pretreatment osteopontin (OPN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) plasma levels were determined by ELISA in 55 NSCLC (M0) patients receiving 66 Gy curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiation. Marker correlation, association with clinicopathological parameters and the prognostic value of a biomarker combination was evaluated. All biomarkers were linearly correlated and linked to different clinical parameters including lung function, weight loss (OPN), gross tumor volume (VEGF) and T stage (CA IX). High OPN (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.02) and CA IX (p = 0.04) values were significantly associated with poor survival. Double marker combination additively increased the risk of death by a factor of 2 and high plasma levels of the triple combination OPN/VEGF/CA IX yielded a 5.9-fold risk of death (p = 0.009). The combined assessment of OPN/VEGF/CA IX correlated independently with prognosis (p = 0.03) in a multivariate Cox regression model including N stage, T stage and GTV. This pilot study suggests that a co-detection augments the prognostic value of single markers and that the integration of OPN, VEGF and CA IX into a hypoxic biomarker profile for the identification of patients with largely hypoxic and radioresistant tumors should be further evaluated. (orig.) [German] Hypoxische Radioresistenz spielt eine kritische Rolle in der Radiotherapie maligner Tumoren und beeinflusst Prognose und Therapieansprechen negativ. Diese prospektive Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang und die prognostische Bedeutung einiger hypoxieassoziierter Proteine bei Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom

  18. Activation of factor IX zymogen results in exposure of a binding site for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, J G; van Den Berg, B M; Mertens, K; ter Maat, H; Pannekoek, H; van Zonneveld, A J; Lenting, P J

    2000-11-15

    The interaction between the endocytic receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and either coagulation factor IX or its active derivative factor IXa was studied. Purified factor IX was unable to associate with LRP when analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. By contrast, factor XIa-mediated conversion of factor IX into factor IXa resulted in reversible dose- and calcium-dependent binding to LRP. Active-site blocking of factor IXa did not affect binding to LRP, whereas LRP binding was efficiently inhibited in the presence of heparin or antibodies against factor IX or LRP. The factor IXa-LRP interaction could be described by a 2-site binding model with equilibrium dissociation constants of 27 nmol/L and 69 nmol/L. Consistent with this model, it was observed that factor IXa binds to 2 different recombinant receptor fragments of LRP (denoted cluster II and cluster IV) with equilibrium dissociation constants of 227 nmol/L and 53 nmol/L, respectively. The amount of factor IXa degraded by LRP-deficient cells was 35% lower than by LRP-expressing cells, demonstrating that LRP contributes to the transport of factor IXa to the intracellular degradation pathway. Because ligand binding to LRP is often preceded by binding to proteoglycans, the contribution of proteoglycans to the catabolism of factor IXa was addressed by employing proteoglycan-deficient cells. Degradation of factor IXa by proteoglycan-deficient cells proceeded at a 83% lower rate than wild-type cells. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that both LRP and proteoglycans have the potential to contribute to the catabolism of factor IXa.

  19. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa, a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougald M. Monroe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148 polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant]. Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed 97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa; once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX.

  20. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Investigations into, and development of, a lyophilized and formulated recombinant human factor IX produced from CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aline G; Pinto, Rodrigo C V; Smales, C Mark; Castilho, Leda R

    2017-08-01

    To develop a recombinant human factor IX (rFIX) formulation equivalent to commercially available products in terms of cake appearance, residual moisture, proportion of soluble aggregates and activity maintenance for 3 months at 4-8 °C. NaCl and low bulking agent/cryoprotectant mass ratio had a negative impact on cake quality upon lyophilisation for a wide range of formulations tested. Particular devised formulations maintained rFIX activity after lyophilization with a similar performance when compared with the rFIX formulated using the excipients reported for a commercially available FIX formulation (Benefix). rFIX remained active after 3 months when stored at 4 °C, though this was not the case with samples stored at 40 °C. Interestingly, particular formulations had an increase in residual moisture after 3 months storage, but not above a 3% threshold. All four formulations tested were equivalent to the Benefix formulation in terms of particle size distribution and cake appearance. Three specific formulations, consisting of surfactant polysorbate-80, sucrose or trehalose as cryoprotectant, mannitol or glycine as bulking agent, L-histidine as buffering agent, and NaCl added in the reconstitution liquid at 0.234% (w/v) were suitable for use with a CHO cell-derived recombinant FIX.

  3. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with ...

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR VERY PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Витальевна Батырева

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  5. Title IX Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  6. Risk factors for cesarean delivery and adverse neonatal outcome in twin pregnancies attempting vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter-Safrai, Natali; Karavani, Gilad; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Porat, Shay

    2018-02-24

    Twin vaginal delivery presents a unique clinical challenge for obstetricians. The Twin Birth Study demonstrated the safety of planned vaginal delivery regarding neonatal outcomes. However, that study lacked a description of the risk factors associated with and the outcome of unplanned cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors for cesarean section and delivery related neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with twin pregnancy attempting vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study including 1070 women with twin pregnancy that underwent a trial of labor between 2003 and 2015. The study population was divided according to the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery, combined vaginal-cesarean and intrapartum cesarean delivery of both twins. Several risk factors and neonatal outcomes were examined by both univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The rate of vaginal delivery of both twins was 88.3%, whereas the rates of combined vaginal cesarean and unplanned cesarean delivery were 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be independently associated with cesarean delivery for both twins. Additionally, nonvertex presentation of twin B was independently associated with combined vaginal-cesarean delivery. The proportion of neonates with Apgar score cesarean group compared with those delivered by the vaginal route alone. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery in twin pregnancies. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index pregnancy. Determinants of choice of delivery place include cost of hospital bill ... thus achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Keywords: Factors, delivery, birth attendants, pregnant women, MDGs ...

  8. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  9. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  10. Evolutionary pattern of mutation in the factor IX genes of great apes: How does it compare to the pattern of recent germline mutation in patients with hemophilia B?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grouse, L.H.; Ketterling, R.P.; Sommer, S.S. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Most mutations causing hemophilia B have arisen within the past 150 years. By correcting for multiple biases, the underlying rates of spontaneous germline mutation have been estimated in the factor IX gene. From these rates, an underlying pattern of mutation has emerged. To determine if this pattern compares to a underlying pattern found in the great apes, sequence changes were determined in intronic regions of the factor IX gene. The following species were studied: Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmacus (orangutan) and Homo sapiens. Intronic sequences at least 200 bp from a splice junction were randomly chosen, amplified by cross-species PCR, and sequenced. These regions are expected to be subject to little if any selective pressure. Early diverged species of Old World monkeys were also studied to help determine the direction of mutational changes. A total of 62 sequence changes were observed. Initial data suggest that the average pattern since evolution of the great apes has a paucity of transitions at CpG dinucleotides and an excess of microinsertions to microdeletions when compared to the pattern observed in humans during the past 150 years (p<.05). A larger study is in progress to confirm these results.

  11. Pregnancy outcome and factors affecting vaginal delivery of twins at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study aims to determine the differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between caesarean and vaginal deliveries and the factors affecting vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Materials and Methods: An observational study to audit twin pregnancies delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital ...

  12. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  13. Baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce human B cells and allow active factor IX B cell secretion in vivo in NOD/SCIDγc-/-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C; Fusil, F; Amirache, F; Costa, C; Girard-Gagnepain, A; Negre, D; Bernadin, O; Garaulet, G; Rodriguez, A; Nair, N; Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M; Cosset, F-L; Verhoeyen, E

    2016-12-01

    Essentials B cells are attractive targets for gene therapy and particularly interesting for immunotherapy. A baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vector (BaEV-LV) was tested for B-cell transduction. BaEV-LVs transduced mature and plasma human B cells with very high efficacy. BaEV-LVs allowed secretion of functional factor IX from B cells at therapeutic levels in vivo. Background B cells are attractive targets for gene therapy for diseases associated with B-cell dysfunction and particularly interesting for immunotherapy. Moreover, B cells are potent protein-secreting cells and can be tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. Objective Evaluation of human B cells for secretion of clotting factors such as factor IX (FIX) as a possible treatment for hemophilia. Methods We tested here for the first time our newly developed baboon envelope (BaEV) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LVs) for human (h) B-cell transduction following their adaptive transfer into an NOD/SCIDγc -/- (NSG) mouse. Results Upon B-cell receptor stimulation, BaEV-LVs transduced up to 80% of hB cells, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus G protein VSV-G-LV only reached 5%. Remarkably, BaEVTR-LVs permitted efficient transduction of 20% of resting naive and 40% of resting memory B cells. Importantly, BaEV-LVs reached up to 100% transduction of human plasmocytes ex vivo. Adoptive transfer of BaEV-LV-transduced mature B cells into NOD/SCID/γc -/- (NSG) [non-obese diabetic (NOD), severe combined immuno-deficiency (SCID)] mice allowed differentiation into plasmablasts and plasma B cells, confirming a sustained high-level gene marking in vivo. As proof of principle, we assessed BaEV-LV for transfer of human factor IX (hFIX) into B cells. BaEV-LVs encoding FIX efficiently transduced hB cells and their transfer into NSG mice demonstrated for the first time secretion of functional hFIX from hB cells at therapeutic levels in vivo. Conclusions The BaEV-LVs might represent a valuable tool for therapeutic protein

  14. Novel biodegradable polymers for local growth factor delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Growth factors represent an important therapeutic protein drug class, and would benefit significantly from formulations that provide sustained, local release to realize their full clinical potential. Biodegradable polymer-based delivery platforms have been examined to achieve this end; however, formulations based on conventional polymers have yet to yield a clinical product. This review examines new polymer biomaterials that have been developed for growth factor delivery. The dosage forms are discussed in terms of their mechanism of release, the stability of the released growth factor, their method of preparation, and their potential for clinical translation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of risk factors in cesarean delivery among multiparous women with a history of vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Karabulut, Aysun; Yıldırım, Melahat; Simavlı, Serap Aynur; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk

    2012-01-01

    To predict the risk of cesarean delivery (CS) for multiparous women who have undergone previous vaginal delivery. A prospective observational study was performed, among multiparous pregnancies that were between 38 and 41 gestational weeks and had a singleton, vertex presentation fetus. Women's physical activity score, obstetric history, intrapartum and postpartum events were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with CS. Of the 245 total 83.7% had spontaneous labor and 16.3% were induced. Seventy-five percent of the induced women required CS, whereas only 19.5% of those with spontaneous labor required CS (pcesarean delivery among previously vaginally delivered women and maternal weight gain, physical activity score, cervical dilatation, and fetal weight are most accurate parameters in the prediction of the risk of CS delivery. Intrapartum CS has an increased risk of maternal morbidity.

  16. Delivery Site Preferences and Associated Factors among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must address societal and cultural factors that affect women's health and their access to services. There was no research conducted previously on delivery site preferences and associated factors among married women of child bearing age in the study area.

  17. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k Q factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing

  18. Evaluative feedback delivery and the factors that affect success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Whyte, Cristina E

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the factors that can affect the credibility, influence, and utility of evaluative feedback. These factors include the delivery strategy, accuracy, and type (positive/negative) of feedback provided. In this study over 500 participants were asked to complete a task, and were then randomly assigned to different conditions with varied feedback delivery methods, feedback accuracy, and types of feedback (positive/negative). Then they were asked questions about the feedback's credibility, influence, and utility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of coagulation factor IX-binding protein from habu snake venom at pH 6.5 and 4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Shikamoto, Yasuo; Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: mizuno@affrc.go.jp [Department of Biochemisty, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of habu coagulation factor IX-binding protein have been obtained at pH 6.5 and 4.6 and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Coagulation factor IX-binding protein isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (IX-bp) is a C-type lectin-like protein. It is an anticoagulant protein consisting of homologous subunits A and B. The subunits both contain a Ca{sup 2+}-binding site with differing affinity (K{sub d} values of 14 and 130 µM at pH 7.5). These binding characteristics are pH-dependent; under acidic conditions, the affinity of the low-affinity site was reduced considerably. In order to identify which site has high affinity and also to investigate the Ca{sup 2+}-releasing mechanism, IX-bp was crystallized at pH 6.5 and 4.6. The crystals at pH 6.5 and 4.6 diffracted to 1.72 and 2.29 Å resolution, respectively; the former crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 63.5, c = 66.9 Å, β = 117.0°, while the latter belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with a = 134.1, b = 37.8, c = 55.8 Å, β = 110.4°.

  20. Tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation is enhanced following delivery irrespective of the mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; den Hollander, I. A.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of thrombosis is clearly increased in the postpartum period. Mice with a targeted deletion of the transmembrane domain of tissue factor (TF) develop serious activation of blood coagulation and widespread thrombosis after delivery. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We hypothesized that TF,

  1. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operative delivery poses the risk of excessive blood loss and possible need for blood transfusion in the pregnant patient. Factors predisposing to increased risk for blood transfusion identified from previous studies include preoperative anaemia, previous Caesarean section and antepartum haemorrhage among others.1-.

  2. Factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District, Dodoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2009 in which women of child-bearing age were interviewed. The variables mainly included: accessibility of maternal health care, practicing TBA's, existence of ...

  3. Factors influencing extension service delivery in maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional extension system in Tanzania has recorded limited success in improving agricultural productivity including maize production in the country. The Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) approach in extension service delivery deemed desirable in addressing the challenge. However little is known about the factors ...

  4. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α, Glucose Transporter-1, (GLUT-1 and Carbon Anhydrase IX in Endometrial Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sadlecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, and carbon anhydrase IX (CAIX are important molecules that allow adaptation to hypoxic environments. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and CAIX protein level with the clinicopathological features of endometrial cancer patients. Materials and Methods. 92 endometrial cancer patients, aged 37–84, were enrolled to our study. In all patients clinical stage, histologic grade, myometrial invasion, lymph node, and distant metastases were determined. Moreover, the survival time was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on archive formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results. High significant differences (P=0.0115 were reported between HIF-1α expression and the histologic subtype of cancer. Higher HIF-1α expression was associated with the higher risk of recurrence (P=0.0434. The results of GLUT-1 and CAIX expression did not reveal any significant differences between the proteins expression in the primary tumor and the clinicopathological features. Conclusion. The important role of HIF-1α in the group of patients with the high risk of recurrence and the negative histologic subtype of the tumor suggest that the expression of this factor might be useful in the panel of accessory pathomorphological tests and could be helpful in establishing more accurate prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

  5. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government's efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I (2) test. People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance delivery service utilization. Women's autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended.

  6. [Relationship between factors of labour pain and delivery outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui-jun; Jiang, Yan-jiao; Ruan, Zhi-fang

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate factors associated with labor pain and delivery outcomes. From Jul. to Dec. 2009, 111 normal singleton cephalic presentation pregnancies (including 5 elderly parturient) who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University were enrolled in this study to evaluate the relationship between factors of labor pain and delivery outcomes. The labor pain of latent phase and active phase were scored by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Factors associated with pain included the age of parturient, the number of gravidity and parity, occupation, education profile, dwell location, etc. The questionnaire was designed by ourselves. Childbirth awareness, psychological preparation of delivery, emotional controllability, couple relationship, the relationship of parturient and mother-in-law, the relationship of parturient and parents, family economic status, use of sedative during the labor process and delivery outcomes were collected and analyzed. (1) Factors associated with pain: in the latent phase, the rate of moderate labour pain of 1/5 in women with more than 35 years old was statistically lower than 76.4% (81/106) in suitable age group (P labour pain (59.0%, 36/61) than 35.6% (16/45) in well-prepared group. The rate of severe labour pain in good control of emotion group of 44.8% (43/96) was a statistically lower than 9/10 in poor control group. There was a statistically lower severe labour pain in women given by sedatives (29.2%, 7/24) than 54.9% (45/82) in women without sedatives treatment (P labour pain. Sedative use could alleviate pain in active phase. Women with mild labour pain have good delivery outcomes.

  7. Risk factors for cesarean delivery in primigravida during spontaneous labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hc, C.; Yahya, M.S.; Mooi, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors for cesarean delivery among primigravida at Hospital Serdang. Methodology: This was a case control study which involved total 260 of 130 primigravida patients that underwent cesarean section (cases) and 130 primigravida patients that underwent vaginal delivery (control) at obstetrics and gynaecology department of Hospital Serdang, Malaysia from January until June 2013. A standardized proforma was used to collect the data of each primigravida patient presenting in spontaneous labour at term with singleton pregnancy with either caesarean or vaginal delivery. Results: Majority of the cases were Malaysian (86.9%) and mostly were from Malay ethnic group (75.4%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of hypertension status (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% CI; 1.56-20.84) and gestational age less than 40 weeks (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.34-5.02), fetal weight more than 3000 gm (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.95), were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. Conclusion: Primigravida with presence of hypertension, having gestational age less than 40 weeks and heavier fetus were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. (author)

  8. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, J.; Dent, J.A.; Azuma, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Kyrle, P.A.; Yoshioka, Akira; Ruggeri, Z.M.

    1991-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp 550 to Cys 550 , located in the GP IB-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp 550 or a mutant Cys 550 residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes

  9. The rates of G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G transversions at CpG dinucleotides in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The authors have identified eight independent transversions at CpG in 290 consecutive families with hemophilia B. These eight transversions account for 16.3% of all independent transversions in the sample, yet the expected frequency of CpG transversions at random in the factor IX gene is only 2.6% (P<0.1). The aggregate data suggest that the two types of CpG transversions (G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G) possess similar mutation rates (24.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] and 20.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]10], respectively), which are about fivefold greater than the comparable rates for transversions at non-CpG dinucleotides. The enhancement of transversions at CpG suggest that the model by which mutations occur at CpG may need to be reevaluated. The relationship, if any, between deamination of 5-methyl cytosine and enhancement of transversions at CpG remains to be defined. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Efficient detection of factor IX mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography in Taiwanese hemophilia B patients, and the identification of two novel mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chin Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia B (HB is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mutations in the clotting factor IX (FIX gene that result in FIX deficiency. Previous studies have shown a wide variation of FIX gene mutations in HB. Although the quality of life in HB has greatly improved mainly because of prophylactic replacement therapy with FIX concentrates, there exists a significant burden on affected families and the medical care system. Accurate detection of FIX gene mutations is critical for genetic counseling and disease prevention in HB. In this study, we used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC, which has proved to be a highly informative and practical means of detecting mutations, for the molecular diagnosis of our patients with HB. Ten Taiwanese families affected by HB were enrolled. We used the DHPLC technique followed by direct sequencing of suspected segments to detect FIX gene mutations. In all, 11 FIX gene mutations (8 point mutations, 2 small deletions/insertions, and 1 large deletion, including two novel mutations (exon6 c.687–695, del 9 mer and c.460–461, ins T were found. According to the HB pedigrees, 25% and 75% of our patients were defined as familial and sporadic HB cases, respectively. We show that DHPLC is a highly sensitive and cost-effective method for FIX gene analysis and can be used as a convenient system for disease prevention.

  11. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  12. Predictive factors for cesarean delivery : a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Sónia; Saraiva, Alexandra; Lagarto, Filipa; Susano, Maria João; Oliveira, Ricardo; Nunes, Catarina S.; Pina, Pedro; Lemos, Paulo; Machado, Humberto S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cesarean section rates have risen markedly worldwide. Considering the potential harm caused by this mode of delivery, and the general concern in reducing its incidence, it would be useful to individualize the risk of non-planned cesareans, and if there is any possibility, reduce that risk, and anesthesiologists should take part of this risk evaluation. In recent studies, many factors have been related with a higher risk of cesarean, and controversy still surrounds labor analges...

  13. Surgical site infection following cesarean deliveries: trends and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Yuval; Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    To identify trends and risk factors for early surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery (CD). A population-based study comparing characteristics of women who have and have not developed post cesarean SSI was conducted. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2013 in a tertiary medical center. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backwards elimination, was used to control for confounders. Of the 41 375 cesarean deliveries performed during the study period, 1521 (3.7%) were complicated with SSI. SSI rates significantly deceased over the years, from 7.4% in 1988 to 1.5% in 2012. Using a multivariable regression model, the following independent risk factors for SSI were identified: obesity (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5); previous CD (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0); hypertensive disorders (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6); premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4); and recurrent pregnancy losses (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). Independent risk factors for post-cesarean SSI include obesity, GDM, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes, and recurrent pregnancy losses. Information regarding higher rates of SSI and preventative measures should be provided to these high-risk women prior to surgery.

  14. Pregnancy outcome and factors affecting vaginal delivery of twins at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... and strong aversion for caesarean delivery, vaginal delivery would be more acceptable. This study aims to determine the predictors of vaginal delivery in ... vaginal delivery or loss of more than 1000 ml of blood during caesarean section. Fetal presentations were determined using clinical examination and ...

  15. Risk factors for emergency cesarean delivery of the second twin after vaginal delivery of the first twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study of twins was performed to identify clinical predictions of emergency cesarean delivery in the second-born twin after vaginal delivery of the first twin. The obstetric records were reviewed of all twin vaginal deliveries at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from 2002 through 2007. There were 206 vaginal deliveries of first twins at >or=33 weeks of gestation. Of these deliveries, nine women (4.4%) underwent an emergency cesarean for the delivery of the second twin. The incidence of cesarean delivery for the second twin was significantly greater in cases with a history of infertility therapy (odds ratio: 5.0, 95% confidence intervals: 1.2-22), gestational age at >or=39 weeks (24, 4.7-120), nonvertex presentation (6.2, 1.5-26), operative delivery of the first twin (6.1, 1.5-24) and intertwin delivery time interval >30 min (7.2, 1.7-30). The most important risk factor of emergency cesarean delivery in the second twin was a gestational age of >or=39 weeks.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) mediates tumor cell interactions with microenvironment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závadová, Zuzana; Závada, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 977-982 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * cell adhesion * microenvironment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  17. Risk factors for infection following cesarean delivery: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Raed; Braverman, Meirav; Teitler, Nava; Berkovic, Ilanit; Suliman, Abeer; Shalev, Eliezer

    2012-12-01

    To identify risk factors for infection following cesarean delivery (CD) and to investigate the effect of intervention on modifiable risk factors (MRF). A prospective, two-period cohort intervention study. All CD performed between September 2006 and August 2007 (era 1) and between July 2009 and June 2010 (era 2) were included. Infection control program was implemented before era 2 and included a refresher course in aseptic and scrub techniques to all surgical teams. Infectious morbidity was recognized up to 30 days from the operation. Risk factors were identified by multiple logistic regressions. A total of 1616 women included and analyzed during both eras. Logistic regression revealed that residency (rural as compared to urban), obesity and urgency of the CD were significant risk factors for infection. Prior to intervention, senior obstetricians had a lower infection rate than senior gynecologists (p = 0.02). Within both groups, the incidence in era 2 decreased and was comparable (obstetricians: 5.7 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.005; gynecologists: 12.7 vs. 1.1%; p = 0.003). Among the group of scrub nurses who took part in less than 20 CD during era 1, the intervention reduced significantly the infection rate during era 2 (p = 0.0002). Surgical team is a MRF for infection following CD. Intervention decreased this unintended clinical effect attributed to surgical teams.

  18. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we

  19. Risk factors for wound disruption following cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N

    2014-08-01

    Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ≥24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ≥30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). RESULTS for composite wound morbidity were similar. Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption.

  20. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    had given birth before (table 1). Out of the 140 pregnant women in this study,. 104 (74.3%) were currently attending ANC, 84. (60%) had their last delivery in the hospital while 56 (40%) had their last delivery at home. 85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital while 55(39.3%) opted for home delivery. (table 2). Reasons ...

  1. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the length of membrane was reduced. Conclusion: The in vitro experiments indicate that it would be incorrect to equate delivery with recovery of puerarin in in vivo microdialysis experiments. Keywords: Microdialysis, Puerarin, Recovery, Probe delivery. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science ...

  2. factors influencing the use of episiotomy during vaginal delivery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-05

    May 5, 2008 ... extraction, forceps delivery, vaginal breech delivery, and a history of Caesarean section. Episiotomy use was also associated with major perineal lacerations and increased .... 3. argentine Episiotomy trial collaborative Group. routine versus selective episiotomy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1993 ...

  3. The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Preterm Delivery in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Tehranian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Preterm delivery is one of the most important problems in pregnancy, as it is the primary cause of 75% of prenatal mortality and morbidities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for preterm delivery in Tehran, Iran. Methods:In this cross-sectional study performed in eight random hospitals from five different regions of Tehran (North, South, West, East, and center, the prevalence of preterm delivery was evaluated and the most frequent risk factors were identified. Samples were divided into preterm delivery (n=140 and term delivery (n=100 groups. Questionnaires were completed through interviews with mothers and using patient records. To analyze the data, Chi-square test was run, using SPSS version 16. Results: About 13,281 deliveries were included in the study. The highest and lowest prevalence of preterm delivery were 6.30% and 0.77% in the North and East regions of Tehran, respectively.  The overall prevalence of preterm delivery was 1.52% in Tehran. In the preterm group, age ≥35 years, pre-mature rupture of membranes, bleeding, gestational hypertension, history of preterm delivery and abortion, multiple pregnancy, and preeclampsia were significantly more frequent than the term delivery group. Conclusion: Spontaneous preterm birth was one of the major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity; therefore, identification of its risk factors would be beneficial.

  4. Apoptosis-induced ectodomain shedding of hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase IX from tumor cells: a double-edged response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidlickova, Ivana; Dequiedt, Franck; Jelenska, Lenka; Sedlakova, Olga; Pastorek, Michal; Stuchlik, Stanislav; Pastorek, Jaromir; Zatovicova, Miriam; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a tumor-associated, highly active, transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoform regulated by hypoxia and implicated in pH control and adhesion-migration-invasion. CA IX ectodomain (ECD) is shed from the tumor cell surface to serum/plasma of patients, where it can signify cancer prognosis. We previously showed that the CA IX ECD release is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17. Here we investigated the CA IX ECD shedding in tumor cells undergoing apoptosis in response to cytotoxic drugs, including cycloheximide and doxorubicin. Presence of cell surface CA IX was correlated to the extent of apoptosis by flow cytometry in cell lines with natural or ectopic CA IX expression. CA IX ECD level was assessed by ELISA using CA IX-specific monoclonal antibodies. Effect of recombinant CA IX ECD on the activation of molecular pathways was evaluated using the cell-based dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found a significantly lower occurrence of apoptosis in the CA IX-positive cell subpopulation than in the CA IX-negative one. We also demonstrated that the cell-surface CA IX level dropped during the death progress due to an increased ECD shedding, which required a functional ADAM17. Inhibitors of metalloproteinases reduced CA IX ECD shedding, but not apoptosis. The CA IX ECD release induced by cytotoxic drugs was connected to elevated expression of CA IX in the surviving fraction of cells. Moreover, an externally added recombinant CA IX ECD activated a pathway driven by the Nanog transcription factor implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness. These findings imply that the increased level of the circulating CA IX ECD might be useful as an indicator of an effective antitumor chemotherapy. Conversely, elevated CA IX ECD might generate unwanted effects through autocrine/paracrine signaling potentially contributing to resistance and tumor progression

  5. Delivery-related risk factors for covert postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Femke E. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Hakvoort, Robert A.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum urinary retention (PUR) is a common consequence of bladder dysfunction after vaginal delivery. Patients with covert PUR are able to void spontaneously but have a postvoid residual bladder volume (PVRV) of ≥150 mL. Incomplete bladder emptying may predispose to bladder dysfunction at a

  6. Delivery-related risk factors for covert postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Femke E M; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; van der Post, Joris A M; Hakvoort, Robert A; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; Oude Rengerink, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375367292

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Postpartum urinary retention (PUR) is a common consequence of bladder dysfunction after vaginal delivery. Patients with covert PUR are able to void spontaneously but have a postvoid residual bladder volume (PVRV) of ≥150 mL. Incomplete bladder emptying may predispose to

  7. Effects of delivery mode and sociodemographic factors on postpartum stress urinary incontinency in primipara women: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kokabi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Vaginal delivery is associated with a twofold increased risk of postpartum SUI in primipara women compared with elective cesarean section. Age and birth weight are the main risk factors of postpartum SUI in both modes of delivery. Tool-assisted delivery and episiotomy were determined as the risk factors of postpartum SUI in vaginal delivery.

  8. In-vivo fluorescence dosimetry of aminolevulinate-based protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in human nonmelanoma skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Chang, Sung; Bailin, Philip A.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    PDT is clinically useful for precancers (actinic keratoses; AK) of the skin, but the optimal duration for 5-ALA application is still controversial. For basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cure rates remain inferior to surgical excision. Lack of knowledge about regional levels of PpIX levels within target tissues clearly contribute to these suboptimal results. To investigate PpIX levels achievable in human skin neoplasias in-vivo, a clinical study to monitor PpIX accumulation in vivo was performed. PpIX-fluorescence in patients undergoing ALA-PDT for facial AK was monitored via real-time in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry, with measurements q20 min following application of 5-ALA (Levulan Kerastick). PpIX accumulation followed linear kinetics in nearly all cases. The slopes varied widely, and did not correlate with clinical outcome in all patients. Some patients with a low accumulation of PpIX fluorescence had a good response to therapy, whereas others with high PpIX accumulation required repeat treatment (although not necessarily of the same lesion). PpIX accumulation rates did correlate to a certain degree with the overall amount of erythema. We conclude that unknown factors besides PpIX levels must be critical for the response to treatment. To assess the relationship between PpIX levels in various skin cancers, patients undergoing routine Mohs surgery for BCC or SCC were measured by in-vivo dosimetry at 2 h after 5-ALA application. Overall, a progressive increase in PpIX signal during malignant progression was observed, in the following rank order: Normal skin < AK < SCC ~ BCC.

  9. Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus anal incontinence 4years after first delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritel , Xavier; Khoshnood , Babak; Fauconnier , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Delivery can be complicated by urinary or anal incontinence (UI or AI). We hypothesized that the mechanisms of injury may differ for UI and AI. Hence, obstetrical risk factors may be specific for different types of incontinence. DESIGN: Data on maternal characteristics were collected at first delivery. Data on incontinence were obtained by a questionnaire completed by 627 women 4years after first delivery. UI was defined by "Do you have involuntary loss of urine" ...

  10. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH UPTAKE OF SKILLED ATTENDANTS' SERVICES DURING CHILD DELIVERY IN GARISSA TOWN, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikar, R A; Karama, M; Ng'ang'a, Z W

    2013-11-01

    To identify the factors that are associated with uptake of skilled delivery services during child delivery among women of reproductive age in Garissa town. Cross sectional study. Garissa town. Three hundred and thirty four women aged 15-49 years who had had at least one delivery in their lifetime were asked about the type of delivery services they had during their last child delivery. The study found that 47% of the last deliveries women were attended by skilled persons and the rest of the deliveries were provided by TBAs. The predictors of skilled delivery uptake in this study were found to be; having knowledge on skilled delivery service providers (AOR = 17.2; 95% CI: 1.05-281.12; p = 0.046), child deliveries numbering one to three (AOR = 116.95; 95% CI: 26.68-512.64; p = 0.001) and four to six (AOR = 16.75; 95% CI: 4.44-62.87; p = 0.001), presence of previous delivery complication (AOR = 11.71; 95% CI: 3.96-34.60; p = 0.001), disapproval of TBA services (AOR = 27.19; 95% CI: 6.67-110.76; p = 0.001), lack of preference for gender of skilled delivery service provider (AOR = 6.51; 95% CI: 1.08-39.37; p = 0.041), and positive view on service related factors such as time to nearest facility (AOR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.24-12.34; p = 0.020), hygiene (AOR = 5.03; 95% CI: 1.49-17.05; p = 0.009) and operation time of health facility (AOR = 4.67; 95% CI: 1.59-13.76; p = 0.005). The findings show that cultural and maternal factors as well as quality of services at facility level play major role in determining uptake of skilled services among women in Garissa as compared to social demographic and economic factors.

  11. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery following Labor Induction in Multiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Uytrecht, Cedric T.; Porath, Martina M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child...

  12. Influence of protoporphyrin IX loaded phloroglucinol succinic acid dendrimer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Suresh; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity. The usefulness of photosensitizers can be made possible by reducing its dark toxicity nature. In such scenario, biocompatible carriers can be used as a drug delivery system to evade the problems that arises while using free (dark toxic) drugs. So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free PpIX in HeLa cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using 2‧,7‧-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA)- ROS Marker with phase contrast microscopy for the IC50 values of free and dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation. Similarly, the mode of cell death has been confirmed by cell cycle analysis for the same. For the in vitro PDT application, we have used a simple light source (Light Emitting Diode) with a power of 30-50 mW for 20 min irradiation. Hence, in this study we have taken steps to report this anionic drug delivery system is good to consider for the photodynamic therapy applications with the photosensitizer, PpIX which satisfied the prime requirement of PDT.

  13. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eshetu E, NigusseTadele. Determinants of Skilled. Institutional Delivery Service Utilization among Wom- en Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months in Bako Dis- trict, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2012/13 (Case-Control Study. Design). Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2015;3(2):36-. 42. 28. Lwelamira J, Safari J. Choice of Place for ...

  14. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery following Labor Induction in Multiparous Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Uytrecht, Cedric T.; Porath, Martina M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the

  15. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  16. Factors influencing non-institutional deliveries in afghanistan: secondary analysis of the afghanistan mortality survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mohammad Daud; Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Khaing, Inn Kynn; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Home delivery in unhygienic environments is common among Afghan women; only one third of births are delivered at health facilities. Institutional delivery is central to reducing maternal mortality. The factors associated with place of delivery among women in Afghanistan were examined using the Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 (AMS 2010), which was open to researchers. The AMS 2010 data were collected through an interviewer-led questionnaire from 18,250 women. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of non-institutional delivery were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When age at survey, education, parity, residency, antenatal care frequency, remoteness, wealth and regions were adjusted, the OR of non-institutional delivery was 8.37 (95% CI, 7.47-9.39) for no antenatal care relative to four or more antenatal care visits, 4.07 (95% CI, 3.45-4.80) for poorest household relative to women from richest household, 2.02 (95% CI, 1.43-2.84) for no education relative to higher education, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.52-2.09) for six or more deliveries relative to one delivery, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.36-1.67) for rural relative to urban residency. Since antenatal care was strongly associated with non-institutional delivery after adjustment of the other factors, antenatal care service may promote institutional deliveries, which can reduce maternal mortality ratio in Afghanistan.

  17. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  18. A study of factors influencing surgical cesarean delivery times in an academic tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Fiol, A; Meng, M-L; Danhakl, V; Kim, M; Miller, R; Smiley, R

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of hospital-specific average cesarean delivery operative times, and factors influencing length of surgery, can serve as a guide for anesthesiologists when choosing the optimal anesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to determine operative times and the factors influencing those times for cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective review of all 1348 cesarean deliveries performed at an academic hospital in 2011. The primary outcome was mean operative time for first, second, third and fourth or more cesarean deliveries. The secondary goal was to identify factors influencing operative time. Variables included age, body mass index, previous surgery, gestational age, urgency of cesarean delivery, anesthesia type, surgeon's seniority, layers closed, and performance of tubal ligation. Mean (standard deviation) operative times for first (n=857), second (n=353), third (n=108) and fourth or more (n=30) cesarean deliveries were 56 (19), 60 (19), 69 (28) and 82 (31) minutes, respectively (P cesarean delivery or the presence of other factors that could increase operative time may warrant catheter-based anesthetic techniques or the addition of adjunctive medications to prolong spinal anesthetic block. Institutional and individual surgeon factors may play an even more important role in determining surgical time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  20. Risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Felicia; Woolcott, Christy; Allen, Victoria; Langley, Joanne M

    2017-07-11

    The rate of cesarean delivery is increasing in North America. Surgical site infection following this operation can make it difficult to recover, care for a baby and return home. We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection to 30 days following cesarean delivery, associated risk factors and whether risk factors differed for predischarge versus postdischarge infection. We identified a retrospective cohort in Nova Scotia by linking the provincial perinatal database to hospital admissions and physician billings databases to follow women for 30 days after they had given birth by cesarean delivery between Jan. 1, 1997 and Dec. 31, 2012. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to determine risk factors for infection. A total of 25 123 women had 33 991 cesarean deliveries over the study period. Of the 25 123, 923 had surgical site infections, giving an incidence rate of 2.7% (95% CI 2.54%-2.89%); the incidence decreased over time. Risk factors for infection (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 1.5) were prepregnancy weight 87.0 kg or more, gaining 30.0 kg or more during pregnancy, chorioamnionitis, maternal blood transfusion, anticoagulation therapy, alcohol or drug abuse, second stage of labour before surgery, delivery in 1997-2000 and delivery in a hospital performing 130-1249 cesarean deliveries annually. Women who gave birth earlier in the study period, those who gave birth in a hospital with 130-949 cesarean deliveries per year and those with more than 1 fetus were at a significantly higher risk for surgical site infection before discharge; women who smoked were at significantly higher risk for surgical site infection after discharge. Most risk factors are known before delivery, and some are potentially modifiable. Although the incidence of surgical site infection decreased over time, targeted clinical and infection prevention and control interventions could further reduce the burden of illness associated with this health

  1. Oxymetazoline Metered Dose Spray: Factors Affecting Delivery Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Mumin; Walia, Hina; Rafiq, Mahmood; Grannell, Timothy; Cartabuke, Richard S; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared the amount of oxymetazoline delivered by various anesthesia providers when holding the bottle in the upright and inverted position. Additionally, the amount delivered from a full bottle and a half-full bottle was also investigated. Using an analytical balance that was calibrated to zero, we evaluated the impact the position of the bottle and the volume of oxymetazoline in the bottle had on the amount being delivered by both anesthesia staff and trainees. When using both filled and half-filled bottles, the amount delivered increased significantly when comparing the upright versus inverted position. With a full bottle, the amount delivered when the bottle was inverted increased almost 10-fold from 62 ± 80 to 606 ± 366 μL (p oxymetazoline delivered for metered dose bottles. Given the potential for severe end-organ effects with excessive dosage, alternative means of delivery are needed for its perioperative use.

  2. Soluble form of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in the serum and urine of renal carcinoma patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, Jan; Závadová, Zuzana; Zaťovičová, M.; Hyršl, L.; Kawaciuk, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2003), s. 1067-1071 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/99/0356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * tumor antigens * cancer diagnostics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2003

  3. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether adjunct anti-GP Ib-IX therapy could benefit the breast cancer patient with malignant disease. Body Below we list the 3 Specific Aims from our...Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D...AND SUBTITLE Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0576 5c

  4. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikre Addis Alem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P  Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of

  5. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikre, Addis Alem; Demissie, Meaza

    2012-12-15

    Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC) service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10-30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of the ANC services need to be investigated.

  6. Online, Instructional Television and Traditional Delivery: Student Characteristics and Success Factors in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Douglas P.; Rochelle, Carolyn F.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education has surged in recent years while research on student characteristics and factors leading to successful outcomes has not kept pace. This study examined characteristics of regional university students in undergraduate Business Statistics and factors linked to their success based on three modes of delivery - Online, Instructional…

  7. Factors Associated with Teacher Delivery of a Classroom-Based Tier 2 Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S; Conroy, Maureen A; McLeod, Bryce D; Algina, James; Kunemund, Rachel L

    2018-01-01

    Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher…

  8. Depression after Delivery: Risk Factors, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Scrandis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum mood disorders can negatively affect women, their offspring, and their families when left untreated. The identification and treatment of postpartum depression remains problematic since health care providers may often not differentiate postpartum blues from depression onset. Recent studies found potentially new risk factors, etiologies, and treatments; thus, possibly improving the untreated postpartum depression rates. This integrated review examined several postpartum psychiatric disorders, postpartum blues, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and postpartum psychosis for current findings on prevalence, etiologies, risk factors, and postpartum depression treatments.

  9. Blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: Risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group specific blood is often cross-matched ready for all patients scheduled for caesarean section in anticipation of haemorrhage during the surgery. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for blood transfusion during anaesthesia for caesarean section. Methods: This was a prospective ...

  10. Maternal Risks Factors and Delivery Outcome of Fetal Macrosomia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macrosomia may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome there is paucity of recent data regarding fetal macrosomia in our setting. This study was undertaken to document the prevalence and risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia and also to determine the maternal and perinatal ...

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor: Target for delivery and silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Oliveira, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841455

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer therapy Recently, cancer research has been able to identify molecular targets that are specific for (or highly expressed by) cancer cells. These molecular targets serve as models for the development of rationally designed anticancer drugs that target

  12. Factors affecting delivery and transient expression of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors investigated were the helium pressure, target distance, macrocarrier flight distance to stopping screen, distance from stopping screen to target tissues, vacuum pressure, gold microparticles size, spermidine and calcium on DNA precipitation, and the number of bombardments. Two days after bombardment, the ...

  13. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery following Labor Induction in Multiparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine J. Verhoeven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child in cephalic position. Results. Between 1995 and 2010, labor was induced in 2548 parous women, of whom 80 had a cesarean delivery (3%. These 80 cases were compared to the data of 160 parous women with a successful induction of labor. In the multivariate analysis history of preterm delivery (odds ratio (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 25, maternal height (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.95 and dilatation at the start of induction (OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.98 were associated with failed induction. Conclusion. In multiparous women, the risk of cesarean delivery following labor induction increases with previous preterm delivery, short maternal height, and limited dilatation at the start of induction.

  14. The incidence and risk factors for retained placenta after vaginal delivery - a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Peled, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for retained placenta immediately after vaginal delivery in a single, university-affiliated tertiary center. A case-control study. Women who delivered vaginally and diagnosed with suspected retained placenta were compared to control group of women with spontaneous vaginal delivery with spontaneous non-complicated placental separation between the years 2007 and 2012. Eligibility was limited to singleton fetuses in vertex presentation with no history of more than one cesarean section, stillbirth or major fetal anomaly. Overall, 33,925 women delivered vaginally, of them, 491 (1.4%) underwent revision of uterine cavity due to suspected retained placenta. Women with retained placenta were characterized by a higher rate of previous cesarean section (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.36), previous abortions, lower parity (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.91), lower gestational age at delivery. Hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios and labor and delivery interventions as induction of labor (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59), neuro-axial analgesia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00) and vacuum delivery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.48-2.41) were independently associated with uterine revision for retained placenta. Risk factors for manual revision due to retained placenta can be recognized. This data should be taken into consideration in the assessment of women immediately after delivery.

  15. Lack of prognostic and predictive value of CA IX in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with known modifiable hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CA IX is suggested to be an endogenous marker of hypoxia in tumours like squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CA IX served as a prognostic factor for outcome in a large population of HNSCC and if CA IX......+/-the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. CA IX was measured using immunohistochemistry and results were divided into four groups of CA IX expression: 30% of the tumour area with positive membrane staining. Locoregional control and disease-specific survival were used as endpoints...

  16. Advanced Growth Factor Delivery Systems in Wound Management and Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Woo; Hwang, Seung Rim; Yoon, In-Soo

    2017-07-27

    Growth factors are endogenous signaling molecules that regulate cellular responses required for wound healing processes such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. However, exogenous application of growth factors has limited effectiveness in clinical settings due to their low in vivo stability, restricted absorption through skin around wound lesions, elimination by exudation prior to reaching the wound area, and other unwanted side effects. Sophisticated systems to control the spatio-temporal delivery of growth factors are required for the effective and safe use of growth factors as regenerative treatments in clinical practice, such as biomaterial-based drug delivery systems (DDSs). The current review describes the roles of growth factors in wound healing, their clinical applications for the treatment of chronic wounds, and advances in growth factor-loaded DDSs for enhanced wound healing, focusing on micro- and nano-particulate systems, scaffolds, hydrogels, and other miscellaneous systems.

  17. [Prevention of shoulder dystocia risk factors before delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether it is possible to prevent the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia before or during pregnancy. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Studied measures were exercise before or during pregnancy, dietary management, and gestational diabetes management in obese and non-obese patients. No study has proven that the correction of these risk factors (except gestational diabetes) would reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the general population, physical exercise is recommended either before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (physical activity before pregnancy) (grade B), fetal macrosomia (grade C) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (grade C). No dietary regimen is recommended to reduce these issues (grade B). In overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]>25), physical activity coupled with dietary management is recommended (grade A) because it reduces fetal macrosomia (EL1). In addition, it allows a modest reduction in maternal weight gain during pregnancy (EL2), but did have an effect on the occurrence of gestational diabetes (EL1). In case of gestational diabetes, diabetes care is recommended (diabetic diet, glucose monitoring, insulin if needed) (grade A) as it reduces the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia (EL1). The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11.5 kg to 16 kg for normal BMI patients (grade B). Obese patients should be aware of the importance of controlling their weight gain during pregnancy (professional consensus). It is recommended that patients regain their pre-conception weight, and ideally a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2), 6 months postpartum (grade B) to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and macrosomia in a subsequent pregnancy (EL2). Physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia

  18. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  19. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X ...

  20. Maternal and obstetric risk factors associated with preterm delivery at a referral hospital in northern-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia B. Temu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The risk factors for preterm delivery identified in this study are consistent with previous studies. Clinicians and other health care providers should routinely assess women at high risk of preterm delivery during prenatal care to prevent the occurrence of preterm delivery and associated adverse perinatal outcomes.

  1. Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus anal incontinence 4 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritel, X; Khoshnood, B; Fauconnier, A

    2013-09-01

    Delivery can be complicated by urinary or anal incontinence (UI or AI). We hypothesized that the mechanisms of injury may differ for UI and AI. Hence, obstetrical risk factors may be specific for different types of incontinence. Data on maternal characteristics were collected at first delivery. Data on incontinence were obtained by a questionnaire completed by 627 women 4 years after first delivery. UI was defined by "Do you have involuntary loss of urine" and AI by "Do you have involuntary loss of flatus or stool". A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess risk factors for UI only, AI only, and UI+AI. Twenty-two percent of women reported UI only, 6.5% AI only, and 6.5% both. Risk factors associated with UI only were age (at first delivery)≥ 30 (OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.47-3.49]), pre-existing UI (6.44 [2.19-19.0]) and pregnancy UI (3.64 [2.25-5.91]). Risk factors associated with AI only were length of the second active stage> 20minutes (2.86 [1.15-7.13]) and third degree perineal tear (20.9 [1.73-252]). Significant predictors of UI+AI were age ≥ 30 (2.65 [1.29-5.46]), no epidural (4.29 [1.65-11.1]), third degree perineal tear (20.0 [1.28-314]), and UI before pregnancy (32.9 [9.00-120]). Cesarean delivery was not significantly associated with UI, AI, or UI+AI, although for all three outcomes, the adjusted odds ratios were substantially less than one. We found specific associations between obstetrical risk factors and urinary versus anal incontinence 4 years after first delivery. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the underlying mechanisms of injury differ for UI and AI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Double emulsion electrospun nanofibers as a growth factor delivery vehicle for salivary gland regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraida, Zahraa I.; Sharikova, Anna; Peerzada, Lubna N.; Khmaladze, Alexander; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors, proteins, drugs and other biologically active molecules is necessary for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers are attractive tissue engineering scaffolds as they partially mimic the topography of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they do not provide continuous nourishment to the tissue. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we previously developed a blend nanofiber scaffold composed of the protein elastin and the synthetic polymer polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The nanofiber scaffold promoted in vivo-like salivary epithelial cell tissue organization and apicobasal polarization. However, in order to enhance the salivary cell proliferation and biomimetic character of the scaffold, sustained growth factor delivery is needed. The composite nanofiber scaffold was optimized to act as a growth factor delivery system using epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a model protein. The nanofiber/EGF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by double emulsion electrospinning where EGF is emulsified within a water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsion system. Successful incorporation of EGF was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. EGF release profile was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of the EGF content. Double emulsion electrospinning resulted in slower release of EGF. We demonstrated the potential of the proposed double emulsion electrospun nanofiber scaffold for the delivery of growth factors and/or drugs for tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering: general approaches and a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangwon; Silva, Eduardo A; Mooney, David J

    2011-02-06

    The identification and production of recombinant morphogens and growth factors that play key roles in tissue regeneration have generated much enthusiasm and numerous clinical trials, but the results of many of these trials have been largely disappointing. Interestingly, the trials that have shown benefit all contain a common denominator, the presence of a material carrier, suggesting strongly that spatio-temporal control over the location and bioactivity of factors after introduction into the body is crucial to achieve tangible therapeutic effect. Sophisticated materials systems that regulate the biological presentation of growth factors represent an attractive new generation of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This review provides an overview of growth factor delivery in tissue engineering. Certain fundamental issues and design strategies relevant to the material carriers that are being actively pursued to address specific technical objectives are discussed. Recent progress highlights the importance of materials science and engineering in growth factor delivery approaches to regenerative medicine.

  4. DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Protoporphyrin IX in Sarcoma 180 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyrin derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy as effective sensitizers. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a well-known hematoporphyrin derivative component, shows great potential to enhance light induced tumor cell damage. However, PpIX alone could also exert anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underlying those direct effects are incompletely understood. This study thus investigated the putative mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of PpIX on sarcoma 180 (S180 cells. Methods: S180 cells were treated with different concentrations of PpIX. Following the treatment, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay; Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry; The trans-location of apoptosis inducer factor (AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by DNA content with flow cytometry; Cell cycle associated proteins were detected by western blotting. Results: PpIX (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced viability of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PpIX rapidly and significantly triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, AIF (apoptosis inducer factor translocation from mitochondria to nucleus and DNA damage, effects partially relieved by the specific inhibitor of MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, S phase arrest and upregulation of the related proteins of P53 and P21 were observed following 12 and 24 h PpIX exposure. Conclusion: PpIX could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

  5. Clinical impact of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence in women 5 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Wu, Ming-Ping; Lin, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Wang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence (UI) in women 5 years after their first birth and to evaluate the associations of UI with delivery mode and quality of life. Between 2005 July and 2006 March, primiparous women who delivered at term in a tertiary hospital were recruited into this cohort study. Immediately postpartum, the women completed a structured urogynecological questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms. Then the same urogynecological questionnaire, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were mailed to them 5 years later to follow up on UI. Three hundred and twelve women responding to the mailed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The prevalence 5 years after first delivery of stress (SUI) and urge (UUI) UI were 43.6 % and 19.2 %, respectively. Women with UI during their first pregnancy were more likely to develop UI 5 years postpartum than those without it; women who delivered their first child vaginally had a greater incidence of UI than those having cesarean birth; UUI in women following cesarean delivery more negatively impacted emotional health than it did following vaginal birth, whereas the impact of SUI did not significantly differ between delivery groups. UI during the first pregnancy and vaginal delivery in primiparous women may predict an increased risk of having UI 5 years after delivery. UUI adversely affected women's emotional health, especially in those undergoing cesarean section.

  6. [Factors associated with mode of delivery in women with pre-eclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, José Juvenal; Macêdo, Nadesna Martins Queiroz; Arruda, Guarany Mont'alverne de; Vasconcelos, Janssen Loiola Melo; Saraiva, Thiago De Vasconcelos; Ribeiro, Amélia Frota

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the factors related to route of delivery in patients with pre-eclampsia. A retrospective analytical study was conducted from January 2009 to January 2011, during which 250 medical records of patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia who gave birth to live fetuses with a gestational age of 28 weeks or more were selected. The variables evaluated were: maternal age (19 years, 20-34 years and over 35 full years), gestational age at delivery (28-37 weeks and more than 37 weeks), parity (primiparous or multiparous), previous cesarean section, history of pre-eclampsia or chronic hypertension, current diagnosis of mild or severe pre-eclampsia, and birth weight of the newborn. The information was transcribed to a questionnaire based on the variables being investigated. The chi-square test was applied to identify the relationship between the variables, with the level of significance set at pcesarean section. In this study, we observed a 78.4% rate of cesarean delivery, with 54.1% of the patients submitted to the procedure having a gestational age of 28 to 37 weeks (OR=3.1; phistory of pre-eclampsia were 2.5 times more likely to have cesarean delivery (OR=2.5; pcesarean were submitted to cesarean delivery in the current pregnancy (pcesarean delivery than those with mild pre-eclampsia (OR=3.3; pdelivery.

  7. Predisposing factors for bacterial vaginosis, treatment efficacy and pregnancy outcome among term deliveries; results from a preterm delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsson Tell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery but little is known about factors that could predict BV. We have analyzed if it is possible to identify a category of pregnant women that should be screened for BV, and if BV would alter the pregnancy outcome at term; we have also studied the treatment efficacy of clindamycin. Methods Prospective BV screening and treatment study of 9025 women in a geographically defined region in southeast Sweden. BV was defined as a modified Nugent score of 6 and above. Data was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Women allocated to treatment were supplied with vaginal clindamycin cream. The main outcome goals were to identify factors that could predict BV. Results Vaginal smears were consistent with BV criteria in 9.3%. Logistic regression indicates a significant correlation between smoking and BV (p Conclusion BV is more than twice as common among smokers, and there is a higher prevalence in the younger age group. However these two markers for BV do not suffice as a tool for screening, and considering the lack of other risk factors associated with BV, screening of all pregnant women might be a strategy to follow in a program intended to reduce the number of preterm births.

  8. Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Prediction of Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...

  9. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M. J.; de Groot, Christianne J.; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines. IX. Application of the concentration-concentration structure factor to the study of binary mixtures containing pyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2009-10-10

    Binary mixtures formed by a pyridine base and an alkane, or an aromatic hydrocarbon, or a 1-alkanol have been studied in the framework of the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), formalism. Deviations between experimental data and those provided by the DISQUAC model are discussed. Systems containing alkanes are characterized by homocoordination. In pyridine + alkane mixtures, S{sub CC}(0) decreases with the chain length of the longer alkanes, due to size effects. For a given alkane, S{sub CC}(0) also decreases with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base. This has been interpreted assuming that the number of amine-amine interactions available to be broken upon mixing also decreases similarly, probably as steric hindrances exerted by the methyl groups of the aromatic amine increase with the number of these groups. Homocoordination is higher in mixtures with 3,5-dimethylpyridine than in those with 2,6-dimethylpyridine. That is, steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 3 and 5 are stronger than when they are in positions 2 and 6. Similarly, from the application of the DISQUAC (dispersive-quasichemical) model, it is possible to conclude that homocoordination is higher in systems with 3- or 4-methylpyridine than in those involving 2-methylpyridine. Systems including aromatic hydrocarbons are nearly ideal, which seems to indicate that there is no specific interaction in such solutions. Mixtures with 1-alkanols show heterocoordination. This reveals the existence of interactions between unlike molecules, characteristic of alkanol + amine mixtures. Methanol systems show the lowest S{sub CC}(0) values due, partially, to size effects. This explains the observed decrease of homocoordination in such solutions in the order: pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,6-dimethylpyridine. Moreover, as the energies of the OH-N hydrogen bonds are practically independent of the pyridine base considered when mixed with methanol, it suggests that

  11. Crucial factors and emerging concepts in ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Bart; Dewitte, Heleen; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Lentacker, Ine

    2012-12-28

    Time and space controlled drug delivery still remains a huge challenge in medicine. A novel approach that could offer a solution is ultrasound guided drug delivery. “Ultrasonic drug delivery” is often based on the use of small gas bubbles (so-called microbubbles) that oscillate and cavitate upon exposure to ultrasound waves. Some microbubbles are FDA approved contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and are nowadays widely investigated as promising drug carriers. Indeed, it has been observed that upon exposure to ultrasound waves, microbubbles may (a) release the encapsulated drugs and (b) simultaneously change the structure of the cell membranes in contact with the microbubbles which may facilitate drug entrance into cells. This review aims to highlight (a) major factors known so far which affect ultrasonic drug delivery (like the structure of the microbubbles, acoustic settings, etc.) and (b) summarizes the recent preclinical progress in this field together with a number of promising new concepts and applications.

  12. [The progesterone receptor gene polymorphism as factor of risk for the preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; da Cunha, Danielle Renzoni; Policastro, Adriana; Traina, Évelyn; Gomes, Mariano Tamura; Cordioli, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    to investigate the association between gene polymorphism of the progesterone receptor (PROGINS) and the risk of premature birth. In this case-control study, 57 women with previous premature delivery (Case Group) and 57 patients with delivery at term in the current pregnancy and no history of preterm delivery (Control Group) were selected. A 10 mL amount of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator. Genotype and allele PROGINS frequencies were compared between the two groups by the χ2 test, with the level of significance set at value p < 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 75.4% T1/T1, 22.8% T1/T2 and 1.8% T2/T2 in the Group with Preterm Delivery and 80.7% T1/T1, 19.3% T1/T2 and 0% T2/T2 in the term Delivery Group. There were no differences between groups when genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7) and p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7). the present study suggests that the presence of PROGINS polymorphism in our population does not constitute a risk factor for premature birth.

  13. Risk factors for post-operative wound infection in the setting of chorioamnionitis and cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Feldman, Chelsea; Puechl, Allison; Grotegut, Chad A; Heine, R Phillips

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of post-operative wound infection in women with chorioamnionitis who undergo cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with clinical chorioamnionitis who underwent cesarean delivery at a tertiary-care center between June 2010 and May 2013. Demographic data, labor and delivery details and post-operative outcomes were collected. Women with and without post-operative wound infections were compared. Of 213 women with clinical chorioamnionitis who underwent cesarean delivery, 32 (15%) developed wound infections. Women with wound infection were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 40 (p = 0.04), chronic hypertension (p = 0.03), leukocytosis on presentation (p = 0.046) or use tobacco (p = 0.002). Women who received ertapenem postpartum were less likely to develop wound infection than those who did not receive antibiotics (p = 0.02) or those that received ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin (p = 0.005). Elevated BMI, tobacco use, chronic hypertension and leukocytosis at admission were associated with an increased risk of wound infection. Ertapenem appeared to reduce the risk of post-operative wound infections in women who had chorioamnionitis and underwent cesarean delivery. This could be considered as a treatment option for this high-risk population.

  14. Delivery of growth factor-based therapeutics in vascular diseases: Challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He-Lin; Yu, Wen-Ze; Lu, Cui-Tao; Li, Xiao-Kun; Zhao, Ying-Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Either cardiovascular or peripheral vascular diseases have become the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, growth factors therapeutics, whatever administrated in form of exogenous growth factors or their relevant genes have been discovered to be an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of vascular diseases, because of their promoting angiogenesis. Besides, as an alternative, stem cell-based therapy has been also developed in view of their paracrine-mediated effect or ability of differentiation toward angiogenesis-related cells under assistance of growth factors. Despite of being specific and potent, no matter growth factors or stem cells-based therapy, their full clinical transformation is limited from bench to bedside. In this review, the potential choices of therapeutic modes based on types of different growth factors or stem cells were firstly summarized for vascular diseases. The confronted various challenges such as lack of non-invasive delivery method, the physiochemical challenge, the short half-life time, and poor cell survival, were carefully analyzed for these therapeutic modes. Various strategies to overcome these limitations are put forward from the perspective of drug delivery. The expertised design of a suitable delivery form will undoubtedly provide valuable insight into their clinical application in the regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Factors associated with skilled attendance at delivery in Uganda: results from a national health facility survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Asimwe, John Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Uganda has high maternal mortality ratio of 435/100,000 live births. In order to address this, Uganda has developed a strategy and has prioritized skilled attendance at delivery as a key intervention. A survey covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities was conducted to determine availability and access to essential maternity care and health system factors related to maternal health. The survey specifically assessed availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the state of health infrastructure and availability of basic drugs and supplies. A total of 194,029 deliveries were recorded in the year preceding the survey. Majority, 117,761 (60.7%) occurred in hospitals, while 76,268 (39.3%) occurred in health centers. The following factors were associated with increased deliveries at health facilities; running water, (RR 1.5, P EmOC had the highest chances of attracting women to deliver there, (RR 4.0, P EmOC, (RR 3.1, P EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering the service. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal ratio of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Improving availability and quality of care especially EmOC; and ensuring that health units have electricity, running water and accommodation for staff could increase skilled attendance at delivery and help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) target on maternal health in Uganda.

  16. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  17. Determinant factors of home delivery among women in Northern Ethiopia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resom Tsegay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Although most pregnancies and births are uneventful, approximately 15% of all pregnant women develop potentially life-threatening complications. Home delivery in this context can be acutely threatening, particularly in developing countries where emergency care and transportation are less available. This study identifies factors associated with home delivery in Tanqua-Abergele District, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case-control study was conducted in April 2014 in Tanqua-Abergele, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Simple random sampling was employed to select study participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Multi variable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of home delivery. Results A total of 275 women (92 cases and 183 controls participated in the study, giving a response rate of 96.5%. Not owning a radio or television (AOR: 7.2, 95% CI: 2.7–19.3, not pursuing ANC visits at all (AOR: 10.4, 95% CI: 2.9–37.1 orhaving1–3 ANC visits only (AOR: 4.75, 95% CI: 1.69–13.31,poor knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.3–32.9 and walking time greater than two hours to the nearest health center (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.2–20.7 were strong predictors of home delivery. Conclusion Unable to meet the minimum requirement WHO of ANC service had a potential to give birth at home. Investing in infrastructure will contribute to improving maternal health. Having a different source of media (radio or television could have a role in increasing the institutional delivery. Policy makers and other concerned bodies should give due attention to the fulfillment of infrastructure and educate women on the importance of institutional delivery.

  18. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  19. Women's determinant factors for preferred place of delivery in Dodoma region Tanzania: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Agatha Fabian; Kamazima, Switbert R; Kibusi, Steven; Gesase, Ainory; Bali, Theodora

    2017-09-06

    Skilled birth attendance is one of the key factors in improving maternal health but less than 50% of women in sub-Saharan African countries do not have the opportunity to be attended to by skilled personnel during childbirth. The aim of the study was to assess the factors determining women's preference for a place to give birth in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design using quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to 800 women obtained through multistage random sampling. Multivariable logistic regression model was applied to determine the predictors of place of delivery. More than three quarters 629(78.6%) respondents had their last delivery in the health facilities while 171(21.4%) had their last delivery at home/on the way to hospital. Reasons for delivering at home include: abrupt occurrence of labour pain, long distance to the health facilities, lack of money to pay for transport and unfriendly experience with the health care providers. Simple logistic regression model indicate that mothers' education level, number of children, cost of transport the estimated distance to the nearby health facility and occupation were strong predictors of the preferred place of delivery. However, after controlling the potential confounder, the multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated a significant association between delivery at the health facility and the number of children and transport cost. Our findings suggest a need for health care providers to enhance health education to women and their spouses about birth preparedness and the importance of delivering at the health facility. There is also a need for the government to increase the number of health facilities including maternity waiting homes and well trained health workers in both rural and urban areas.

  20. Reviewing Sexual Function After Delivery and Its Association with Some of the Demographic Marital Satisfaction Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Broumandfar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples. Sexual disorders can cause mental pressure and affect quality of life and marital relationship. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study in one group and one phase covering multivariables. The study sample included 384 women after delivery period that had the following inclusion criteria: the age of at least 18 years, delivery in 38-42 pregnancy weeks, primiparous and multiparous women, living in the city, single pregnancy, and twelve months elapsed from the delivery. The required data such demographic, marital satisfaction and sexual function index were collected through reporting questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using software SPSS. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the most prevalent disorder of the sexual relationship in postpartum was dyspareunia and the least prevalent was the sexual desire. There was no significant association between sexual function and, age, education degree , body mass index ,body size and job, but there was a significant association for other factors such as the economic, residence and marital satisfaction (p<0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended that sexual problems after delivery be placed on the list of health teaching issues to pass easily this period of time. Women should be assured that these problems gradually would be improved and they should learn using proper techniques to decrease dyspareunia which is a sexual disorder in postpartum period.

  1. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w 1 (t),w 2 (t),w 3 (t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a 0 ,a 2 ,a 4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  2. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  3. Key factors regulating the mass delivery of macromolecules to model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Richard A.; Watkins, Erik B.; Jagalski, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    We show that both gravity and electrostatics are key factors regulating interactions between model cell membranes and self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates of dendrimers and phospholipids. The system is a proxy for the trafficking of reservoirs of therapeutic drugs to cell membranes for sl...... of the aggregates to activate endocytosis pathways on specific cell types is discussed in the context of targeted drug delivery applications.......We show that both gravity and electrostatics are key factors regulating interactions between model cell membranes and self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates of dendrimers and phospholipids. The system is a proxy for the trafficking of reservoirs of therapeutic drugs to cell membranes for slow...

  4. Protoporphyrin IX and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, S; Vanore, G; Batlle, A

    1999-09-01

    The short- and long-term pro-oxidant effect of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO) administration to mice was studied in liver. A peak of liver porphyrin accumulation was found 2 h after the injection of PROTO (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.); then the amount of porphyrins diminished due to biliar excretion. After several doses of PROTO (1 dose every 24 h up to 5 doses) a sustained enhancement of liver porphyrins was observed. The activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase was induced 70-90% over the control values 4 h after the first injection of PROTO and stayed at these high levels throughout the period of the assay. Administration of PROTO induced rapid liver damage, involving lipid peroxidation. Hepatic GSH content was increased 2h after the first injection of PROTO, but then decreased below the control values which were maintained after several doses of porphyrin. After a single dose of PROTO, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was rapidly induced, suggesting that superoxide radicals had been generated. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide coming from the reaction catalyzed by SOD and lipid peroxides as a consequence of membrane peroxidation, induced the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while decreased GSH levels induced glutathione reductase (GRed) activity. However after 5 doses of PROTO, the activity of SOD was reduced reaching control values. GPx and catalase activities slowly went down, while GRed continued increasing as long as the levels of GSH were kept very low. TBARS values, although lower than those observed after a single dose of PROTO, remained above control values; Glutathione S-transferase activity was instead greatly diminished, indicating sustained liver damage. Our findings would indicate that accumulation of PROTO in liver induces oxidative stress, leading to rapid increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes to avoid or revert liver damage. However, constant accumulation of porphyrins provokes a liver damage so severe that the

  5. Related Factors to Choose Cesarean Rather than Normal Delivery among Shirazian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Movahed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Although delivering with Cesarean method is preferred in limited cases which has dangerous effects on child or mother's health, rate of cesarean is increasing vastly nowadays. The main purpose of this study was to explore Social, Cultural and Demographic factors related to this phenomenon among pregnant women of Shiraz. Materials & Methods: In this study 600 pregnant women residing in Shiraz were selected using Lin cross size of sample (multistage sampling. Data were collected through the validated questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software by multi-variables logistic regression and X2 techniques. Results: Research hypotheses about significant relation among these factors (age, age of marriage, education, spouse’s education, occupational status, place of birth, social class status, previous childbirth method, record of barrenness, place of previous childbirth, place of pregnant care, record of cesarean in family and attitude toward cesarean with choice of cesarean have been approved. Research hypotheses about month of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and knowledge of delivery method and cesarean have been rejected. Conclusion: Due to significant positive attitude of women's towards the cesarean, rather than normal delivery, it is necessary to inform them about the advantages of normal delivery and health hazard which might cause by Cesarean to the mother and child. The change of women's attitude about cesarean is needed to avoid further complication.

  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) delivery to retina: an overview of current research advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Maryam; Alizadeh, Effat; Saei Arezoumand, Khatereh; Fallahi Motlagh, Behzad; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-10-24

    The intraocular administration of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to attenuate the photoreceptor degeneration and preserve retinal functions in the animal research models of the inherited or induced retinal disease. Studies with the aim of CNTF transfer to the posterior segment inside the eye have been directed to determine the best method for its administration. An ideal delivery method would overcome the eye drug elimination mechanisms or barriers and provide the sustained release of the CNTF into retina in the safest fashion with the minimum harm to the quality of life. This review focuses on the present state of CNTF delivery to retina, also provides an overview of available technologies and their challenges.

  7. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Abyot; Davey, Gail

    2015-04-01

    Attempts to predict pregnancy and childbirth complications before they occur have not been successful. Provision of safe delivery service for all births is considered to be a critical intervention for ensuring safe motherhood. Hence the aim of the study was to assess factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka Zone South West Ethiopia. A community based comparative cross sectional survey was conducted among 554 women in Sheka Zone from February to March 2008. Data were collected through structured pre-tested questionnaire and entered into Epinfo version 3.3. Analyses were done with SPSS version 13 computer software with which bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were carried out. Mothers who completed at least secondary school were more likely to give birth at health facility than those uneducated (AOR = 3.26, 95 % CI 1.51-7.06). Women with birth order above four were less likely to give birth in a health facility than those with first order births (AOR = 0.21, 95 %CI 0.10-0.43). Women who had encountered problems in their immediate birth and received prenatal care were more likely to give birth at health facilities AOR = 33.78 95 % CI 16.44-69.39) and (AOR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.05-6.21) respectively. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization are related to the women's socioeconomic status and obstetric experiences. Consequently promotion of maternal education, prenatal care utilization, information education and communication on obstetric risks and general health service expansion are needed to ensure safe delivery service.

  8. Prognostic Relevance of the Expression of CA IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in Ovarian Epithelial Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungbin; Park, Won Young; Kim, Jee Yeon; Sol, Mee Young; Shin, Dong Hun; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Jeong Hee; Choi, Kyung Un

    2012-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with malignant progression and treatment resistance. Hypoxia-related factors, such as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) permit tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. We attempted to elucidate the correlation of these markers with variable clinicopathological factors and overall prognosis. Immunohistochemistry for CA IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 125 cases of ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC). CA IX expression was significantly associated with an endometrioid and mucinous histology, nuclear grade, tumor necrosis, and mitosis. GLUT-1 expression was associated with tumor necrosis and mitosis. VEGF expression was correlated only with disease recurrence. Expression of each marker was not significant in terms of overall survival in OECs; however, there was a significant correlation between poor overall survival rate and high coexpression of these markers. The present study suggests that it is questionable whether CA IX, GLUT-1, or VEGF can be used alone as independent prognostic factors in OECs. Using at least two markers helps to predict patient outcomes in total OECs. Moreover, the inhibition of two target gene combinations might prove to be a novel anticancer therapy.

  9. Spatial regulation of controlled bioactive factor delivery for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorezov, Julia E.; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Limitations of current treatment options for critical size bone defects create a significant clinical need for tissue engineered bone strategies. This review describes how control over the spatiotemporal delivery of growth factors, nucleic acids, and drugs and small molecules may aid in recapitulating signals present in bone development and healing, regenerating interfaces of bone with other connective tissues, and enhancing vascularization of tissue engineered bone. State-of-the-art technologies used to create spatially controlled patterns of bioactive factors on the surfaces of materials, to build up 3D materials with patterns of signal presentation within their bulk, and to pattern bioactive factor delivery after scaffold fabrication are presented, highlighting their applications in bone tissue engineering. As these techniques improve in areas such as spatial resolution and speed of patterning, they will continue to grow in value as model systems for understanding cell responses to spatially regulated bioactive factor signal presentation in vitro, and as strategies to investigate the capacity of the defined spatial arrangement of these signals to drive bone regeneration in vivo. PMID:25445719

  10. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Is preterm delivery an independent risk factor for long-term maternal kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, Gali; Kessous, Roy; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether women who had a preterm delivery (PTD) are at an increased risk of subsequent long term maternal kidney disease. A population-based study compared the incidence of long-term maternal kidney disease in a cohort of women with and without previous PTD. Deliveries occurred during a 25 years period, with a mean follow-up duration of 11.2 years. Of 99 338 deliveries of women, 16 364 (16.4%) occurred in patients who had at least one PTD. A significant dose response was found between the number of previous PTDs and the gestational age at birth of the PTDs and future risk for renal-related hospitalizations. Patients with either spontaneous or indicated PTD had higher rates of renal-related hospitalizations (0.2% versus 0.1% OR= 2.6; 95%CI: 1.7-3.9, p  long-term maternal renal-related hospitalizations. PTD is an independent risk factor for long-term maternal kidney disease.

  12. Prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery from maternal factors, obstetric history and placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta, Jarek; Akolekar, Ranjit; Ventura, Walter; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To develop a model for prediction of spontaneous delivery before 34 weeks based on maternal factors, placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Two groups of studies: first, screening study of maternal characteristics, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI). Second, case-control studies of maternal serum or plasma concentration of placental growth factor (PlGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12), inhibin-A and activin-A. Regression analysis was used to develop a model for the prediction of spontaneous early delivery. Spontaneous early delivery occurred in 365 (1.1%) of the 34 025 pregnancies. A model based on maternal factors could detect 38.2% of the preterm deliveries in women with previous pregnancies at or beyond 16 weeks and 18.4% in those without, at a false positive rate (FPR) of 10%. In the preterm delivery group, compared with unaffected pregnancies there were no significant differences in the markers of placental perfusion or function, except for PAPP-A which was reduced. Patient-specific risk of preterm delivery is provided by maternal factors and obstetric history. Placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks are not altered in pregnancies resulting in spontaneous early delivery. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Factors associated with antenatal and delivery care in Sudan: analysis of the 2010 Sudan household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muna Hassan; Mukhtar, Abdel Moniem

    2015-10-04

    Every day, globally approximately a thousand women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. The majority of maternal deaths are avoidable and could be prevented with proven interventions to prevent or manage complications during pregnancy and child birth. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with underutilization of maternal health services in Sudan. Data was obtained from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010(SHHS). The SHHS collected data from 5730 women, aged 15-49 years and who were pregnant in the last 2 years preceding the survey. The selection of the respondents was through a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Interviews were conducted with respondents to collect data about their demographic characteristics, reproductive history, pregnancy and child delivery. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The factors associated with receiving antenatal care were, higher educational level (odds ratio (OR) = 3.428, 95% CI 2.473-4.751 - p value 0.001), higher household wealth (OR 1.656, 95% CI: 1.484-1.855 - p value 0.001) and low parity (OR =1.214, 95% CI: 1.035-1.423 - p value 0.017). The factors associated with institutional delivery were higher educational level (OR = 1.929, 95% CI: 1.380-2.697 - p value 0.001), high household wealth (OR = 2.293, 95% CI: 1.988-2.644 p value 0.001), urban residence (OR = 1.364, 95% CI: 1.081-1.721 p value 0.009), low parity (OR = 2.222, 95% CI: 1/786-2.765 p value 0.001), receiving ANC (OR = 3.342, 95% CI: 2.306-4.844 p value 0.001) and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.606, 95% CI: 1.319-1.957 p value 0.001). The factors associated with both antenatal care use and institutional delivery are similar and interventions to target these include expanding female education and improving coverage and affordability of health services.

  14. Impact of Psychosocial Risk Factors on Prenatal Care Delivery: A National Provider Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; Housey, Michelle T.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate providers’ perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. Methods A random, national sample of 2095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents’ practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤ 19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (> 13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Results Approximately 60% of Ob/Gyns, 48.4% of midwives and 32.2% of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR=2.15; 95% CI 1.14–4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00–4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Conclusions Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719

  15. Impact of psychosocial risk factors on prenatal care delivery: a national provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Moloci, Nicholas M; Housey, Michelle T; Davis, Matthew M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate providers' perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. A random, national sample of 2,095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents' practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (>13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Approximately 60 % of Ob/Gyns, 48.4 % of midwives and 32.2 % of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR 2.15; 95 % CI 1.14-4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00-4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors.

  16. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor co-delivery by endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, E.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A defect in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) results in the inherited bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Current treatment of hemophilia A is hampered by the need of frequent administration of costly FVIII products. Therefore gene therapy is an attractive alternative for protein replacement to treat

  17. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  18. Risk factors and microbiology of wound infections following cesarean delivery: Experience of a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Gülşah; Verit Atmaca, Fatma Ferda; Kaya, Abdurrahman; Ergin, Ahmet Hasan; Gökmen Karasu, Ayşe Filiz; Turfan, Mehtap

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of wound infection following cesarean delivery, risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity. The study population consisted of 5787 cesarean deliveries. All of the patients received 2 g doses of cephazolin perioperatively for antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients with wound infection who had two doses of 1 g cephazolin postoperatively and who were continued on oral preparations of 500 mg of cephuroxime twice daily for 5 days after hospital discharge were included in Group A. Patients with wound infection whose postoperative antibiotics and antibiotics after discharge were omitted were included in Group B. Patient related variables, gestational age, co-morbidities, cesarean section indications, neonatal intensive care requirements were assessed. Risk factors were evaluated according to the type of the procedure (elective or emergent) and administered antibiotic protocol. The incidence of wound infection following cesarean section was 0,37% in elective operations and 5,4% in emergency cases. On the other hand, wound infection rate was found to be 1,35% in antibiotic receiving group (Group A) and 1,12% in the group not receiving antibiotics (Group B). Increased rate of wound infections were remarkable in emergency cases and postoperative antibiotics did not have a major impact in reducing the rate of wound infection following cesarean section. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protoporphyrin IX and its derivatives are used as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Protoporphyrin IX penetrates into human red blood cells and releases oxygen from them. This leads to a change in the morphology of the cells. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX interacts with ...

  20. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  1. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5550-D-12] Order of Succession for HUD Region IX... Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region IX. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  2. Surgical site infection after cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors at a US academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Munoz, Jessian L; Lachiewicz, Mark; Liu, Xiaobo; Goje, Oluwatosin

    2017-06-08

    To identify the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after Cesarean delivery (CD) and determine risk factors predictive for infection at a large academic institution. This was a retrospective cohort study in women undergoing CD during 2013. SSIs were defined by Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria. Chi square and t-tests were used for bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. In 2419 patients, the rate of SSI was 5.5% (n = 133) with cellulitis in 4.9% (n = 118), deep incisional infection in 0.6% (n = 15) and intra-abdominal infection in 0.3% (n = 7). On multivariate analysis, SSI was higher among CD for labor arrest (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.6-3.5; p infection control interventions.

  3. Title IX--A Modest Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Title IX has helped bring change to discriminatory policies and practices including curriculum options, activities, sports, and changes in vocational education. It is argued that students need to see women and men in a broad range of positions in order to broaden their concept of potential careers for themselves. (MLW)

  4. Fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM) as a novel vascular endothelial growth factor delivery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Hwang, Mintai P; Noh, Yong Kwan; Subbiah, Ramesh; Kim, In Gul; Bae, Soon Eon; Park, Kwideok

    2014-11-28

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important signaling cues during angiogenesis. Since many delivery systems of VEGF have been reported, the presentation of VEGF using a more physiologically relevant extracellular matrix (ECM), however, has yet to be thoroughly examined. In this study, we propose that fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (FDM) is a novel platform for angiogenic growth factor delivery and that FDM-mediated VEGF delivery can result in an advanced angiogenic response. The FDMs, activated by EDC/NHS chemistry, were loaded with varying amounts of heparin. Different doses of VEGF were subsequently immobilized onto the heparin-grafted FDM (hep-FDM); 19.6 ± 0.6, 39.2 ± 3.2, and 54.8 ± 8.9 ng of VEGF were tethered using 100, 300, and 500 ng of initial VEGF, respectively. VEGF-tethered FDM was found chemoattractive and VEGF dose-dependent in triggering human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) migration in vitro. When hep-FDM-bound VEGF (H-F/V) was encapsulated into alginate capsules (A/H-F/V) and subjected to release test for 28 days, it exhibited a significantly reduced burst release at early time point compared to that of A/V. The cell proliferation results indicated a substantially extended temporal effect of A/H-F/V on EC proliferation compared to those treated with soluble VEGF. For a further study, A/H-F/V was transplanted subcutaneously into ICR mice for up to 4 weeks to assess its in vivo effect on angiogenesis; VEGF delivered by hep-FDM was more competitive in promoting blood vessel ingrowth and maturation compared to other groups. Taken together, this study successfully engineered an FDM-mediated VEGF delivery system, documented its capacity to convey VEGF in a sustained manner, and demonstrated the positive effects of angiogenic activity in vivo as well as in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for urinary incontinence 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of primiparous Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence (UI) 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in primiparous women. METHODS: Participants in this prospective...... delivery. The primary analysis comprised 117 women with either SUI or MUI 1 year after the vaginal delivery and 403 women without any UI. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the following factors were associated with SUI or MUI: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (p pregnancy (p...... cohort were recruited consecutively from June 2003 to July 2005 from all eligible women who delivered in the department. A validated questionnaire, the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) was completed by all participants 2-3 days after delivery, and a similar...

  6. White light-informed optical properties improve ultrasound-guided fluorescence tomography of photoactive protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface fluorescence imaging is desirable for medical applications, including protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX)-based skin tumor diagnosis, surgical guidance, and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. While tissue optical properties and heterogeneities make true subsurface fluorescence mapping an ill-posed problem, ultrasound-guided fluorescence-tomography (USFT) provides regional fluorescence mapping. Here USFT is implemented with spectroscopic decoupling of fluorescence signals (auto-fluorescence, PpIX, photoproducts), and white light spectroscopy-determined bulk optical properties. Segmented US images provide a priori spatial information for fluorescence reconstruction using region-based, diffuse FT. The method was tested in simulations, tissue homogeneous and inclusion phantoms, and an injected-inclusion animal model. Reconstructed fluorescence yield was linear with PpIX concentration, including the lowest concentration used, 0.025 μg/ml. White light spectroscopy informed optical properties, which improved fluorescence reconstruction accuracy compared to the use of fixed, literature-based optical properties, reduced reconstruction error and reconstructed fluorescence standard deviation by factors of 8.9 and 2.0, respectively. Recovered contrast-to-background error was 25% and 74% for inclusion phantoms without and with a 2-mm skin-like layer, respectively. Preliminary mouse-model imaging demonstrated system feasibility for subsurface fluorescence measurement in vivo. These data suggest that this implementation of USFT is capable of regional PpIX mapping in human skin tumors during photodynamic therapy, to be used in dosimetric evaluations.

  7. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD+ and NADP+. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.

  8. Obstetric risk factors and pelvic floor dysfunction 20 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Lucia M; Hilton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Intrapartum events at first delivery and subsequent childbearing are associated with long-term pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Primigravidae delivered between 1983-1986 were identified; current addresses traced through the UK National Health Service database (N = 3002). Women completed screening and Sheffield Pelvic Floor Questionnaires (Sheffield-PAQ). Maternity data were obtained from Standard Maternity Information System. Primary outcomes were urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence (AI), and prolapse (POP). Primary response was 62.1%; 53.8% (n = 985) had >or=1 PFD symptom and in 71.5% symptoms were bothersome. UI (OR 0.47 95% CI 0.28, 0.81) and fecal incontinence (FI; OR 0.32 95% CI 0.13, 0.77) risks were lower after first delivery by cesarean section (CS). However, 25% had UI and 12% had FI after delivering exclusively by CS. Obesity was a risk factor independent of obstetric history. CS provides incomplete or poorly sustained pelvic floor protection by middle age. Obese women were at highest risk and had the most severe symptoms.

  9. Extracellular Matrix-Inspired Growth Factor Delivery Systems for Skin Wound Healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Martino, Mikaël M.

    2015-08-01

    Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  10. Utilization of institutional delivery service and associated factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: community based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Niguse; Lamaro, Tafesse

    2017-02-01

    At the end of Millennium development goals, Ethiopia was included among 10 countries which constitutes about 59% of maternal deaths due to complications of pregnancy and/or childbirth every year globally. Institutional delivery, which is believed to contribute in reduction of maternal mortality is still low. Hence this study was conducted in order to assess utilization of institutional delivery and related factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was employed from September 1st - 30th, 2015 in Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia where 765 mothers who deliver 2 years preceding the study provided data for this research. Data were collected by enumerators who were trained. In addition to descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value delivery which was significant. In Bench Maji Zone institutional delivery was shown to be comparatively good compared to other studies in the region and in Ethiopia in general even though it is below the health sector transformation plan of Ethiopia which aimed to increase deliveries attended by skilled health personnel to 95%. Empowering women, increasing awareness about institutional delivery and proper scaling up of antenatal care services which is an entry point for institutional delivery are recommended.

  11. Decision Making on the Labor and Delivery Unit: An Investigation of Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Feitosa, Jennifer; Benishek, Lauren E; Hughes, Ashley M; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1). In Study 2, we observed the influence of state NA, state decision-making style, state time stress, and their relationship with decision quality on real clinical decisions. Results In Study 1, we found that trait NA significantly predicted avoidant decision-making style. Furthermore, those who were higher on trait time stress and trait avoidant decision-making style exhibited poorer decisions. In Study 2, we observed associations between state NA with state avoidant and analytical decision-making styles. We also observed that these decision-making styles, when considered in tandem with time stress, were influential in predicting clinical decision quality. Conclusion NA predicts some decision-making styles, and decision-making style can affect decision quality under time stress. This is particularly true for state factors. Application Individual differences, such as affect and decision-making style, should be considered during selection. Training to reduce time stress perceptions should be provided.

  12. Surgical Site Infection following Cesarean Delivery: Patient, Provider, and Procedure-Specific Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H; Dunn, Shannon L; Krans, Elizabeth E

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). study design: Retrospective analysis of 2,739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square test and t-test were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Of 2,739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class of ≥ 3, chorioamnionitis, tobacco use, and labor before CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65-3.38), chorioamnionitis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-3.83), resident teaching service (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.54-3.00), tobacco use (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.70), ASA class ≥ 3 (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.39), and CDs performed for nonreassuring fetal status (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Multiple patient, provider, and procedure-specific risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection-control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. The prevalence of very preterm deliveries, risk factors, and neonatal complications in Arash women hospital: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootaleb Beigi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very preterm birth (26-32 weeks has an important effect on infant morta-lity and disability of infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of very preterm delivery and early neonatal morbidity (the first 28 days after birth.Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, among 4393 delivery in Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, 59 deliveries were very preterm that resulted in 79 very preterm neonate births. We assessed maternal risk factors and neonatal complications in women who were admitted for delivery from March 2009 to March 2010.Results: Among 59 pregnant women, 17 (12/27% had multiple pregnancies and 17 (12/27% had premature rupture of fetal membranes. Caesarean section method was more common than normal vaginal delivery (46 cases- 97/77%. Women aged 18 to 35 had the highest rate of preterm delivery (45/86%. Among 79 very preterm neonates about half of them were very low birth weight, 74 neonates (93/67% suffered from respiratory distress syndrome and 13 deaths were reported.Conclusion: Premature birth is a multi-factorial phenomenon. Identifying maternal risk factors and increasing knowledge about it can decrease the rate of preterm labor. The prevention of premature labor is better than cure. Further prospective studies with large number of patients and long-term follow-up are recommended for better understanding of the phenomenon.

  14. Soluble form od carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in transtitional cell carcinoma of urinary tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyršl, L.; Závada, Jan; Závadová, Zuzana; Kawaciuk, I.; Veselý, S.; Skapa, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2009), s. 298-302 ISSN 0028-2685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * diagnostic antigen * transitional cell carcinoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2009

  15. Suppression of carbonic anhydrase IX leads to aberrant focal adhesion and decreased invasion of tumor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radvak, P.; Repic, M.; Svastova, E.; Takacova, M.; Csaderova, L.; Strnad, Hynek; Pastorek, J.; Pastorekova, S.; Kopacek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2013), s. 1147-1153 ISSN 1021-335X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * hypoxia * shRNA silencing * microarray * focal adhesion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.191, year: 2013

  16. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected b...

  17. Risk factors for blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Jessica; Mourad, Mirella; Melka, Stephanie; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Rebarber, Andrei; Saltzman, Daniel H; Fox, Nathan S

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to identify risk factors associated with blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery (CD). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing third or more CD by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between 2005 and 2016. We compared risk factors between women who did and did not receive a red blood cell transfusion during the operation or before discharge. Repeat analysis was performed after excluding women with placenta previa. A total of 514 patients were included, 18 of whom (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%-5.5%) received a blood transfusion. Placenta previa was the most significant risk factor for transfusion (61.1% of patients who received a transfusion vs. 1% of patients who did not; p blood transfusion. After women who had placenta previa were excluded, the incidence of blood transfusion was seven of 498 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-2.9%). Risk factors significantly associated with blood transfusion in the absence of previa were prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy and having labored. The incidence of transfusion in patients with no placenta previa, no anticoagulation, and no labor was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%). Placenta previa was the most predictive risk factor for transfusion with a positive predictive value of 68.8% and a negative predictive value of 98.4%. In patients undergoing a third or more CD, only placenta previa, prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy, and having labored are independently associated with requiring a blood transfusion. These data can be used to guide physician ordering of prepared blood products preoperatively. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX-XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.

  19. Drug design studies of the novel antitumor targets carbonic anhydrase IX and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, O Ozensoy; De Simone, G; Supuran, C T

    2010-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes IX and XII are predominantly found in tumor cells and show a restricted expression in normal tissues. By efficiently hydrating carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, these CAs contribute significantly to the extracellular acidification of solid tumors. CA IX and XII are overexpressed in many such tumors in response to the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, and research on the involvement of these isozymes in cancer has progressed in recent years. The report of the X-ray crystal structure of CA IX, which is a dimeric protein with a quaternary structure not evidenced earlier for this family of enzymes, allows for structure-based drug design campaigns of inhibitors against this novel antitumor target. Indeed, it has been known for some time that aromatic/ heterocyclic sulfonamides and sulfamates have good affinity for this isoform, but generally they do not show specificity for the inhibition of the tumor-associated isoform versus the remaining CA isozymes (CA I-VII, and XII-XV) found in mammals. Recently, we reported several classes of compounds with good selectivity for the tumor-associated CAs, being shown that CA IX/XII inhibition reverses the effect of tumor acidification, leading to inhibition of the cancer cells growth. CA IX/XII are now proposed as novel therapeutic antitumor targets. Furthermore, as some types of CA inhibitors (CAIs), such as the fluorescent sulfonamides accumulate only in hypoxic tumor cells overexpressing these enzymes, CAIs may be also used as diagnostic tools for imaging of hypoxic cancer cells. Work from several laboratories recently reported the proof-of-concept studies for the use of CA IX/XII inhibitors as well as antibodies both in the therapy and imaging of hypoxic tumors.

  20. Factors leading to cesarean section delivery at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Fantu Eyowas; Gebeyehu, Abebaw Worku; Kidane, Ashebir Negasi; Eyassu, Gizached Aynalem

    2016-01-20

    Cesarean section is the commonest obstetric operative procedure worldwide. When used appropriately cesarean sections can improve infant and/or maternal outcomes. However, when used inappropriately the potential harm may exceed the potential benefit of cesarean section. Appreciating the limited information in this area the current study assessed the rate and factors associated with cesarean section in Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The study was a retrospective analysis of eligible patient records that included 2967 pregnant women who had underwent either cesarean or vaginal delivery from July 1, 2012 to June 31, 2013. The data were double entered to EPI-INFO 3.5.2 and analyzed with SPSS. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent factors associated with cesarean section. The proportion of women who underwent cesarean section in this study was 25.4%. Obstructed labor (30.7%), fetal distress (15.9%) and abnormal presentation (13.4%) were the major obstetric indications for cesarean section. The odd of undergoing cesarean section was higher among mothers in rural residence (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.20), mothers reported to have pregnancy risk factors (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.74, 3.07) and lower among mothers in age category of 15-19 (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93). Obstetric factors occurring around birth, including obstructed labor and fetal distress were the main reasons leading to Cesarean Section rather than background characteristics assumed to be a risk. The results imply that there is a need for timely and accurate screening of women during obstetric care and, decision to perform cesarean section should be based on clear, compelling and well-supported justifications.

  1. eEF1A1 binds and enriches protoporphyrin IX in cancer cells in 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; Cui, Xiaojun; Wei, Dan; Liu, Wei; Li, Buhong; He, Hao; Ye, Huamao; Zhu, Naishuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its derivatives, is a promising modality for the treatment of both pre-malignant and malignant lesions. However, the mechanisms of how ALA-induced PpIX selectively accumulated in the tumors are not fully elucidated. Here we discovered that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1) interacted with PpIX (with an affinity constant of 2.96 × 106 M-1). Microscopy imaging showed that ALA-induced PpIX was co-localized with eEF1A1 in cancer cells. eEF1A1 was found to enrich ALA-induced PpIX in cells by competitively blocking the downstream bioavailability of PpIX. Taken together, our study discovered eEF1A1 as a novel photosensitizer binding protein, which may play an essential role in the enrichment of ALA-induced PpIX in cancer cells during PDT. These suggested eEF1A1 as a molecular marker to predict the selectivity and efficiency of 5-ALA based PDT in cancer therapy.

  2. A simple and rapid fluorimetric method for simultaneous determination of protoporphyrin IX and zinc protoporphyrin IX in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei-Chen; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Rong-Bin; Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Luo, He-Dong; Falih, Ali Abbas; Li, Yao-Qun

    2008-11-01

    Derivative variable-angle synchronous fluorescence (DVASF) spectrometry improves the spectral resolution and selectivity of the fluorescence method. The feasibility of DVASF spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of protoporphyrin IX (PP) and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) was investigated. PP and ZnPP were distinguished from each other simultaneously and rapidly by the DVASF method. The spectra were resolved well, and the two components were determined in a single scan, avoiding the spectral compensation factor for PP and chromatographic separation. The linear range of the calibration curve for PP was from 0.190 to 152 nmol/L and for ZnPP was from 0.383 to 230 nmol/L. The detection limits of PP and ZnPP were 0.098 nmol/L and 0.088 nmol/L, respectively. The within-run imprecision (RSD, n = 5) for PP was 4.1%, and for ZnPP was 4.2%. Mean recoveries (SD) of PP and ZnPP added to a blood sample were 86.4 (7.3)% and 72.9 (6.6)%, respectively. This method should be a potential tool in the rapid routine screening of large quantities of samples.

  3. Overweight in epilepsy as a risk factor for pregnancy and delivery complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Eivind; Veiby, Gyri; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Bjørk, Marte

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to women without epilepsy with and without overweight (n = 30,516 and n = 67,977, respectively). The risks of pregnancy and delivery complications were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for adverse socioeconomic factors, age, parity, and smoking. Women with epilepsy were more often overweight than women without epilepsy (38.4% vs. 31.3%, p < 0.001). The majority of pregnancy and delivery complications were more frequent in overweight women with epilepsy. Compared to overweight women without epilepsy, the risk was increased for cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001), excessive bleeding (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.04), peripartum anxiety and depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, p < 0.001), small for gestational age children (OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8, p = 0.02), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2, p = 0.02). Compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy, the risk of cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3, p < 0.05), gestational hypertension (OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.5, p < 0.05), preeclampsia (OR 2.3, CI 1.2-4.5, p < 0.05), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 2.2, CI 1.3-3.6, p < 0.01) was increased. Prepregnancy overweight in combination with epilepsy entails a strong negative effect on risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. In women with epilepsy and overweight referral to a nutritionist should be considered when an antiepileptic drug is started as well as

  4. Risk factors for urinary incontinence 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of primiparous Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence (UI) 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in primiparous women. Participants in this prospective cohort were recruited consecutively from June 2003 to July 2005 from all eligible women who delivered in the department. A validated questionnaire, the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) was completed by all participants 2-3 days after delivery, and a similar second questionnaire was filled out 1 year later. Additional data were obtained from the medical records. The first questionnaire was completed by 1,018 women (63 %) and the second by 859 women (84 %). The study group comprised the 575 women without any UI before the pregnancy and who had a vaginal delivery. The primary analysis comprised 117 women with either SUI or MUI 1 year after the vaginal delivery and 403 women without any UI. In univariate analyses, the following factors were associated with SUI or MUI: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (p pregnancy (p pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.9-7.7) and inversely associated with oxytocin augmentation (adjusted OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.3-0.9). SUI or MUI 1 year after the first vaginal delivery was strongly associated with UI during the pregnancy and inversely associated with oxytocin augmentation.

  5. School-Related Factors Contributing to the Delivery Enhancement of the Special Science Program in Western Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangcaya, Porferio S.; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, the secondary schools in Western Visayas, Philippines offering special science program (SSP) were assessed as basis for delivery enhancement. The SSP along student-related factors and the extent of implementation in the areas of curriculum and instruction, laboratory facilities, and administration in terms of the…

  6. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, Lone; Kusk, Philip; Tornøe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device...

  7. Obstetric anal sphincter injury, risk factors and method of delivery - an 8-year analysis across two tertiary referral centers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) represents a major cause of maternal morbidity and is a risk factor for the development of fecal incontinence. We set out to analyze the incidence of OASIS and its association with mode of delivery in two large obstetric hospitals across an 8-year study period.

  8. Protoporphyrin IX in the skin measured noninvasively predicts photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerfordt, I M; Wulf, H C

    2016-01-01

    and to investigate how skin PpIX relates to erythrocyte PpIX and photosensitivity. METHODS: Skin PpIX was measured in 25 patients with EPP by calculating the difference in PpIX fluorescence before and after complete photobleaching of PpIX using controlled illumination. The patients reported symptoms during...

  9. Factors associated to Caesarean delivery in public and private health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Novaes, Elisiane Soares; Ferracioli, Patrícia Louise Rodrigues Varela; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors associated to Caesarean sections among the residents of Maringá-PR, according to the financing source for delivery. A cross-sectional study with data from 920 postpartum women interviewed between October 2013 and February 2014. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression. Caesarean section rates were 55.5% in the Unified Healthcare System (SUS) and 93.8% in the private system. Factors associated with Caesarean section in the SUS were: previous Caesarean section (OR=8.9; CI=4.6-16.9), desire for Caesarean section early in pregnancy (OR=2.0; CI=1.1-3.6), pregestational overweight/obesity (OR=1.8; CI=1.1-2.8), and per capita family income higher than one minimum wage (OR=2.1; CI=1.3-3.4). In the private system, desire for Caesarean section early in pregnancy (OR=25.3) and a previous Caesarean section (OR=11.3) were strongly associated to its performance. It is necessary to properly orientate all pregnant women who desire a Caesarean delivery, from both the SUS and the private system, about the inherent risks of the surgical procedure without indication. In the public health sector, guidelines should be focused on pregnant women with previous Caesarean delivery, with a per capita income higher than one minimum wage and those who are overweight or obese, as these women are more likely to have a Caesarean section. Identificar fatores associados à cesárea entre residentes de Maringá-PR, segundo a fonte de financiamento do parto. Estudo transversal com dados de 920 puérperas entrevistadas entre outubro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014. A análise de associação foi feita por regressão logística. A taxa de cesariana foi de 55,5% e 93,8% no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e no sistema privado, respectivamente. Associou-se à cesárea no SUS: realização de cesárea anterior (OR=8,9; IC=4,6-16,9), desejo pela cesárea no início da gestação (OR=2,0; IC=1,1-3,6), sobrepeso/obesidade pré-gestacional (OR=1,8; IC=1,1-2,8), e renda familiar

  10. Reduction of Burn Progression with Topical Delivery of (Antitumor Necrosis Factor-alpha )-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    delivery of semapimod in a pig model,28 while systemic delivery of curcumin has shown a positive effect in reducing burn wound progression by 50% in a rat...1366–72. 48. Singer AJ, Taira BR, Lin F, Lim T, Anderson R, McClain SA, Clark RA. Curcumin reduces injury progression in a rat comb burn model. J

  11. Critical success factor (CSF) service delivery for tahfiz institution teaching & learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridza, B. H.; Jalil, R. A.; Sipan, I.; Nukman, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The exceptional existence of tahfiz institutions (TI) by a government and the private sector in Malaysia indicates that tahfiz education at par to fill mainstream education. Nevertheless, the level of TI facilities management (FM) provided is unstandardized since its infrastructure and establishment is initiated by the varied background of TI organizer. Thus, the effectiveness of TI education system is immeasurable. The significance of this research is to explore the critical success factor (CSF) of service delivery for TI teaching and learning environment. This research adopts both qualitative and quantitative method through survey instrument in order to review and analyze to achieve the research goal. The findings showed several important criteria for a transformation of TI education teaching and learning environment such top management of TI needs to be more responsible in providing better FM practice to achieve efficiency of manpower in providing a conducive learning environment for students for producing excellent huffaz. Thus, TI education system needs to have clear standard guidelines in operating their activities in producing huffaz that capable implement Islamic knowledge to the development of the country.

  12. Neuropeptide delivery to the brain: a von Willebrand factor signal peptide to direct neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Backer Marijke WA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple neuropeptides, sometimes with opposing functions, can be produced from one precursor gene. To study the roles of the different neuropeptides encoded by one large precursor we developed a method to overexpress minigenes and establish local secretion. Results We fused the signal peptide from the Von Willebrand Factor (VWF to a furin site followed by a processed form of the Agouti related protein (AgRP, AgRP83-132 or α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. In vitro, these minigenes were secreted and biologically active. Additionally, the proteins of the minigenes were not transported into projections of primary neurons, thereby ensuring local release. In vivo administration of VWF-AgRP83-132 , using an adeno-associated viral vector as a delivery vehicle, into the paraventricular hypothalamus increased body weight and food intake of these rats compared to rats which received a control vector. Conclusions This study demonstrated that removal of the N-terminal part of full length AgRP and addition of a VWF signal peptide is a successful strategy to deliver neuropeptide minigenes to the brain and establish local neuropeptide secretion.

  13. Factors influencing the delivery of abortion services in Ontario: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M; Iron, K

    1998-01-01

    Although Canadian women have had the right to obtain legal induced abortions for the past decade, access to the procedure is still limited and controversial in many areas. Chiefs of obstetrics and gynecology, chiefs of staff, directors of nursing and other health professionals at 163 general hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were asked to provide information on issues concerning the availability of abortion services of their facility. The hospital participation rate was 97% and the individual response rate was 75%. Nearly one-half (48%) of hospitals perform abortions. Approximately 36% of these hospitals do so up to a maximum gestational age of 12 weeks, 23% to a maximum of 13-16 weeks, 37% to a maximum of 17-20 weeks and 4% at greater than 20 weeks. Hospital factors, including resources and policies, did not significantly influence whether abortions are provided. However, these factors did affect the number performed, whether there were gestational limitations and the choice of procedure. About 13% of provider hospitals indicated that staff training contributes to the existence of gestational age limits, and 24% said that it directly influences procedure choice. Only 18% of hospitals reported that their physicians have received additional training outside of their medical school or medical residency education to learn abortion techniques or to gain new skills. Forty-five percent of hospitals that provide abortions had experienced harassment within the past two years, and 15% reported that this harassment has directly affected their staff members' willingness to provide abortions. Based upon the provision of obstetric care, many hospitals in Ontario that are capable of offering abortion services do not. Some of the reasons for this failure are related to the procedure itself, while others may be related to resource issues that affect the delivery of other medical services as well. Variation in the availability of abortions is due to a shortage of clinicians performing

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures [Interim...) Physical education, [43, 56, 58]; Sex education, [43, 57]; 106.34(e) Coverage, [5]; 106.11 to 106.17... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1...

  15. A case-control study of risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in eastern Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Boezemwendé; Soudouem, Georges; Seck, Ibrahima; Millogo, Tieba; Evariste Yaméogo, Wambi Maurice; Kouanda, Seni

    2016-11-01

    To identify the risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in a rural area in eastern Burkina Faso. A matched case-control study was conducted in Fada N'Gourma Regional Hospital Center and the Diapaga Medical Center with Surgical Antenna using data from 2011-2014. A total of 99 cases of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were included in the study. Each case was matched with a control patient similar for age, admission date, and facility where the cesarean took place. Risk factors were identified using conditional logistic regression. Multivariate analysis identified hyperthermia at admission (OR 2.37; P=0.035), the presence of caput succedaneum in newborns (OR 7.07; P=0.001), and difficult delivery (OR 3.69; P=0. 019) as risk factors for surgical site infection. Provision of quality prenatal care, use of the partograph during labor, and the responsiveness of health workers during labor can reduce surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Trial of labor compared to repeat cesarean section in women with no other risk factors than a prior cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studsgaard, Anne; Skorstengaard, Malene; Glavind, Julie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes with trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or elective repeat cesarean delivery on maternal request (ERCD-MR). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish university hospital. POPULATION: Women with TOLAC (n = 1161) and women with ERCD-MR (n = 622) between 2003...... and 2010. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, two prior cesarean sections, index cesarean at a different hospital, a delivery after the index cesarean, twin gestation, gestational age ... registration of the deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal outcomes, risk factors for emergency cesarean, and uterine rupture in case of TOLAC. RESULTS: TOLAC was associated with an increased risk of neonatal depression [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-19.1] and neonatal...

  17. Factors influencing deliveries at health facilities in a rural Maasai Community in Magadi sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Sarah; Gichuki, Richard; Igunza, Patrick; Muhula, Samuel; Ofware, Peter; Lesiamon, Josephine; Leshore, Lepantas; Kyomuhangi-Igbodipe, Lenny Bazira; Nyagero, Josephat; Binkin, Nancy; Ojakaa, David

    2018-01-03

    In response to poor maternal, newborn, and child health indicators in Magadi sub-county, the "Boma" model was launched to promote health facility delivery by establishing community health units and training community health volunteers (CHVs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as safe motherhood promoters. As a result, health facility delivery increased from 14% to 24%, still considerably below the national average (61%). We therefore conducted this study to determine factors influencing health facility delivery and describe barriers and motivators to the same. A mixed methods cross-sectional study involving a survey with 200 women who had delivered in the last 24 months, 3 focus group discussions with health providers, chiefs and CHVs and 26 in-depth interviews with mothers, key decision influencers and TBAs. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression were calculated to identify predictive factors for health facility delivery. Thematic analysis was done to describe barriers and motivators to the same. Of the women interviewed, 39% delivered at the health facility. Factors positively associated with health facility deliveries included belonging to the highest wealth quintiles [aOR 4.9 (95%CI 1.5-16.5)], currently not married [aOR 2.4 (95%CI 1.1-5.4)] and living near the health facility [aOR 2.2 (95%CI 1.1 = 4.4)]. High parity [aOR 0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9)] was negatively associated with health facility delivery. Barriers to health facility delivery included women not being final decision makers on place of birth, lack of a birth plan, gender of health provider, unfamiliar birthing position, disrespect and/or abuse, distance, attitude of health providers and lack of essential drugs and supplies. Motivators included proximity to health facility, mother's health condition, integration of TBAs into the health system, and health education/advice received. Belonging to the highest wealth quintile, currently not married and

  18. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs

  19. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapohunda B

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolaji Fapohunda,1 Nosakhare Orobaton1,21International Division, John Snow Inc, Rosslyn, VA, USA; 2Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP, Bauchi, NigeriaAbstract: This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women's autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother's socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1 the use of cash subsidies to augment women's incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2 a structural improvement that will increase women's economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation.Keywords: Sokoto State, delivery attendance, maternal mortality rate, maternal health, reproductive health, demographic and health surveys, poverty

  20. Dual delivery of hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors via a protease-degradable hydrogel improves cardiac function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva S Salimath

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (MI caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury.

  1. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  2. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  3. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  4. Factors that support change in the delivery of midwifery led care in hospital settings. A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kim

    2018-04-01

    In hospital units, the network of interdependent relationships between midwives and doctors has positioned midwives within hierarchical relationships of power. Others argue that the physical layout of hospital wards created by biomedicine makes it difficult for midwives to provide midwifery led care. The aim of this review is to identify factors that support change in the delivery of the midwifery led care in hospital settings. A narrative review was chosen as this method allows for greater flexibility in the selection of studies and can lead to the inclusion of a wider range of literature. Eight high quality papers from the UK, Sweden, Canada and Australia were selected for review. Papers focused on improving the delivery of midwife led care in hospital midwifery units, labour and postnatal wards. Key themes were identified as supporting change in the delivery of midwifery led care were ownership of change, capability to change and transformational leadership. The findings demonstrate the importance of social support and clinical leadership in bringing about subtle changes in hospital based midwifery led care. Ultimately improved understanding of the factors that support the delivery of the midwifery led care in hospital settings may improve women's choice and highlight the role of the midwife as the practitioner of normal childbirth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  6. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  7. Title IX--Beyond Compliance to Personal Commitment and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    In order to move beyond legal compliance to real equality of opportunity, every educational leader must develop some systematic means of extending his or her personal knowledge and skills with respect to Title IX. Provides a check list for self evaluation of educational leaders and a guide for developing an implementation plan for Title IX.…

  8. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  9. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  10. The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX. 2016 Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report, an evaluation of the history and current uses of Title IX, is the result of a joint effort by a subcommittee that included members of the AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure and the Committee on Women in the Academic Profession. The report identifies tensions between current interpretations of Title IX and the academic…

  11. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report

  13. Duration of second stage of labor and instrumental delivery as risk factors for severe perineal lacerations: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Cnattingius, Sven; Petersson, Gunnar; Sandström, Anna; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-02-21

    We sought to investigate the impact of the duration of second stage of labor on risk of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). This population based cohort study was conducted in the Stockholm/Gotland region, Sweden, 2008-2014. Study population included 52 211 primiparous women undergoing vaginal delivery with cephalic presentation at term. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main exposure was duration of second stage of labor, and main outcome was risks of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). Risk of severe perineal lacerations increased with duration of second stage of labor. Compared with a second stage of labor of 1 h or less, women with a second stage of more than 2 h had an increased risk (aOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.28-1.58). Compared with non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, the risk was elevated among instrumental vaginal deliveries (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 2.07-2.42). The risk of perineal laceration increased with duration of second stage of labor until less than 3 h in both instrumental and non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, but after 3 h, the ORs did not further increase. After adjustments for potential confounders, macrosomia (birth weight > 4 500 g) and occiput posterior fetal position were risk factors of severe perineal lacerations. The risk of severe perineal laceration increases with duration until the third hour of second stage of labor. Instrumental delivery is the most significant risk factor for severe lacerations, followed by duration of second stage of labor, fetal size and occiput posterior fetal position.

  14. Investigation of sequential growth factor delivery during cuprizone challenge in mice aimed to enhance oligodendrogliogenesis and myelin repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Sabo

    Full Text Available Repair in multiple sclerosis involves remyelination, a process in which axons are provided with a new myelin sheath by new oligodendrocytes. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs are a family of growth factors that have been shown to influence the response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs in vivo during demyelination and remyelination in the adult brain. We have previously shown that BMP4 infusion increases numbers of OPCs during cuprizone-induced demyelination, while infusion of Noggin, an endogenous antagonist of BMP4 increases numbers of mature oligodendrocytes and remyelinated axons following recovery. Additional studies have shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 promotes the survival of OPCs during cuprizone-induced demyelination. Based on these data, we investigated whether myelin repair could be further enhanced by sequential infusion of these agents firstly, BMP4 to increase OPC numbers, followed by either Noggin or IGF-1 to increase the differentiation and survival of the newly generated OPCs. We identified that sequential delivery of BMP4 and IGF-1 during cuprizone challenge increased the number of mature oligodendrocytes and decreased astrocyte numbers following recovery compared with vehicle infused mice, but did not alter remyelination. However, sequential delivery of BMP4 and Noggin during cuprizone challenge did not alter numbers of oligodendrocytes or astrocytes in the corpus callosum compared with vehicle infused mice. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis revealed no change in average myelin thickness in the corpus callosum between vehicle infused and BMP4-Noggin infused mice. Our results suggest that while single delivery of Noggin or IGF-1 increased the production of mature oligodendrocytes in vivo in the context of demyelination, only Noggin infusion promoted remyelination. Thus, sequential delivery of BMP4 and Noggin or IGF-1 does not further enhance myelin repair above what occurs with delivery of Noggin

  15. Gelatin device for the delivery of growth factors involved in endochondral ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lucas A. J.; Vonwil, Daniel; Christensen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Controlled release drug delivery systems are well established as oral and implantable dosage forms. However, the controlled release paradigm can also be used to present complex soluble signals responsible for cellular organization during development. Endochondral ossification (EO), the developmental process of bone formation from a cartilage matrix is controlled by several soluble signals with distinct functions that vary in structure, molecular weight and stability. This makes delivering them from a single vehicle rather challenging. Herein, a gelatin-based delivery system suitable for the delivery of small molecules as well as recombinant human (rh) proteins (rhWNT3A, rhFGF2, rhVEGF, rhBMP4) is reported. The release behavior and biological activity of the released molecules was validated using analytical and biological assays, including cell reporter systems. The simplicity of fabrication of the gelatin device should foster its adaptation by the diverse scientific community interested in interrogating developmental processes, in vivo. PMID:28380024

  16. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  17. [Delivery management for the prevention of shoulder dystocia in case of identified risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T

    2015-12-01

    To determine the impact of (i) computed tomographic (CT) pelvimetry for the choice of the mode of delivery, (ii) cesarean, (iii) induction of labor, and of (iv) various delivery managements on the risk of shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia, with or without maternal diabetes, and in women with previous history of shoulder dystocia. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In case of clinically suspected macrosomia, a sonography should be performed to increase diagnostic performances and to assist in decision-making (Professional consensus). Because CT pelvimetry is associated with high false positive rates and increases cesarean deliveries, its use is not recommended to prevent shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia (Professional consensus). To avoid the neonatal complications of shoulder dystocia, mainly permanent brachial plexus palsy, cesarean delivery is recommended in case of estimated fetal weight (EFW) greater than 4500 g if associated with maternal diabetes (grade C), and greater than 5000 g in the absence of maternal diabetes (grade C). The published data do not provide definitive evidences to recommend systematic labor induction in case of impending fetal macrosomia (Professional consensus). In case of favourable cervix and gestational age greater than 39 weeks of gestation, labor induction should be promoted (Professional consensus). Prophylactic McRoberts maneuver is not recommended to prevent shoulder dystocia in case of fetal macrosomia (grade C). Because data are lacking, no recommendation is possible regarding the use of episiotomy. In case of fetal macrosomia and failure to progress in the second stage of labor, midpelvic and higher instrumental deliveries are not recommended and a cesarean delivery should be preferred (grade C), if the fetal head is at or lower than a +2 station, cesarean delivery is not recommended and an

  18. Oxygen delivery is not a limiting factor during post-exercise recovery in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); Niemeijer, V.M. (Victor M.); Jansen, J.P. (Jasper P.); Spraakman, L. (Lotte); Stam, H.J. (Henk J.); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose It is still equivocal whether oxygen uptake recovery kinetics are limited by oxygen delivery and can be improved by supplementary oxygen. The present study aimed to investigate whether measurements of muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics can be used to assess oxygen

  19. [Risk factors of teenage pregnancies, deliveries and post-partum in the department of Loiret].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouini, S; Randriambololona, D; Randriamboavonjy, R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancies compared to adult women in the department of Loiret. A retrospective study of adolescents (10-19 years) delivered after 22 weeks compared to adult women aged 20-35 years (controls) from the first January to the 31 December 2012 in a maternity level 3. The two groups were compared by the Chi(2) test or the exact test of Fisher. A P-value pregnancy than adult controls. Urinary infections and preterm threat and births were more frequent in the adolescent group compared to the controls (P=0.04 and 0.018). However, the gestational diabetes was less frequent in the adolescent group versus controls (P=0.0005, OR: 0.16 [IC95%: 0.03-0.54]). The adolescent group represented 2.38 of total deliveries. The rate of vaginal deliveries and caesarean section was similar in the two groups. Vaginal tears were significantly more frequent among adolescents than controls (P=0.0019). The adolescents were more likely to preterm delivery and to have urinary infections than the adult women (controls). They are less likely to have gestational diabetes than older women. The rates of vaginal deliveries are comparable; however, the adolescents are more likely to experience vaginal tears than controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  1. Factors that determine the use of skilled care during delivery in India: implications for achievement of MDG-5 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual level factors that determine the use of skilled birth attendants in India. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based NFHS 3 Survey 2005-06 was used. A sample of 31,797 women, aged 15-49 years, who gave births in the 3 months preceding the survey and for whom information was available on most variables, were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to determine factors associated with the use of skilled attendants at birth. In the study we found that wealth is one of the strongest determinants of skilled birth attendant use, with the poor being at a disadvantage. There are significant differences in the use of skilled delivery care among the urban and rural populations in India. Women in urban areas are more likely to use skilled attendants. Muslim women and women with lower levels of education are also less likely to avail skilled delivery services. The use of skilled care depended significantly on the place of delivery. Women who gave history of antenatal visits were more likely to have skilled attendants at birth. Our analysis demonstrates that there are several financial, social, regional and cultural barriers to skilled birth attendant use in India. Effective strategies need to be planned to generate demand for skilled birth attendants and reduce barriers to care seeking, especially among rural poor.

  2. Freeze-dried allograft-mediated gene or protein delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 reduces reconstructed murine flexor tendon adhesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Sys Hasslund; Dadali, Tulin; Ulrich-Vinther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Advances in allograft processing have opened new horizons for clinical adaptation of flexor tendon allografts as delivery scaffolds for antifibrotic therapeutics. Recombinant adeno-associated-virus (rAAV) gene delivery of the growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) has been previously...

  3. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  4. Factors associated with utilization of skilled service delivery among women in rural Northern Ghana: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudu, William; Addo, Bright

    2017-05-31

    Ghana's current Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 319 per 100,000 live births makes achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal of 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births or less by 2030 appear to be illusory. Skilled assistance during childbirth is a critical strategy to reducing maternal mortality, yet the proportion of deliveries taking place within health facilities where such assistance is provided is very low in Ghana, with huge disparity between urban and rural women. To address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region, the Ghana Health Service (GHS) in 2005 piloted a program that involved training of Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives. This study explored factors associated with skilled delivery services utilization in a predominantly rural district in Ghana. A cross-sectional study, data was collected from a sample of 400 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years who had given birth a year prior to the study. We used frequencies and percentages for descriptive analysis and chi-square (χ 2 ) test for relationship between independents factors and utilization of skilled delivery services. Of the 400 women included in the analysis, 93.3% of them delivered in a health facility. Almost all of the mothers (97.3%) attended or received antenatal care at their last pregnancy with 75.0% of them having four or more ANC visits. The proportion of women who received ANC and utilized skilled delivery services was high (91.5%). Mother's educational attainment, ANC attendance, frequency of ANC visits, satisfaction with ANC services and possession of valid NHIS card significantly associated with utilisation of skilled delivery services. For a predominantly rural district, the percentage of women who deliver within health facilities where skilled assistance is available is very encouraging and a significant stride towards reducing Ghana's overall MMR. Having four or more ANC visits and improving on the quality of care provided has a great

  5. Genetically Modified Neural Stem Cells for a Local and Sustained Delivery of Neuroprotective Factors to the Dystrophic Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gila; Sun, Jing; Petrowitz, Bettina; Riecken, Kristoffer; Kruszewski, Katharina; Jankowiak, Wanda; Kunst, Frank; Skevas, Christos; Richard, Gisbert; Fehse, Boris

    2013-01-01

    A continuous intraocular delivery of neurotrophic factors (NFs) is being explored as a strategy to rescue photoreceptor cells and visual functions in degenerative retinal disorders that are currently untreatable. To establish a cell-based intraocular delivery system for a sustained administration of NFs to the dystrophic mouse retina, we used a polycistronic lentiviral vector to genetically modify adherently cultivated murine neural stem (NS) cells. The vector concurrently encoded a gene of interest, a reporter gene, and a resistance gene and thus facilitated the selection, cloning, and in vivo tracking of the modified cells. To evaluate whether modified NS cells permit delivery of functionally relevant quantities of NFs to the dystrophic mouse retina, we expressed a secretable variant of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in NS cells and grafted the cells into the vitreous space of Pde6brd1 and Pde6brd10 mice, two animal models of retinitis pigmentosa. In both mouse lines, grafted cells attached to the retina and lens, where they differentiated into astrocytes and some neurons. Adverse effects of the transplanted cells on the morphology of host retinas were not observed. Importantly, the CNTF-secreting NS cells significantly attenuated photoreceptor degeneration in both mutant mouse lines. The neuroprotective effect was significantly more pronounced when clonally derived NS cell lines selected for high expression levels of CNTF were grafted into Pde6brd1 mice. Intravitreal transplantations of modified NS cells may thus represent a useful method for preclinical studies aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential of a cell-based intraocular delivery of NFs in mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:24167317

  6. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  7. Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  8. Legal Forum: Title IX: Does It Apply to Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    1981-01-01

    Briefly reviews a number of Federal court cases that have dealt with Title IX, considering the issue of whether the 1974 regulations prohibiting sex discrimination in employment practices accurately reflect the intent of the 1972 law. (GC)

  9. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in modulation of the expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takáčová, M.; Holotňáková, T.; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.; Pěnčíková, K.; Gradin, K.; Poellinger, L.; Pastorek, J.; Pastoreková, S.; Kopáček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 419, - (2009), s. 419-425 ISSN 0264-6021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : AhR * carbonic anhydrase IX * dioxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.155, year: 2009

  10. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of overweight and obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  11. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.......Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors...

  12. Incidence and risk factors of sepsis mortality in labor, delivery and after birth: population-based study in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ostad, Ghassan; Kezouh, Abbas; Spence, Andrea R; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2015-08-01

    Maternal sepsis is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality around the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and mortality rate of sepsis, and the associated risk factors for their development during pregnancy, labor, delivery and the post-partum period. We conducted a population-based cohort study consisting of 5 million births that occurred in the USA. Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from 1998 to 2008. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for sepsis development and sepsis-related death during admission for delivery. The overall incidence of maternal sepsis was 29.4 per 100 000 births (95%CI: 28.0-30.9) with a sepsis case fatality rate of 4.4 per 100 births (95%CI: 3.5-5.6). Both the incidence of maternal sepsis and sepsis-related death rate have increased over the last decade. Women who are black, older than 35 years and who smoke were more likely to experience maternal sepsis. An association was also found between maternal sepsis and diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, eclampsia, preterm birth, hysterectomy, puerperal infection, post-partum hemorrhage, transfusion and chorioamnionitis. Mortality from maternal sepsis during labor and delivery is an increasing and important problem in westernized countries. Initiatives aimed at improving early recognition and effective management may help reduce the occurrence and outcomes of maternal sepsis at time of labor and delivery. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila MA; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. Methods This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic...

  14. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Daniel S.; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de; Oliveira, Nelson F. de; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background:Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. Methods: This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic,socioecono...

  15. Factors associated with Institutional delivery service utilization among mothers in Bahir Dar City administration, Amhara region: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Gedefaw; Azage, Muluken; Setegn, Tesfaye

    2014-03-14

    High maternal mortality is a continued challenge for the achievement of the fifth millennium development goal in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Although institutional delivery service utilization ensures safe birth and a key to reduce maternal mortality, interventions at the community and/or institutions were unsatisfactorily reduced maternal mortality. Institutional delivery service utilization is affected by the interaction of personal, socio-cultural, behavioral and institutional factors. Therefore this study was designed to assess factors associated with institutional delivery service use among mothers in Bahir Dar city administration. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar City administration Northwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Four hundred eighty four mothers were included in the study. Data were collected by trained female data collectors. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed. Statistical significance was considered at p delivery service utilization. In this study, institutional delivery service utilization is optimal, urban mothers were more likely to practice institutional delivery. This study indicated that age at first marriage, educational status of the women and gestational age at first ANC visit are independent predictors of delivery service utilization. Hence, intensifying education for women and behavior change communication (BCC) interventions to increase early initiation and up-take of ANC service use in the first trimester and delaying marriage are recommended to promote institutional delivery service utilization.

  16. Factors associated with delivery at or after 28 weeks gestation in women with bulging fetal membranes before 26 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Maseki, Yoshiaki; Ikeda, Sayako; Tezuka, Atsuko; Kuribayashi, Momoko; Furuhashi, Madoka

    2017-09-01

    To elucidate the factors that contribute to prolonged pregnancy and promote neonate survival in women with bulging fetal membranes. A database was reviewed to identify women with singleton pregnancies who underwent amniocentesis on admission to determine amniotic fluid neutrophil elastase levels before 26 + 0 weeks gestation between July 2001 and January 2015. Following delivery, the placentas of these patients were examined for histologic chorioamnionitis. Ninety-seven women delivered before 28 weeks gestation, and 117 women delivered at or after 28 weeks gestation. Rescue cerclage performed via the McDonald procedure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-11.80) was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching at least 28 weeks gestation before delivery, whereas protruding membranes (aOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.78), elevated amniotic neutrophil elastase levels (≥0.15 μg/ml) (aOR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) and elevated peripheral C-reactive protein levels (≥0.4 mg/dl) (aOR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.180.65) were associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of reaching this gestational age before delivery. Among women who underwent rescue cerclage, amniorrhexis was associated with a negative prognosis (aOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51). Intra-amniotic inflammation, protrusion of fetal membranes and amniorrhexis are factors that may prevent pregnancy prolongation. Rescue cerclage improves pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Well-child care delivery in the community in China: Related factors and quality analysis of services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pan; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Huayan; Zhang, Yaying; Ye, Yiyan

    2018-01-01

    Well-child health care services are essential for maintaining optimum child health and development. This study’s aim was to evaluate the quality of such services and identify factors affecting service quality from the perspective of well-child health care providers located in China’s Hunan Province. To achieve this, a qualitative descriptive method was employed, with 22 well-child health care providers being recruited, using purposive sampling, from among the provinces’ government community health centers. The participants completed individual semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 25–30 minutes that were designed to obtain their views on well-child health care administration in the province. Then, the interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. The main finding was that participants felt that the delivery of well-child health care services in Hunan Province is insufficient. Factors they mentioned as negatively affecting the delivery of such services included the region’s fragmented primary health care system, inadequate attention to this issue from parents and community health care center managers, and a lack of specialized well-child care knowledge. Thus, currently, well-child health care is not being successfully implemented in Hunan Province; consequently, in order to successfully implement well-child health care in this region, community health care centers should invest more resources and funding, particularly into education programs for well-child health care providers. PMID:29360836

  18. Well-child care delivery in the community in China: Related factors and quality analysis of services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Mao

    Full Text Available Well-child health care services are essential for maintaining optimum child health and development. This study's aim was to evaluate the quality of such services and identify factors affecting service quality from the perspective of well-child health care providers located in China's Hunan Province. To achieve this, a qualitative descriptive method was employed, with 22 well-child health care providers being recruited, using purposive sampling, from among the provinces' government community health centers. The participants completed individual semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 25-30 minutes that were designed to obtain their views on well-child health care administration in the province. Then, the interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. The main finding was that participants felt that the delivery of well-child health care services in Hunan Province is insufficient. Factors they mentioned as negatively affecting the delivery of such services included the region's fragmented primary health care system, inadequate attention to this issue from parents and community health care center managers, and a lack of specialized well-child care knowledge. Thus, currently, well-child health care is not being successfully implemented in Hunan Province; consequently, in order to successfully implement well-child health care in this region, community health care centers should invest more resources and funding, particularly into education programs for well-child health care providers.

  19. Dry powder vaccines for mucosal administration: critical factors in manufacture and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheena H; Thompson, Afton L; Hickey, Anthony J; Staats, Herman F

    2012-01-01

    Dry powder vaccine formulations have proved effective for induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses. Here we review the use of dry vaccines for immunization in the respiratory tract. We discuss techniques for powder formulation, manufacture, characterization and delivery in addition to methods used for evaluation of stability and safety. We review the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of dry powder vaccines as compared to liquid vaccines delivered by mucosal or parenteral routes. Included is information on mucosal adjuvants and mucoadhesives that can be used to enhance nasal or pulmonary dry vaccines. Mucosal immunization with dry powder vaccines offers the potential to provide a needle-free and cold chain-independent vaccination strategy for the induction of protective immunity against either systemic or mucosal pathogens.

  20. Homoclinic chaos in axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmologies reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I. Damiao; Stuchi, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of Bianchi IX models with two scale factors A(t) and B(t) is reexamined. The matter content of the model is assumed to be comoving dust plus a positive cosmological constant. We make a complete numerical construction of topological structures present in the phase space of the model, as the center manifold of periodic orbits and the stable and unstable cylinders of orbits that emerge from the center manifold, associated to a saddle-center critical point. We exhibit the homoclinic intersections of the unstable and stable cylinders that produce homoclinic chaos in the models. A=0 is not a singularity of the Hamiltonian dynamics and any truncation of the dynamics at A=0 is bound to a loss of information. We make an explicit construction of a set with a horseshoe structure in the A>0 region, of initial conditions corresponding to initially expanding universes. We show that the dynamics of this set is chaotic even if restricted to the region A>0 and has the Einstein universe configuration as a chaotic scatterer. The result however demands the information of the Hamiltonian dynamics in whole phase space, including the region A<0. This refutes recent claims that no homoclinic chaos is present in the dynamics of the model

  1. Maternal and Cord Blood Levels of Serum Amyloid A, C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin -1β, and Interleukin-8 During and After Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marzzullo Cicarelli

    2005-01-01

    after delivery and try to correlate these proteins with tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin -1β, and interleukin-8. Acute-phase proteins and cytokines were measured by ELISA in 24 healthy pregnant women undergoing vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. Cord blood samples in addition to maternal blood were collected. SAA and CRP reached the maximum maternal serum levels 24 hours after delivery, while cytokines remained constant over time. SAA and CRP were significantly higher in maternal serum than in newborn's (P<.001 at the moment of delivery. SAA and CRP, regardless of the type of delivery, reproduce the common pattern observed in most inflammatory conditions. Proinflammatory cytokine serum levels do not mirror the increase in SAA and CRP levels.

  2. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr 3 ) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of Pp-Ix

  3. Accuracy of a combined insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1/interleukin-6 test (Premaquick) in predicting delivery in women with threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George Uchenna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Eleje, Lydia Ijeoma; Ikechebelu, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu; Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu Uzoma; Obiora, Chukwudi Celestine; Nwosu, Betrand Obi; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka Okwudili; Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Okafor, Charles Ikechukwu; Ezugwu, Frank Okechukwu

    2017-11-27

    To determine values of combinations of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/cervical native insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1)/total IGFBP-1 (Premaquick©) in predicting spontaneous deliveries and spontaneous exclusive preterm deliveries in women with threatened preterm labor. Women with singleton pregnancies between gestation age (GA) of 24 weeks and 36 weeks and 6 days with preterm labor were recruited during a prospective multicenter study. Premaquick© was positive when at least two of three biomarkers were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were estimated for both prediction of spontaneous deliveries and spontaneous exclusive preterm deliveries. Ninety-seven (99.0%) out of 98 women enrolled were analyzed. Based on delivery status 7/14 days post-enrollment of general study population, Premaquick© had a sensitivity of 87.1/85.7%, a specificity of 92.4/96.8%, a PPV of 84.4/93.8% and a NPV of 93.9/92.3% for prediction of spontaneous delivery. Predictive accuracy of Premaquick© test in relation to days of enrollment were: 90.7% (≤7 days) and 92.8% (≤14 days). For women enrolled at GA preterm delivery within 7/14 days of enrollment, respectively. PPV was most significantly different in both groups when outcomes were compared between 2 days and 14 days post-enrollment (Ppreterm deliveries in threatened preterm labor in singleton pregnancies.

  4. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  5. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation Verification and Analysis Independent Validation and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Carl M.; Tarpley, Ashley F.; Craig, A. Scott; Tartabini, Paul V.; Brewer, Joan D.; Davis, Jerel G.; Dulski, Matthew B.; Gimenez, Adrian; Barron, M. Kyle

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Ares I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. To obtain approval for launch, a range safety final flight data package was generated to meet the data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710 Volume 2. The delivery included products such as a nominal trajectory, trajectory envelopes, stage disposal data and footprints, and a malfunction turn analysis. The Air Force s 45th Space Wing uses these products to ensure public and launch area safety. Due to the criticality of these data, an independent validation and verification effort was undertaken to ensure data quality and adherence to requirements. As a result, the product package was delivered with the confidence that independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded consistent results. This document captures Ares I-X final flight data package verification and validation analysis, including the methodology used to validate and verify simulation inputs, execution, and results and presents lessons learned during the process

  6. Influence of electrical and chemical factors on transdermal iontophoretic delivery of three diclofenac salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J Y; Wang, R J; Huang, Y B; Wu, P C; Tsai, Y H

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the in vitro transdermal iontophoretic delivery of three diclofenac salts--diclofenac sodium (DFS), diclofenac potassium (DFP), and diclofenac diethylammonium (DFD). A series of physicochemical and electrical variables which might affect iontophoretic permeation of diclofenac salts was studied. Application of 0.3 mA/cm2 current density significantly increased the transdermal flux of diclofenac salts as compared to passive transport. The iontophoretic enhancement increased in the order of DFS>DFP>DFD. The permeability coefficient of diclofenac salts all decreased with increasing donor concentration during iontophoresis. The addition of buffer ions and salt ions such as NaCl, KCl, and C4H12ClN reduced the permeation of diclofenac salts due to competition. However, this effect was lesser for DFD than for DFS and DFP. Comparing the various application modes of iontophoresis, the discontinuous on/off mode showed lower but more constant flux than the continuous mode.

  7. Influence of Electron Irradiation Factor on Haruan Traditional Extract (HTE) for Oral Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Abdul Manan, M.J.; Kamaruddin Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Haruan or Channa striatus is source of protein, Haruan extract is well known in the region for having a medicinal quality and widely consumed. It is great advantage if this product could be administered by oral rather than injection because oral route of drug delivery is still preferred by the vast majority of patients. However protein and peptides can be denatured or degraded by conditions included the acidic pH of the stomach and presence of endogenous enzymes. In order to protect or prevent digestion and degradation of the protein in the stomach and to ensure the protein reach to gastro intestinal (GI) tract, CMS nano gel system was developed using electron irradiation method. However stability of HTE toward radiation needed to be ensured before being used for the next level. In this study, the HTE was radiated with electron radiation. Its stability was analysed in term of physical aspect by looking at the colour difference, melting point by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in terms of chemical aspect which include molecular bonds by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results of this study were that no apparent colour difference was seen on the HTE before and after irradiation. Those are supported by FTIR and DSC analysis results that showed that there were no change of molecular bonds and melting point, compared between no irradiation and irradiation HTE during electron irradiation up to 10 kGy. Statistically the test showed no significant difference at p<0.005 within melting temperatures. (author)

  8. Which Factors Influence the Type of Delivery and Cesarean Section Rate in Women with Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inocêncio, Gonçalo; Braga, António; Lima, Tânia; Vieira, Bruna; Zulmira, Rosa; Carinhas, Maria; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Silva, Clara

    2015-01-01

    To discover the differences between women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered vaginally and those who delivered by cesarean section, and to assess the cesarean rate in this group of women. We divided all pregnant women with GDM into 2 groups: those who had vaginal delivery and those who gave birth by cesarean section (retrospective study of 6 years). We evaluated 460 births at term (≥ 37 weeks' gestation), for a total of 240 vaginal births and 220 cesarean births. All occurred in our institution. Of all the variables that were compared between the 2 groups, we found statistically significant differences (p history of macrosomia and gestational age at the time of beginning insulin treatment. Pregnant women with GDM and previous history of macrosomia are more likely to be submitted to cesarean section. Also, the initiation of insulin treatment at an early gestational age is associated with a higher chance of a woman delivering by cesarean section. The cesarean section rate in women with GDM was 47.8%.

  9. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  11. Improved murine glioma detection following modified diet and photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-02-01

    The Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) - Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) system is unique in the world of photosensitizers in that the prodrug ALA is enzymatically transformed via the tissue of interest into fluorescently detectable levels of PpIX. This system can be used to monitor cellular metabolism of tumor tissue for applications such as therapy monitoring. Detecting PpIX fluorescence noninvasively has proven difficult due to the high levels of PpIX produced in the skin compared to other tissue both with and without ALA administration. In the current study, methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration have been examined. Use of a purified diet is found to decrease both skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration, while addition of a broad spectrum antibiotic to the water shows little effect. Following ALA administration, improved brain tumor detection is seen when skin PpIX fluorescence is photobleached via blue light prior to transmission spectroscopic measurements of tumor bearing and control animals. Both of these methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration are shown to have a large effect on the ability to detect tumor tissue PpIX fluorescence noninvasively in vivo.

  12. Killing malignant melanoma cells with protoporphyrin IX-loaded polymersome-mediated photodynamic therapy and cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2017-05-01

    first time that PpIX-loaded polymersomes together with CAP posttreatment could be a promising tool for skin cancer drug delivery with selective toxicity toward melanoma cells sparing healthy fibroblasts. Keywords: melanoma, polymersomes, protoporphyrin IX, cold atmospheric plasma, photodynamic therapy

  13. Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Lee, E.J.; Seyednejad, H.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the

  14. Perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery in expanding programmes in a primary healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnoi. A. Xaba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery regarding expansion programmes in a primary healthcare setting, using a qualitative approach. The registered nurses, who have been working in the clinics for more than two years and have been exposed to the expansion programmes there, were purposively sampled. Two focus group interviews were conducted in a neutral place and the data collected by the researcher Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X.. Data were analysed by the researcher and an independent co-coder using the Tesch method. Categories, subcategories and themes were identified; those that formed the basis of discussion were disabling factors, enabling factors, client-related factors, service-related factors and solutions to problems. It is recommended that integration of programmes and coordination be done at a provincial level and planned together with the training centres in order to alleviate problems in service delivery. Training on expansion programmes in the form of in-service education should be carried out continually in the region.Die doel van die studie was om die persepsie van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges met betrekking tot die faktore wat dienslewering van die uitbreidingsprogramme in ‘n primêre gesondheid opset beinvloed; te eksploreer en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg in die iutvoering van die studie. ‘n Doelgerigte steekproef is uitgevoer vanuit geregistreerde verpleegkundiges wat vir langer as twee jaar in die klinieke werksaam was en blootgestel is aan die uitbreiding programme. Twee fokus groep onderhoude is deur die navorser Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X. in ‘n neutrale opset uitgevoer. Data is deur die navorser en ʼn onafhanklike kodeerder ontleed volgens Tesch se metode van analise. Kategorieë, sub-kategorieë en temas was geidentifiseer. Die kategorieë fundamenteel tot die bespreking behels: remmende faktore, bydraende faktore

  15. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  16. Synthesis of [119mSn]-mesoporphyrin IX dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (Sn-MPCl 2 ) is a heme oxygenase inhibitor of current clinical interest for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The synthesis of [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 for drug metabolism and disposition studies is reported. [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 was prepared in 60% radiochemical yield by metalation of the porphyrin nucleus of mesoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride with tin(II)-119m acetate. The product had a specific activity of 43.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99%, as determined by radio-HPLC analysis. (author)

  17. Scaffolds for Growth Factor Delivery as Applied to Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Blackwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There remains a substantial shortfall in the treatment of severe skeletal injuries. The current gold standard of autologous bone grafting from the same patient has many undesirable side effects associated such as donor site morbidity. Tissue engineering seeks to offer a solution to this problem. The primary requirements for tissue-engineered scaffolds have already been well established, and many materials, such as polyesters, present themselves as potential candidates for bone defects; they have comparable structural features, but they often lack the required osteoconductivity to promote adequate bone regeneration. By combining these materials with biological growth factors, which promote the infiltration of cells into the scaffold as well as the differentiation into the specific cell and tissue type, it is possible to increase the formation of new bone. However due to the cost and potential complications associated with growth factors, controlling the rate of release is an important design consideration when developing new bone tissue engineering strategies. This paper will cover recent research in the area of encapsulation and release of growth factors within a variety of different polymeric scaffolds.

  18. Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitui John

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya

  19. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Epidermal Growth Factor: Revisiting the Local Delivery Route for a Successful Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after epidermal growth factor (EGF discovery, some in vivo models appeared demonstrating its property to enhance cutaneous wound healing. EGF was the first growth factor (GF introduced in the clinical arena as a healing enhancer, exerting its mitogenic effects on epithelial, fibroblastoid, and endothelial cells via a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor. Compelling evidences from the 90s documented that, for EGF, locally prolonged bioavailability and hourly interaction with the receptor were necessary for a successful tissue response. Eventually, the enthusiasm on the clinical use of EGF to steer the healing process was wiped out as the topical route to deliver proteins started to be questioned. The simultaneous in vivo experiments, emphasizing the impact of the parenterally administered EGF on epithelial and nonepithelial organs in terms of mitogenesis and cytoprotection, rendered the theoretical fundamentals for the injectable use of EGF and shaped the hypothesis that locally infiltrating the diabetic ulcers would lead to an effective healing. Although the diabetic chronic wounds microenvironment is hostile for local GFs bioavailability, EGF local infiltration circumvented the limitations of its topical application, thus expanding its therapeutic prospect. Our clinical pharmacovigilance and basic studies attest the significance of the GF local infiltration for chronic wounds healing.

  20. Expression of CA-IX is associated with advanced stage tumors and poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Pilar, Gayoso-Diz; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Barros-Angueira, Francisco; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel; García-García, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of ubiquitously expressed metalloenzymes, are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenicity. Specifically, CA-IX has been primarily found in hypoxic tumor tissues. This is a retrospective study of tumors from the Tissue Bank of the Pathology Department of the University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela. We selected 50 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using Tissue Microarray (TMA) technology. The immunohistochemical study was performed to determine CA-IX expression. The resulting data were subject to statistical analysis and survival curves. Of the 50 cases, 23 were detected in early stages (I and II) and 27 in advanced stages (III and IV). In the first year, almost 50% of patients in stages III-IV died, which contrasted with those patients in initial stages who registered a survival rate of 80% (P = 0.019). Regarding the expression of CA-IX, nine cases (18%) were negative, 18 cases (36%) were moderate, while 23 cases (46%) were intense. Tumors in stages I-II showed a positivity of 52.6%; however, in advanced stages, the percentage reached 95.5% (P = 0.002). Regarding CA-IX expression and survival, patients with tumors with strong staining had a lower average survival time (13.8 months) than patients with negative or weak-moderate staining (33.4 and 32.8 months, respectively), log-rank=6.1, P value=0.0484. Early diagnosis of these tumors is essential to improve patient survival. CA-IX expression augments with increasing tumor stage, probably related with the degree of hypoxia; thus, its measurement can be used as a prognostic factor. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited, modified...

  2. Combined prokaryotic-eukaryotic delivery and expression of therapeutic factors through a primed autocatalytic positive-feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yu, Bin; Cai, Chun-Hui; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Smith, David Keith; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-28

    Progress in bacterial therapy for cancer and infectious diseases is hampered by the absence of safe and efficient vectors. Sustained delivery and high gene expression levels are critical for the therapeutic efficacy. Here we developed a Salmonella typhimrium strain to maintain and safely deliver a plasmid vector to target tissues. This vector is designed to allow dual transcription of therapeutic factors, such as cytotoxic proteins, short hairpin RNAs or combinations, in the nucleus or cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, with this expression sustained by an autocatalytic positive-feedback loop. Mechanisms to prime the system and maintain the plasmid in the bacterium are also provided. Synergistic effects of attenuated Salmonella and our inter-kingdom system allow the precise expression of Diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) gene in tumor microenvironment and eradicate large established tumors in immunocompetent animals. In the experiments reported here, 26% of mice (n=5/19) with aggressive tumors were cured and the others all survived until the end of the experiment. We also demonstrated that ST4 packaged with shRNA-encoding plasmids has sustained knockdown effects in nude mice bearing human MDA-MB-231 xenografts. Three weeks after injection of 5×10(6) ST4/pIKT-shPlk, PLK1 transcript levels in tumors were 62.5±18.6% lower than the vector control group (P=0.015). The presence of PLK1 5' RACE-PCR cleavage products confirmed a sustained RNAi-mediated mechanism of action. This innovative technology provides an effective and versatile vehicle for efficient inter-kingdom gene delivery that can be applied to cancer therapy and other purposes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Real-World Analysis of Dispensed IUs of Coagulation Factor IX and Resultant Expenditures in Hemophilia B Patients Receiving Standard Half-life Versus Extended Half-life Products and Those Switching from Standard Half-life to Extended Half-life Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Bartholomew J; Alvir, José; McDonald, Margaret; Spurden, Dean; Fogarty, Patrick F; Chhabra, Amit; Pleil, Andreas M

    2018-01-24

    Hemophilia B requires replacement therapy with factor IX (FIX) coagulation products to treat and prevent bleeding episodes. A recently introduced extended half-life (EHL) recombinant FIX replacement product provided the opportunity to compare the amount of dispensed factor and expenditures for EHL treatment compared with a standard half-life (SHL) product. To determine factor international units (IUs) dispensed and expenditures associated with switching from nonacog alfa, the most commonly used SHL replacement product, to eftrenonacog alfa, an EHL FIX replacement product. Two U.S. claims databases were analyzed. A large national specialty pharmacy dispensation claims database was used to identify the number of IUs dispensed and monthly charges for all patients with hemophilia B from April 2015 to June 2016. Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases (January 2010-July 2016) were used to identify IUs and expenditures for patients with claims data for at least 3 months before and after switching from the SHL to the EHL product. Medians for IUs and expenditures are presented to accommodate for skewness of data distribution. The national specialty pharmacy database analysis included 296 patients with moderate or severe hemophilia B (233 on SHL; 94 on EHL). Median monthly factor dispensed was 11% lower (2,142 IU) in the EHL versus SHL cohort over the study period, while individual monthly reductions ranged from 32% to 47% (9,838 IU to 16,514 IU). Using the wholesale acquisition cost, the median per-patient monthly factor expenditures over the 15-month study period were 94% higher ($23,005) for the EHL than for the SHL product. Individual median monthly expenditure differences ranged from 15% ($6,562) to 49% ($19,624). In the Truven database, 14 patients switched from the SHL to the EHL product. The amount of factor dispensed was variable; in the 1-year period before and after the switch from the SHL to the EHL product, mean IUs dispensed decreased by 3,005 IU, while

  4. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  5. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  6. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  7. Proceedings of the IX International Conference on Particles, Strings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings of the IX International Conference on Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS 2003) - Part I. pp 147-148. Preface · D P Roy Sunanda Banerjee K Sridhar · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 149-161. Precision tests of the standard model, the Higgs, and new physics · Guido Altarelli · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  8. Phase-space dynamics of Bianchi IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    The complex phase-space dynamical behaviour of a class of Biachi IX cosmological models is discussed, as the chaotic gravitational collapse due Poincare's homoclinic phenomena, and the n-furcation of periodic orbits and tori in the phase space of the models. Poincare maps which show this behaviour are constructed merically and applications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. Secondary Athletic Administrators' Perceptions of Title IX Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gabriel Grawe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate North Dakota's Normal Competitive Region (NDNCR) high school athletic administrators' perceptions of 2010 Title IX policy changes respective to their athletic programs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to investigate the perceptions. Quantitatively, perception data were gathered from a…

  10. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition p = λ i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  11. A Clash of Titans: College Football v. Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieronek, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, Civil Rights Act of 1971, designed to ensure equal educational opportunity for men and women, is reviewed as it pertains to college athletics. Related litigation and National Collegiate Athletic Association efforts to promote compliance are examined, an argument for excluding revenue-producing sports…

  12. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  13. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  14. Counselor Education and Title IX: Current Perceptions and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welfare, Laura E.; Wagstaff, Jennifer; Haynes, Jenna R.

    2017-01-01

    This national survey of counselor educator perceptions of the Title IX requirement to report student disclosures of gender-based discrimination revealed the need for greater clarity about faculty strategies for serving counseling program students while upholding the federal law. The authors describe the recent expansion of the requirements and…

  15. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  16. Study of primitive universe in the Bianchi IX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, G.E.A.

    1988-03-01

    The theory of general relativity is used to study the homogeneous cosmological model Bianch IX with isometry group SO(3) near the cosmological singularity. The Bogoyavlenskii-Novikov formalism to explain the anusual behaviour of the Liapunov exponent associated with this chaotic system, is introduced. (author) [pt

  17. Dynamic of exact perturbations in Bianchi IX type cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Neto, J.R.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic of Bianchi IX type cosmological models is studied, after reducing Einstein equations to Hamiltonian system. Using the Melnikov method, the existence of chaos in the dynamic of these models is proved, and some numerical experiments are carried out. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUSMITA SIL, TANIA BOSE, DIBYENDU ROY and ABHAY SANKAR CHAKRABORTI*. Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Genetics, University College of Science,. 92, Acharyya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009, India. *Corresponding author (Email, aschak@cubmb.ernet.in). Protoporphyrin IX and its ...

  19. Sustained delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1/hepatocyte growth factor stimulates endogenous cardiac repair in the chronic infarcted pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudstaal, Stefan; Bastings, Maartje M C; Feyen, Dries A M; Waring, Cheryl D; van Slochteren, Frebus J; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Torella, Daniele; Sluijter, Joost P G; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo; Doevendans, Pieter A; Ellison, Georgina M; Chamuleau, Steven A J

    2014-03-01

    Activation of endogenous cardiac stem/progenitor cells (eCSCs) can improve cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction. We studied whether the in situ activation of eCSCs by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could be increased using a newly developed hydrogel in chronic myocardial infarction (MI). One-month post-MI pigs underwent NOGA-guided intramyocardial injections of IGF-1/HGF (GF: both 0.5 μg/mL, n = 5) or IGF-1/HGF incorporated in UPy hydrogel (UPy-GF; both 0.5 μg/mL, n = 5). UPy hydrogel without added growth factors was administered to four control (CTRL) pigs. Left ventricular ejection fraction was increased in the UPy-GF and GF animals compared to CTRLs. UPy-GF delivery reduced pathological hypertrophy, led to the formation of new, small cardiomyocytes, and increased capillarization. The eCSC population was increased almost fourfold in the border zone of the UPy-GF-treated hearts compared to CTRL hearts. These results show that IGF-1/HGF therapy led to an improved cardiac function in chronic MI and that effect size could be further increased by using UPy hydrogel.

  20. Risk factors and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Einsle, Franziska; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders are associated with adverse consequences for mother and child. Thus, it is important to examine risk factors, correlates and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery. In the prospective-longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n=306 expectant mothers were recruited from gynaecological outpatient settings in Germany and completed up to seven waves of assessment from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum. Anxiety and depressive disorders and potential risk factors/correlates were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V), medical records and additional questionnaires. Although peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders appeared to be persistent in some women, others reported major changes with heterogeneous courses and shifts between diagnoses and contents. There was a considerable amount of incident disorders. Strongest predictors for peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders were anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy, but psychosocial (e.g. maternal education), individual (e.g. low self-esteem), and interpersonal (e.g. partnership satisfaction, social support) factors were also related. Knowing the aims of the study, some participants may have been more encouraged to report particular symptoms, but if so, this points to the importance of a comprehensive assessment in perinatal care. Peripartum time is a sensitive period for a considerable incidence or persistence/recurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders albeit the course may be rather heterogeneous. Interventional studies are needed to examine whether an alteration of associated factors could help to prevent peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy combined with targeted delivery of silencing vascular endothelial growth factor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a novel therapeutic modality to treat cancer by using a photosensitizer which is activated by a light source to produce reactive oxygen species and mediates tumours oxygen-independent hypoxic conditions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the primary factors that affect tumor angiogenesis. Another emerging treatment to cure cancer is the use of interference RNA to silence a specific mRNA sequence. Such treatment requires a delivery system such as liposomes. The nanoparticle size measured was about 30 nm. Cellular uptake study was performed to verify that the nanoparticles have a sigma receptor mediated pathway. Non-targeted LCP NPs did not show significant difference with or without haloperidol but has a lower intensity as than targeted LCP NPs. These results confirm that LCP NPs have a receptor mediated pathway. Cell viability was found to decrease at 25 nM of transfected VEGF siRNA. Combined therapy of PDT and VEGF siRNA showed significant response as compared with PDT and gene therapy alone. In vivo toxicity assay with mice treated with targeted LCP NPs containing control siRNA or VEGF siRNA and non-targeted LCP NPs containing VEGF siRNA did not show any significant difference with the PBS injected group which suggests that there is no toxicity with the dose. It suggests that PDT combined with targeted gene therapy has a potential mean to achieve better therapeutic outcome.

  2. Ciliary neurotrophic factor cell-based delivery prevents synaptic impairment and improves memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Youssef, Ihsen; Utvik, Jo K; Florent-Béchard, Sabrina; Barthélémy, Vanassa; Malaplate-Armand, Catherine; Kriem, Badreddine; Stenger, Christophe; Koziel, Violette; Olivier, Jean-Luc; Escanye, Marie-Christine; Hanse, Marine; Allouche, Ahmad; Desbène, Cédric; Yen, Frances T; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Oster, Thierry; Niclou, Simone P; Pillot, Thierry

    2010-06-02

    The development of novel therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one of the biggest unmet medical needs today. Application of neurotrophic factors able to modulate neuronal survival and synaptic connectivity is a promising therapeutic approach for AD. We aimed to determine whether the loco-regional delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) could prevent amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomer-induced synaptic damages and associated cognitive impairments that typify AD. To ensure long-term administration of CNTF in the brain, we used recombinant cells secreting CNTF encapsulated in alginate polymers. The implantation of these bioreactors in the brain of Abeta oligomer-infused mice led to a continuous secretion of recombinant CNTF and was associated with the robust improvement of cognitive performances. Most importantly, CNTF led to full recovery of cognitive functions associated with the stabilization of synaptic protein levels in the Tg2576 AD mouse model. In vitro as well as in vivo, CNTF activated a Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated survival pathway that prevented synaptic and neuronal degeneration. These preclinical studies suggest that CNTF and/or CNTF receptor-associated pathways may have AD-modifying activity through protection against progressive Abeta-related memory deficits. Our data also encourage additional exploration of ex vivo gene transfer for the prevention and/or treatment of AD.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Liang Tang; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Jin Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 μm were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Protein Delivery of an Artificial Transcription Factor Restores Widespread Ube3a Expression in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailus, Barbara J; Pyles, Benjamin; McAlister, Michelle M; O'Geen, Henriette; Lockwood, Sarah H; Adams, Alexa N; Nguyen, Jennifer Trang T; Yu, Abigail; Berman, Robert F; Segal, David J

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological genetic disorder caused by loss of expression of the maternal copy of UBE3A in the brain. Due to brain-specific genetic imprinting at this locus, the paternal UBE3A is silenced by a long antisense transcript. Inhibition of the antisense transcript could lead to unsilencing of paternal UBE3A, thus providing a therapeutic approach for AS. However, widespread delivery of gene regulators to the brain remains challenging. Here, we report an engineered zinc finger-based artificial transcription factor (ATF) that, when injected i.p. or s.c., crossed the blood–brain barrier and increased Ube3a expression in the brain of an adult mouse model of AS. The factor displayed widespread distribution throughout the brain. Immunohistochemistry of both the hippocampus and cerebellum revealed an increase in Ube3a upon treatment. An ATF containing an alternative DNA-binding domain did not activate Ube3a. We believe this to be the first report of an injectable engineered zinc finger protein that can cause widespread activation of an endogenous gene in the brain. These observations have important implications for the study and treatment of AS and other neurological disorders. PMID:26727042

  5. Controlled delivery of platelet-derived growth factor-BB from injectable microsphere/hydrogel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Jiaoyan; Wu, Jingjing; Wan, Ying; Chen, Yun

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PGDF-BB) loaded gelatin microspheres with an average size of about 2μm was incorporated into chitosan/silk fibroin/glycerophosphate (GP) solutions to prepare composites. The formulated composite solutions were able to form into hydrogels in a temperature range between 32 and 37°C at a pH of ca.7. They had good fluidity at 25°C and showed shear-thinning features at both 25 and 37°C, revealing that they are injectable at room temperature. Elastic modulus of some composites at 37°C was about 10-fold higher than that of chitosan/GP gel, confirming that these composites behave like mechanically strong gels. Optimal composites showed abilities to administrate PDGF-BB release in an approximately linear manner up to 5 weeks. The PDGF-BB release could be regulated by the PDGF-BB load and the silk fibroin content in the composites in an individual or cooperative way. In vivo degradation of composites demonstrated that some of them had markedly enhanced degradation endurance as compared to the chitosan/GP gel. PDGF-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and PDGF-BB-induced cell migration suggested that the bioactivity of released PDGF-BB was well retained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ares I-X Flight Data Evaluation: Executive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Waits, David A.; Lewis, Donny L.; Richards, James S.; Coates, R. H., Jr.; Cruit, Wendy D.; Bolte, Elizabeth J.; Bangham, Michal E.; Askins, Bruce R.; Trausch, Ann N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) successfully launched the Ares I-X flight test vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully. The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office (APO) established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models. The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I. The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks. This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,600-plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results. This detailed report is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and is available in the Ares Projects Office archives files.

  7. The effect of carbonic anhydrase IX on focal contacts during cell spreading and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eCsaderova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX is a hypoxia-induced transmembrane enzyme linked with solid tumors. It catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 providing bicarbonate ions for intracellular neutralization and protons for extracellular acidosis, thereby supporting tumor cell survival and invasiveness. CA IX is the only human CA isoform containing the proteoglycan (PG domain in its extracellular part. The PG domain appears to enhance the catalytic activity of CA IX and mediate its binding to the extracellular matrix. Moreover, manipulation of the CA IX level by siRNA or overexpression modulates cell adhesion pathway so that in the presence of CA IX, cells display an increased rate of adhesion and spreading. Here we show that deletion of the PG domain as well as treatment with the PG-binding monoclonal antibody M75 can impair this CA IX effect. Accordingly, CA IX-expressing cells show more prominent and elongated maturing paxillin-stained focal contacts (FC than CA IX-negative controls, proving the role of CA IX in cell spreading. However, during active cell movement, CA IX is relocalized to lamellipodia and improves migration via its catalytic domain. Thus, we examined the influence of CA IX on FC turnover in these structures. While the lamellipodial regions lacking CA IX display dash-like adhesions, the CA IX-enriched neighboring regions exhibit dynamic dot-like FCs. These results suggest that CA IX can promote initial adhesion through its PG domain, but at the same time it facilitates formation of nascent adhesions at the leading edge of moving cells. Thereby it may allow for transmission of large forces and enhanced migration rate, presumably through catalytic activity and impact of pHe on FC dynamics. Thus, we provide the first evidence that CA IX protein localizes directly in focal adhesion structures and propose its functional relationship with the proteins involved in the regulation of FC turnover and maturation.

  8. Pregnant women's preference and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Debra Markos Town, North West Ethiopia: a community based follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, Hinsermu; Adefris, Mulatu; Amano, Abdella; Abuhay, Mulunesh

    2015-02-05

    Majority of deaths from obstetric complications are preventable. But every pregnant woman face risks which may not always be detected through the risk assessment approach during antenatal care (ANC). Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant in every delivery is the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel, is very low, even for women who have access to the services. A community-based follow up study was conducted from January 17, 2012 to July 30, 2012, among 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester's pregnant women in Debre-Markos town, east Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia. Simple random sampling technique was used to get a total sample size of 422 participants. A total of 393 pregnant women were included in the study. The study revealed that 292(74.3%) of the pregnant women planned to deliver in a health institution. Of these 292 pregnant women 234 (80.14%) actually delivered in a health facility. Age range from 15-19 year (AOR = 4.83, 95% CI = 1.562-12.641), college and above education of the pregnant women (AOR = 12.508, 95% CI = 1.082-14.557), ANC visit during the current pregnancy (AOR = 1.975, 95% CI = 1.021-3.392),perceived susceptibility and severity of pregnancy and delivery complication (AOR = 3.208, 95% CI = 1.262-8.155) and intention (preference) of pregnant women for place of delivery (AOR = 7.032, 95% CI = 3.045-10.234) are predictors of institutional delivery service utilization. Preference for institutional delivery is low in the study area. Sociodemographic factors, perception about delivery complication, ANC follow up and their intentions for institutional delivery are among important predictors of institutional delivery.

  9. Maternal Satisfaction on Delivery Service and Its Associated Factors among Mothers Who Gave Birth in Public Health Facilities of Debre Markos Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Kurabachew; Ayichiluhm, Mekonnen; Yimam, Kedir

    2015-01-01

    The existence of maternal health service does not guarantee its use by women; neither does the use of maternal health service guarantee optimal outcomes for women. The World Health Organization recommends monitoring and evaluation of maternal satisfaction to improve the quality and efficiency of health care during childbirth. Thus, this study aimed at assessing maternal satisfaction on delivery service and factors associated with it. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debre Markos town from March to April 2014. Systematic random sampling technique were used to select 398 mothers who gave birth within one year. The satisfaction of mothers was measured using 19 questions which were adopted from Donabedian quality assessment framework. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify independent predictors. Among mothers, the overall satisfaction on delivery service was found to be 318 (81.7%). Having plan to deliver at health institution (AOR = 3.30, 95% CI: 1.38-7.9) and laboring time of less than six hours (AOR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.66-9.79) were positively associated with maternal satisfaction on delivery service. Those mothers who gave birth using spontaneous vaginal delivery (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.023-0.51) were inversely related to maternal satisfaction on delivery service. This study revealed that the overall satisfaction of mothers on delivery service was found to be suboptimal. Reasons for delivery visit, duration of labor, and mode of delivery are independent predictors of maternal satisfaction. Thus, there is a need of an intervention on the independent predictors.

  10. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  11. Assessment of the dimensionality of the Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaire using factor analysis and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, J F; Haines, H M; Green, P; Toohill, J; Gamble, J; Creedy, D K; Fenwick, J

    2016-11-21

    Fear of childbirth has negative consequences for a woman's physical and emotional wellbeing. The most commonly used measurement tool for childbirth fear is the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (WDEQ-A). Although originally conceptualized as unidimensional, subsequent investigations have suggested it is multidimensional. This study aimed to undertake a detailed psychometric assessment of the WDEQ-A; exploring the dimensionality and identifying possible subscales that may have clinical and research utility. WDEQ-A was administered to a sample of 1410 Australian women in mid-pregnancy. The dimensionality of WDEQ-A was explored using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Rasch analysis. EFA identified a four factor solution. CFA failed to support the unidimensional structure of the original WDEQ-A, but confirmed the four factor solution identified by EFA. Rasch analysis was used to refine the four subscales (Negative emotions: five items; Lack of positive emotions: five items; Social isolation: four items; Moment of birth: three items). Each WDEQ-A Revised subscale showed good fit to the Rasch model and adequate internal consistency reliability. The correlation between Negative emotions and Lack of positive emotions was strong, however Moment of birth and Social isolation showed much lower intercorrelations, suggesting they should not be added to create a total score. This study supports the findings of other investigations that suggest the WDEQ-A is multidimensional and should not be used in its original form. The WDEQ-A Revised may provide researchers with a more refined, psychometrically sound tool to explore the differential impact of aspects of childbirth fear.

  12. Independent risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in a rural tertiary care medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Manuel C; Attaallah, Ahmed F; Shapiro, Robert E; Elzamzamy, Osama M; Mueller, Michael G; Eller, Warren S

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean delivery (CD) and identify the risk factors in a rural population. We identified 218 SSI patients by International Classification of Disease codes and matched them with 3131 parturients (control) from the electronic record database in a time-matched retrospective quality assurance analysis. The incidence of SSI after CD was 7.0 %. Risk factors included higher body mass index (BMI) [40.30 ± 10.60 kg/m 2 SSI (95 % CI 38.73-41.87) vs 34.05 ± 8.24 kg/m 2 control (95 % CI 33.75-34.35, P < 0.001)], years of education [13.28 ± 2.44 years SSI (95 % CI 12.9-13.66) vs 14.07 ± 2.81 years control (95 % CI 13.96-14.18, P < 0.001)], number of prior births [2 (1-9) SSI vs 1 (1-11) control (P < 0.001)], tobacco use (OR 1.49; 95 % CI 1.06-2.09, P = 0.03), prior diagnosis of hypertension (OR 1.80; 95 % CI 1.34-2.42, P < 0.001), gestational diabetes (OR 1.59; 95 % CI 1.18-2.13, P = 0.003), and an emergency/STAT CD (OR 1.6; 95 % CI 1.1-2.3, P = 0.01). Risk factors for SSI after CD included higher BMI, less years of education, higher prior births, tobacco use, prior diagnosis of hypertension, gestational diabetes, and emergency/STAT CD. The presence of ruptured membranes was protective against SSI.

  13. Oxygen delivery to the fish eye: root effect as crucial factor for elevated retinal PO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, W; Heisler, N

    2005-11-01

    successively with standardized red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in Ringer, using trout (with Root) and human (lacking any Root effect) RBC suspension. To optimize perfusate conditions for maximal Root effect, the Root effect of trout RBCs was determined in vitro via graded acidification of individual samples equilibrated with standardized gas mixtures. During perfusion with trout RBC, PO2 at the outer retinal limit was 99 mmHg (13.2 kPa), but fell by a factor of 3.3 upon perfusion with human RBC in spite of higher total oxygen content (TO2 2.8 for trout vs 3.9 mmol l-1 for human RBC). Upon reperfusion with trout RBC, PO2 was restored immediately to the original value. This regularly observed pattern indicated a highly significant difference (P=0.003) between perfusion with trout (with Root effect; high retinal PO2) and perfusion with human (no Root effect; low retinal PO2) RBC suspension, thus clearly demonstrating that the Root effect is directly involved and a crucial prerequisite for the enhancement of PO2 in the retina of the teleost eye.

  14. Emerging role of human factors and ergonomics in healthcare delivery – A new field of application and influence for the IEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments of research and application of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) are described, in particular the domain of healthcare delivery. HFE activities in this domain are highlighted and challenges for the discipline and the International Ergonomics Association are presented. PMID:22317500

  15. [Delivery during time of shift change is not a risk factor for obstetric complication: a historical cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Orna; Samueloff, Arnon; Gdansky, Efraim; Yekel, Yael; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2015-03-01

    The time of shift change is a unique time because the continuity of routine care is interrupted. The association between delivery during time of shift change and obstetric complications has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that delivery during time of shift change is at risk for obstetric complications. A historical cohort study was performed of all women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing a trial of labor at term during 2006-2010. Data was extracted from a computerized database that is continuously updated during Labor. The hour of delivery was divided into two categories: "morning shift" (09:30-15:00) and "time of shift change" which was defined 30 minutes prior to and 90 minutes past the official time of shift change, which occurs twice daily at 07:30 and 15:30. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to estimate the association between deliveries during "time of shift change" compared to "morning weekdays", with instrumental delivery (primary outcome) and prolonged second stage, unplanned cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, 5 minutes Apgar score deliveries were included in the cohort. No statistical difference in instrumental vaginal delivery was documented for women delivering during "time of shift change compared to morning shift weekdays (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83- 1.11, p = 0.605). None of the secondary outcomes were found at risk for women delivering during "time of shift change". Delivery during "time of shift change" does not pose additional risk for obstetric complications.

  16. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2018-04-04

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  17. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: Risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIMS: Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. METHODS: Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) wome...

  18. Implementation of Brazil's "family health strategy": factors associated with community health workers', nurses', and physicians' delivery of drug use services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogério M; Rahman, Rahbel; da Fonseca, Aline

    2015-05-01

    Brazil's "family health strategy" (ESF), provides primary care, mostly to individuals in impoverished communities through teams of physicians, nurses, and community health workers (CHWs). ESF workers are called upon to offer drug use services (e.g., referrals, counseling) as drug use represents an urgent public health crisis. New federal initiatives are being implemented to build capacity in this workforce to deliver drug use services, yet little is known about whether ESF workers are providing drug use services already. Guided by social cognitive theory, this study examines factors associated with ESF workers' provision of drug use services. Cross-sectional surveys were collected from 262 ESF workers (168 CHWs, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians) in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State and Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State. provision of drug-use services. capacity to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP), resource constraints, peer support, knowledge of EBP, and job title. Logistic regression was used to determine relative influence of each predictor upon the outcome. Thirty-nine percent reported providing drug use services. Younger workers, CHWs, workers with knowledge about EBP and workers that report peer support were more likely to offer drug use services. Workers that reported resource constraints and more capacity to implement EBP were less likely to offer drug use services. ESF workers require education in locating, assessing and evaluating the latest research. Mentorship from physicians and peer support through team meetings may enhance workers' delivery of drug use services, across professional disciplines. Educational initiatives aimed at ESF teams should consider these factors as potentially enhancing implementation of drug use services. Building ESF workers' capacity to collaborate across disciplines and to gain access to tools for providing assessment and treatment of drug use issues may improve uptake of new initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. 6. Home deliveries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    determine factors associated with home deliveries. Main outcome .... Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess and estimate the factors and magnitude of effect on home deliveries. The variables in the model were age or age group, marital .... This finding coupled with lack of transport, made it very difficult for ...

  20. Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinases LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 Are Functional Analogs in Regulating Phytophthora Resistance and Plant Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Shan, Weixing; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-09-01

    L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are potential immune receptors. Here, we characterized two closely-related Arabidopsis LecRK, LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2, of which T-DNA insertion mutants showed compromised resistance to Phytophthora brassicae and Phytophthora capsici, with double mutants showing additive susceptibility. Overexpression of LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana increased Phytophthora resistance but also induced cell death. Phytophthora resistance required both the lectin domain and kinase activity, but for cell death, the lectin domain was not needed. Silencing of the two closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase genes NbSIPK and NbNTF4 in N. benthamiana completely abolished LecRK-IX.1-induced cell death but not Phytophthora resistance. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protein complexes coimmunoprecipitated in planta with LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 as bait, resulted in the identification of the N. benthamiana ABC transporter NbPDR1 as a potential interactor of both LecRK. The closest homolog of NbPDR1 in Arabidopsis is ABCG40, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that ABCG40 associates with LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 in planta. Similar to the LecRK mutants, ABCG40 mutants showed compromised Phytophthora resistance. This study shows that LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 are Phytophthora resistance components that function independent of each other and independent of the cell-death phenotype. They both interact with the same ABC transporter, suggesting that they exploit similar signal transduction pathways.

  1. Magnitude of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Luelseged; Alemayehu, Mussie; Debie, Ayal

    2018-03-02

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes < 30 min (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 2.57, 66.33) and women whose husband involved in decision regarding delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.

  2. Aggressive therapy improves cirrhosis in glycogen storage disease type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Fiske, Laurie M; Siegel, Sara; Lumpkin, Chris; Hoyt, Kate; Wasserstein, Melissa; Weinstein, David A

    2013-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX) is described as a benign condition that often does not require treatment. Most patients with the disease are thought to outgrow the childhood manifestations, which include hepatomegaly, poor growth, and ketosis with or without hypoglycemia. Long term complications including fibrosis and cirrhosis have seldom been reported in the most common subtype, GSD IXα. We present two cases of children with GSD IXα who had fibrosis at the time of diagnosis in addition to the commonly reported disease manifestations. Structured therapy with frequent doses of uncooked cornstarch and protein supplementation was initiated, and both children responded with improved growth velocity, increased energy, decreased hepatomegaly and improved well-being. Additionally, radiographic features of fibrosis improved. We propose that GSD IXα is not a benign condition. Even in patients with a less severe presentation, consideration of a structured treatment regimen to improve quality of life appears warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  4. Bianchi-IX, Darboux-Halphen and Chazy-Ramanujan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sumanto; Guha, Partha; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2016-02-01

    Bianchi-IX four metrics are SU(2) invariant solutions of vacuum Einstein equation, for which the connection-wise self-dual case describes the Euler top, while the curvature-wise self-dual case yields the Ricci flat classical Darboux-Halphen system. It is possible to see such a solution exhibiting Ricci flow. The classical Darboux-Halphen system is a special case of the generalized one that arises from a reduction of the self-dual Yang-Mills equation and the solutions to the related homogeneous quadratic differential equations provide the desired metric. A few integrable and near-integrable dynamical systems related to the Darboux-Halphen system and occurring in the study of Bianchi-IX gravitational instanton have been listed as well. We explore in details whether self-duality implies integrability.

  5. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  6. CONCEPT MAPPING IN TEACHING SCIENCE AMONG IX STD STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sangeetha; Mrs. T. Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Concept Map is a graphic device in which the concepts are linked by propositions leading to the precision and enhancement of meaning of the concept.” It is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meanings embedded in a hierarchy from most general concept to specific concepts of a learning unit. The study aimed to examine the concept mapping in teaching science among IX std students. The investigator adopted experimental method to study the concept mapping in teaching science amon...

  7. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-03-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N  =  V and N  =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k  =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.

  8. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-01-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N   =   V and N   =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k   =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII 0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII 0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour. (paper)

  9. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  10. Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosolized salbutamol delivery via a metered dose inhaler and equine spacer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; McGorum, B C; Owen, C; Carr, O; Oakley, H; McLachlan, G

    2017-06-01

    Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer. Although this aerosol had a high [89.6% (±2.4)] fine particle (aerodynamic diameter [2.52 (±0.29) μm], and particle size variability [geometric SD - 1.66 (±0.16) μm], within all particle size fractions, there was a high coefficient of variance (31-79%) of the percentage salbutamol delivered between experimental runs, thus impeding any effort to predict drug delivery to the patient during equine inhalation therapy. Despite observable trends and with the exception of minor statistically significant changes in the least abundant particle sizes, none of the deviations from a 'best practice' delivery technique significantly altered the relative salbutamol delivery beyond the spacer, a finding which has potential relevance with regard to maintaining user compliance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2% and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

  12. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Ghana: the role of decision-making autonomy and community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Story, William T; Singh, Kavita

    2014-11-27

    In Ghana, the site of this study, the maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate remain high indicating the need to focus on maternal and child health programming. Ghana has high use of antenatal care (95%) but sub-optimum levels of institutional delivery (about 57%). Numerous barriers to institutional delivery exist including financial, physical, cognitive, organizational, and psychological and social. This study examines the psychological and social barriers to institutional delivery, namely women's decision-making autonomy and their perceptions about social support for institutional delivery in their community. This study uses cross-sectional data collected for the evaluation of the Maternal and Newborn Referrals Project of Project Fives Alive in Northern and Central districts of Ghana. In 2012 and 2013, a total of 2,527 women aged 15 to 49 were surveyed at baseline and midterm (half in 2012 and half in 2013). The analysis sample of 1,606 includes all women who had a birth three years prior to the survey date and who had no missing data. To determine the relationship between institutional delivery and the two key social barriers-women's decision-making autonomy and community perceptions of institutional delivery-we used multi-level logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions between community-level attitudes and individual-level autonomy. All analyses control for the clustered survey design by including robust standard errors in Stata 13 statistical software. The findings show that women who are more autonomous and who perceive positive attitudes toward facility delivery (among women, men and mothers-in-law) were more likely to deliver in a facility. Moreover, the interactions between autonomy and community-level perceptions of institutional delivery among men and mothers-in-law were significant, such that the effect of decision-making autonomy is more important for women who live in communities that are less supportive of

  13. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) women continent 4 and 12 years after first delivery; (B) women continent at 4 and incontinent at 12 years; (C) women incontinent at 4 and continent at 12 years; and (D) women incontinent at 4 and 12 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors of UI prevalence (groups B + D vs. A + C), incidence (B vs. A), remission (C vs. D), and onset of UI (D vs. Factors associated with UI 12 years after first pregnancy were: BMI (OR = 1.17 [95%CI: 1.04-1.32], by 1 kg/m(2) ) and increasing BMI (1.43 [1.19-1.73]), first child's weight (1.08 [1.001-1.16], by 100 g) and UI during first pregnancy (3.77 [1.83-7.76]). Factors associated with UI incidence were age at first delivery (0.86 [0.75-0.98]) and high BMI (1.24 [1.05-1.45]). Increasing BMI, UI during first pregnancy, and heavy first child reduce the likelihood of UI remission (0.37 [0.20-0.68], 0.11 [0.02-0.63], and 0.73[0.59-0.91], respectively). UI during first pregnancy could be indicative of individual susceptibility to UI. Obesity appears to be a modifiable factor for remission of UI in women. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and risk factors for positive HIV RNA at delivery: a single-cohort observational study (Brescia, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoni Michele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants. Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003. Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively. A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ≤30 days before labour was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/ml at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9% had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099. However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ≥14 days antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p 3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant

  15. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy and risk factors by mode of delivery and obstetric history: a 10-year review from Helsinki University Central Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharey, Georg; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Kostev, Karel; Väisänen-Tommiska, Mervi; Ziller, Volker

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to estimate the occurrence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) and to quantify its risk factors in connection with the mode of delivery and the obstetric history of patients at the Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. In a retrospective, matched case-control study we identified 124 cases of EPH from 2000 to 2010 at our hospital. These were matched with 248 control patients. The incidence rate of EPH was 9.9/10,000. Patients whose current delivery was vaginal, and had a cesarean section (CS) in their history had a six-fold risk for EPH. Women who underwent their first CS had a nine times higher risk, while patients who currently underwent CS and had a history of previous CS, had a 22 times higher risk. Those who experienced prostaglandin-E1 induction had a five-fold risk. Maternal age >35 years, previous curettage, and twin pregnancy were identified as significant risk factors. In 41 cases, interventions to reduce bleeding were performed. Obstetric emergency training and guidelines for massive hemorrhage should be established in any delivery department. Moreover, all possible precautions should be taken to avoid the first CS if it is obstetrically unnecessary. Induction with prostaglandin-E1, maternal age >35 years, previous curettage, twin pregnancies, and early gestation were identified as risk factors for EPH.

  16. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS): Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasica, Anna M.; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Madej, Mariusz; Potempa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM). Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo proteins is

  17. Raft-dependent endocytosis of autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase: a potential drug delivery route for tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana D Kojic

    Full Text Available Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI is the extracellular ligand for the gp78/AMFR receptor overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. We showed previously that raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI is elevated in metastatic MDA-435 cells, but not metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing MDA-231 cells, relative to non-metastatic MCF7 and dysplastic MCF10A cells suggesting that it might represent a tumor cell-specific endocytic pathway.Similarly, using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF/PGI is increased in metastatic HT29 cancer cells expressing low levels of caveolin-1 relative to metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing, HCT116 colon cells and non-metastatic Caco-2 cells. Therefore, we exploited the raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI as a potential tumor-cell specific targeting mechanism. We synthesized an AMF/PGI-paclitaxel conjugate and found it to be as efficient as free paclitaxel in inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells that readily internalize AMF/PGI compared to tumor cells that poorly internalize AMF/PGI. Murine K1735-M1 and B16-F1 melanoma cells internalize FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI and are acutely sensitive to AMF/PGI-paclitaxel mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, following in vivo intratumoral injection, FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI is internalized in K1735-M1 tumors. Intratumoral injection of AMF/PGI-paclitaxel induced significantly higher tumor regression compared to free paclitaxel, even in B16-F1 cells, known to be resistant to taxol treatment. Treatment with AMF/PGI-paclitaxel significantly prolonged the median survival time of tumor bearing mice. Free AMF/PGI exhibited a pro-survival role, reducing the cytotoxic effect of both AMF/PGI-paclitaxel and free paclitaxel suggesting that AMF/PGI-paclitaxel targets a pathway associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. AMF/PGI-FITC uptake by normal murine spleen and thymus cells was negligible both in vitro

  18. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  19. Embryonic chicken cornea and cartilage synthesize type IX collagen molecules with different amino-terminal domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, K K; Nishimura, I; Sugrue, S P; Ninomiya, Y; Olsen, B R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed embryonic chicken cornea for the presence of type IX collagen mRNA and protein. Using RNA transfer blot analysis, we demonstrate that alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(IX) mRNAs are expressed by corneal epithelial cells at the time that the primary stromal components are synthesized. The levels of the mRNAs decrease with increasing developmental age and are barely detectable at day 11 of development. In contrast, type IX collagen protein is detectable by immunofluorescence at days 5 an...

  20. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in

  2. Is induced abortion with misoprostol a risk factor for late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Norbert; Resche-Rigon, Mathieu; Morin, Christine; Ville, Yves; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    To examine whether a first or second trimester induced abortion with misoprostol influences the risk of late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. Case-control study in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2006. The cases had singleton pregnancies delivered at 16-36 weeks of gestation after spontaneous late abortions, preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membrane, or induction of labor for preterm premature rupture of membrane before 37 weeks. The control group was composed of the two consecutive spontaneous singleton deliveries at >or=37 weeks of gestation after each new case (ratio 2/1). The principal outcome measure was late abortion or preterm delivery. The association between late abortion or preterm delivery and a previous induced abortion with misoprostol was first assessed with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Conditional logistic regression models adapted for clustered data were then further used to quantify the effect size, measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The study included 245 cases and 490 controls. There was no significant difference in mean maternal age, number of pregnancies, parity, smoking, or history of first trimester miscarriage between cases and controls. However, a history of late abortion or previous preterm delivery was significantly more frequent among cases than controls. Forty (16.3%) cases and 56 (11.5%) controls had a history of cervical ripening with misoprostol before vacuum curettage or evacuation, or of medical abortion by misoprostol alone or with mifepristone (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.95-2.39; p=0.08). After adjustment for maternal age and number of pregnancies with a multivariable conditional regression model, the adjusted OR was estimated at 1.33 (95% CI: 0.81-2.17; p=0.25). Despite the need for prudence, these results provide some reassurance that induced abortion with misoprostol during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is

  3. [Methods and Applications to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for nurse-midwife's delivery service in the national health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Jung, Yoomi

    2009-08-01

    This paper analyzed alternative methods of calculating the conversion factor for nurse-midwife's delivery services in the national health insurance and estimated the optimal reimbursement level for the services. A cost accounting model and Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) model were developed to estimate the conversion factor of Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) for nurse-midwife's services, depending on the scope of revenue considered in financial analysis. The data and sources from the government and the financial statements from nurse-midwife clinics were used in analysis. The cost accounting model and SGR model showed a 17.6-37.9% increase and 19.0-23.6% increase, respectively, in nurse-midwife fee for delivery services in the national health insurance. The SGR model measured an overall trend of medical expenditures rather than an individual financial status of nurse-midwife clinics, and the cost analysis properly estimated the level of reimbursement for nurse-midwife's services. Normal vaginal delivery in nurse-midwife clinics is considered cost-effective in terms of insurance financing. Upon a declining share of health expenditures on midwife clinics, designing a reimbursement strategy for midwife's services could be an opportunity as well as a challenge when it comes to efficient resource allocation.

  4. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2013-07-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  5. Localized delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-expressing mesenchymal stem cells enhances functional recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransee, Heather M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2015-02-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are important in modulating neuroplasticity and promoting recovery after spinal cord injury. Intrathecal delivery of BDNF enhances functional recovery following unilateral spinal cord hemisection (SH) at C2, a well-established model of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (BDNF-MSCs) would promote functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH. In adult rats, bilateral diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) activity was chronically monitored to determine evidence of complete SH at 3 days post-injury, and recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity over time post-SH. Wild-type, bone marrow-derived MSCs (WT-MSCs) or BDNF-MSCs (2×10(5) cells) were injected intraspinally at C2 at the time of injury. At 14 days post-SH, green fluorescent protein (GFP) immunoreactivity confirmed MSCs presence in the cervical spinal cord. Functional recovery in SH animals injected with WT-MSCs was not different from untreated SH controls (n=10; overall, 20% at 7 days and 30% at 14 days). In contrast, functional recovery was observed in 29% and 100% of SH animals injected with BDNF-MSCs at 7 days and 14 days post-SH, respectively (n=7). In BDNF-MSCs treated SH animals at 14 days, root-mean-squared EMG amplitude was 63±16% of the pre-SH value compared with 12±9% in the control/WT-MSCs group. We conclude that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing MSCs enhances functional recovery of diaphragm muscle activity following cervical spinal cord injury. MSCs can be used to facilitate localized delivery of trophic factors such as BDNF in order to promote neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury.

  6. After Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the hard work of pregnancy and delivery. Some new mothers have better blood glucose control ...

  7. Carbonization-cementation process for treatment of spent IX resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-08-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products of reactor structural materials are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Feasibility tests were conducted for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction and destruction of functional groups so as to make them compatible for immobilization in cement matrix. Carbonization of non-radioactive resins was studied at 250 to 350 degC. Carbonization residues were 20 to 32 wt% depending upon the type of resin and temperature of carbonization. The release of 137 Cs activity to off-gases was 0.004% at 300 degC and 0.05 % at 350 degC. Based on these tests, a 50 liter/batch capacity inactive resin carbonization pilot plant was set up. Carbonization residues could be immobilized into cement matrix with 60 wt % loading using vermiculite and precipitated silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the selected cement matrix was 0.0066 in 200 days. Based on pilot plant studies and cementation tests, the swollen spent resins waste volume could be minimized by 2.7 times. (author)

  8. Factors associated with quality of life and caregiver strain amongst frail older adults referred to a community rehabilitation service: implications for service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy A; Currin, Michelle L; Brauer, Sandra G; Haines, Terry P

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors contributing to reduced quality of life and increased caregiver strain in an older population referred to a community rehabilitation team and to recommend service delivery models. Analytical cross-sectional study arising from baseline assessments from 107 subjects drawn from a randomised controlled trial of community rehabilitation service delivery models. A community rehabilitation team based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Primary outcome variables include quality of life (EQ-5D & VAS) and Carer Strain Index. Predictor variables include participation in functional activities, history of falls, number of medications, number of co-morbidities, depression, environmental hazards, physical function and nutrition. Association between variables assessed using linear regression. Major factors contributing to reduced quality of life were having reduced participation in daily activities, depression, and having poor vision. Having poor nutrition and no longer driving also contributed to poor quality of life. The major factor contributing to increased caregiver strain was reduced participation in daily activities by the older person. Community rehabilitation services working with older populations must adopt models of care that screen for and address a wide range of factors that contribute to poor quality of life and caregiver strain.

  9. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  10. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However...

  11. "What Do I Think about Title IX?" Voices from a University Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L.; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the…

  12. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  13. 4p-5s transitions in YVII, VIII, ZrVIII, IX, NbIX, X and MoX, XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimullah, K.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of Y VII, VIII, Zr VIII, IX, Nb X and Mo X, XI are studied for the first time and the 1971 analysis of Nb IX is improved. By analyses of the transitions 4s 2 4psup(k)-4s 2 4psup(k-1)5s all the levels of the configurations 4p 3 , 4p 2 5s, 4p 2 and 4p5s are established in the spectra concerned. (Auth.)

  14. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  15. Lansoprazole and carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors sinergize against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Marino, Maria Lucia; Carta, Fabrizio; Iessi, Elisabetta; Azzarito, Tommaso; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) reduce tumor acidity and therefore resistance of tumors to drugs. Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitors have proven to be effective against tumors, while tumor acidity might impair their full effectiveness. To analyze the effect of PPI/CA IX inhibitors combined treatment against human melanoma cells. The combination of Lansoprazole (LAN) and CA IX inhibitors (FC9-399A and S4) has been investigated in terms of cell proliferation inhibition and cell death in human melanoma cells. The combination of these inhibitors was more effective than the single treatments in both inhibiting cell proliferation and in inducing cell death in human melanoma cells. These results represent the first successful attempt in combining two different proton exchanger inhibitors. This is the first evidence on the effectiveness of a new approach against tumors based on the combination of PPI and CA IX inhibitors, thus providing an alternative strategy against tumors.

  16. The importance of protoporphyrin IX efflux for ALA-PDT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanetto, M C; Imasato, H; Perussi, J R

    2009-01-01

    One of the major advances in PDT is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the production of an endogenous photosensitizer inside the cells using intracellular enzymatic pathways. ALA is the first intermediate in heme biosynthesis and a precursor of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). When activated by light, this efficient photosensitizer accumulated in the target cells can produce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to find the best conditions for cell killing using ALA to temporarily increase the concentration of PpIX in two cell lines. It was shown that a considerable efflux of synthesized PpIX occurs. Since this efflux is time-dependent, it is essential to know the optimum time for irradiation after ALA administration. So, the efflux of PpIX from the cells is an important parameter to be considered for ALA-PDT dosimetry

  17. Urothelial conversion of 5-aminolevulinic acid to protoporphyrin IX following oral or intravesical administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald B.; Miller, Gerald G.; Brown, Kevin; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Tulip, John; McPhee, Malcolm S.

    1995-03-01

    Preferential conversion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to protoporphyrin-IX (Pp-IX) occurs in malignant tissue, with accumulation to diagnostic and therapeutic levels. Recent studies have suggested selective conversion in epithelial tissue following oral or intravenous administration. Topical application avoids systemic photosensitization. However, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer lining the urinary bladder is believed to be a protective barrier generally limiting mucosal absorption. Our objective was to evaluate uptake and conversion of 5-ALA following intravesical or oral administration. Using a rat model, Pp-IX content within epithelial and muscularis layers was quantitated by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Following intravesical administration, Pp-IX accumulated predominantly in the urothelium; whereas following oral administration, Pp-IX accumulated in both the urothelium and muscularis. Intravesical 5-ALA administration is feasible and may afford selective photosensitization of the urothelium for treatment of carcinoma in situ.

  18. Fatores prognósticos para o parto transvaginal em pacientes com cesárea anterior Prognostic factors for vaginal delivery after cesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos

    1998-07-01

    prognostic factors for vaginal delivery in pregnant women after previous cesarean section admitted to CAM-IMIP in labor.Patients and Methods: a case-control study was performed, analyzing all deliveries of patients with previous cesarean section admitted to CAM-IMIP between January 1991 and December 1994. Patients who had a cesarean section (n=156 were considered cases while patients with a vaginal birth were the controls (n=338. Inclusion criteria were: gestational age > 36 weeks, previous cesarean section at least 1 year before, alive fetus, spontaneous labor and vertex presentation. Patients with high-risk pregnancies, acute fetal distress and a previous vaginal delivery after cesarean section were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed with in Epi-Info 6.0 and Epi-Soft, using c² test, Fisher's exact test and Student's "t" test. Odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval was calculated and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the control of confounding factors. Results: overall rate of cesarean section was 31.6%. Maternal factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were age 35 years (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36-0.82, history of vaginal delivery (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55 and complications of pregnancy as indication for previous cesarean section (OR = 3.67, 95% CI =1.19-12.02. A significant association with vaginal delivery could not be detected for other variables: interval between previous cesarean section and present delivery, other indications for cesarean section and type of uterine suture. In a multiple logistic regression model the variables that remained associated with vaginal delivery were maternal age and previous vaginal delivery. Conclusions: maternal age below 20 years, previous cesarean section indicated due to gestational complications and previous vaginal delivery were favorably associated with vaginal delivery in patients with prior cesarean section. Risk of repeated cesarean section is increased in pregnant women aged

  19. Dual-wavelength excitation for fluorescence-based quantification of zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Georg; Gruber, Christian; Vogeser, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Dittmar, Stephan; Sroka, Ronald; Brittenham, Gary M

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), individually or jointly, is useful for the diagnostic evaluation of iron deficiency, iron-restricted erythropoiesis, lead exposure, and porphyrias. A method for simultaneous quantification of ZnPP and PPIX in unwashed blood samples is described, using dual-wavelength excitation to effectively eliminate background fluorescence from other blood constituents. In blood samples from 35 subjects, the results of the dual-wavelength excitation method and a reference high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay were closely correlated both for ZnPP (rs = 0.943, p ZnPP/mol heme, 84-1238 nmol/L) and for PPIX (rs = 0.959, p ZnPP, the proposed method is compared with conventional single-wavelength excitation and with commercial front-face fluorimetry of washed erythrocytes and whole blood. We hypothesize that dual-wavelength excitation fluorimetry will provide a new approach to the suppression of background fluorescence in blood and tissue measurements of ZnPP and PPIX. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inactivation of Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses by heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção-Miranda, I; Cruz-Oliveira, C; Neris, R L S; Figueiredo, C M; Pereira, L P S; Rodrigues, D; Araujo, D F F; Da Poian, A T; Bozza, M T

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX and SnPPIX), macrocyclic structures composed by a tetrapyrrole ring with a central metallic ion, on Dengue Virus (DENV) and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) infection. Treatment of HepG2 cells with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX after DENV infection reduced infectious particles without affecting viral RNA contents in infected cells. The reduction of viral load occurs only with the direct contact of DENV with porphyrins, suggesting a direct effect on viral particles. Previously incubation of DENV and YFV with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX resulted in viral particles inactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Biliverdin, a noncyclical porphyrin, was unable to inactivate the viruses tested. Infection of HepG2 cells with porphyrin-pretreated DENV2 results in a reduced or abolished viral protein synthesis, RNA replication and cell death. Treatment of HepG2 or THP-1 cell lineage with heme or CoPPIX after DENV infection with a very low MOI resulted in a decreased DENV replication and protection from death. Heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX possess a marked ability to inactivate DENV and YFV, impairing its ability to infect and induce cytopathic effects on target cells. These results open the possibility of therapeutic application of porphyrins or their use as models to design new antiviral drugs against DENV and YFV. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Depression and anxiety in women with epilepsy during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective population-based cohort study on frequency, risk factors, medication, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Marte Helene; Veiby, Gyri; Reiter, Simone C; Berle, Jan Øystein; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Spigset, Olav; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-01-01

    To assess incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of peripartum depression and anxiety in a prospective study of women with epilepsy. Pregnancies in women with epilepsy (n=706) were compared to pregnancies in all women without epilepsy (n=106,511) including women with specified nonepileptic chronic diseases (n=8,372) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The database was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Depression and anxiety were assessed with validated questionnaires five times from the second trimester to 36 months after delivery. Blood was drawn for analysis of antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations. Women with epilepsy more often had peripartum depression (26.7%) or anxiety (22.4%) than women without epilepsy (18.9% and 14.8%, respectively, p<0.001 for both comparisons) and women with other chronic diseases (23.1% and 18.4%, respectively, p=0.03 and 0.01). Women using AEDs during pregnancy were especially at risk regardless of AED type. The risk further increased with the use of multiple AEDs and with high doses and/or plasma levels. Risk factors associated with peripartum depression and/or anxiety in the epilepsy cohort were high seizure frequency, a history of physical and/or sexual abuse, adverse socioeconomic factors, previous loss of a child, AED use, unplanned pregnancy, and prepregnancy depression and/or anxiety. The recovery rate 3 years after delivery was lower for women with epilepsy with a history of depression/anxiety or physical/sexual abuse than for women without epilepsy. Depressed women with epilepsy were less frequently treated with antidepressive drugs during pregnancy than women without epilepsy. Women with epilepsy frequently have depression and anxiety during and after pregnancy. Patients at risk should be identified before delivery as depressive symptoms could be undertreated in this group. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Co-delivery of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) coated onto heparinized titanium for improving osteoblast function and osteointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Shim, June-Sung; Park, Kyeongsoon; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve osteoblast function by delivering two growth factors, PDGF-BB and BMP-2, incorporated onto heparinized titanium (Hep-Ti) substrate. To achieve co-delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-2, the surface of anodized Ti was immobilized with heparin, and then the two growth factors were coated onto the Hep-Ti surface. Incorporation of the two growth factors onto Hep-Ti was evaluated by SEM and XPS. Incorporated PDGF-BB and BMP-2 were released from the Hep-Ti substrate in a sustained manner. In vitro studies revealed that osteoblasts grown on PDGF-BB- and BMP-2-immobilized Hep-Ti increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, osteocalcin and osteopontin levels as compared to those grown on PDGF-BB alone- or BMP-2 alone-immobilized Hep-Ti. These results suggested that co-delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 using Hep-Ti substrate will be a promising material for the enhancement of osteoblast function and osteointegration. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Acceptability of delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting to address obesity in pre-school children: a case study of the Common Risk Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.

  4. Monitoring ALA-induced PpIX Photodynamic Therapy in the Rat Esophagus Using Fluorescence and Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of phased protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) bleach kinetics has been shown to correlate with esophageal response to 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in animal models. Here we confirm the existence of phased PpIX photobleaching by increasing the temporal resolution of

  5. Induction of protoporphyrin IX by aminolaevulinic acid in actinic keratosis, psoriasis and normal skin: preferential porphyrin enrichment in differentiated cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Staassen, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In photodynamic therapy the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is synthesized following topical application of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). However, different tissues have distinct PpIX-accumulating properties, due to differences in penetration of ALA through the stratum

  6. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended. PMID:22876799

  7. THE IX EUROPEAN FORUM ON ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V Seredavkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of the proceedings of the IX European Forum on antiphospholipid antibodies held in May 2013 in Krakow (Poland. The aim of the Forum is to coordinate multicenter projects focused on antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, both clinical and fundamental research, based on cooperation between the European countries. The main purpose is to stimulate research into all aspects of aPL, to facilitate the exchange of information between institutions, and to involve many centers in different countries into scientific research on this issue. The issues of standardization of the diagnostic criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, primarily serological markers (their specificity, sensitivity and correlation with clinical manifestations, as well as non-criterial manifestations of APS, were considered at the meeting. In addition, the therapy problems were discussed.

  8. Electrochemical properties of protoporphyrin IX zinc(II) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Chisato; Imae, Toyoko

    2004-12-15

    The electrochemical properties of protoporphyrin IX zinc(II) (ZnPP) films on indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrate have been studied for three types of films with different arrangements, which were an adsorbed film of ZnPP and LB films of ZnPP and its hybrid with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement showed that, as the adsorbed amount of ZnPP increases, an irreversible oxidation peak of ZnPP film is intensified. This reveals that electrochemical properties depend on the adsorbed amount rather than the orientation of porphyrin molecules. It was also supported from CV measurement and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy that porphyrins adsorbed on ITO substrate were desorbed after the single scan of potential. Additionally, photoresponse of these ZnPP films was investigated by photocurrent measurement. The photocurrent generation is due to carboxylic acid moieties but not ZnPP macrocycles.

  9. Protoporphyrin IX: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachar, Madhav; Anderson, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is ubiquitously present in all living cells in small amounts as a precursor of heme. PPIX has some biologic functions of its own, and PPIX-based strategies have been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment (the good). PPIX serves as the substrate for ferrochelatase, the final enzyme in heme biosynthesis, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated during heme synthesis. Accumulation of PPIX in human porphyrias can cause skin photosensitivity, biliary stones, hepatobiliary damage, and even liver failure (the bad and the ugly). In this work, we review the mechanisms that are associated with the broad aspects of PPIX. Because PPIX is a hydrophobic molecule, its disposition is by hepatic rather than renal excretion. Large amounts of PPIX are toxic to the liver and can cause cholestatic liver injury. Application of PPIX in cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on its photodynamic effects. PMID:26588930

  10. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  11. Ares I-X Range Safety Analyses Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Thompson, Brian G.; Tarpley, Ashley W.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  12. Cesarean Section Delivery Is Not a Risk Factor for Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles N; Banerjee, Ankona; Targownik, Laura E; Singh, Harminder; Ghia, Jean Eric; Burchill, Charles; Chateau, Dan; Roos, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    Mode of birth affects development of the intestinal microbiota, and microbial dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a population-based analysis to determine whether mode of delivery (cesarean section vs. vaginal delivery) affects risk of IBD. We collected data from the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database, which contains records on all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 through 2010. Starting in 1970, 6-digit family health registration numbers were used in Manitoba to link mothers with their offspring. Maternal health records, including dates and modes of delivery and siblings of individuals with IBD, were identified. We obtained data on 1671 individuals with IBD and 10,488 controls (individuals without IBD, matched by age, sex, and area of residence at IBD diagnosis) linked to mothers' obstetrical records. Higher proportions of urban than rural residents were delivered by cesarean section for IBD cases (12.8% vs. 9.7%, P = .05) and controls (13.3% vs. 9.4%, P cesarean section (13.5% vs. 8.4%, P = .01). Overall, there was no difference in the percentage of IBD cases born by cesarean section (11.6%) vs. controls (11.7%, P = .93). In multivariate analysis, birth by cesarean section was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent IBD, controlling for age, sex, urban residence, and income (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.23). Persons with IBD were no more likely to have been born by cesarean section than their siblings without IBD (1740 siblings from 1615 families) (11.6% vs. 11.3%; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.80; P = .79). People with IBD were not more likely to have been born via cesarean section than controls or siblings without IBD. These findings indicate that events of the immediate postpartum period that shape the developing intestinal microbiome do not affect risk for IBD. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Attributes of Pregnancy and the Delivery Room Experience Related to Development of Autism? A Review of the Perinatal and Labor Risk Factors and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Naveen; Emerson, Blaze; Popara, Romana; Lin, Catherine; Rawji, Adam; Zeiden, Rita; Rashid, Leeda; Phyu, Pwint; Bahl, Jaya; Gupta, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by severe deficits in social communication and interactions. It is a complex condition that lacks an established preventive method, warranting a need for research to identify possible environmental triggers. The identification of external factors particularly perinatal risk factors forms the initial critical step in preventing and alleviating risks. We conducted a literature review to assess evidence suggested in the worldwide literature. Perinatal risk factors that have a suggested association include β2 adrenergic receptor agonists, labor induction and augmentation, maternal infection and disease (i.e., antiphospholipid syndrome), antiepileptic drugs, cocaine use, and oral supplements. Smoking has not been found to have a direct association. Pollutants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, artificial insemination, and fertility medications may have a link, but results are often conflicted. Factors related to the delivery room experience may be associated with meconium aspiration syndrome, birth weight, and labor time. Several risk factors during the pregnancy and labor periods have been associated with autism; yet further studies with large populations are needed to establish definitive associations. The fact that several risk factors during the prenatal and labor periods are implicated in autism should prompt the medical community to focus on the pregnancy and labor periods as preventive measures to curb the incidence of autism.

  14. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier.

  15. Syntheses of carbon-13 labeled protoporphyrin-IX for spectroscopic studies of heme proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinari, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of various methodologies for synthesis of selectively tailored protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester are presented. The iron(II) complex of protoporphyrin-IX is the heme, the prosthetic group for Hb, Mb, cytochromes and peroxidases. The significance of this research is to provide direct means to establish definitive carbon-13 NMR assignments of heme proteins in order to study not only the structure-function relationships, but also protein dynamics of these vital systems. Carbon-13 labeling at the beta-vinyl position was first achieved by ozonolysis of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Column LC method were used to first isolate 2,4-diformyldeuteroporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Concomitantly, monofomyl-monovinyl porphyrins were obtained as a mixture of two isomers. This mixture was separated by MPLC or prep HPLC to afford the isomerically pure products, Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester and Iso-Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester. A Wittig reaction to each of these porphyrins with 13 C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide gave 2,4-bis[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, 2-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, and the 4-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, respectively

  16. The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Torres-López, M; Supuran, C T; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A

    2015-02-01

    The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity.

  17. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  18. Modulation of the endogenous production of protoporphyrin IX in a yeast-based model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniová, Jaroslava; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Wagnières, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess conditions at which simple yeast-based model organism produces maximal levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after an exogenous administration of its precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and the ferrous-ion chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl. We observed that the fluorescing porphyrin, produced after these administrations, was likely to be PpIX since fluorescence spectroscopy of the porphyrins produced endogenously in yeast cells resembles that of PpIX in DMSO and in vivo in the chick's chorioallantoic membrane model. Also, fluorescence lifetimes of these porphyrins are very similar to that of PpIX in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that PpIX is the main fluorescent compound produced by yeast in our conditions. We found that the conditions at which yeast produces the maximal PpIX were a synchronous administration of 5 μM ALA and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl for yeast incubated in aqueous glucose and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl in the presence of YPD medium. Such a simple model is of high interest to study basic mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial respiration since PpIX, which is produced in this organelle, can be used as an oxygen sensor, or to perform photodynamic therapy and photodiagnosis. Since the absorption and scattering coefficients of this model are much smaller than those of soft tissues over the visible part of the spectrum, a version of this model loaded with appropriated amounts of light absorbing and scattering particles could be designed as a phantom to mimic tumors containing PpIX, a useful tool to optimize certain cancer photodetection set-ups.

  19. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  20. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of the hypoxia markers Glut-1 and Ca-IX in canine sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondati, E; Del-Pozo, J; Hoather, T M; Constantino-Casas, F; Dobson, J M

    2013-11-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been associated with increased malignancy, likelihood of metastasis, and increased resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in human medicine. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that is induced by tumor hypoxia and regulates the pathways involved in cellular response and adaptation to the hostile tumor microenvironment. HIF-1 induces transcription of different proteins, including Ca-IX and Glut-1, which are considered endogenous markers of chronic hypoxia in solid tumors in humans. In this study, sections from 40 canine sarcomas (20 histiocytic sarcomas and 20 low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas) were immunostained for these markers. Expression of Glut-1 was scored based on percentage of positive staining cells (0 = 50%) and intensity of cellular staining (1 = weak; 2 = strong); Ca-IX was scored based on percentage of positive cells (0 = 30%). Intratumoral microvessel density was measured using CD31 to assess intratumoral neoangiogenesis. Histiocytic sarcomas showed statistically significant higher Glut-1 immunoreactivity and angiogenesis than did low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. Intratumoral microvessel density in histiocytic sarcomas was positively associated with Glut-1 immunoreactivity score. These findings suggest a potential role of hypoxia in the biology of these tumors and may provide a base for investigation of the potential prognostic use of these markers in naturally occurring canine tumors.

  1. Laser-assisted delivery of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ferulic acid formula serum decreases fractional laser postoperative recovery by increased beta fibroblast growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Jill S; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Ozog, David; Qu, Le; Zhou, Li; Rudnick, Ashley; Al-Niaimi, Firas; Woodward, Julie; Campos, Valerie; Mordon, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Laser-assisted drug delivery is an emerging technology to achieve greater penetration by existing topical medications to reach desired targets in the tissue. The objective of this research was to study whether laser-assisted delivery of Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic immediately postoperatively of fractional ablative laser could improve wound healing. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the potential molecular markers involved in this wound-healing process. A double blinded, prospective, single center, randomized split face trial of Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic topical formula #740019 to decrease postoperative recovery time in fractional ablative laser resurfacing for photo damage. Fifteen healthy men and women of ages 30-55 years were treated with the Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid serum to one side of face and vehicle to the other side of face, within 2 minutes immediately after fractional ablative CO2 laser surgery and daily during the healing process. Patients were evaluated daily on days 1-7 using photographs, patient questionnaires, and molecular evaluation. Clinically, postoperative Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic delivery resulted in decreased edema versus vehicle on postoperative day 7 and decreased erythema versus vehicle on postoperative days 3 and 5. Molecularly, the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was significantly increased at day 5 on the lesion treated with Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid serum compared to vehicle control on the other side. This is first study to show that Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid correlate with more rapid wound healing post-fractional ablative laser. Elevated bFGF could be involved in the Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid-induced rapid wound healing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Isoxanthohumol, a constituent of hop (Humulus lupulus L.), increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans dependent on the transcription factor DAF-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchter, Christian; Havermann, Susannah; Koch, Karoline; Wätjen, Wim

    2016-02-01

    The flavanone isoxanthohumol (IX) has gained attention as antioxidative and chemopreventive agent, but the molecular mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated effects of this secondary plant compound in vivo using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans nematodes were incubated with IX, and then, the stress resistance was analysed in the SYTOX assay; lifespan was monitored by touch-provoked movement method, the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured in the DCF assay, and the nuclear localisation of the transcription factor DAF-16 was analysed by using a transgenic strain. By the use of a DAF-16 loss-of-function strain, we analysed whether the effects are dependent on DAF-16. IX increases the resistance of the nematode against thermal stress. Additionally, a reduction in ROS in vivo was caused by IX. Since the flavanone only has a marginal radical-scavenging capacity (TEAC assay), we suggest that IX mediates its antioxidative effects indirectly via activation of DAF-16 (homologue to mammalian FOXO proteins). The nuclear translocation of this transcription factor is increased by IX. In the DAF-16-mutated strain, the IX-mediated increase in stress resistance was completely abolished; furthermore, an increased formation of ROS and a reduced lifespan was mediated by IX. IX or a bacterial metabolite of IX causes antioxidative effects as well as an increased stress resistance in C. elegans via activation of DAF-16. The homologous pathway may have implications in the molecular mechanism of IX in mammals.

  3. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Offer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983. The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended.

  4. Thermoreversible gelation polymer as an embolic material for aneurysm treatment: a delivery device for dermal fibroblasts and basic fibroblast growing factor into experimental aneurysms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Hisashi; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Yuki, Ichiro; Arai, Takao; Ohashi, Hiroki; Murayama, Yuichi; Takao, Hiroyuki; Abe, Toshiaki

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates whether thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) can be used as a delivery device to deploy dermal fibroblasts and cytokines into experimental aneurysms in rats. The right common iliac artery of rats was surgically ligated and an experimental aneurysm was created by applying exogenous elastase. Seven days later, two aneurysms were harvested and used as controls (Group A), two were embolized with pure TGP (Group B), two were embolized with TGP and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (Group C) and two were embolized with TGP loaded with rat dermal fibroblasts (Group D). The aneurysms were also embolized with TGP mixed with dermal fibroblasts and bFGF at different concentrations (10 ng/ml: Group E (n=2), 100 ng/ml: Group F (n=2), 1000 ng/ml: Group G (n=2)). Each aneurysm sample was harvested after 7 days and histologic analyses were performed. The most advanced thrombus organization in the aneurysm, such as prominent fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, was observed in Groups E, F and G, although there was no noticeable difference between the groups. Moderate thrombus organization was seen in Group D and minimal thrombus organization was seen in Groups B and C. TGP mixed with both dermal fibroblasts and bFGF induced the most advanced thrombus organization in the experimental aneurysms followed by TGP mixed only with dermal fibroblasts. TGP may be useful as a delivery device to deploy fibroblasts and cytokines into aneurysms.

  5. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  6. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; D'Mello-Guyett, Lauren; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Steketee, Rick; Smith, Helen; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women. We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations. Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery of IPTp. Many

  7. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women.We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations.Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery

  8. Prediction of Delivery in Women with Threatening Preterm Labour using Phosphorylated Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 and Cervical Length using Transvaginal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Saini, Vandana; Jain, P K; Gupta, Mamta

    2017-09-01

    Preterm delivery remains a challenge in Obstetrics as it is responsible for significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. At present there is no standard test for prediction of preterm labour for timely referral to a center with NICU facilities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the cervical phosphorylated insulin like growth factor binding protein-1(phIGFBP-1), cervical length measurement and combination of phIGFBP-1 with cervical length for Predicting Preterm Labour (PTL). It was a observational prospective study done from January 2014 to April 2015 in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, NDMC Medical College and Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi, India. A total of 100 women with singleton pregnancy, between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation with complaint of uterine contractions were randomly selected. These women were subjected to detect phIGFBP-1 in cervical secretions and cervical length measurement by Transvaginal Sonography (TVS). Result of the test, cervical length and time lapse between test and delivery was noted and the results were analysed. The cervical length less than 25 mm was used as a cut off point for predicting pre-term delivery. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20.0. The Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of phIGFBP-1 and cervical length was similar (95.2% vs 94.05%) respectively for prediction of preterm labour within one week of admission and 93.92% vs 94.80% at 37 weeks of gestational age. Combined test had higher NPV of 96.38% at 34 weeks of gestation and 94% within two days of admission. Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was low for both the test and combining the two-test did not have any advantage as far as PPV was concerned. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the combined test had a superior result in predicting PTL compared to either phIGFBP-1 or cervical length. The combined test had steepest ROC curve at preterm delivery independently. The combined use of phIGFBP-1 and TVS for cervical length shows an

  9. Utilization of health care services in rural and urban areas: a determinant factor in planning and managing health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Jimoh Ayanda

    2014-06-01

    Disparities in use of healthcare services between rural and urban areas have been empirically attributed to several factors. This study explores the existence of this disparity and its implication for planning and managing healthcare delivery systems. The objectives determine the relative importance of the various predisposing, enabling, need and health services factors on utilization of health services; similarity between rural and urban areas; and major explanatory variables for utilization. A four-stage model of service utilization was constructed with 31 variables under appropriate model components. Data is collected using cross-sectional sample survey of 1086 potential health services consumers in selected health facilities and resident milieu via questionnaire. Data is analyzed using factor analysis and cross tabulation. The 4-stage model is validated for the aggregate data and data for the rural areas with 3-stage model for urban areas. The order of importance of the factors is need, enabling, predisposing and health services. 11 variables are found to be powerful predictors of utilization. Planning of different categories of health care facilities in different locations should be based on utilization rates while proper management of established facilities should aim to improve health seeking behavior of people.

  10. Mechanism of Diphtheria Toxin Catalytic Domain Delivery to the Eukaryotic Cell Cytosol and the Cellular Factors that Directly Participate in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Research on diphtheria and anthrax toxins over the past three decades has culminated in a detailed understanding of their structure function relationships (e.g., catalytic (C), transmembrane (T), and receptor binding (R) domains), as well as the identification of their eukaryotic cell surface receptor, an understanding of the molecular events leading to the receptor-mediated internalization of the toxin into an endosomal compartment, and the pH triggered conformational changes required for pore formation in the vesicle membrane. Recently, a major research effort has been focused on the development of a detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between each of these toxins and eukaryotic cell factors that play an essential role in the efficient translocation of their respective catalytic domains through the trans-endosomal vesicle membrane pore and delivery into the cell cytosol. In this review, I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain is delivered to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. While much work remains, it is becoming increasingly clear that the entry process is facilitated by specific interactions with a number of cellular factors in an ordered sequential fashion. In addition, since diphtheria, anthrax lethal factor and anthrax edema factor all carry multiple coatomer I complex binding motifs and COPI complex has been shown to play an essential role in entry process, it is likely that the initial steps in catalytic domain entry of these divergent toxins follow a common mechanism. PMID:22069710

  11. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence as potential indicator of psoriasis severity and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Jie; Sroka, Ronald; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2017-09-01

    In psoriatic lesions, fluorescence diagnosis with blue light can detect protoporphyrin IX accumulation, especially after topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) application. However, variable fluorescence distributions, interpersonal variations and long incubation time limit its wide application in clinic. This study is aimed to identify a consistent and convenient method to facilitate diagnosis and evaluation of psoriatic lesions. 104 psoriatic lesions from 30 patients were evaluated. Single lesion PSI scoring and fluorescence by macrospectrofluorometry were recorded on each lesion before and after treatment with narrow-band UVB. Punctate red fluorescence, emitted mainly by protoporphyrin IX, is observed in some psoriatic lesions. According to psoriasis severity index, fluorescence-positive lesions are more severe than lesions without fluorescence. We found a significant positive correlation between psoriasis severity and fluorescence intensity from protoporphyrin IX. Protoporphyrin IX-induced red fluorescence can be used as a novel and convenient approach for psoriasis diagnosis and progression evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 11. IX toimus Rotermanni soolalaos happening "Olematute bändide festival"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kiwa raamatu "Lastehaiglast põgenenud mänguasjad" (koostaja Hasso Krull, kujundaja Peeter Laurits, kaanel modell Eleonora Kampe ja Kiwa) ja sound-art-projektide esitlus. 12. IX Kiwa ja Andres Lõo loeng

  13. Special Section Guest Editorial: Nanostructured Thin Films IX: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Mackay, Tom G.; Suzuki, Motofumi

    2017-10-01

    This guest editorial introduces the special section on Nanostructured Thin Films IX: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling, which appears in the October-December 2017 issue of the Journal of Nanophotonics.

  14. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization. Methods Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT. Patients with acne were illuminated using......) patients with acne had a pain score of 6 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-7] compared with 8 (IQR 6-10) when using a fluence rate of 68 mW cm(-2) (P = 0.018). After correcting the pain score for PpIX fluorescence no differences in pain scores were found between first and second acne treatment, locations of AK...... lesions or between the two types of lesions. Conclusions Pain during PDT was correlated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area prior to illumination. Pain was reduced using a lower fluence rate during PDT of acne Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  15. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 125I-labeled monoclonal antibody M75 specific for carbonic anhydrase IX, an intrinsic marker of hypoxia, in nude mice xenografted with human colorectal carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrastina, A.; Závada, Jan; Parkkila, S.; Kaluz, Š.; Kaluzová, M.; Rajcani, J.; Pastorek, J.; Pastorekova, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2003), s. 873-881 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA MZd 45362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2003

  16. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  17. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat, Darli Theint; Mergen, Max; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B; Orbell, John D; Merle, Tony; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278 nm/343 nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10 mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  18. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shanei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence (SCL and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nanoconjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and gold nanoparticles (GNP, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Materials and Methods The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated SCL signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. Results SCL signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. Conclusion This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the SCL signal level.

  19. Development and characterisation of a brain tumour mimicking protoporphyrin IX fluorescence phantom (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Tisca, Cristiana; Peveler, William; Noimark, Sacha; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Parkin, Ivan P.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Vercauteren, Tom

    2017-02-01

    5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence-guided brain tumour resection can increase the accuracy at which cancerous tissue is removed and thereby improve patient outcomes, as compared with standard white light imaging. Novel optical devices that aim to increase the specificity and sensitivity of PpIX detection are typically assessed by measurements in tissue-mimicking optical phantoms of which all optical properties are defined. Current existing optical phantoms specified for PpIX lack consistency in their optical properties, and stability with respect to photobleaching, thus yielding an unstable correspondence between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence intensity. In this study, we developed a set of aqueous-based phantoms with different compositions, using deionised water or PBS buffer as background medium, intralipid as scattering material, bovine haemoglobin as background absorber, and either PpIX dissolved in DMSO or a novel nanoparticle with similar absorption and emission spectrum to PpIX as the fluorophore. We investigated the phantom stability in terms of aggregation and photobleaching by comparing with different background medium and fluorophores, respectively. We characterised the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent nanoparticle in different concentration of intralipid and haemoglobin and its time-dependent stability, as compared to the PpIX-induced fluorescence. We corroborated that the background medium was essential to prepare a stable aqueous phantom. The novel fluorescent nanoparticle used as surrogate fluorophore of PpIX presented an improved temporal stability and a reliable correspondence between concentration and emission intensity. We proposed an optimised phantom composition and recipe to produce reliable and repeatable phantom for validation of imaging device.

  20. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark. The prevale...

  1. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  2. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  3. Role of Zinc in Catalytic Activity of Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chingkuang; Foster, Lauren; Alvarado, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Frost, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in the α class are zinc-dependent metalloenzymes. Previous studies have reported that recombinant forms of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a membrane-bound form of CA expressed in solid tumors, appear to be activated by low levels of zinc independent of its well-studied role at the catalytic site. In this study, we sought to determine if CAIX is stimulated by zinc in its native environment. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells express CAIX in response to hypoxia. We compared CAIX activity associated with membrane ghosts isolated from hypoxic cells with that in intact hypoxic cells. We measured CA activity directly using 18O exchange from 13CO2 into water determined by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. In membrane ghosts, there was little effect of zinc at low concentrations on CAIX activity, although at high concentration zinc was inhibitory. In intact cells, zinc had no significant effect on CAIX activity. This suggests that there is an appreciable decrease in sensitivity to zinc when CAIX is in its natural membrane milieu compared to the purified forms. PMID:22465027

  4. Oscillating Bianchi IX universe in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Yosuke; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We study a vacuum Bianchi IX universe in the context of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. In particular, we focus on the classical dynamics of the universe and analyze how anisotropy changes the history of the universe. For small anisotropy, we find an oscillating universe as well as a bounce universe just as the case of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime. However, if the initial anisotropy is large, we find the universe which ends up with a big crunch after oscillations if a cosmological constant Λ is zero or negative. For Λ>0, we find a variety of histories of the universe, that is a de Sitter expanding universe after oscillations in addition to the oscillating solution and the previous big crunch solution. This fate of the universe shows sensitive dependence of initial conditions, which is one of the typical properties of a chaotic system. If the initial anisotropy is near the upper bound, we find the universe starting from a big bang and ending up with a big crunch for Λ≤0, and a de Sitter expanding universe starting from a big bang for Λ>0.

  5. Forceps Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Related Signs of labor Forceps delivery About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Mart?nez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Paris?; Ros, Gaspar; Mart?nez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective m...

  7. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk (BM is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs and fatty acids (FAs is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  8. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene delivery to astrocytes reduces their inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

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    Goya Rodolfo G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I exerts neuroprotective actions in the central nervous system that are mediated at least in part by control of activation of astrocytes. In this study we have assessed the efficacy of exogenous IGF-I and IGF-I gene therapy in reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes from cerebral cortex. Methods An adenoviral vector harboring the rat IGF-I gene and a control adenoviral vector harboring a hybrid gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase fused to Aequorea victoria enhanced green fluorescent protein were used in this study. Primary astrocytes from mice cerebral cortex were incubated for 24 h or 72 h with vehicle, IGF-I, the IGF-I adenoviral vector, or control vector; and exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response. IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of IGF-I receptor and IGF binding proteins 2 and 3 were assessed by western blotting. The subcellular distribution of nuclear factor κB (p65 was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was assessed by one way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni pot hoc test. Results IGF-I gene therapy increased IGF-I levels without affecting IGF-I receptors or IGF binding proteins. Exogenous IGF-I, and IGF-I gene therapy, decreased expression of toll-like receptor 4 and counteracted the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. In addition, IGF-I gene therapy decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced translocation of nuclear factor κB (p65 to the cell nucleus. Conclusion These findings demonstrate efficacy of exogenous IGF-I and of IGF-I gene therapy in reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes. IGF-I gene therapy may represent a new approach to reduce inflammatory

  10. Hořava-Lifshitz bouncing Bianchi IX universes: A dynamical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Soares, Ivano Damião

    2017-11-01

    We examine the Hamiltonian dynamics of bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies with three scale factors in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. We assume a positive cosmological constant plus noninteracting dust and radiation as the matter content of the models. In this framework the modified field equations contain additional terms which turn the dynamics nonsingular. The six-dimensional phase space presents (i) two critical points in a finite region of the phase space, (ii) one asymptotic de Sitter attractor at infinity and (iii) a two-dimensional invariant plane containing the critical points; together they organize the dynamics of the phase space. We identify four distinct parameter domains A , B , C and D for which the pair of critical points engenders distinct features in the dynamics, connected to the presence of centers of multiplicity 2 and saddles of multiplicity 2. In the domain A the dynamics consists basically of periodic bouncing orbits, or oscillatory orbits with a finite number of bounces before escaping to the de Sitter attractor. The center with multiplicity 2 engenders in its neighborhood the topology of stable and unstable cylinders R ×S3 of orbits, where R is a saddle direction and S3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits. We show that the stable and unstable cylinders coalesce, realizing a smooth homoclinic connection to the center manifold, a rare event of regular/nonchaotic dynamics in bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies. The presence of a saddle of multiplicity 2 in the domain B engenders a high instability in the dynamics so that the cylinders emerging from the center manifold about P2 towards the bounce have four distinct attractors: the center manifold itself, the de Sitter attractor at infinity and two further momentum-dominated attractors with infinite anisotropy. In the domain C we examine the features of invariant manifolds of orbits about a saddle of multiplicity 2 P2. The presence of the saddle of multiplicity 2 engenders bifurcations

  11. Leading causes of preterm delivery as risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants: results of the EPIPAGE 2 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Pierrat, Veronique; Delorme, Pierre; Kayem, Gilles; Durox, Mélanie; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stephane; Ancel, Pierre Yves

    2017-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, few studies have investigated how pregnancy complications responsible for preterm delivery are related to intraventricular hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the association between the main causes of preterm delivery and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants born in France during 2011 between 22-31 weeks of gestation. The study included 3495 preterm infants from the national EPIPAGE 2 cohort study who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units and had at least 1 cranial ultrasound assessment. The primary outcome was grade I-IV intraventricular hemorrhage according to the Papile classification. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the leading causes of preterm delivery: vascular placental diseases, isolated intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes, with or without associated maternal inflammatory syndrome. The overall frequency of grade IV, III, II, and I intraventricular hemorrhage was 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.5), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9), 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.3), and 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 15.7-18.4), respectively. After adjustment for gestational age, antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy, level of care in the maternity unit, antenatal corticosteroids, and chest compressions, infants born after placental abruption had a higher risk of grade IV and III intraventricular hemorrhage compared to those born under placental vascular disease conditions, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.0) and 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.6), respectively. Similarly, preterm labor with concurrent inflammatory syndrome was associated with an increased risk of grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio

  12. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Thin Films for Co-Delivery of TGF-β siRNA and Epidermal Growth Factor to Improve Excisional Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Janupally, Renuka; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2017-04-01

    The major challenge with treatment of dermal wounds is accelerating healing process, while preventing the scar formation. Herein, we have fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TGF-β siRNA to improve excisional wound healing and decrease scar formation. The chitosan and sodium alginate LbL thin films showed 13.0 MPa tensile strength and 2.22 N/cm 2 skin adhesion strength. The LbL thin films were found to be cytocompatible, where A431 epidermal keratinocytes adhered to the film and showed 86.2 ± 0.8% cell growth compared with cells cultured in the absence of LbL thin film. In contrast, LbL thin film did not promote the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial colony formation. In a C57BL/6 mouse excisional wound model, application of LbL thin films containing TGF-β siRNA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the TGF-β protein expression and collagen production. The LbL thin films containing EGF showed improved wound contraction (<9 days post excision). The co-delivery of TGF-β siRNA and EGF using LbL thin films resulted in accelerated wound healing and decreased collagen deposition. Furthermore, the LbL thin films with TGF-β siRNA and EGF combination showed greater reepithelialization. Taken together, we have successfully demonstrated the co-delivery of TGF-β siRNA and EGF peptide using LbL thin films to promote wound healing and decrease scar formation.

  14. Clearance and toxicity of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHu GDNF) following acute convection-enhanced delivery into the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hannah; Barua, Neil; Bienemann, Alison; Wyatt, Marcella; Castrique, Emma; Foster, Rebecca; Luz, Matthias; Fibiger, Christian; Mohr, Erich; Gill, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite promising early results, clinical trials involving the continuous delivery of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF) into the putamen for the treatment of Parkinson's disease have shown evidence of poor distribution and toxicity due to point-source accumulation. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has the potential to facilitate more widespread and clinically effective drug distribution. We investigated acute CED of r-metHuGDNF into the striatum of normal rats in order to assess tissue clearance, toxicity (neuron loss, gliosis, microglial activation, and decreases in synaptophysin), synaptogenesis and neurite-outgrowth. We investigated a range of clinically relevant infused concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 µg/µL) and time points (2 and 4 weeks) in order to rationalise a dosing regimen suitable for clinical translation. Two weeks after single dose CED, r-metHuGDNF was below the limit of detection by ELISA but detectable by immunohistochemistry when infused at low concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 µg/µL). At these concentrations, there was no associated neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, NeuN, immunohistochemistry) or synaptic toxicity (synaptophysin ELISA). CED at an infused concentration of 0.2 µg/µL was associated with a significant increase in synaptogenesis (partificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) control was observed with any infused concentration. The results of this study suggest that acute CED of low concentrations of GDNF, with dosing intervals determined by tissue clearance, has most potential for effective clinical translation by optimising distribution and minimising the risk of toxic accumulation.

  15. Utilization of clean and safe delivery service package of health services extension program and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21(st) to February 25(th), 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. Pdelivery service was 43(19%). Women with formal schooling and those who knew at least two danger signs of pregnancy and labor were more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=5.8, 95% CI=2.1, 16) and (AOR=3.0, 95% CI=2.2, 10.6), respectively. Of 108(47.8%) mothers who had at least one antenatal care visit, 36(33.3%), were not advised about danger signs. Women who had at least one ANC visit and those who were advised about the danger signs of pregnancy and labor appeared to be more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=6.1, 95% CI=1.9, 21.3), and (AOR=5.4, 95%CI= 1.4, 21.7), respectively. Utilization of the service is low and was determined by women's educational status, history of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose.

  16. Probing strong optical fields in compact aggregates of silver nanoparticles by SERRS of protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sládkova, Magdalena; Vlcková, Blanka; Mojzes, Peter; Slouf, Miroslav; Naudin, Coralie; Le Bourdon, Gwenelle

    2006-01-01

    TEM images and measurements of SERRS (surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering) spectra as a function of the porphyrin concentrations in systems with unmodified and chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are reported. TEM images have shown formation of compact aggregates in systems with chloride modified Ag nanoparticles, as opposed to systems with the unmodified particles constituted by isolated particles. SERRS spectra of PPIX as a function of PPIX concentration were measured and subjected to factor analysis. Two spectral components were identified and tentatively attributed to unperturbed PPIX and to Ag+ -PPIX surface species. Concentration value of the SERRS spectral detection limit of the latter species was determined to be nearly three orders of magnitude lower in the system with the compact aggregates than in the system with separated nanoparticles and achieves the value of 1 x 10(-10) M in a macrosampling Raman experiment. TEM images and SERRS-micro-Raman spectra of single compact aggregates of chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles incorporating PPIX molecules were acquired from a sample prepared by attachment of the aggregates to amine groups of derivatized, SiOx/formvar coated copper grids for TEM. The SERRS signal has shown large temporal fluctuations as well as variations from one aggregate to another. Within the signal fluctuations, a SERRS spectrum showing the characteristic bands of both SERRS spectral forms of PPIX and originating most probably from a few PPIX molecules located in hot spots in the interstices between the Ag nanoparticles, was obtained.

  17. SU-F-T-344: Commissioning Constant Dose Rate VMAT in the Raystation Treatment Planning System for a Varian Clinac IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursley, J; Gueorguiev, G; Prichard, H; Gierga, D [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the commissioning of constant dose rate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the Raystation treatment planning system for a Varian Clinac iX with Exact couch. Methods: Constant dose rate (CDR) VMAT is an option in the Raystation treatment planning system, enabling VMAT delivery on Varian linacs without a RapidArc upgrade. Raystation 4.7 was used to commission CDR-VMAT for a Varian Clinac iX. Raystation arc model parameters were selected to match machine deliverability characteristics. A Varian Exact couch model was added to Raystation 4.7 and commissioned for use in VMAT optimization. CDR-VMAT commissioning checks were performed on the linac, including patient-specific QA measurements for 10 test patients using both the ArcCHECK from Sun Nuclear Corporation and COMPASS from IBA Dosimetry. Multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in Raystation was used for CDR-VMAT planning. Results: Raystation 4.7 generated clinically acceptable and deliverable CDR-VMAT plans for the Varian Clinac. VMAT plans were optimized including a model of the Exact couch with both rails in the out positions. CDR-VMAT plans generated with MCO in Raystation were dosimetrically comparable to Raystation MCO-generated IMRT plans. Patient-specific QA measurements with the ArcCHECK on the couch showed good agreement with the treatment planning system prediction. Patient-specific, structure-specific, multi-statistical parameter 3D QA measurements with gantry-mounted COMPASS also showed good agreement. Conclusion: Constant dose rate VMAT was successfully modeled in Raystation 4.7 for a Varian Clinac iX, and Raystation’s multicriteria optimization generated constant dose rate VMAT plans which were deliverable and dosimetrically comparable to IMRT plans.

  18. SU-F-T-344: Commissioning Constant Dose Rate VMAT in the Raystation Treatment Planning System for a Varian Clinac IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, J; Gueorguiev, G; Prichard, H; Gierga, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the commissioning of constant dose rate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the Raystation treatment planning system for a Varian Clinac iX with Exact couch. Methods: Constant dose rate (CDR) VMAT is an option in the Raystation treatment planning system, enabling VMAT delivery on Varian linacs without a RapidArc upgrade. Raystation 4.7 was used to commission CDR-VMAT for a Varian Clinac iX. Raystation arc model parameters were selected to match machine deliverability characteristics. A Varian Exact couch model was added to Raystation 4.7 and commissioned for use in VMAT optimization. CDR-VMAT commissioning checks were performed on the linac, including patient-specific QA measurements for 10 test patients using both the ArcCHECK from Sun Nuclear Corporation and COMPASS from IBA Dosimetry. Multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in Raystation was used for CDR-VMAT planning. Results: Raystation 4.7 generated clinically acceptable and deliverable CDR-VMAT plans for the Varian Clinac. VMAT plans were optimized including a model of the Exact couch with both rails in the out positions. CDR-VMAT plans generated with MCO in Raystation were dosimetrically comparable to Raystation MCO-generated IMRT plans. Patient-specific QA measurements with the ArcCHECK on the couch showed good agreement with the treatment planning system prediction. Patient-specific, structure-specific, multi-statistical parameter 3D QA measurements with gantry-mounted COMPASS also showed good agreement. Conclusion: Constant dose rate VMAT was successfully modeled in Raystation 4.7 for a Varian Clinac iX, and Raystation’s multicriteria optimization generated constant dose rate VMAT plans which were deliverable and dosimetrically comparable to IMRT plans.

  19. Obstetricians' knowledge of periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mariano da Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about the knowledge and attitudes of physicians regarding oral care. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of obstetricians about the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm/low birth weight. A questionnaire was emailed to members of the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FEBRASGO. The questionnaire elicited both personal information and knowledge and attitudes regarding the relationship between periodontal diseases and preterm labor. A total of 875 obstetricians responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were female (54.1%, resided in the Southeast (45.6%, worked in both the public and private sectors (61.4%, and had over 15 years of experience in obstetrics (48.9%. A large proportion of obstetricians (93.4% stated that bacteria were associated with periodontal disease, and 94% reported that periodontitis was a condition more severe than gingivitis. In total, over 80% of participating obstetricians reported smoking, preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease as risk factors or possible risk factors for preterm birth or low birth weight. A correlation between the experience of the obstetricians and referral of their patients for dental examinations (p < 0.001 was observed. Also, obstetricians who had had their own dental visits more recently were more likely to recommend the same for their patients (p < 0.001. It is concluded that, although obstetricians were aware of the association between gingival inflammation and adverse obstetric outcomes, the attitudes of these professionals were not in agreement with their apparent knowledge regarding periodontal diseases and their possible repercussions.

  20. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; do Carmo Leal, Maria

    2016-10-17

    The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with < 4 cm of dilatation, a decision late in pregnancy for CD, and the use of analgesia were associated with a greater risk for CD. Favorable advice for vaginal birth during antenatal care, induction of labor, and the use of any good practices during labor were protective factors for CD. The type of professional who attended birth was not significant in the final analyses, but bivariate analysis showed a higher use of good practices and a smaller proportion of epidural analgesia in women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns. Information and support for vaginal birth during antenatal care, avoiding

  1. Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNFα and blocks TNFα-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNFα-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNFα-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNFα generated from either implanted TNFα-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNFα, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1α, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNFα complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNFα and IL1α, but not interferon γ, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation

  2. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of cesarean delivery (CD in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Methods This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with < 4 cm of dilatation, a decision late in pregnancy for CD, and the use of analgesia were associated with a greater risk for CD. Favorable advice for vaginal birth during antenatal care, induction of labor, and the use of any good practices during labor were protective factors for CD. The type of professional who attended birth was not significant in the final analyses, but bivariate analysis showed a higher use of good practices and a smaller proportion of epidural analgesia in women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. Conclusions The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns

  3. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycoprotein Ib and glycoprotein IX in human platelets are acylated with palmitic acid through thioester linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex is a major component of the platelet membrane which mediates adhesion of platelets to exposed subendothelium. GP Ib is a heterodimer with a large alpha chain (Mr = 135,000-145,000) and small beta chain (Mr = 22,000-27,000) linked by a disulfide bond(s). GP Ib is bound in a noncovalent 1:1 complex with GP IX (Mr = 17,000-22,000). We labeled isolated human platelets with [3H] palmitate or surface-labeled platelet membrane glycoproteins with sodium periodate-[3H]sodium borohydride and immunoprecipitated the GP Ib-IX complex from radiolabeled platelet lysates using a mouse monoclonal antibody (SZ.1) which recognizes the intact complex. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitates from [3H]palmitate-labeled platelets revealed two radiolabeled bands under reducing conditions at 24 and 19 kDa and two bands under nonreducing conditions at 170 and 19 kDa. As demonstrated by the parallel analysis of immunoprecipitates from periodate-[3H]sodium borohydride-labeled platelets, the [3H]palmitate-labeled bands obtained under reducing conditions corresponded to GP Ib beta and GP IX and the ones obtained under nonreducing conditions to intact GP Ib and GP IX, respectively. Using alkaline methanolysis followed by high pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the methanolysis products, we demonstrated that the radioactivity associated with the GP Ib-IX complex from [3H]palmitate-labeled platelets was, in fact, covalently bound [3H]palmitate in ester linkage to protein. The protein-fatty acid linkage was also disrupted by hydroxylamine at neutral pH. Thus, this study demonstrates that GP Ib beta and GP IX in human platelets are both fatty acid-acylated with palmitate through thioester linkages

  5. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy.Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR.In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney.These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  6. Intranasal delivery of plasma and platelet growth factors using PRGF-Endoret system enhances neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret, an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1 mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU, doublecortin (DCX, and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD.

  7. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  8. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery ... Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is assisted ...

  9. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  10. The characterization of protein release from sericin film in the presence of an enzyme: towards fibroblast growth factor-2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Ayumu; Naganuma, Tsuyoshi; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Yamada, Masaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2011-07-29

    Aqueous preparations of silk protein (sericin) films were prepared to evaluate their biodegradation properties. In the absence of trypsin, sericin film swelled rapidly, kept its shape, and remained unaltered for 28 days or longer due to form β-sheet structures. In the presence of trypsin, sericin film gradually degraded; since the rate depended on the concentration of trypsin, the films likely underwent enzymatic hydrolysis. Sericin film incorporating the model protein drug fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin (FA) also gradually degraded in the presence of trypsin and resulted in the sustained release of FA for 2 weeks or longer; in contrast, FA release was quite slow in the absence of trypsin. It is expected that sericin film has potential as a biodegradable and drug-releasing carrier. To evaluate the practical applicability of sericin film for the repair of defective tissues, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was incorporated into sericin films and the films were implanted on skull defects in rats. Whereas FGF-2 release was suppressed in the absence of trypsin in vitro, it appears that FGF-2, immobilized by ionic interactions between sericin and FGF-2, can be sustained-released in vivo from films incorporating 2500 or 250 ng of FGF-2 to support the growth of tissue around wounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring the non-radiative relaxation time of PpIX solution with Au nanoparticles using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Perez, J.L. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F. 11500 (Mexico)], E-mail: jimenezp@fis.cinvestav.mx; Cruz-Orea, A. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07360 (Mexico); Alvarado, E. Maldonado [Environment Citopathology Laboratory, Morphology Departament, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas del IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, Col. Sto. Tomas, C.P. 11340, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramirez, J.F. Sanchez [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F. 11500 (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07360 (Mexico); Ramon-Gallegos, E. [Environment Citopathology Laboratory, Morphology Departament, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas del IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, Col. Sto. Tomas, C.P. 11340, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mendoza-Alvarez, J.G. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07360 (Mexico)

    2008-11-30

    In this work we have used the Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) to determine in vitro the non-radiative relaxation time (NRRT) of a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) standard solution and samples of PpIX(1), PpIX(2) and PpIX(3) with Au nanoparticle concentrations of 0.001008, 0.00504 and 0.01008 mmol in 25 mL of water respectively. We have used PpIX disodium salt (DS) solution of 25% HCl. The results show that the NRRT average values, obtained for each one of the solution were: {tau} = 29 {+-} 0.001, 84 {+-} 0.001 and 62 {+-} 0.009 ms for PpIX(1), PpIX(2) and PpIX(3), respectively. These values were compared with some NRRT of triplet states reported in the literature for molecules with tetrapyrrolic structure, increasing the NRRT considerably. From each solution it was obtained its PAS signal phase as a function of the light modulation frequency from 17 to 80 Hz. UV-vis spectrophotometer, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used in order to obtain the optical absorption spectra, the photoluminescence intensities, and the gold nanoparticle sizes respectively. Our investigations are devoted to improve the thermal treatments of drugs the porphyrins as photosensitizers used in image photodynamic therapy.

  12. Rectal Delivery of a DNAzyme That Specifically Blocks the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Reduces Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Vanessa; Gerlach, Katharina; Mott, Stefanie; Turowska, Agnieszka; Garn, Holger; Atreya, Raja; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Ho, I-Cheng; Renz, Harald; Weigmann, Benno; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-01-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor that regulates T-cell production of cytokines. We investigated the role of GATA3 in development of colitis in mice. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses of colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (n = 61) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 74) or from patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), to measure levels of GATA3. Colitis was induced by administration of oxazolone or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to control mice, mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3, and mice with deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 (TNFR double knockouts); some mice were given a GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) or a control DNAzyme via intrarectal administration, or systemic injections of an antibody to TNF before or during sensitization and challenge phase of colitis induction. Colon tissues were collected and immunofluorescence and histochemical analyses were performed. Lamina propria mononuclear cells and T cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry or cytokine assays. Colonic distribution of labeled DNAzyme and inflammation were monitored by in vivo imaging (endoscopy) of mice. Levels of GATA3 messenger RNA were higher in colon tissues from patients with UC, but not ileal Crohn's disease, than control tissues; levels of GATA3 correlated with levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL] 9, IL17A, IL6, IL5, IL4, IL13, and TNF). We observed increased expression of GATA3 by lamina propria T cells from mice with colitis compared with controls. Mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3 did not develop colitis and their colonic tissues did not produce inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL9, or IL13). The DNAzyme hgd40 inhibited expression of GATA3 messenger RNA by unstimulated and stimulated T cells, and distributed throughout the inflamed colons of mice with colitis. Colon tissues from mice given hgd40 had reduced expression of GATA3 messenger RNA

  13. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster; Evaluacion del potencial inhibidor de la protoporfirina IX (PP-IX) del dano genetico inducido por rayos gama administrados a diferentes razones de dosis en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  14. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Elaine

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent\\/triangulation design.

  15. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  16. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  17. Formulation and optimization of niosomes for topical diacerein delivery using 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design for the management of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghddam, Seyedeh Raziyeh Mahdavi; Ahad, Abdul; Aqil, Mohd; Imam, Syed Sarim; Sultana, Yasmin

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed towards the design of preparations of diacerein loaded cholesterol rich niosomes by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design. Results indicated that Span 60 (90mg) and cholesterol (10mg), and 45min of hydration time were found to be optimum for niosomes preparation. The prepared cholesterol rich niosomes were uniform and spherical in size. Optimized formulation F2 entrapped the drug with 83.02% efficiency in the cholesterol rich niosomes of the size 477.8nm, presented the flux of 2.820μg/cm(2)/h, followed Higuchi model and non Fickian transport mechanism. The confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that niosomes accentuated the penetration of diacerein in the epidermal and dermal layer of rat skin. Stability study confirmed that cholesterol rich niosomes were stable for 2months at 4°C. Concisely, the results showed that targeted diacerein delivery might be achieved using topically applied niosomes for enhanced treatment of psoriasis, which might eliminate adverse side effects associated with systemic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) after term cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors at a multi-center academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura; Lachiewicz, Mark; Liu, Xiaobo; Goje, Oluwatosin

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) after Cesarean delivery (CD) and to determine if any factors increase risk of infection. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a multi-center institution for patients who underwent CD in 2013. All patients had urinary catheters inserted before surgery. Diagnosis followed IDSA guidelines with culture growing greater than 10 3 CFU of bacteria per mL with symptoms or symptomatic urinary tract infections treated at provider discretion. Statistical analysis was assessed with Chi-square and Student's t-test followed by logistic regression. Of 2419 patients, 36 patients developed CAUTI (1.5%). In the 24 (66.7%) cases diagnosed by IDSA guidelines, Escherichia coli was the most common causative organism (54.1%); followed by Enterococcus faecalis (16.7%), Streptococccus agalactiae (8.3%), and Group A Streptococcus (8.3%). Longer operative time (OR 1.013; 95% 1.002-1.023; p = .02) and pregnancies complicated by STI (OR 4.15; 95% CI 1.11-15.0; p < .05) were associated with higher rates of CAUTI. The overall rate of CAUTI after CD was low at 1.5%. Escherichia coli was the most common causative pathogen. Identification of the patients at high risk for CAUTI allows for risk reduction measures.

  19. Riemerella anatipestifer Type IX Secretion System Is Required for Virulence and Gelatinase Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA, a major causative agent of septicemia anserum exsudativa in domesticated ducklings, has a protein secretion system known as the type IX secretion system (T9SS. It is unknown whether the T9SS contributes to the virulence of RA through secretion of factors associated with pathogenesis. To answer this question, we constructed an RA mutant deficient in sprT, which encodes a core protein of the T9SS. Deletion of sprT yielded cells that failed to digest gelatin, an effect that was rescued via complementation by a plasmid encoding wild-type sprT. Complement-mediated killing was significantly increased in the deletion mutant, suggesting that proteins secreted by the T9SS are necessary for complement evasion in RA. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that RAYM_01812 and RAYM_04099 proteins containing a subtilisin-like serine protease domain and exhibiting extracellular gelatinase activity were secreted by the T9SS. Animal experiments demonstrated that the virulence of mutant strain ΔsprT strain was attenuated by 42,000-fold relative to wild-type RA-YM. Immunization with the ΔsprT protected ducks from challenge with RA-YM, suggesting that the former can be used as a live attenuated vaccine. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in RA and contributes to its virulence by exporting key proteins. In addition, subtilisin-like serine proteases which are important virulence factors that interact with complement proteins may enable RA to evade immune surveillance in the avian innate immune system.

  20. Hubungan Gaya Kepemimpinan Orang Tua terhadap Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelfi Erlinda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPenelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh rendahnya hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Faktor penyebabnya ada yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa dan dari luar diri siswa. Faktor yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa seperti malas belajar. Faktor luar diri siswa seperti faktor lingkungan keluarga yang terdiri dari faktor orang tua, suasana keluarga, lingkungan keluarga, kondisi keluarga yang tidak sehat atau broken home. Hal ini berpengaruh dalam proses belajar dan hasil belajar siswa di sekolah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif. Populasi penelitian adalah semua siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai yang terdaftar dalam tahun ajaran  2016/2017. Sampel penelitian adalah semua kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan total sampling. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa angket atau kuesioner yang diberikan ke siswa. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis adalah analisis korelasi dengan menggunakan uji chi kuadrat untuk melihat antara hubungan gaya kepemimpinan oramg tua dengan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Berdasarkan analisis data didapatkan dua gaya kepemimpimam yaitu otoriter dan demokratis. Hasil uji hipotesis diperoleh X2hitung < X2tabel = 0,004 < 3,841  sehingga hipotesis Ho diterima pada taraf nyata 0,05 dan hipotesis Hi ditolak. Jadi tidak ada hubungan yang berarti antara gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Kata kunci :  Gaya kepemimpinan orang tua, hasil belajar.

  1. A Field Intensive Approach to Understanding Relationships Between Vegetation, Landscape, and Management Factors and Their Effects on Stream Sediment and Nutrient Delivery in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidav, J. S.; Barbour, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how management and vegetation type affect watershed factors is an important issue worldwide and key to connecting upland and downstream resource conservation. This work evaluated the connections between stream sediment and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) constituents with land management and vegetation factors within the highest sediment yield watershed of the Lake Tahoe Basin (CA-NV), Blackwood Creek. Among plant community types, sub-watersheds with the highest amount of riparian/wetland vegetated areas were linked with the highest sediment and nutrient filtering capacity. Riparian/wetland areas appeared to act as a sink for sediment and nutrients during the peak flow period, while being a source area during base flow, corroborating other studies on disturbance effects on the hydrograph. Separating the watershed effects of forest species density and basal area from past management activities (e.g. logging and mining) proved equivocal on a sub-watershed scale. As the magnitude of landscape management impacts increased, the effects of peak flows on sediment and nutrient yield increased. Within more disturbed watersheds, the inorganic fraction of sediment and phosphorus dominated transport, which implicated in- and near-channel sources and features as having disproportionate effects on sub-watershed scale sediment and nutrient delivery. Without employing catchment-wide treatments or a priori linear models, the methods employed discerned that small particle sources, linked to lake clarity loss, are positively connected to the inorganic fraction and riparian, near-channel, sand deposits while manifesting a negative correlation with in-channel clay. Linking channel morphology and riparian and upland vegetation restoration (structure and process) in tandem will be important as efforts continue in the restoration of Lake Tahoe's ecological health.

  2. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries.

  3. Optical observations of M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their Hα emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H® emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  4. IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors

    OpenAIRE

    Barredo Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bisquerra Alzina, Rafael; Blanco Cuch, Aida; Giner, Antoni; Pérez Escoda, Núria; Tey, Amèlia

    2013-01-01

    Barredo Gutierrez, B.; Bisquerra Alzina, R.; Blanco Cuch, A.; Giner Tarrida, A.; Perez Escoda, N.; Tey Teijón, A. (eds.) IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors / IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic.valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic

  5. Los cuentos de adulterio del libro IX de las "Metamorfosis" de Apuleyo

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Sánchez, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Las historias de adulterio del libro IX comparten una estructura basada en motivos tradicionales. Rasgos comunes a todos ellos son también el énfasis en la profesión del esposo y el uso dramático y simbólico de los objetos. The stories of adultery in Book IX of Apuleius' The Golden Ass share a structure based on traditional motifs. Common features to all of them include an emphasis on the husband's profession and the dramatic and symbolic use of objects.

  6. Factores asociados a la demanda de servicios para la atención del parto en México Factors associated with the demand for delivery care in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel González-Block

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los factores asociados a la utilización de la institución de atención del parto en México para documentar el proceso de integración funcional de instituciones de salud. Material y métodos. Se utilizó información de mujeres con último parto entre 2000 y 2005 en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se aplicó la prueba de ji cuadrada para probar diferencias entre institución utilizada y aseguramiento. Se usó regresión logística para identificar factores que favorecieron la demanda de instituciones diferentes a las de afiliación de la mujer. Resultados. El 62.6% de mujeres con seguridad social utilizó instituciones de afiliación y 13.4% instituciones públicas. Entre no aseguradas 43.3% utilizó instituciones públicas y 19% seguridad social; 64.3% de afiliadas al Seguro Popular se atendieron en instituciones públicas. Variables de acceso, nivel socioeconómico y condiciones de vida influyeron en la demanda referida. Conclusiones. El traslape para atención de partos institucionales documenta la existencia de integración funcional de facto entre instituciones de salud mexicanas.Objective. Analyze the factors associated with the utilization of delivery care institutions in Mexico in order to document the functional integration of health institutions. Materials and Methods. Based on the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, information from women whose last birth was between 2000 and 2005 was used. Chi square was used to test differences between institutions used and health insurance type. A logistic regression was carried out to identify factors associated with the demand for institutions with which women were not affiliated. Results. Women with social security used in 62% of the cases the institution of their affiliation and 13.4% used public institutions. For uninsured women, 43.3% used public institutions and 19.0% social security institutions; 64.3% of the Seguro Popular affiliates were

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 261 - Wastes Excluded Under §§ 260.20 and 260.22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pt. 261, App. IX Appendix IX to... manage industrial solid waste. This exclusion was published on April 6, 1999.1. The constituent..., accurate and complete. In the event that any of this information is determined by EPA in its sole...

  8. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  9. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age....... The volunteers were divided into two age groups: a young group under 55 years (range 18-54) and an older group over 55 years (range 65-85). PpIX formation was measured noninvasively every hour from 1-5 h, and after 18, 21 and 24 h. Skin phototype, stratum corneum hydration and ultraviolet (UV) damage were also...... the standard application time of 3 h (P hydration and UV damage were not associated with PpIX formation. The treatment efficacy of BCCs 3 months after MAL-PDT was higher in young patients (P =  0·012). CONCLUSIONS: PpIX formation in human skin...

  10. Coagulation Factors Level in Fresh Frozen Plasma in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coagulation Factors Level in Fresh Frozen Plasma in Rwanda. ... Factor X, Von Willbrand Factor, Protein C and Antithrombin decreased from baseline up to three months and then Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor XI, Factor XII and Protein S, remained constant from baseline up to one month and decreased up to three months.

  11. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  12. Big Men on Campus: Administrative Response to Title IX and the Development of Women's Sports in the Big Ten Conference, 1972-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Signed into law in 1972, Title IX of the Education Amendments was designed to eliminate gender discrimination throughout the American educational system. Title IX applied to all educational programs at any level of schooling including admissions, financial aid, academic programs, and social organizations. However, Title IX has primarily been…

  13. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  14. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  15. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suggestions for Local School District Compliance with Title IX Rules and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This guidebook is designed to help local districts determine how well they comply with the spirit of the Title IX requirements against sex discrimination, which in turn could aid in compliance with the letter of the law. The document's first section presents samples of required antidiscrimination policy statements issued by two districts. The…

  17. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiromasa; Seki, Masahiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  18. The Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion: Highlights from FEPPCON IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enslin, Johan H.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Tan, Don F.D.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1991, every second year the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) has organized the technical long-range planning meeting "Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion" (FEPPCON). FEPPCON IX was held 12-16 June 2017 in beautiful Kruger Park in South Africa (Figure 1). The overall go...

  19. One of Gibbs's ideas that has gone unnoticed (comment on chapter IX of his classic book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Alexander D; Rudoi, Yurii G

    2006-01-01

    We show that contrary to the commonly accepted view, Chapter IX of Gibbs's book [1] contains the prolegomena to a macroscopic statistical theory that is qualitatively different from his own microscopic statistical mechanics. The formulas obtained by Gibbs were the first results in the history of physics related to the theory of fluctuations in any macroparameters, including temperature. (from the history of physics)

  20. Sex Discrimination and Intercollegiate Athletics: Putting Some Muscle on Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the general language of the Title IX statute, together with certain specific features of it, strongly suggests that the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare should develop more stringent and demanding regulations based on social policy considerations concerning sex discrimination in intercollegiate sports. Available from Yale…

  1. The Fourth Circuit Kicks a Hole through the Contact-Sport Exception to Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszczewicz, James

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a recent Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decision that when individuals are allowed to try out for or join a team participating in a contact sport and operated for members of the other sex, then discrimination against because of their sex is prohibited by Title IX. (22 footnotes) (MLF)

  2. Title IX: Does Help for Women Come at the Expense of African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    1997-01-01

    Federal law that forbids sex discrimination in educational institutions receiving federal funds (Title IX) has created opportunities for women athletes, but some say men's sports have lost ground. Since athletics provide major educational opportunities for black men, less so for black women, critics are concerned blacks may be losing. (MSE)

  3. More than Title IX: How Equity in Education Has Shaped the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katherine; Guilfoy, Vivian; Pillai, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    Women in America have come a long way in the last hundred years, from lacking the right to vote to holding some of the highest profile positions in the country. But this change has not come without struggle. "More Than Title IX" highlights the impact of one of the most powerful instruments of change--education. The book takes readers…

  4. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  5. Exact Bianchi type-VIII and type-IX cosmological models with matter and electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dieter

    1980-10-01

    Exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations of Bianchi types VIII and IX are derived. The solutions represent axisymmetric universes with source-free electromagnetic fields and the matter content of the models is a perfect fluid, with equation of state p=ɛ.

  6. Exact Bianchi type-VIII and type-IX cosmological models with matter and electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, D.

    1980-10-15

    Exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations of Bianchi types VIII and IX are derived. The solutions represent axisymmetric universes with source-free electromagnetic fields and the matter content of the models is a perfect fluid, with equation of state p=epsilon.

  7. Effect of a single fire on woody vegetation in Catchment IX ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fire is a key driver in shaping and maintaining grasslands. Long-term exclusion of fire in moist grasslands has been attempted at Catchment IX (CIX) at Cathedral Peak since 1952. Vegetation was surveyed in 1952, 1973, 1986 and 2009. Woody colonisation into grasslands was the most noted change over time. The woody ...

  8. A New Resin Glycoside, Muricatin IX, from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Taketomi, Saki; Kakiki, Yuichi; Yasuda, Shin; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A new resin glycoside, named muricatin IX (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ipomoea muricata (L.) JACQ. (Convolvulaceae). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Compound 1 is the first representative of resin glycosides in which an organic acid connects the sugar moiety and the aglycone moiety to form macrocyclic ester ring.

  9. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and carbonic anhydrase IX in benign odontogenic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Roseane Carvalho; de Oliveira Moura, Jamile Marinho Bezerra; Lacerda Brasileiro Junior, Vilson; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; de Souza, Lélia Batista

    2016-10-01

    Some benign odontogenic lesions have a distinct biological behavior with high recurrence rates and local aggressive behavior. To determine whether glucose transporters proteins (GLUT-1 and GLUT-3) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) are associated with the development of as dentigerous cyst (DC), odontogenic keratocyst (OK), and ameloblastoma (AM), we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in these lesions. Immunoexpression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and CA IX was evaluated semiquantitative fields in each of the 20 cases of OK, AM, and DC. The cases were classified according to the scores: 0 (0% positive cells), 1 (50% of positive cells). The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. All cases were positive for GLUT-1 and 65% of OK showed scored 3. Staining was diffuse in 90% of OK and 85% of DC cases (P GLUT-3. Staining intensity for anhydrase was higher in the epithelium of DC when compared to OK (P = 0.01). Strong staining was observed in 55% of DC and 20% of OK samples (P = 0.01). These results suggest that GLUT-1 may be involved in the metabolic regulation of glucose in odontogenic lesions studied. In addition, CA IX appears to influence the development of AM, OK, and DC which can explain the differences their biological behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Teachers May Sue for Retaliation when They Challenge Title IX Sex Discrimination Practices in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2005-01-01

    In a stunning 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for raising complaints regarding illegal sex discrimination against their students can sue their school districts for damages. This ruling is unprecedented with respect to Title IX enforcement and will likely alter how school officials handle…

  12. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get a deterministic model, we have assumed the condition = ( is a constant) between metric potentials and where is the coefficient of shear viscosity and the scalar of expansion in the model. The coefficient of bulk viscosity () is taken as ...

  13. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  14. Effect of PpIX photoproducts formation on pO2 measurement by time-resolved delayed fluorescence spectroscopy of PpIX in solution and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntosova, Veronika; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Zellweger, Matthieu; Wagnières, Georges

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetime is a minimally invasive method for monitoring the levels of oxygen in cells and tissues. The excitation of Protoporphyrin IX during this measurement can lead to the formation of photoproducts in vitro and in vivo. The influence of their luminescence on the measured Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetimes was studied in solution and in vivo on the Chick's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model under various oxygen enriched air conditions (0mmHg, 37mmHg and 155mmHg). The presence of photoproducts disturbs such measurements since the delayed fluorescence emission of some of them spectrally overlaps with that of Protoporphyrin IX. One possible way to avoid this obstacle is to detect Protoporphyrin IX's delayed fluorescence lifetime in a very specific spectral range (620-640nm). Another possibility is to excite Protoporphyrin IX with light doses much lower than 10J/cm 2 , quite possibly as low as a fraction 1J/cm 2 at 405nm. This leads to an increased accuracy of pO 2 detection. Furthermore, this method allows combination of diagnosis and therapy in one step. This helps to improve detection systems and real-time identification of tissue respiration, which is tuned for the detection of PpIX luminescence and not its photoproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  16. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  17. Ceramic drug-delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, A; Bajpai, P K

    1998-01-01

    A variety of ceramics and delivery systems have been used to deliver chemicals, biologicals, and drugs at various rates for desired periods of time from different sites of implantation. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ceramics can successfully be used as drug-delivery devices. Matrices, inserts, reservoirs, cements, and particles have been used to deliver a large variety of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, anticoagulants, analgesics, growth factors, hormones, steroids, and vaccines. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of conventional drug-delivery systems and the different approaches used to deliver chemical and biological agents by means of ceramic systems will be reviewed.

  18. Scaling up interventions to eliminate neonatal tetanus: factors associated with the coverage of tetanus toxoid and clean deliveries among women in Vientiane, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Kanako; Xaysomphoo, Duangpachan; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Douangmala, Somthana; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2009-07-09

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) is one of seven countries that have not eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus in more than 50% of districts. We conducted a community-based household survey to assess the achievements of strategies towards maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in the capital province. The coverage of tetanus toxoid (TT) was 79.7% by the protection-at-birth (PAB) method. The percentages of deliveries attended by skilled personnel and of deliveries at a health facility were 68.4% and 63.7%, respectively. The progress towards eliminating neonatal tetanus in Lao PDR is not sufficient despite the study sites being placed in the capital province. The lack of continuum of care for mothers and newborns is the major obstacle to scale up the tetanus toxoid coverage and PAB as well as clean deliveries.

  19. Efficient fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in metastatic lymph nodes of murine colorectal cancer stained with indigo carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hisataka; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a biochemical converted from 5-aminolevulinc acid (5-ALA) in living cells, is useful for intraoperative fluorescent detection of cancer metastasis in lymph nodes (LNs). However, unknown is whether the fluorescence of PpIX can be detected in the LNs when they coexist with indigo carmine, a blue dye commonly used for identification of sentinel LNs during surgery. To address this issue, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of PpIX fluorescence in the presence of indigo carmine in a mouse LN metastasis model of rectal cancer after administration of 5-ALA. Spectral analysis of pure chemicals revealed that the absorption spectrum of indigo carmine widely overlapped with the fluorescence spectrum of PpIX specifically at the peak of 632nm, a common emission wavelength for detecting PpIX, but not at the other peak of 700nm. Due to such spectral overlap, the PpIX fluorescence intensity was significantly attenuated by mixture with indigo carmine at 632nm, but not at 700nm. Accordingly, fluorescent measurements of the mouse metastatic LN revealed more intense presentation of PpIX at 700nm than at 632nm, indicating that the diagnostic usefulness is greater at 700nm than at 632nm for the indigo carmine-dyed LNs after administration of 5-ALA. From these observations, we propose that the fluorescence measurement is more efficient at 700nm than at 632nm for detection of PpIX in metastatic LNs stained with indigo carmine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  1. Factors influencing women's perceptions of shared decision making during labor and delivery: Results from a large-scale cohort study of first childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura B; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2018-01-05

    To examine correlates of shared decision making during labor and delivery. Data were from a cohort of women who gave birth to their first baby in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011 (N = 3006). We used logistic regression models to examine the association between labor induction and mode of delivery in relation to women's perceptions of shared decision making, and to investigate race/ethnicity and SES as potential moderators. Women who were Black and who did not have a college degree or private insurance were less likely to report high shared decision making, as well as women who underwent labor induction, instrumental vaginal or cesarean delivery. Models with interaction terms showed that the reduction in odds of shared decision making associated with cesarean delivery was greater for Black women than for White women. Women in marginalized social groups were less likely to report shared decision making during birth and Black women who delivered by cesarean had particularly low odds of shared decision making. Strategies designed to improve the quality of patient-provider communication, information sharing, and shared decision making must be attentive to the needs of vulnerable groups to ensure that such interventions reduce rather than widen disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX, which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon, pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies, can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX, or alternatively, through the use of polymer

  3. Assisted delivery with forceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  4. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... return in: 4 to 9 weeks after your delivery if you're not breastfeeding 3 to 12 ... can start sexual activity around 6 weeks after delivery, if the discharge or lochia has stopped. Women ...

  5. The role of carbonic anhydrase IX in hypoxia control in OSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Pilar, Gayoso-Diz; Barros-Angueira, Francisco; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel; García-García, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Tumoral microenvironments play a key role in the evolution of solid tumors. Tumor hypoxia is actively involved in the promotion of genetic instability, the invasive capacity of tumor cells, metastasis, and a worsening of the clinical evolution. Endogenous hypoxia markers are controlled by hypoxia-related genes, formed by HIF-1, which is related to several target genes that involve the energy metabolism, angiogenesis, and transmembrane carbonic anhydrases (CAs), mainly CA-IX that is one of the tumor-related carbonic anhydrases. The goal of this paper is to establish the role of CA-IX as a hypoxia marker in OSCC, while analyzing its expression in this type of tumors and its relationship with several clinical and pathological parameters and prognosis, evaluating its relationship with angiogenesis, other hypoxia markers, and clarifying its role in chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Transition properties of the Be-like X-ray from Mg IX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Hu

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... https://doi.org/10.1007/s12043-017-1489-6. Transition properties of the Be-like Kα X-ray from Mg IX. FENG HU1,3,∗. , SHUFANG ZHANG1, YAN SUN1, MAOFEI MEI1, CUICUI SANG2 and JIAMIN YANG3. 1School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Xuzhou Institute of Technology, Xuzhou 221111,.

  7. The sequels of the Fortunati ambo (Verg., Aen. IX 446-449: Epic and Empire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Río Torres-Murciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the well known apostrophe fortunati ambo (Aen. IX 446-449, Virgil ties literary durableness, which is a traditional aim of epic poetry, to the permanence of Roman empire. Nevertheless, this Virgilian analogy is put into question not only by Lucan, who overtly refutes it, but also by the epigones who, like Valerius Flaccus, Silius Italicus and Statius, look for their own way following in the great predecessor’s footsteps.

  8. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the de-Sitter universe, the Taub-NUT solutions etc. are of Bianchi Type-IX space- times. In these models, neutrino viscosity does not guarantee isotropy at the present ..... The model (2.11) starts with a big-bang at T = 0 where α > 0 and m < 2, and the expansion in the model decreases as time increases. The expansion in the ...

  9. PROFIL PERTANYAAN SISWA TUNANETRA KELAS IX SMPLB YKAB SURAKARTA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Khoiriyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thinking can be drilled to the student by developing question skill during teaching process. Personal life quality is determined from question quality; the more qualified a question the more success a person in life. Therefore, this study analyzed the students question to find out the students question quality. The subject of this study is IX class of SMPLB YKAB students Surakarta. The data was found by observation with handy cam. The data analysis was conducted through data reductio...

  10. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  11. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    two different fluence rates. Pain score during PDT and PpIX fluorescence prior to illumination were measured. Results The study showed that pain during illumination was associated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area (P = 0.0003, R-2 = 0.31). When using a fluence rate of 34 mW cm(-2......) patients with acne had a pain score of 6 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-7] compared with 8 (IQR 6-10) when using a fluence rate of 68 mW cm(-2) (P = 0.018). After correcting the pain score for PpIX fluorescence no differences in pain scores were found between first and second acne treatment, locations of AK......Background Pain during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a considerable problem that needs to be studied to improve this otherwise attractive treatment of skin diseases. Objectives To compare pain during PDT using two different fluence rates, and also to evaluate the association between pain...

  12. Aplikasi Peta Kendali p sebagai Pengendalian Kualitas Karet di PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Khomah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of global rubber consumption is an opportunity as well as a challenge for Indonesian rubber produsers to increase the quantity and the quality of production. Faced the competition between countries, the quality of rubber products should be enhanced adapted to consumer demand. This study aims to determine whether the quality of the rubber produced in PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/Kerjoarum still within the control or not. This study uses time series data, in the form of rubber production data during March 2012 - February 201, that were analyzed descriptively using Control p Chart Analysis. Control p Chart describe the proportion of production damage that can be tolerated as a tool for statistical Control p Chart Application as Quality Control Tools for Rubber Production in PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum process control. This study shows that the quality of the rubber produced by PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/ Kerjoarum is out of the control. The Control p Chart proves that there are still many points that are outside the production control line. The production domination of the third RSS type (RSS 3 cause this problem, so that the profit and the efficiency of the company can be increased if the RSS 3 product can be controlled and be changed with the production of RSS 1.

  13. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  14. Glycogen storage disease type IX and growth hormone deficiency presenting as severe ketotic hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodax, Juanita K; Uysal, Serife; Quintos, Jose Bernardo; Phornphutkul, Chanika

    2017-02-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX and growth hormone (GH) deficiency cause ketotic hypoglycemia via different mechanisms and are not known to be associated. We describe a patient presenting with severe ketotic hypoglycemia found to have both GSD IX and isolated GH deficiency. A 3-year-and-11-month-old boy with a history of prematurity, autism, developmental delay, seizures, and feeding difficulty was admitted for poor weight gain and symptomatic hypoglycemia. He was nondysmorphic, with a height of 93.8 cm (2%, -1.97 SDS), and has no hepatomegaly. He developed symptomatic hypoglycemia, with a serum glucose level of 37 mg/dL after 14 h of fasting challenge. Critical sample showed a GH of 0.24 ng/mL. GH provocative stimulation testing was done with a peak GH of 2.8 ng/mL. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypoplastic pituitary gland. Given the clinical symptoms, suspicion for mitochondrial disease was high. Dual Genome Panel by Massively Parallel Sequencing revealed a hemizygous variant c.721A>G (p1241V) in the X-linked PHKA2 gene, a causative gene for GSD IX. Red blood cell PhK enzyme activity testing was low, supporting the diagnosis. Given the patient's developmental delays that were not explained by GH deficiency alone, further investigation showed two unrelated conditions resulting in deranged metabolic adaptation to fasting leading to severe hypoglycemia.

  15. Development of sulfonamides incorporating phenylacrylamido functionalities as carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angapelly, Srinivas; Ramya, P V Sri; Angeli, Andrea; Del Prete, Sonia; Capasso, Clemente; Arifuddin, Mohammed; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-10-15

    A series of novel sulfonamides incorporating phenylacrylamido functionalities were synthesized and investigated for the inhibition of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The physiologically and pharmacologically relevant human (h) isoforms hCA I and II (cytosolic isozymes), as well as the transmembrane tumor-associated hCA IX and XII were included in the study. These compounds showed low nanomolar or sub-nanomolar inhibition constants against hCA II (K I s in the range of 0.50-50.5nM), hCA IX (K I s of 1.8-228.5nM), and hCA XII (K I s of 3.5-96.2nM) being less effective as inhibitors of the off target isoform hCA I. A detailed structure-activity relationship study demonstrates that the nature and position of substituents present on the aromatic part of the scaffold strongly influence the inhibition of CA isoforms. As hCA II, IX and XII are involved in pathologies such as glaucoma and hypoxic, and metastatic tumors, compounds of the type reported in this work may be useful preclinical candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  17. In vivo wide-field multispectral dosimeter for use in ALA-PpIX based photodynamic therapy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRochelle, Ethan P. M.; Davis, Scott C.; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Actinic Kertoses (AK) using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment, which is generally effective, yet response rates vary. The origin of the variability is not well characterized, but may be related to inter-patient variability in the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). While fiber-based point probe systems provide a method for measuring PpIX production, these measurements have demonstrated large spatial and inter-operator variability. Thus, in an effort to improve patient-specific dosimetry and treatment it is important to develop a robust system that accounts for spatial variability and reduces the chance of operator errors. To address this need, a wide-field multispectral imaging system was developed that is capable of quantifying maps of PpIX in both liquid phantoms and in vivo experiments, focusing on high sensitivity light signals. The system uses both red and blue excitation to elicit a fluorescent response at varying skin depths. A ten-position filter wheel with bandpass filters ranging from 635nm to 710nm are used to capture images along the emission band. A linear least-square spectral fitting algorithm provides the ability to decouple background autofluorescence from PpIX fluorescence, which has improved the system sensitivity by an order of magnitude, detecting nanomolar PpIX concentrations in liquid phantoms in the presence of 2% whole blood and 2% intralipid.

  18. [ZnPP IX and L-NAME reduce the cGMP content in the penile tissue of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Bin; Qin, Wen-bo; Gui, Shi-liang

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the effects of CO release inhibitor zinc protoporphyria IX (ZnPP IX) and NO release inhibitor L-NAME on the content of cGMP in the penile tissue of rats. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal control, a ZnPP IX, and an L-NAME group, given saline (1 ml/kg/d), ZnPP IX (45 micromol/kg/d) and L-NAME (50 mg/kg/d), respectively, for 7 days. Then all the rats were killed, homogenate made from their penile tissues and detected for the contents of NOS, NO, CO and cGMP. The contents of CO, NOS, NO and cGMP were all reduced in both the ZnPP IX and L-NAME groups as compared with the control group (P ZnPP IX and L-NAME can reduce the concentrations of CO and NO in the penile tissues of rats, and consequently the content of cGMP.

  19. Prevalência e fatores associados à prematuridade entre gestantes submetidas à inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro Prevalence and risk factors associated to preterm delivery among pregnant women submitted to preterm labor inhibition treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Coca Bezerra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência de parto prematuro em gestantes submetidas ao tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro e analisar os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com dados coletados de 163 prontuários de gestantes submetidas a tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro atendidas em 1995-2000, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A variável dependente constituiu-se na ocorrência de parto prematuro e as independentes foram: idade, escolaridade, ocupação, paridade, companheiro, tabagismo, infecção urinária prévia, número de consultas pré-natal e intervalo interpartal. A análise foi feita pelo teste de associação pelo Qui-quadrado e modelos de regressão logística univariado e múltiplo. RESULTADOS: 66,3% das gestantes tiveram filhos prematuros e, em 22,7% dos casos, o parto ocorreu antes de 34 semanas. Houve associação estatística significativa entre parto prematuro e ser nulípara e apresentar número baixo de consultas pré-natal. CONCLUSÕES: atenção especial deve ser dada às gestantes nulíparas e com número reduzido de consulta pré-natal submetidas ao tratamento de inibição de trabalho de parto prematuro, com a finalidade de prevenir esse evento.OBJECTIVES: to identify preterm delivery prevalence in pregnant women submitted to preterm delivery inhibition treatment and to analyze associated factors. METHODS: cross sectional study with data collected from 163 pregnant women medical files seen from 1995-2000 at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The dependent variable was preterm delivery and the independent ones were: age, education, job, parity, companion, smoking, prior urinary infection, number of prenatal medical visits and birth interval. Analysis was performed through association by the Chi-square test and univariate and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: 66.3% of the women had preterm

  20. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.

    2015-01-01

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  1. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  2. Factors associated with the use of supplemental oxygen or positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room, in infants born with a gestational age ≥ 34 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 5–10 % of newborns require some form of resuscitationupon delivery; several factors, such as maternal abnormal conditions, gestational age and type of delivery could be responsible for this trend. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with the need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental O2 in newborns with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks in Brazil. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study and obtained data from the Birth in Brazil Survey. The inclusion criterion was a gestational age ≥34 weeks. Exclusion criteria were newborns with congenital malformations, and cases with undetermined gestational age or type of delivery (vaginal, pre labor cesarean section and cesarean section during labor. The primary outcomes were need of PPV via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental oxygen without PPV. Confounding variables, including maternal age, source of birth payment, years of maternal schooling, previous birth, newborn presentation, multiple pregnancy, and maternal obstetric risk, were analyzed. Results We included 22,720 newborns. Of these, 2974 (13.1 % required supplementary oxygen. PPV with a bag and mask was used for 727 (3.2 % newborns and tracheal intubation for 192 (0.8 % newborns. Chest compression was necessary for 136 (0.6 % newborns and drugs administered in 114 (0.5 %. 51.3 % of newborns were delivered by cesarean section, with the majority of cesarean sections (88.7 % being performed prior to labor. Gestational age (late preterm infants: (Relative Risk-(RR 2.46; 95 % (Confidence interval-CI 1.79–3.39, maternal obstetric risk (RR 1.59; 95 % CI1.30–1.94, and maternal age of 12–19 years old (RR 1.36; 95 % CI1.06–1.74 contributed to rates of PPV in the logistic regression analysis. Newborns aged between 37–38 weeks of gestaional age weren´t less likely to require PPV compared with

  3. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  4. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  5. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: → We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. → Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. → A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. → Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  6. Construction of an attenuated Salmonella delivery system harboring genes encoding various virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli and its potential as a candidate vaccine for chicken colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Atul A; Matsuda, Kiku; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-03-01

    An attenuated Salmonella (deltalon, deltacpxR, and deltaasdA16) delivery system containing the genes encoding P-fimbriae (papa and papG), aerobactin receptor (iutA), and CS31A surface antigen (clpG) of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) was constructed, and its potential as a vaccine candidate against APEC infection in chickens was evaluated. The birds were divided into three groups designated group A (nonvaccinated control), group B (given a single immunization), and group C (administered prime and boost immunizations). Prime and booster vaccinations with the constructions were administered to 1-day-old and 14-day-old birds, respectively. Immune responses were measured postimmunization, and the birds were challenged via an intra-air sac route with a virulent APEC strain at the second, third, and fourth weeks of age. Group B birds were partially protected against the challenge and showed increased levels of plasma immunoglobulin (Ig)G, mucosal IgA antibodies, and lymphocyte proliferation. Group C birds showed greater protection against the challenge, with significantly stronger immune responses compared with the birds in the other groups. Overall, our data suggest that the Salmonella delivery system with recombinant constructs is capable of inducing robust immune responses and induces effective protection against colibacillosis caused by APEC.

  7. Settlement, territory and notarial formulas: a verification (Verona, IX-XII century Insediamento, territorio e formule notarili: una verifica (Verona, IX-XII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The organization of rural areas in early Middle Ages and its observability through techniques of location taken by notaries is a classic italian subject in the historiography in the second half of the 20th century. The documentation produced in Verona lend to a verify of the ipothesis and to the formulation of guidelines for the interpretation of this formulas as concerning settlement and village territory. The number of documents produced and preserved in Verona between 9th and 12th century, and its homogeneity as institutions which produced and trasmitted them, allows to deal with a complex analysis that must consider several others variables. On the hand of documentation it deals with the possible variety, up to personal practice, of notary’s formulas and uses; these are then linked on to differences on geographic patterns, ownership relations, landlords presence and agrarian practices. The variety of geographical context, equally divided between a hill of significant size, a dry and irrigated high plain and the lowlands subject to flood, is proposed as a positive element to identify different factors in the building of rural settlement, its organization and rapresentations. It is assumed that these formulas are developed into patterns resulting by a dialectic between notary’s culture and perception of the space organization, which should be the resulting in the relationship between human communities and the territory where these act. The aim is highlighting factors which were found to underlie the formation of village territories. This is the level more elusive and less considered by italian historiography that has traditionally focused on the jurisdictional (both landlord and ecclesiastical or fiscal one and therefore the relationship between power and territory. The comparative reading of location practice as a system of relations between the words – elaborated by a topographic level diachronic as

  8. Fluorometric quantification of protoporphyrin IX in biological skin samples from in vitro penetration/permeation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Cristina Rossetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluorometric analytical method was developed for quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX in skin samples and receptor phase solution after in vitro cutaneous penetration/permeation studies. Analytical conditions used were: excitation and emission wavelengths: 400 nm and 632 nm; bandwidth: 0.5 nm; excitation and emission slits: 10/10. PpIX was recovered from two different layers of skin, the stratum corneum (SC and the epidermis plus dermis ([E+D], by vortex homogenization, probe and bath sonication, using DMSO as an extraction solvent. The detection and quantification limits were 0.002 and 0.005 μg/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from 0.005 - 0.5 μg/mL. The within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy in DMSO and receptor phase solution were each studied at the two concentration levels 0.04 and 0.2 μg/mL, and 0.01 and 0.08 μg/mL, respectively. The coefficients of variation and deviation from the theoretical values were lower than 5%. The skin recovery of PpIX from SC and [E+D] layers using two different concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL were all above 90.0%. The method described has potential application to in vitro penetration/permeation studies of PpIX using porcine skin as a biological membrane model.Um método analítico por espectrofluorimetria foi desenvolvido para quantificar a protoporfirina IX (Pp IX em amostras de pele e fase receptora após a realização de testes in vitro de penetração/permeação cutâneas. As condições analíticas utilizadas foram: comprimentos de onda de excitação e emissão: 400 nm e 632 nm; largura de banda: 0,5 nm; fendas de excitação e emissão: 10/10. A PpIX foi extraída de amostras de estrato córneo (EC e da epiderme sem estrato córneo + derme ([E+D] através da agitação em vórtex e sonicação por haste e banho, utilizando-se o DMSO como solvente extrator. O limite de detecção e quantificação foram, respectivamente, de 0,002 e 0,005 μg/mL. O método mostrou

  9. Patient- and delivery-level factors related to acceptance of HIV counseling and testing services among tuberculosis patients in South Africa: a qualitative study with community health workers and program managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anjali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has a high tuberculosis (TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection rate of 73%, yet only 46% of TB patients are tested for HIV. To date, relatively little work has focused on understanding why TB patients may not accept effective services or participate in programs that are readily available in healthcare delivery systems. The objective of the study was to explore barriers to and facilitators of participation in HIV counseling and testing (HCT among TB patients in the Free State Province, from the perspective of community health workers and program managers who offer services to patients on a daily basis. These two provider groups are positioned to alter the delivery of HCT services in order to improve patient participation and, ultimately, health outcomes. Methods Group discussions and semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 lay counselors, 57 directly observed therapy (DOT supporters, and 13 TB and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS program managers in the Free State Province between September 2007 and March 2008. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Results The themes emerging from the focus group discussions and interviews included four main suggested barrier factors: (1 fears of HIV/AIDS, TB-HIV coinfection, death, and stigma; (2 perceived lack of confidentiality of HIV test results; (3 staff shortages and high workload; and (4 poor infrastructure to encourage, monitor, and deliver HCT. The four main facilitating factors emerging from the group and individual interviews were (1 encouragement and motivation by health workers, (2 alleviation of health worker shortages, (3 improved HCT training of professional and lay health workers, and (4 community outreach activities. Conclusions Our findings provide insight into the relatively low acceptance rate of HCT services among TB patients from the perspective of two healthcare workforce groups that play an

  10. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magnitude of safe delivery and influencing factors are not well assessed in Benishangul Gumuz region in general and in Metekel Zone ... Therefore providing information, education and communication on delivery service utilization with special emphasis to Gumuz .... encountered at least one abortion in their life time. One.

  11. Alternative pathways of thromboplastin-dependent activation of human factor X in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlar, R.A.; Griffin, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the interrelationships of the major coagulation pathways, the activation of 3H-labeled factor X in normal and various deficient human plasmas was evaluated when clotting was triggered by dilute rabbit or human thromboplastin. Various dilutions of thromboplastin and calcium were added to plasma samples containing 3H-factor X, and the time course of factor X activation was determined. At a 1/250 dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin, the rate of factor X activation in plasmas deficient in factor VIII or factor IX was 10% of the activation rate of normal plasma or of factor XI deficient plasma. Reconstitution of the deficient plasmas with factors VIII or IX, respectively, reconstituted normal factor X activation. Similar results were obtained when various dilutions of human thromboplastin replaced the rabbit thromboplastin. From these plasma experiments, it is inferred that the dilute thromboplastin-dependent activation of factor X requires factors VII, IX, and VIII. An alternative extrinsic pathway that involves factors IX and VIII may be the physiologic extrinsic pathway and hence help to explain the consistent clinical observations of bleeding diatheses in patients deficient in factors IX or VIII

  12. Efficient delivery to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor and its inhibitory effect on collagen synthesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Miyao, Aki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Kanehira, Yukimune; Tada, Hitoshi; Chono, Sumio

    2015-01-01

    In the present in vitro study, we assessed the delivery of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor (tbFGF) to lung fibroblasts and investigated the anti-fibrotic effect of the drug. The tbFGF peptide, KRTGQYKLC, was used to modify the surface of liposomes (tbFGF-liposomes). We used the thin-layer evaporation method, followed by sonication, to prepare tbFGF-liposomes containing pirfenidone. The cellular accumulation of tbFGF-liposomes was 1.7-fold greater than that of non-modified liposomes in WI-38 cells used as a model of lung fibroblasts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that tbFGF-liposomes were widely localized in WI-38 cells. The inhibitory effects of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen synthesis in WI-38 cells were evaluated by measuring the level of intracellular hydroxyproline, a major component of the protein collagen. Pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes at concentrations of 10, 30, and 100 µM significantly decreased the TGF-β1-induced hydroxyproline content in WI-38 cells. The anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes was enhanced compared with that of pirfenidone solution. These results indicate that tbFGF-liposomes are a useful drug delivery system of anti-fibrotic drugs to lung fibroblasts for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  14. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  15. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Lusida, Maria Inge; Fuad, Achmad; Soetjipto; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Chie; Hotta, Hak

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70-80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infection have been developed, however, the therapeutic efficacies still need to be improved. Medicinal plants are promising sources for antivirals against HCV. A variety of plants have been tested and proven to be beneficial as antiviral drug candidates against HCV. In this study, we examined extracts, their subfractions and isolated compounds of Ruta angustifolia leaves for antiviral activities against HCV in cell culture. We isolated six compounds, chalepin, scopoletin, γ-fagarine, arborinine, kokusaginine and pseudane IX. Among them, chalepin and pseudane IX showed strong anti-HCV activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml, respectively, without apparent cytotoxicity. Their anti-HCV activities were stronger than that of ribavirin (2.8 ± 0.4 μg/ml), which has been widely used for the treatment of HCV infection. Mode-of-action analyses revealed that chalepin and pseudane IX inhibited HCV at the post-entry step and decreased the levels of HCV RNA replication and viral protein synthesis. We also observed that arborinine, kokusaginine and γ-fagarine possessed moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 6.4 ± 0.7, 6.4 ± 1.6 and 20.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml, respectively, whereas scopoletin did not exert significant anti-HCV activities at 30 μg/ml. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ripple Effect of Title IX on Women's Health Issues: Treating an Increasingly Active Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Patricia D

    2003-04-01

    Perhaps no area in sports medicine has changed as dramatically in the last 30 years as women's health. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in all curricular and extracurricular activities at educational institutions that receive federal funding. Before 1972, many assumed that women were not interested in sports and that there was no need to provide programs for girls and women, and most primary care physicians had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women.

  17. The 3d84s-3d84p transitions in Br IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Livingston, A.E.; Westerlind, M.; Engstroem, L.; Martinson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of bromine was studied in the region 450-1100 A, using the beam-foil method with 6 MeV ions from a tandem accelerator. On the basis of isoelectronic extrapolations and theoretical calculations, 32 lines were classified as transitions between the 3p 6 3d 8 4s and 3p 6 3d 8 4p configurations of Co-like BrIX. Fo the 16 possible 4s levels 13 have been located, and 11 new 4p levels have been added to the previously known ones. Only 4 of all the 4p levels (45 in total) remain to be found. (orig.)

  18. Modern history of women in sports. Twenty-five years of Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiano, D A

    2000-04-01

    The impact of federal anti-discrimination laws such as Title IX and the Amateur Sports Act have opened the doors of sport participation opportunity to girls and women in sports over the last 25 years. Such participation has created new and more lucrative consumer markets for sporting goods manufactures, as well as college and professional sports teams. The prospect of economic gain has created significant social changes: Women are now being encouraged to participate in sports and embrace the resulting benefits, and the general public is showing increased support for gender equity in sports.

  19. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S IX and S X spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multi configuration Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S IX and S X spectral lines

  20. IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Abadía Bayona, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Del 10 al 13 de Septiembre de 2002 se celebró el IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas en el Campus de Aula Dei de Zaragoza. El Simposio se realizó bajo los auspicios de la Sociedad Española de Fisiología Vegetal, el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), el Instituto Agronómico Mediterráneo de Zaragoza-Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos (CIHEAM-IAMZ), la Asociación Internacional para la Optimización de...