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Sample records for factor gata-6 resides

  1. The transcription factor GATA6 is essential for branching morphogenesis and epithelial cell differentiation during fetal pulmonary development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Keijzer (Richard); W.G. van Tuyl (Minke); C. Meijers (Carel); M.R. Post (Martin); D. Tibboel (Dick); M. Koutsourakis (Manousos); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractRecent loss-of-function studies in mice show that the transcription factor GATA6 is important for visceral endoderm differentiation. It is also expressed in early bronchial epithelium and the observation that this tissue does not receive any contribution from Gata6 double mutant embryoni

  2. GATA6 expression in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, Kirill; Honing, Judith; Meijer, Coby; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Peters, Frans T. M.; van den Berg, Anke; Karrenbeld, Arend; Plukker, John T. M.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Barrett's oesophagus can progress towards oesophageal adenocarcinoma through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA6 is known to be involved in columnar differentiation and proliferation, and GATA6 gen

  3. GATA6 expression in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, Kirill; Honing, Judith; Meijer, Coby; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Peters, Frans T.M.; van den Berg, Anke; Karrenbeld, Arend; Plukker, John T.M.; Kruyt, Frank A.E.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus can progress towards oesophageal adenocarcinoma through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA6 is known to be involved in columnar differentiation and proliferation, and GATA6 gen

  4. GATA4 and GATA6 control mouse pancreas organogenesis

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    Carrasco, Manuel; Delgado, Irene; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    Recently, heterozygous mutations in GATA6 have been found in neonatal diabetic patients with failed pancreatic organogenesis. To investigate the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse pancreas organogenesis, we conditionally inactivated these genes within the pancreas. Single inactivation of either gene did not have a major impact on pancreas formation, indicating functional redundancy. However, double Gata4/Gata6 mutant mice failed to develop pancreata, died shortly after birth, and displayed hyperglycemia. Morphological defects in Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreata were apparent during embryonic development, and the epithelium failed to expand as a result of defects in cell proliferation and differentiation. The number of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, including PDX1+ cells, was reduced in the Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreatic epithelium. Remarkably, deletion of only 1 Gata6 allele on a Gata4 conditional knockout background severely reduced pancreatic mass. In contrast, a single WT allele of Gata4 in Gata6 conditional knockout mice was sufficient for normal pancreatic development, indicating differential contributions of GATA factors to pancreas formation. Our results place GATA factors at the top of the transcriptional network hierarchy controlling pancreas organogenesis. PMID:23006330

  5. Endothelial GATA-6 Deficiency Promotes Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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    Ghatnekar, Angela; Chrobak, Izabela; Reese, Charlie; Stawski, Lukasz; Seta, Francesca; Wirrig, Elaine; Paez-Cortez, Jesus; Markiewicz, Margaret; Asano, Yoshihide; Harley, Russell; Silver, Richard; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Trojanowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by pulmonary vasculopathy with elevation of pulmonary artery pressure, often culminating in right ventricular failure. GATA-6, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors, is highly expressed in quiescent vasculature and is frequently lost during vascular injury. We hypothesized that endothelial GATA-6 may play a critical role in the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction in PAH. Here we report that GATA-6 is markedly reduced in pulmonary ECs lining both occluded and nonoccluded vessels in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis-associated PAH. GATA-6 transcripts are also rapidly decreased in rodent PAH models. Endothelial GATA-6 is a direct transcriptional regulator of genes controlling vascular tone [endothelin-1, endothelin-1 receptor type A, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)], pro-inflammatory genes, CX3CL1 (fractalkine), 5-lipoxygenease-activating protein, and markers of vascular remodeling, including PAI-1 and RhoB. Mice with the genetic deletion of GATA-6 in ECs (Gata6-KO) spontaneously develop elevated pulmonary artery pressure and increased vessel muscularization, and these features are further exacerbated in response to hypoxia. Furthermore, innate immune cells including macrophages (CD11b+/F4/80+), granulocytes (Ly6G+/CD45+), and dendritic cells (CD11b+/CD11c+) are significantly increased in normoxic Gata6-KO mice. Together, our findings suggest a critical role of endothelial GATA-6 deficiency in development and disease progression in PAH. PMID:23583651

  6. The Transcription Factor GATA-6 is Overexpressed in Vivo and Contributes to Silencing 15-LOX-1 in Vitro in Human Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shureiqi, Imad; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Broaddus, Russell; Wu, Yuanqing; Guan, Baoxiang; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Lippman, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional suppression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) helps enable human colorectal cancer cells escape apoptosis, a critical mechanism for colonic tumorigenesis. GATA-6 is strongly expressed in vitro in cancer cells; its downregulation by pharmaceuticals is associated with reversal of 15-LOX-1 transcriptional suppression. The mechanistic contribution of GATA-6 overexpression to colonic tumorigenesis, especially concerning 15-LOX-1 transcriptional suppression, remains unknown. We tested...

  7. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

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    Elena Kozhemyakina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh, a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh.

  8. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

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    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl) mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh.

  9. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

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    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  10. Aberrant JAK/STAT Signaling Suppresses TFF1 and TFF2 through Epigenetic Silencing of GATA6 in Gastric Cancer

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    Cheng-Shyong Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2. Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60 of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation.

  11. Pancreas-specific deletion of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 causes pancreatic agenesis

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    Xuan, Shouhong; Borok, Matthew J.; Decker, Kimberly J.; Battle, Michele A.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Hale, Michael A.; Macdonald, Raymond J.; Sussel, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic agenesis is a human disorder caused by defects in pancreas development. To date, only a few genes have been linked to pancreatic agenesis in humans, with mutations in pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) and pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1A) reported in only 5 families with described cases. Recently, mutations in GATA6 have been identified in a large percentage of human cases, and a GATA4 mutant allele has been implicated in a single case. In the mouse, Gata4 and Gata6 are expressed in several endoderm-derived tissues, including the pancreas. To analyze the functions of GATA4 and/or GATA6 during mouse pancreatic development, we generated pancreas-specific deletions of Gata4 and Gata6. Surprisingly, loss of either Gata4 or Gata6 in the pancreas resulted in only mild pancreatic defects, which resolved postnatally. However, simultaneous deletion of both Gata4 and Gata6 in the pancreas caused severe pancreatic agenesis due to disruption of pancreatic progenitor cell proliferation, defects in branching morphogenesis, and a subsequent failure to induce the differentiation of progenitor cells expressing carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) and neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3). These studies address the conserved and nonconserved mechanisms underlying GATA4 and GATA6 function during pancreas development and provide a new mouse model to characterize the underlying developmental defects associated with pancreatic agenesis. PMID:23006325

  12. Amino-terminal extension of 146 residues of L-type GATA-6 is required for transcriptional activation but not for self-association.

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    Takada, Kayoko; Obayashi, Kanako; Ohashi, Kazuaki; Ohashi-Kobayashi, Ayako; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Maeda, Masatomo

    2014-10-01

    Transcription factor GATA-6 plays essential roles in developmental processes and tissue specific functions through regulation of gene expression. GATA-6 mRNA utilizes two Met-codons in frame as translational initiation codons. Deletion of the nucleotide sequence encoding the PEST sequence (Glu(31)-Cys(46)) between the two initiation codons unusually reduced the protein molecular size on SDS-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis, and re-introduction of this sequence reversed this change. The long-type (L-type) GATA-6 containing this PEST sequence self-associated similarly to the short-type (S-type) GATA-6, as determined on co-immunoprecipitation of Myc-tagged GATA-6 with HA-tagged GATA-6. The L-type and S-type GATA-6 also interacted mutually. The L-type GATA-6 without the PEST sequence also self-associated and interacted with the S-type GATA-6. The transcriptional activation potential of L-type GATA-6 is higher than that of S-type GATA-6. When the PEST sequence (Glu(31)-Cys(46)) was inserted into the L-type GATA-6 without Arg(13)-Gly(101), the resultant recombinant protein showed significantly higher transcriptional activity, while the construct with an unrelated sequence exhibited lower activity. These results suggest that the Glu(31)-Cys(46) segment plays an important role in the transcriptional activation, although it does not participate in the self-association.

  13. GATA4 and GATA6 regulate intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation during development.

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    Walker, Emily M; Thompson, Cayla A; Battle, Michele A

    2014-08-15

    The intestinal epithelium performs vital roles in organ function by absorbing nutrients and providing a protective barrier. The zinc-finger containing transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 regulate enterocyte gene expression and control regional epithelial cell identity in the adult intestinal epithelium. Although GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in the developing intestine, loss of either factor alone during the period of epithelial morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation fails to disrupt these processes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that GATA4 and GATA6 function redundantly to control these aspects of intestinal development. We used Villin-Cre, which deletes specifically in the intestinal epithelium during the period of villus development and epithelial cytodifferentiation, to generate Gata4Gata6 double conditional knockout embryos. Mice lacking GATA4 and GATA6 in the intestinal epithelium died within 24h of birth. At E18.5, intestinal villus architecture and epithelial cell populations were altered. Enterocytes were lost, and goblet cells were increased. Proliferation was also increased in GATA4-GATA6 deficient intestinal epithelium. Although villus morphology appeared normal at E16.5, the first time at which both Gata4 and Gata6 were efficiently reduced, changes in expression of markers of enterocytes, goblet cells, and proliferative cells were detected. Moreover, goblet cell number was increased at E16.5. Expression of the Notch ligand Dll1 and the Notch target Olfm4 were reduced in mutant tissue indicating decreased Notch signaling. Finally, we found that GATA4 occupies chromatin near the Dll1 transcription start site suggesting direct regulation of Dll1 by GATA4. We demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 play an essential role in maintaining proper intestinal epithelial structure and in regulating intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation. Our data highlight a novel role for GATA factors in fine tuning Notch signaling during intestinal epithelial development to

  14. Anisomycin-induced GATA-6 degradation accompanying a decrease of proliferation of colorectal cancer cell

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    Ushijima, Hironori; Horyozaki, Akiko; Maeda, Masatomo, E-mail: mmaeda@nupals.ac.jp

    2016-09-09

    Transcription factor GATA-6 plays a key role in normal cell differentiation of the mesoderm and endoderm. On the other hand, GATA-6 is abnormally overexpressed in many clinical gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples, and accelerates cell proliferation or an anti-apoptotic response in cancerous tissues. We previously showed that activation of the JNK signaling cascade causes proteolysis of GATA-6. In this study, we demonstrated that anisomycin, a JNK activator, stimulates nuclear export of GATA-6 in a colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1. Concomitantly, anisomycin remarkably inhibits the proliferation of DLD-1 cells via G2/M arrest in a plate culture. However, it did not induce apoptosis under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, the growth of DLD-1 cells in a spheroid culture was suppressed by anisomycin. Although 5-FU showed only a slight inhibitory effect on 3D spheroid cultures, the same concentration of 5-FU together with a low concentration of anisomycin exhibited strong growth inhibition. These results suggest that the induction of GATA-6 dysfunction may be more effective for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, although the mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of 5-FU and anisomycin remains unknown. - Highlights: • Anisomycin induces proteolysis of GATA-6 in DLD-1 cells. • Anisomycin remarkably inhibits the proliferation of DLD-1 cells via G2/M arrest. • Anisomycin suppresses the growth of spheroids of DLD-1, and enhances the effect of 5-FU.

  15. GATA6 mutations cause human cardiac outflow tract defects by disrupting semaphorin-plexin signaling

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    Kodo, Kazuki; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Furutani, Michiko; Arai, Shoichi; Yamamura, Eiji; Joo, Kunitaka; Takahashi, Takao; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) occur in nearly 1% of all live births and are the major cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Although an improved understanding of the genetic causes of CHD would provide insight into the underlying pathobiology, the genetic etiology of most CHD remains unknown. Here we show that mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor GATA6 cause CHD characteristic of a severe form of cardiac outflow tract (OFT) defect, namely persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA). Two different GATA6 mutations were identified by systematic genetic analysis using DNA from patients with PTA. Genes encoding the neurovascular guiding molecule semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) and its receptor plexin A2 (PLXNA2) appear to be regulated directly by GATA6, and both GATA6 mutant proteins failed to transactivate these genes. Transgenic analysis further suggests that, in the developing heart, the expression of SEMA3C in the OFT/subpulmonary myocardium and PLXNA2 in the cardiac neural crest contributing to the OFT is dependent on GATA transcription factors. Together, our data implicate mutations in GATA6 as genetic causes of CHD involving OFT development, as a result of the disruption of the direct regulation of semaphorin-plexin signaling. PMID:19666519

  16. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Induces Differentiation of Mesoangioblasts towards Smooth Muscle. A Role for GATA6

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    Donati, Chiara; Marseglia, Giuseppina; Magi, Alberto; Serratì, Simona; Cencetti, Francesca; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Nannetti, Genni; Benelli, Matteo; Brunelli, Silvia; Torricelli, Francesca; Cossu, Giulio; Bruni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Different cells can contribute to repair following vascular injury by differentiating into smooth muscle (SM) cells; however the extracellular signals involved are presently poorly characterized. Mesoangioblasts are progenitor cells capable of differentiating into various mesoderm cell types including SM cells. In this study the biological action exerted by the pleiotropic sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in human mesoangioblasts has been initially investigated by cDNA microarray analysis. Obtained data confirmed the anti-apoptotic action of this sphingolipid and identified for the first time a strong differentiating action toward SM cells. Quantitative mRNA and protein analysis corroborated the microarray results demonstrating enhanced expression of myogenic marker proteins and regulation of the expression of transcription factor GATA6 and its co-regulator, LMCD1. Importantly, GATA6 up-regulation induced by S1P was responsible for the enhanced expression of SM-specific contractile proteins. Moreover, by specific gene silencing experiments GATA6 was critical in the pro-differentiating activity of the cytokine TGFβ. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of endogenous S1P formation in response to TGFβ abrogated GATA6 up-regulation, supporting the view that the S1P pathway plays a physiological role in mediating the pro-myogenic effect of TGFβ. This study individuates GATA6 as novel player in the complex transcriptional regulation of mesoangioblast differentiation into SM cells and highlights a role for S1P to favour vascular regeneration. PMID:21629665

  17. Novel GATA6 mutations in patients with pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart malformations.

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    Christina S Chao

    Full Text Available Patients with pancreatic agenesis are born without a pancreas, causing permanent neonatal diabetes and pancreatic enzyme insufficiency. These patients require insulin and enzyme replacement therapy to survive, grow, and maintain normal blood glucose levels. Pancreatic agenesis is an uncommon condition but high-throughput sequencing methods provide a rare opportunity to identify critical genes that are necessary for human pancreas development. Here we present the clinical history, evaluation, and the genetic and molecular analysis from two patients with pancreatic agenesis. Both patients were born with intrauterine growth restriction, minor heart defects and neonatal diabetes. In both cases, pancreatic agenesis was confirmed by imaging studies. The patients are clinically stable with pancreatic enzymes and insulin therapy. In order identify the etiology for their disease, we performed whole exome sequencing on both patients. For each proband we identified a de novo heterozygous mutation in the GATA6 gene. GATA6 is a homeobox containing transcription factor involved in both early development of the pancreas and heart. In vitro functional analysis of one of the variants revealed that the mutation creates a premature stop codon in the coding sequence resulting in the production of a truncated protein with loss of activity. These results show how genetic mutations in GATA6 may lead to functional inactivity and pancreatic agenesis in humans.

  18. Transcriptional repression of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene expression by GATA-6 in bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy in mice and human beings.

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    Boopathi, Ettickan; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Goldfarb, Robert; John, Mary; Srinivasan, Vittala Gopal; Alanzi, Jaber; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Zderic, Stephen A; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophy occurs in urinary bladder wall smooth muscle (BSM) in men with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in animal models of PBOO. Hypertrophied BSM from the rabbit model exhibits down-regulation of caveolin-1, a structural and functional protein of caveolae that function as signaling platforms to mediate interaction between receptor proteins and adaptor and effector molecules to regulate signal generation, amplification, and diversification. Caveolin-1 expression is diminished in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in mice and in men with BPH. The proximal promoter of the human and mouse caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene was characterized, and it was observed that the transcription factor GATA-6 binds this promoter, causing reduced expression of caveolin-1. Furthermore, caveolin-1 expression levels inversely correlate with the abundance of GATA-6 in BSM hypertrophy in mice and human beings. Silencing of GATA6 gene expression up-regulates caveolin-1 expression, whereas overexpression of GATA-6 protein sustains the transcriptional repression of caveolin-1 in bladder smooth muscle cells. Together, these data suggest that GATA-6 acts as a transcriptional repressor of CAV1 gene expression in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in men and mice. GATA-6-induced transcriptional repression represents a new regulatory mechanism of CAV1 gene expression in pathologic BSM, and may serve as a target for new therapy for BPH-induced bladder dysfunction in aging men.

  19. cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 is linked to JNK-signaling pathway

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    Ushijima, Hironori [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1, Nishitokuta, Yahaba, Shiwagun, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Maeda, Masatomo, E-mail: mmaeda@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1, Nishitokuta, Yahaba, Shiwagun, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of a JNK activator anisomycin on the proteolysis was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisomycin stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK activated the CRM1 mediated nuclear export of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK further stimulated slowly the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. -- Abstract: A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 by proteasomes around its IC50. We further examined the effects of SP600125 on the degradation of GATA-6 in detail, since an activator of JNK (anisomycin) is available. Interestingly, anisomycin immediately stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm, and then the cytoplasmic content of GATA-6 decreased slowly through degradation by proteasomes. Such an effect of anisomycin was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that the observed phenomenon might be linked to the JNK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of SP600125 could not be ascribed to the inhibition of PKA, since phosphorylation of CREB occurred in the presence of dbcAMP and SP600125. The nuclear export of GATA-6 was inhibited by leptomycin B, suggesting that CRM1-mediated export could be activated by anisomycin. Furthermore, it seems likely that the JNK activated by anisomycin may stimulate not only the nuclear export of GATA-6 through CRM1 but also the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. In contrast, A-kinase might activate only the latter process through JNK.

  20. Genomic profiling identifies GATA6 as a candidate oncogene amplified in pancreatobiliary cancer.

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    Kevin A Kwei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatobiliary cancers have among the highest mortality rates of any cancer type. Discovering the full spectrum of molecular genetic alterations may suggest new avenues for therapy. To catalogue genomic alterations, we carried out array-based genomic profiling of 31 exocrine pancreatic cancers and 6 distal bile duct cancers, expanded as xenografts to enrich the tumor cell fraction. We identified numerous focal DNA amplifications and deletions, including in 19% of pancreatobiliary cases gain at cytoband 18q11.2, a locus uncommonly amplified in other tumor types. The smallest shared amplification at 18q11.2 included GATA6, a transcriptional regulator previously linked to normal pancreas development. When amplified, GATA6 was overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein levels, and strong immunostaining was observed in 25 of 54 (46% primary pancreatic cancers compared to 0 of 33 normal pancreas specimens surveyed. GATA6 expression in xenografts was associated with specific microarray gene-expression patterns, enriched for GATA binding sites and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity. siRNA mediated knockdown of GATA6 in pancreatic cancer cell lines with amplification led to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and colony formation. Our findings indicate that GATA6 amplification and overexpression contribute to the oncogenic phenotypes of pancreatic cancer cells, and identify GATA6 as a candidate lineage-specific oncogene in pancreatobiliary cancer, with implications for novel treatment strategies.

  1. MGMT, GATA6, CD81, DR4, and CASP8 gene promoter methylation in glioblastoma

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    Skiriute Daina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of promoter region is the major mechanism affecting gene expression in tumors. Recent methylome studies of brain tumors revealed a list of new epigenetically modified genes. Our aim was to study promoter methylation of newly identified epigenetically silenced genes together with already known epigenetic markers and evaluate its separate and concomitant role in glioblastoma genesis and patient outcome. Methods The methylation status of MGMT, CD81, GATA6, DR4, and CASP8 in 76 patients with primary glioblastomas was investigated. Methylation-specific PCR reaction was performed using bisulfite treated DNA. Evaluating glioblastoma patient survival time after operation, patient data and gene methylation effect on survival was estimated using survival analysis. Results The overwhelming majority (97.3% of tumors were methylated in at least one of five genes tested. In glioblastoma specimens gene methylation was observed as follows: MGMT in 51.3%, GATA6 in 68.4%, CD81 in 46.1%, DR4 in 41.3% and CASP8 in 56.8% of tumors. Methylation of MGMT was associated with younger patient age (p CASP8 with older (p MGMT methylation was significantly more frequent event in patient group who survived longer than 36 months after operation (p CASP8 was more frequent in patients who survived shorter than 36 months (p MGMT, GATA6 and CASP8 as independent predictors for glioblastoma patient outcome (p MGMT and GATA6 were independent predictors for patient survival in younger patients’ group, while there were no significant associations observed in older patients’ group when adjusted for therapy. Conclusions High methylation frequency of tested genes shows heterogeneity of glioblastoma epigenome and the importance of MGMT, GATA6 and CASP8 genes methylation in glioblastoma patient outcome.

  2. Hypoxia-induced miR-181b enhances angiogenesis of retinoblastoma cells by targeting PDCD10 and GATA6.

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    Xu, Xiaofang; Ge, Shengfang; Jia, Renbing; Zhou, Yixiong; Song, Xin; Zhang, He; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-06-01

    Previous findings showed that miR-181b is upregulated under hypoxic conditions in retinoblastoma cells. Since hypoxia is a common feature of retinoblastoma that affects tumor progression as well as tumor therapy, in the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of miR-181b under hypoxic conditions, and examined the role of miR-181b in retinoblastoma responses to hypoxia (chemoresistance and angiogenesis) and possible downstream genes. The level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and miR-181b was detected to examine the link between them. Tube formation and cell cytotoxicity assays were used to clarify the effects of miR-181b on hypoxic responses of retinoblastoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict potential targets of miR-181b and western blotting was used to verify these targets. The results showed a significantly increased expression of HIF-1α in hypoxia-treated retinoblastoma cells. Downregulation of HIF-1α using a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown technology did not decrease the expression of miR-181b. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, miR-181b was demonstrated to significantly stimulate the ability of capillary tube formation of endothelial cells. Programmed cell death-10 (PDCD10) and GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) were identified as the target genes of miR‑181b. To the best of our knowledge, results of the present study provide the first evidence that miR-181b was upregulated by hypoxia in retinoblastoma in an HIF-1α-independent manner. miR-181b increased tumor angiogenesis of retinoblastoma cells. Additionally, miR-181b exerts its angiogenic function, at least in part, by inhibiting PDCD10 and GATA6. Thus, it is a new potentially useful therapeutic target for retinoblastoma.

  3. Chemotherapeutic agent CPT-11 eliminates peritoneal resident macrophages by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Yun; Pan, Hao; Liang, Yi-Dan; Wei, Hong-Xia; Xu, Li-Hui; Zha, Qing-Bing; He, Xian-Hui; Ouyang, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    CPT-11 (Irinotecan) is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent in clinic, but it may induce side effects including diarrhea and enteritis in patients. The underlying mechanism of CPT-11's intestinal toxicity is unclear. Peritoneal resident macrophages have been reported to be important for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of CPT-11 on mouse peritoneal resident macrophages. CPT-11 was administered intraperitoneally to mice and their peritoneal exudate cells were isolated for evaluation. CPT-11 treatment strikingly decreased the ratio of F4/80(hi)MHCII(low) large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs), which are regarded as prenatally-originated peritoneal resident macrophages. Consistent with this, the transcription factor GATA6 specifically expressed in LPMs was barely detectable in the macrophages from CPT-11-treated mice, indicative of elimination of LPMs. Such elimination of LPMs was at least partly due to CPT-induced apoptosis in macrophages, because inhibition of apoptosis by caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly diminished the loss of GATA6(+) LPMs. As GATA6 is a transcription factor that controls expression of multiple genes regulating peritoneal B-1 cell development and translocation, elimination of GATA6(+) LPMs led to a great reduction in B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity after CPT-11 treatment. These results indicated that CPT-11-induced apoptosis contributed to the elimination of peritoneal resident macrophages, which might in turn impair the function of peritoneal B-1 cells in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Our findings may at least partly explain why CPT-11 treatment in cancer patients induces diarrhea and enteritis, which may provide a novel avenue to prevent such side effects.

  4. A case of pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart defects with a novel GATA6 nonsense mutation: evidence of haploinsufficiency due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Nakao, Atsushi; Sarhat, Ashoor R; Furuya, Akiko; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Kajino, Hiroki; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Recently, GATA6 heterozygous loss-of-function mutations were reported to cause pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart defects (PACHD [OMIM:600001]). However, the molecular mechanisms resulting from premature termination codons have not been examined in this disorder. The objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis of a patient with PACHD. A female patient presented with ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia at birth. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and pancreatic exocrine deficiency due to pancreatic agenesis was diagnosed at 1 month of age. PCR-direct sequencing of GATA6 revealed that the patient is heterozygous for a novel de novo nonsense mutation of c.1477C>T, p. Arg493X in exon 5. RT-PCR direct sequencing of the RT-PCR products of total RNA from peripheral blood of the patient for the region encompassing exons 4-6 revealed only the wild-type allele. This finding provides the evidence for the occurrence of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in the p.Arg493X mutation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of GATA6 transcript in the patient was less than half compared with normal control samples. This is the first evidence that GATA6 haploinsufficiency is caused by NMD in vivo, and we conclude that GATA6 haploinsufficiency causes not only PACHD but may affect other organs derived from the endoderm. Further screenings of GATA6 mutations in patients with various forms of diabetes and/or congenital heart disease with other visceral malformation may reveal the impact of GATA6 mutations on diabetes and congenital malformation.

  5. Elevated expression of steroidogenesis pathway genes; CYP17, GATA6 and StAR in prenatally androgenized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Marziyeh Salehi; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2016-11-15

    It is believed that excess androgen exposure of the fetus, via altered gene expression, causes hyperandrogenism a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of Cytochrome P450-17 (CYP17), GATA-binding protein (GAGT6) and Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), genes of adult female rats prenatally exposed to androgen excess, closely reflect endocrine and ovarian disturbances of PCOS in women, by comparing them during different phases of estrus cycle with those of non-treated rats. Both the adult prenatally testosterone exposed and control rats (n=23, each) were divided into four groups based on their observed vaginal smear (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus) and the relative expression of CYP17, GATA6 and StAR genes was measured in ovarian theca cells using Cyber-green Real-Time PCR. Serum sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins levels were measured using the ELISA method; a comparison of these two groups showed that there was an overall increase in the studied genes (CYP17; 2.39 fold change, 95% CI: 1.23-3.55; P<0.05, GATA6; 2.08 fold change, 95% CI: 1.62-2.55; P<0.0001, and StAR; 1.4 fold change, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78; P<0.05), despite variations in different phases with maximum elevation for all genes in diestrus. The changes observed may impair the normal development of ovaries that mediate the programming of adult PCOS.

  6. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experi

  7. The chicken vitellogenin II gene is flanked by a GATA factor-dependent estrogen response unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1996-08-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is flanked by an imperfect estrogen response element (ERE) at -350 and a perfect ERE at -620. In the present study we show that this imperfect ERE lies within an estrogen response unit (ERU) that requires a GATA factor and the estrogen receptor to function as an estrogen-dependent enhancer. We infer that GATA-6 contributes to the estrogen-dependent and liver-specific regulation of the endogenous VTGII gene since this is the predominant GATA factor expressed in adult liver. Our analysis of the VTGII ERU revealed four salient points. First, this ERU is comprised of an ERE and a bank of functionally redundant GATA-binding sites. Second, the GATA-6 transactivation domain is necessary (and sufficient, when tethered near the ERE) to render this ERU functional. Third, ERU enhancer activity is dependent on GATA 6, regardless of whether the resident ERE is imperfect or perfect. Fourth, in contrast to a report that the estrogen receptor antagonizes the activity of another GATA factor (GATA-1), we show that these two factors can function in a synergistic manner within the context of the VTGII ERU.

  8. Factors associated with interest in subspecialty training among neurology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Frost, A Corey; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Previous studies have not explored factors associated with decisions among neurology residents to pursue subspecialty training within neurology. Understanding career choices among neurology residents, particularly decisions regarding subspecialty training, is critical, as neurologists with specialized knowledge can help meet the needs of patients with specific disease conditions. This study addresses the knowledge gap about subspecialty training decisions by examining factors associated with neurology residents' interest in pursuing subspecialty training and the types of subspecialty training neurology residents consider. We surveyed a geographically stratified sample of neurology residents in U.S. training programs using a two-stage survey design. In Stage 1, we randomly sampled half of the accredited neurology residency programs stratified by U.S. census region; Stage 2 involved a survey of neurology residents within these programs. The majority (approximately 81%) of residents expressed interest in subspecialty training. Resident demographic characteristics and educational debt did not influence interest in pursuing subspecialty training. Residents were more likely to express interest in subspecialty training when they participated in any neurology research (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39), 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.13, 5.07], p = .02, and indicated more interest in careers involving teaching (OR = 8.33), 95% CI [1.64, 42.19], p = .01. Considering the "medical content of subspecialty" as a more important factor approached but did not reach statistical significance (OR = 3.12), 95% CI [0.97, 10.06], p = .06. Insights: Participation in any neurology research and interest in careers involving teaching are associated with interest in subspecialty training among neurology residents. Further research is needed to determine whether exposure to research and teaching stimulates interest in subspecialty training and whether residents believe that subspecialty

  9. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Gebhardt, J Christof M

    2017-08-21

    Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  12. GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Kiiveri, Sanne; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Rahman, Nafis; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2007-02-01

    Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles. GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal. In vitro, GATA-4 regulates inhibin-alpha and steroidogenic factor-1 implicated in normal adrenal function. GATA-6 probably has roles in the development and differentiation of adrenocortical cells, and in the regulation of steroidogenesis. GATA-4 expression is dramatically upregulated and GATA-6 downregulated in gonadotropin dependent mouse adrenocortical tumors. This is accompanied by the appearance of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). In vitro, GATA-4 transactivates LHR promoter, and gonadotropins upregulate GATA-4 levels. Human adrenal tumors occasionally express GATA-4, whereas GATA-6 levels are usually lower than normal.

  13. Consequences of Contextual Factors on Clinical Reasoning in Resident Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have…

  14. Factors associated with burnout among residents in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Akbar Jaleel; Noordin, Shahryar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent literature has focused on burnout as a specific job related distress syndrome among physicians and residents having adverse effects on patient care. Local data on burnout is lacking. Materials & methods An online self-administered questionnaire was sent via email to all residents (325) at our institute with and a response rate of 110 (34%) was achieved. Out of these 82 residents consented and completely filled the questionnaires and were included in the analysis. The questionnaire comprised of demographic variables, the Maslach burnout inventory and occupational risk factors. Results High levels of burnout on at least one subscale were reported by 61(74.4%) residents, in 2 components by 34(41.5%) whereas an alarming 10(12.2%) residents scored high on all three subscales. Among the individual subscales emotional exhaustion was most frequent in 49(59.8%). Among the departments Radiology reported the highest levels (100%) of burnout and low levels were reported by Pediatrics (45%). There was no difference between burnout levels among junior and senior residents. Dissatisfaction with workload, length of work hours, relationship with co-workers and lack of autonomy were significantly associated with high level of burnout. Conclusion High levels of burnout are prevalent among trainee doctors in our part of the world which are comparable with international literature. Efforts to improve the work environment of residents may significantly reduce levels of burnout. PMID:26955475

  15. Factors associated with the satisfaction of millennial generation dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai C; O'Toole, Terry G; Arola, Patricia E; Kashner, T Michael; Chang, Barbara K

    2012-11-01

    Data from the 2010 Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS) administered through the Office of Academic Affiliations, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) were analyzed to identify factors associated with dental residents' satisfaction with the VA as a clinical training environment. Satisfaction scores were linked to clinic workloads, dental procedure complexity levels, staffing patterns, and facility infrastructure data to explore conditions that may improve residents' satisfaction. Findings supported the construct validity of the LPS survey data and underscored the importance of maintaining optimal ratios of attending dentists, dental assistants, and administrative staff to residents so that each trainee will have opportunities to perform an adequate level of dental workload. As programs strive to improve the quality of graduate dental education, findings from this study are vital for setting curriculum design guidelines and for providing infrastructure support for dental resident education.

  16. P270: Factors associated with fall rate in psychogeriatric residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, N.M.; de Groot, Maartje H; Hortobágyi, T.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Falls in psychogeriatric residents represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. Identifying fall risk factors and their inter-relationship may help to individualize prevention programs and increase the effectiveness. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between patient ch

  17. Factors associated with residents' satisfaction with their training as specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Morillas, L E; Fuentes-Ferrer, M E; Sánchez-Díaz, J; Rumayor-Zarzuelo, M; Fernández-Pérez, C; Marco-Martínez, F

    2014-05-01

    We do not know what factors influence residents' perceived satisfaction during their training. The aim of this study was to analyze the satisfaction of specialists with their training and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study using self-completion surveys of residents in training at the Clinic Hospital San Carlos for the courses conducted in 2006, 2009, 2010 and 2012. The study's dependent variable was overall satisfaction with the training; the independent factors were demographic and occupational characteristics, variables related to healthcare, teaching and research activity. The total participation percentage was 83.7% (1,424/1,701), and the mean age was 28.4 years (SD, 3.2 years). The overall satisfaction percentage was 75.2%. The factors statistically associated with overall satisfaction in the multivariate analysis were the involvement of the teaching staff (tutors and assistants) in the training, greater satisfaction in medical versus surgical specialties, the year of residence, the facilities for completing the thesis, working less than 40 h a week, adequate time to perform daily tasks, appropriate number of department meetings and not having a previous specialty. the activities related to research and teaching are associated with the overall satisfaction of residents. The routine activity factors most closely associated with satisfaction were the time available and the work hours. More studies are necessary to understand the impact of resident satisfaction on care quality and in their activity as future specialists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Tanshinone IIA inhibits TNF-α-mediated induction of VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 through the regulation of GATA-6 and IRF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Kim, Young Min; Jin, Hana; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the differential effect of tanshinone IIA on the induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by TNF-α and the possible molecular mechanisms by which it regulates ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression differentially. Stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with TNF-α increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, and the pretreatment with tanshinone IIA concentration dependently inhibited VCAM-1 expression but not ICAM-1 expression. In previous study, PI3K/Akt, PKC and Jak/STAT-3 pathways were involved in the TNF-α-mediated induction of VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1. Thus, we examined the effect of tanshinone IIA on TNF-α-mediated activations of PI3K/Akt, PKC and Jak/STAT-3 pathways. Tanshinone IIA efficiently inhibited the phosphorylations of Akt, PKC and STAT-3 by TNF-α. Moreover, we determined the effect of tanshinone IIA on IRF-1 or GATAs induction and binding activity to VCAM-1 promoter since the upstream promoter region of VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 contains IRF-1 and GATA binding motifs. Western blot analysis and ChIP assay showed that tanshinone IIA efficiently inhibited TNF-α-increased nuclear level of IRF-1 and GATA-6 and their binding affinity to VCAM-1 promoter region. Taken together, tanshinone IIA selectively inhibits TNF-α-mediated expression of VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 through modulation of PI3/Akt, PKC and Jak/STAT-3 pathway as well as IRF-1 and GATA-6 binding activity.

  19. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in university halls of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. J.; Charlett, A.; Orr, H. J.; Barker, R. M.; Neal, K. R.; Taylor, C.; Monk, P. N.; Evans, M. R.; Stuart, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective ecological study was undertaken to identify social and environmental factors associated with increased incidence of meningococcal disease in university halls of residence. A standardized questionnaire was sent to UK universities and colleges of higher education outside London, for distribution to halls containing at least 50 students. Incidence rate ratios of invasive meningococcal disease were obtained for a range of social and environmental variables. Multi-variable Poisson regression analysis identified 3 factors as having a strong association: a high proportion of first year undergraduate residents (P = 0.0008), decreasing smokiness of the hall bar (P Universities should continue to promote awareness of meningococcal disease, encourage vaccination of first year students against serogroup C disease, and where appropriate, take measures to reduce overcrowding. PMID:11349971

  20. Risk and Resilience Factors Associated with Resident Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukos, Deanna; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Mehta, Darshan H; Byerly, Laura; Celik, Alper; McCoy, Thomas H; Denninger, John W

    2017-04-01

    We investigated hypothesized risk and resilience factors and their association with burnout in first year medicine and psychiatry residents at an urban teaching hospital in order to help guide the development of interventions targeted at reducing burnout. We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Perceived Stress Scale-10, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression symptoms), Revised Life Orientation Test (optimism), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective-Taking Scale (empathy), and Measure of Current Status-Part A to first year medicine and psychiatry residents prior to initiation of clinical rotations in June. The response rate was 91 % (68 of 75 residents). Nineteen respondents (28 %) met criteria for burnout as measured by the MBI. Residents with burnout scored higher on self-report measures assessing perceived stress (Cohen's d = 0.97; p = 0.004), fatigue (d = 0.79; p = 0.018), worry (d = 0.88; p = 0.0009), and depression symptoms (d = 0.84; p = 0.035) and scored lower on questionnaires assessing mindfulness (d = -0.63; p = 0.029) and coping ability (d = -0.79; p = 0.003). In a cross-sectional assessment using self-report measures, we found that nearly a third of first year residents prior to starting their internships experience burnout. They exhibit lower levels of mindfulness and coping skills and higher levels of depression symptoms, fatigue, worry, and stress. These preliminary findings should encourage programs to initiate and study curricula that combine mindfulness and self-awareness coping strategies to enhance or protect against burnout as well as cognitive behavioral coaching strategies to offset symptoms of burnout when present.

  1. Nutritional Status and Related Factors in Elderly Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bostani Khalesi; Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A challenge for health care providers is that there will be a distinct rise globally in the number of elderly people aged 80 years and over. Malnutrition is a well-known problem among elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional status and its associated risk factors in elderly nursing home residents in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 elderly people aged 60 years or elder in 2014. All subjects who were attending to...

  2. Spontaneously differentiated GATA6-positive human embryonic stem cells represent an important cellular step in human embryonic development; they are not just an artifact of in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Ki Sung; Mantel, Charlie; Broxmeyer, Hal E; Lee, Man Ryul; Kim, Kye-Seong

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we isolated and characterized spontaneously differentiated human embryonic stem cells (SD-hESCs) found in hESC colonies in comparison to the morphologically premature ESCs in the colonies to investigate the potential role of SD-hESCs in embryogenesis. SD-hESCs were distinguished from undifferentiated hESCs by their higher expression of GATA6, a marker for primitive endoderm and transthyretin, a marker visceral endoderm in embryoid bodies (EBs). SD-hESCs expressed OCT4 and NANOG, markers for pluripotent stem cells, at significantly lower levels than undifferentiated hESCs. EBs derived from isolated SD-hESCs were morphologically distinct from cells directly derived from the undifferentiated hESCs; they contained higher number of cysts compared to EBs from undifferentiated hESC-derived EBs (42% vs. 20%). Furthermore, the extracellular signal molecule, BMP2/4, induced a higher GATA4/6 expression and cystic EB formation than control and noggin-treated EBs. Since cystic formation in EBs play a role in primitive endoderm formation during embryogenesis, the SD-hESC may be a relevant cell type equipped to differentiate into primitive endoderm. Our results suggest that SD-ESCs generated during routine hESC culture are not just an artifact of in vitro culture and these cells could serve as a useful model to study the process of embryogenesis.

  3. Attitudes and factors affecting the decisions of men and women pediatrics residents toward having children during their residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M D; Carpenter, R O; Radius, S M; Oski, F A

    1991-12-01

    This study examines attitudes and factors affecting the decisions of pediatrics residents of both sexes toward having children during their residencies. In 1987, the authors surveyed by mail all 742 pediatricians who had trained at eight university-based residencies from 1981 to 1987; 417 responded. Of these, the men were significantly more likely than the women to have had children during their residencies (p less than .001). At the time of their residencies, 265 of these pediatricians were married. Of those who were married but did not have children during their residencies (175), the women were significantly more likely than the men to believe that having a child during residency would have had a negative influence on their careers (p less than .001) and would have been associated with difficulties in arranging child care (p less than .001). By contrast, among those pediatricians who were married and did have children during their residencies (90), their perceptions concerning the impacts on their careers of having children and the difficulty in arranging child care did not differ significantly by gender. The authors suggest that programs might explore the possibilities of greater flexibility in scheduling and of making child care more available so that residents could more easily combine their careers with having children.

  4. Suicide Risk Assessments: Which Suicide Risk Factors Psychiatric Residents Consider Significant?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Hwang, Sunyoung; Yeon, Bora; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients visiting the emergency department (ED) after a suicide attempt are generally assessed for suicide risk by psychiatric residents. Psychiatric residents' competence in evaluating the risk posed by the patients who attempted suicide is critical to preventing suicide. Methods We investigated factors considered important by psychiatric residents when evaluating suicide risk. This study included 140 patients admitted to the ED after attempting suicide. Psychiatric residents rated...

  5. Influence of residency training on personal stress and impairment in family life: analysis of related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Sánchez Gascón, F; Martínez Lage, J F; Guerrero, M

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the level of stress among residents and stress-related impairment of family life. A 41-item anonymous questionnaire was designed to determine the level of stress and its effects on the residents' family as well as factors associated with stress during residency training in a tertiary-care hospital accredited with official resident training 'Medicos Internos Residentes' in Murcia, Spain. Questionnaires were distributed in sealed nominal envelopes during February and March 2002 to 227 eligible residents. Of the 227 residents, 175 (77%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Forty-two percent of residents recognized that residency training caused an important level of stress and 21% felt that stress interfered with family relationships. Both factors were significantly associated. Feelings of being unsatisfied with supervision of care and achievement of training objectives as well as low satisfaction with residency training and poor assessment of the hospital were significant stressors. Impairment in family life was significantly dependent on degree of satisfaction with residency training and evaluation of the hospital. The data showed that residency training generated stress and impaired family life. These were closely associated with perception of being unsatisfied with the residency training and evaluation. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Factors associated with successful self-directed learning using individualized learning plans during pediatric residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Co, John Patrick T; West, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether resident or program characteristics are associated with effective self-directed learning of residents. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents and program directors from a nationally representative sample of residency programs was conducted. Self-directed learning efficacy was measured by resident-reported progress on learning goals from their most recent individualized learning plan (ILP). Multilevel linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between learner and program characteristics and self-directed learning efficacy of residents. All program directors of participating programs (N = 46) completed the survey; the response rate from residents was 57% (992/1739). At the time of the survey, 78% of residents had previously written an ILP. Most residents achieved moderate self-directed learning efficacy. The most important factors associated with greater self-directed learning efficacy included using a system to track one's own progress in achieving learning goals, higher score on a propensity toward lifelong learning scale, and reporting greater confidence in self-directed learning abilities. Program characteristics, including program-level support for ILPs, had little or mixed association with resident self-directed learning efficacy. The most important factors associated with effective self-directed learning were resident characteristics. Our findings imply that residency programs should invest their limited resources in curricula that help residents develop measurable goals and systems for tracking progress toward goal attainment. Since propensity toward lifelong learning was an important factor, medical schools and residency training programs should enhance their efforts to develop this characteristic in learners. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic Factors and Residents' Health in Nigeria Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    of the variables, contributing to higher rates of ill health in the city no matter where you are ... States (CIS) found out among others that incidence of poverty across ... of inflation in Nigeria has forced many Nigerian especially Osogbo residents ...

  8. Factors Influencing Residency Program Selection by Medical Students Pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Meredith J; Metz, Torri D; Fothergill, Russell; Meg Autry, Amy; Wagner, Sarah A; Allshouse, Amanda A; Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence medical student selection of obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residency programs. We assessed the factors influencing residency program selection by fourth-year medical students pursuing ob-gyn training. A voluntary, anonymous, 19-question survey of residency selection factors was distributed to all fourth-year medical students interviewing at 1 of 5 academic ob-gyn departments for a residency position during the 2013-2014 interview season. Participants were surveyed about the relative importance (not important, somewhat important, important) of various residency selection factors, including operative experience, exposure to subspecialties, curricular experience, access to fellowships, and administrative aspects of residency, including adherence to duty hour restrictions. Of 322 potential respondents, 262 (81%) completed the survey. Surgical training and training in laparoscopic surgery were deemed "important" by nearly all respondents (98%, 258 of 262, and 97%, 253 of 262, respectively). Factors that were considered "not important" by a significant group of respondents included maternity/paternity leave policies (22%, 58 of 259); opportunity for international rotations/electives (20%, 51 of 259); exposure to quality and safety initiatives (13%, 34 of 259); and training in abortion (13%, 34 of 262). Fourth-year medical students identified surgical training as the most important factor in selecting an ob-gyn residency, a finding that is particularly relevant as decreasing and changing surgical volumes affect residency training in this specialty.

  9. Resident interest and factors involved in entering a pediatric pulmonary fellowship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershan William M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about interest in pediatric pulmonology among pediatric residents. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine at this institution: 1 the level of pediatric resident interest in pursuing a pulmonary fellowship, 2 potential factors involved in development of such interest, 3 whether the presence of a pulmonary fellowship program affects such interest. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all 52 pediatric residents at this institution in 1992 and to all 59 pediatric residents and 14 combined internal medicine/pediatrics residents in 2002, following development of a pulmonary fellowship program. Results Response rates were 79% in 1992 and 86% in 2002. Eight of the 43 responders in 1992 (19% had considered doing a pulmonary fellowship compared to 7 of 63 (11% in 2002. The highest ranked factors given by the residents who had considered a fellowship included wanting to continue one's education after residency, enjoying caring for pulmonary patients, and liking pulmonary physiology and the pulmonary faculty. Major factors listed by residents who had not considered a pulmonary fellowship included not enjoying the tracheostomy/ventilator population and chronic pulmonary patients in general, and a desire to enter general pediatrics or another fellowship. Most residents during both survey periods believed that they would be in non-academic or academic general pediatrics in 5 years. Only 1 of the 106 responding residents (~1% anticipated becoming a pediatric pulmonologist. Conclusions Although many pediatric residents consider enrolling in a pulmonary fellowship (~10–20% here, few (~1% here will actually pursue a career in pediatric pulmonology. The presence of a pulmonary fellowship program did not significantly alter resident interest, though other confounding factors may be involved.

  10. Medical error and related factors during internship and residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadipour, Habibeh; Nahid, Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine the real incidence of medical errors due to the lack of a precise definition of errors, as well as the failure to report them under certain circumstances. We carried out a cross- sectional study in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2013. The participants were selected through the census method. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of questions on the participants' demographic data and questions on the medical errors committed. The data were analysed by SPSS 19. It was found that 270 participants had committed medical errors. There was no significant difference in the frequency of errors committed by interns and residents. In the case of residents, the most common error was misdiagnosis and in that of interns, errors related to history-taking and physical examination. Considering that medical errors are common in the clinical setting, the education system should train interns and residents to prevent the occurrence of errors. In addition, the system should develop a positive attitude among them so that they can deal better with medical errors.

  11. Factors influencing job satisfaction of new graduate nurses participating in nurse residency programs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Patrice S; Viscardi, Molly Kreider; McHugh, Matthew D

    2014-10-01

    Nurse residency programs are designed to increase competence and skill, and ease the transition from student to new graduate nurse. These programs also offer the possibility to positively influence the job satisfaction of new graduate nurses, which could decrease poor nursing outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of participation in a nurse residency program on new graduate nurses' satisfaction. This review examines factors that influence job satisfaction of nurse residency program participants. Eleven studies were selected for inclusion, and seven domains influencing new graduate nurses' satisfaction during participation in nurse residency programs were identified: extrinsic rewards, scheduling, interactions and support, praise and recognition, professional opportunities, work environment, and hospital system. Within these domains, the evidence for improved satisfaction with nurse residency program participation was mixed. Further research is necessary to understand how nurse residency programs can be designed to improve satisfaction and increase positive nurse outcomes.

  12. Factors predisposing nursing home resident to inappropriate transfer to emergency department. The FINE study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Perrin

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: A better understanding of the determinant factors of inappropriate transfers to ED of NH residents may lead to proposals of recommendations of better practice in NH and would allow implementing quality improvement programs in the health organization.

  13. Factors promoting resident deaths at aged care facilities in Japan: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kentaro; Ogata, Yasuko; Kashiwagi, Masayo

    2016-10-03

    Due to an increasingly ageing population, the Japanese government has promoted elderly deaths in aged care facilities. However, existing facilities were not designed to provide resident end-of-life care and the proportion of aged care facility deaths is currently less than 10%. Consequently, the present review evaluated the factors that promote aged care facility resident deaths in Japan from individual- and facility-level perspectives to exploring factors associated with increased resident deaths. To achieve this, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Ichushi databases were searched on 23 January 2016. Influential factors were reviewed for two healthcare services (insourcing and outsourcing facilities) as well as external healthcare agencies operating outside facilities. Of the original 2324 studies retrieved, 42 were included in analysis. Of these studies, five focused on insourcing, two on outsourcing, seven on external agencies and observed facility/agency-level factors. The other 28 studies identified individual-level factors related to death in aged care facilities. The present review found that at both facility and individual levels, in-facility resident deaths were associated with healthcare service provision, confirmation of resident/family end-of-life care preference and staff education. Additionally, while outsourcing facilities did not require employment of physicians/nursing staff to accommodate resident death, these facilities required visits by physicians and nursing staff from external healthcare agencies as well as residents' healthcare input. This review also found few studies examining outsourcing facilities. The number of healthcare outsourcing facilities is rapidly increasing as a result of the Japanese government's new tax incentives. Consequently, there may be an increase in elderly deaths in outsourcing healthcare facilities. Accordingly, it is necessary to identify the factors associated with residents' deaths at outsourcing facilities.

  14. Factors Influencing Radiology Residents' Fellowship Training and Practice Preferences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Philip S; Probyn, Linda; Finlay, Karen

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to examine the postresidency plans of Canadian radiology residents and factors influencing their fellowship choices and practice preferences, including interest in teaching and research. Institutional ethics approval was obtained at McMaster University. Electronic surveys were sent to second to fifth-year residents at all 16 radiology residency programs across Canada. Each survey assessed factors influencing fellowship choices and practice preferences. A total of 103 (31%) Canadian radiology residents responded to the online survey. Over 89% from English-speaking programs intended to pursue fellowship training compared to 55% of residents from French-speaking programs. The most important factors influencing residents' decision to pursue fellowship training were enhanced employability (46%) and personal interest (47%). Top fellowship choices were musculoskeletal imaging (19%), body imaging (17%), vascular or interventional (14%), neuroradiology (8%), and women's imaging (7%). Respondents received the majority of their fellowship information from peers (68%), staff radiologists (61%), and university websites (58%). Approximately 59% planned on practicing at academic institutions and stated that lifestyle (43%), job prospects (29%), and teaching opportunities (27%) were the most important factors influencing their decisions. A total of 89% were interested in teaching but only 46% were interested in incorporating research into their future practice. The majority of radiology residents plan on pursuing fellowship training and often receive their fellowship information from informal sources such as peers and staff radiologists. Fellowship directors can incorporate recruitment strategies such as mentorship programs and improving program websites. There is a need to increase resident participation in research to advance the future of radiology. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Residents' Behavior of Separating Household Wastes at Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ying; Zhu Qinghua; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Source separation is the basic premise for making effective use of household wastes. In eight cities of China, however, several pilot projects of source separation finally failed because of the poor participation rate of residents. In order to solve this problem, identifying those factors that influence residents' behavior of source separation becomes crucial. By means of questionnaire survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that trouble-feeling, moral notion, environment protection, public education, environment value and knowledge deficiency are the main factors that play an important role for residents in deciding to separate their household wastes. Also, according to the contribution percentage of the six main factors to the total behavior of source separation, their influencing power is analyzed, which will provide suggestions on household waste management for policy makers and decision makers in China.

  16. Empirical Research on Factors Related to the Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Urban Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigang; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the China General Social Survey are used in order to investigate the factors that are related to the subjective well-being of Chinese urban residents. Factors predicting higher subjective well-being include female gender, high-income class, marriage, employment, fashionable consumption, less sense of relative deprivation, and party…

  17. Empirical Research on Factors Related to the Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Urban Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigang; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the China General Social Survey are used in order to investigate the factors that are related to the subjective well-being of Chinese urban residents. Factors predicting higher subjective well-being include female gender, high-income class, marriage, employment, fashionable consumption, less sense of relative deprivation, and party…

  18. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; Ribeiro, Maria Hosana Chaves; Aschoff, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Gomes, Doris Pires; Silva, Nadine Anita Fonseca da; Cavalcanti, Helton Alexsandro Firmino

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR). Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2) and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3) were independently associated with burnout. The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  19. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. Method: The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR. Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. Results: In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2 and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3 were independently associated with burnout. Conclusion: The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  20. Update on factors motivating pharmacy students to pursue residency and fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryan C; Weber, Lynn M

    2013-08-15

    The factors motivating pharmacy students to pursue residency and fellowship training in 2011 versus 1993 were assessed. A survey replicating previous research was electronically sent to 794 residency directors and 29 fellowship program directors with a request to forward the survey to current residents and fellows. A similar survey was sent to 124 colleges of pharmacy with a request to forward the survey to the faculty member most involved with residency and fellowship promotion within their doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) curriculum. Participants were asked to rank leading motivating factors and barriers to pharmacy students pursuing these programs. Additional data collected included when and the methods by which these programs are promoted. Among residents and fellows, 865 usable surveys were returned. The leading motivating reasons for residents and fellows to pursue training were "to gain knowledge and experience," a "desire for specialized training," [corrected] and "understood as a prerequisite for certain jobs." A total of 124 U.S. pharmacy schools were surveyed, and 65 (52%) returned completed responses. "Understood as a prerequisite for certain jobs," "faculty stressing importance," and "recognition of the new and challenging roles for pharmacists in the future" were the factors most frequently cited by faculty members. Compared with previous research, a new factor motivating pharmacy students to pursue residency and fellowship training is the consideration that these opportunities are a prerequisite for certain jobs. This development may be attributable to trends in the supply and demand of pharmacists, the recognition of the value in these programs by major pharmacy organizations, and the evolving role of pharmacists in direct patient care.

  1. Differential Factors That Influence Applicant Selection of a Prosthodontic Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Ryan; Lee, Meng-Chieh; Jimenez, Monik; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main objectives of this study were to identify current prosthodontic resident demographics and to analyze factors that may influence applicants in selecting prosthodontics as a career, as well as a specific prosthodontic program. We also investigated the influence of age, gender, relationship status, and year in program on applicant decisions. Materials and Methods Two questionnaires were mailed to all prosthodontic residents (N = 304) registered with the American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) Central Office. Part I assessed resident demographics and factors influencing choice of specialty. Part II assessed factors influencing the selection of a specific prosthodontic program. Results Completed surveys were obtained from 193 of 304 (63.4%) of all prosthodontic residents registered at the ACP Central Office. The completed surveys represented approximately 48% of the total population of prosthodontic residents in the United States. Demographic data revealed that 37% and 62% of the respondents were female and male, respectively (1% did not report gender). The mean age of the respondents was 30.3 years. More residents reported being married than either single or in a relationship. Most residents were accepted to their top choice program. Part I of the survey revealed that the complexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment, ability to lead multidisciplinary cases, possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty, enjoyment of clinical work, and the intellectual content of the specialty were reported to be the five most influential factors in choosing prosthodontics as a career. Part II demonstrated that applicants place a high emphasis on clinical education, their impression of the program director, advice from predoctoral mentors, their impression of resident satisfaction and happiness, and the opportunity to place dental implants. The factors of least importance are climate and opportunities to moonlight, teach, and conduct research

  2. Applying to plastic surgery residency: factors associated with medical student career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arin K; May, James W

    2008-03-01

    Applications to plastic surgery residency increased 34 percent from 2002 to 2005, despite decreasing applications to other surgical subspecialties. During this period, medical education, reimbursement, work hours, and media coverage have changed. To determine factors responsible for rising applications to plastic surgery residencies, medical student applicants to plastic surgery residencies for 2005 were surveyed. Applicants recorded exposure to plastic surgery during medical school and graded the influence of personality, lifestyle, income potential, and media coverage on their decision to choose plastic surgery training. To further study the effects of plastic surgery exposure on career choice, the percentage of graduating students applying to plastic surgery residency was compared between medical schools with and without plastic surgery training programs. Medical schools that provided greater exposure to plastic surgery and schools with plastic surgery training programs had a higher percentage of graduates applying to plastic surgery residency (p personality of plastic surgeons as a significant factor in their career choice. Lifestyle and income potential were moderately important, whereas media coverage minimally affected career decision. Applicants typically decided on a plastic surgical career during the third year of medical school. Medical student exposure to plastic surgery is the most influential factor in a student's decision to pursue a career in plastic surgery. To continue the increasing applicant trend toward plastic surgery, plastic surgeon engagement of medical students should be emphasized, ideally before the third year of medical school.

  3. Factors affecting residency rank-listing: A Maxdiff survey of graduating Canadian medical students

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    Forgie Melissa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, graduating medical students consider many factors, including geographic, social, and academic, when ranking residency programs through the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS. The relative significance of these factors is poorly studied in Canada. It is also unknown how students differentiate between their top program choices. This survey study addresses the influence of various factors on applicant decision making. Methods Graduating medical students from all six Ontario medical schools were invited to participate in an online survey available for three weeks prior to the CaRMS match day in 2010. Max-Diff discrete choice scaling, multiple choice, and drop-list style questions were employed. The Max-Diff data was analyzed using a scaled simple count method. Data for how students distinguish between top programs was analyzed as percentages. Comparisons were made between male and female applicants as well as between family medicine and specialist applicants; statistical significance was determined by the Mann-Whitney test. Results In total, 339 of 819 (41.4% eligible students responded. The variety of clinical experiences and resident morale were weighed heavily in choosing a residency program; whereas financial incentives and parental leave attitudes had low influence. Major reasons that applicants selected their first choice program over their second choice included the distance to relatives and desirability of the city. Both genders had similar priorities when selecting programs. Family medicine applicants rated the variety of clinical experiences more importantly; whereas specialty applicants emphasized academic factors more. Conclusions Graduating medical students consider program characteristics such as the variety of clinical experiences and resident morale heavily in terms of overall priority. However, differentiation between their top two choice programs is often dependent on social/geographic factors

  4. Risk factors for intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomi, Neiwete; Sharma, Reetika; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Agarwal, Tushar

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for occurrence of intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents. One hundred fifty patients with cataract who underwent phacoemulsification by residents, with an experience of five or more phacoemulsification surgery, at a tertiary care centre were included in this study. The pre-operative data of these patients were collected from the hospital records. Surgeons were interviewed immediately after the surgery regarding the surgeon experience, phacoemulsification technique, machine factors, and intra-operative complications. Statistical analysis was done to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors. The overall surgical complication rate in resident-performed phacoemulsification was 37 % of which major and minor complications were 21 and 16 %, respectively. Success in terms of placement of intraocular lens in capsular bag was 84 %. The most common major and minor complications found were posterior capsular tear and irregular capsulorhexis, respectively. Systemic and ocular features of patients as well as type of machine (longitudinal versus torsional longitudinal) had no significant association in terms of complication rate. Increase in success rate was seen with increase in semester and number of surgeries performed. Patient factors including general physical condition, systemic diseases, and anatomical factors do not influence success in resident-performed phacoemulsification. With increase in semester of residents, there is a significant decrease in intra-operative complications. Minor complications in the beginning of case lead to increase in major complications later on during the case and decrease in success rate by junior-semester residents.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Katymilla Guimarães; Grama, Daliane Faria; da Cunha, Maria Júlia Rodrigues; Faria, Elaine Silva Marques; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI) in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293), nurses (63) and food handlers (19) were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chia-Hui; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Liu, Megan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI), which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia. Methods and findings A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI) was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176), the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1) (beta = -0.235), and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416). Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204), sound volume level (beta = 0.187), ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177), and eating time (beta = 0.395). Conclusions Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:28225776

  7. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  8. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  9. Epidemiological survey and risk factor analysis of fatty liver disease of adult residents, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Xie, Wen; Ou, Wei-ni; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Su-yun; Wang, Jian-hui; Wang, Qi; Yang, Yu-ying; Feng, Xin; Cheng, Jun

    2013-10-01

    With the changes in diet structure and lifestyle, the incidence of fatty liver disease is increasing in China, especially in cities. The goal of the present study was to accurately determine the prevalence and risk factors of fatty liver disease in Beijing residents, China. By using random multistage stratification and cluster sampling, residents aged > 20 years in Dongcheng District and Tongzhou District were recruited, and questionnaire survey, physical examination, detection of fasting glucose, blood lipids and liver biochemistry, and ultrasonography of the liver, gallbladder, and spleen were carried out. Database EpiData 3.0 was employed for data input, followed by statistical analysis with SPSS version 11.0. A total of 3762 residents were included in the present study including 2328 males and 1434 females with a mean age of 46.37 ± 14.28 years (range 20-92 years). Ultrasonography revealed fatty liver in 1486 residents with a prevalence of 39.5%. Moreover, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease were found in 1177 (31.3%) and 309 (8.2%) residents, respectively. After adjustment of prevalence based on the age and gender constituents of Beijing residents, the standardized prevalence of overall fatty liver disease, NAFLD, and alcoholic fatty liver disease was 35.1%, 31.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were closely related to NAFLD. The Beijing residents have a high prevalence of fatty liver disease as much as 35.1%, which is characterized by NAFLD. Obesity, and glucose and lipid metabolism disorders are the main risk factors of fatty liver disease. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Job Satisfaction, Anxiety Level and Associated Factors in a Group of Residents in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Yaşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we aimed to research the job satisfaction among the residents at Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, some factors affecting this and some psychological effects of not being pleased with their jobs. With respect to this aim, socio demographic data form, Minnesota Job Satisfaction, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anger Scale were given to 140 residents at University who accepted to join this study and were collected the following day. In study, 35 percent of the participants having joined the study weren’t pleased with their works. The number of satisfied residents was higher among the willingly choice making residents in favour of their Works(34.8% than the participants who were unwilling to choice the department (65.2% they are working now (x2:11.046, p<0.01. Beck anxiety results were found to be much higher in the residents who were not pleased with their workers than the workers pleased with their works. Finally, there are some factors determining the job satisfaction. There is relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Because this can give rise to negative effects on the performance of the work, it is required that some solution ways be found in order to increase the work contention.

  11. Risk factors for small airway obstruction among Chinese island residents: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for small airway obstruction (SAO among Chinese island residents to establish means to prevent and treat SAO. METHODS: From October 17, 2011 to November 1, 2011, a total of 2,873 residents aged >20 years who lived on the Huangqi Peninsula of Fujian were recruited by random cluster sampling. They were asked to complete a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and lung function evaluations. SAO was defined as a forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity, Vmax50%, of less than 70% of predicted. Risk factors for SAO were assessed from among demographic and anthropometric variables, blood chemistry results, and questionnaire response items. RESULTS: A total of 216 (7.52% Chinese island residents were identified as having SAO (95 males; 121 females. Their survey and test results were compared with 432 age and sex-matched healthy controls (192 males; 240 females for SAO risk factors. Among numerous factors investigated, only diabetes mellitus (p = 0.039, smoking index (SI, p600, second hand smoke (p = 0.002, and lack of regular exercise (p<0.001 were significant risk factors for SAO. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for SAO among Chinese island residents appeared to be similar to those among people who live in high-density urban environments and impoverished rural areas. Public health policies and medical practices directed toward improving respiratory health for island residents should be comparable to those used for urban and rural dwellers.

  12. Internal Structure of Mini-CEX Scores for Internal Medicine Residents: Factor Analysis and Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Pankratz, V. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The mini-CEX is widely used to rate directly observed resident-patient encounters. Although several studies have explored the reliability of mini-CEX scores, the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores is incompletely understood. Objective: Explore the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores through factor analysis and generalizability analysis. Design:…

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASING DECISIONS FOR TRADITIONAL AND REGIONAL PRODUCTS AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE PODKARPACIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the factors determining the choice of traditional and regional products by Podkarpacie residents. The surveyed consumers found the quality as the most important trait that encourages the purchase of traditional and regional products. The price has an important impact on decision in terms of purchase.

  14. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The

  15. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  16. Internal Structure of Mini-CEX Scores for Internal Medicine Residents: Factor Analysis and Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Pankratz, V. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The mini-CEX is widely used to rate directly observed resident-patient encounters. Although several studies have explored the reliability of mini-CEX scores, the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores is incompletely understood. Objective: Explore the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores through factor analysis and generalizability analysis. Design:…

  17. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  18. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  19. Factors Associated with Problematic Vocalizations in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cornelia; Richards, Kathy; Lambert, Corinne; Doan, Rebecca; Landes, Reid D.; Whall, Ann; Algase, Donna; Kolanowski, Ann; Feldman, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Problematic vocalizations (PVs) are the most frequent and persistent disruptive behaviors exhibited by nursing home residents with dementia. Understanding factors associated with these behaviors are important to prevent or reduce them. We used the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model to identify the characteristics…

  20. Risk Factors for Return to the Operating Room after Resident-Performed Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menda, Shivali A; Driver, Todd H; Neiman, Alexandra E; Blumberg, Seth; Naseri, Ayman; Stewart, Jay M

    2016-09-29

    Investigate risk factors for unplanned return to the operating room after resident-performed cataract surgery. Retrospective case-control study. Institutional. Study population: All patients with reoperation within 90 days of resident-performed phacoemulsification were matched to four control eyes which had surgery within 30 days of the reoperation at the same institution. Billing codes were used to identify all patients who underwent resident-performed intended phacoemulsification with intraocular lens placement from January 2005 to December 2010. Investigated risk factors for reoperation included cataract characteristics and preexisting ocular co-morbidities, including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment history, glaucoma, corneal pathology, and uveitis. Additional preoperative risk factors studied included resident training year, history of tamsulosin use, phacodonesis, pupillary dilation, presence of pseudoexfoliation, myopia, history of trauma, visual acuity, and monocular status. Intraoperative variables were the use of iris expansion devices, use of capsular stain, attending type, incision type, use of sutures, vitreous loss, anesthesia type, and phacoemulsification technique. There were 67 returns to the operating room (i.e., cases) over five years that were assigned to 268 control eyes. In preoperative multivariate analysis, phacoemulsification done by a first- or second-year resident (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.7-6.0, p risk of reoperation. In postoperative multivariate analysis, only the use of the divide-and-conquer technique (OR 4.0, 95% CI:1.7-9.2, p = 0.001) was associated with an increased risk of reoperation. Phacoemulsification done by a junior resident or using the divide-and-conquer technique had the highest risk of reoperation.

  1. Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty and Satisfaction among Turkish Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Urun; Ceri, Veysi; Carpar, Elif; Sancak, Baris; Yildirim, Fatma

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the choice of psychiatry among psychiatry residents, identify the fulfillment of expectations, and assess their satisfaction level. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 98 psychiatry residents, and sociodemographic and professional data were collected. Among the reasons for choosing psychiatry, the opportunity to cultivate interest in humanities, importance of social and relational issues, and intellectual challenge were most frequently selected. The opportunity for complete use of medical training, salary, and opportunity to practice psychotherapy were the expectations least met. The largest group of participants was satisfied to have chosen psychiatry (41.5%), decided on psychiatry training after medical school (35.4%), and attached importance to becoming a clinician (70.7%). Although the satisfaction level was high in this study, addressing the areas in which expectations were not met may increase the satisfaction of psychiatry residents and the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.

  2. Residence place as a risk factor in different types of fatal car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, Carlos M; Vacchino, Marta N

    2015-01-01

    The association between place of residence, population density, relief and type of event (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) has not been evaluated in developing countries. The main objective of this study is to determine the differential factors associated with the occurrence of deaths of collision and non-collision automobile users in Patagonia, Argentina. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using as the dependent variable death by car accident (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) and sex, age, place of residence of the victim, relief and population density as the independent variables. Collision fatalities were related to areas of high population density, while non-collision fatalities were related to areas of low population density, mountainous landscape and place of residence of the victims outside the Patagonian region. The results obtained in this study indicate the need to develop differential primary prevention policies by place of residence of car occupants, focusing on Patagonia non-resident drivers and by emphasising non-collision accidents.

  3. [Metabolism-related risk factors of cholelithiasis among Beijing residents: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying-Chao; He, Xiao-Dong; Yu, Jian-Chun; Kang, Wei-Ming; Tao, Lian-Yuan; Wu, Qiao

    2012-02-01

    To explore the metabolism-related risk factors of cholelithiasis among residents in Beijing. The clinical data including previous disease history, findings of physical examination, and results of cholecystosonography of 2270 patients with cholelithiasis identified in the Health Screening Center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital between August 2007 and August 2010 were retrospectively reviewed (the case group). Meanwhile, 4336 healthy individuals during the same period were randomly chosen as the control group. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure were positively correlated with the incidence of cholelithiasis (P cholelithiasis (P > 0.05). Cholelithiasis is resulted from multiple factors including elevated blood lipids, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure among residents in Beijing.

  4. Age and other risk factors of pneumonia among residents of Polish long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Gryglewska, Barbara; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Natkaniec, Joanna; Pobiega, Monika; Adamski, Paweł; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kubicz, Dariusz; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is probably the largest health problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). It is the second most common infection in LTCFs and frequently requires hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of NHAP among LTCF residents, its microbial etiology, and the frequency of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Risk factors for NHAP were analyzed. This was a prospective study conducted on a group of 217 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years, recruited from the inhabitants of LTCFs, with disabled elderly individuals living in the community serving as controls. Continuous surveillance was carried out from December 1, 2009 to November 30, 2010. The incidence rate of NHAP in the observed population of Polish residents was 0.6/1000 resident-days. Vulnerability to NHAP was due to the poor general condition of residents, expressed by low Barthel index values (relative risk (RR) 1.6), the activities of daily living (ADL) score (RR 1.7), the Katz scale (RR 1.2), and limited physical activity (RR 1.6). Also significant were malnutrition (RR 2.3), the use of a bladder catheter (RR 1.3), dysphagia (RR 1.7), tracheotomy tube (RR 3.1), and gastric feeding tube (RR 3.5). Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant etiological agents of NHAP (56.3%). The significance of risk factors for NHAP among residents in LTCFs was confirmed. Unfortunately, we also found that a lack of proper supervision with regard to the microbiology of infections is characteristic of Polish health care and LTCFs. There is an opportunity to improve the medical care of patients with severe disabilities, limit the rise in antimicrobial resistance and the need for hospitalization, and improve the prognosis. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in ...

  6. [Influence of ecologic factors on respiratory diseases in urban residents of Kazakhstan Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayeva, L K; Amanbekova, A U; Turgunova, L G; Lariushina, E M

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied influence of ecologic factors on respiratory diseases development in urban residents of Kazakhstan Republic. Multivariate (correlation and regression) analysis demonstrates that chronic obstructive lung disease development is contributed by high concentration of nitrogen oxide in ambient air (r = -0.75; p = 0.005) in Temirtau, Kamenogorsk and Aktau cities, high lead content of sedimented dust (r = 0.64; p = 0.02) in Temirtau, Ust'-Kamenogorsk and Ekibastuz cities.

  7. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  8. Risk factors for visceral Leishmaniasis among residents and migrants in Kafta-Humera, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Argaw

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is a lethal parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The largest focus of VL in Ethiopia is located in the lowland region bordering Sudan, where the epidemiology is complicated by the presence of thousands of seasonal agricultural workers who live under precarious conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted two parallel case-control studies to identify factors associated with VL risk in residents and migrants. The studies were conducted from 2009 to 2011 and included 151 resident cases and 157 migrant cases, with 2 matched controls per case. In multivariable conditional regression models, sleeping under an acacia tree at night (odds ratios (OR 5.2 [95% confidence interval 1.7-16.4] for residents and 4.7 [1.9-12.0] for migrants, indicators of poverty and lower educational status were associated with increased risk in both populations. Strong protective effects were observed for bed net use (OR 0.24 [0.12-0.48] for net use in the rainy season among residents, OR 0.20 [0.10-0.42] for any net use among migrants. For residents, living in a house with thatch walls conferred 5-fold and sleeping on the ground 3-fold increased risk. Among migrants, the risk associated with HIV status was borderline significant and sleeping near dogs was associated with 7-fold increased risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive strategies should focus on ways to ensure net usage, especially among migrant workers without fixed shelters. More research is needed to understand migration patterns of seasonal labourers and vector bionomics.

  9. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in medical students residing in hostel and its association with lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is scant research on premenstrual syndrome (PMS and its more severe counterpart, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD in Indian females. This study aimed to evaluate symptoms of PMS in medical students and to find the association of sociodemographic variables and lifestyle factors with PMDD. Subjects and Methods: A total of 179 medical students residing in the hostel of an Indian medical college and its affiliated teaching hospital were approached, of which 100 (55.8% returned the completed questionnaires. Data related to lifestyle factors was collected. Self-screening quiz for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision PMDD and Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form were used for diagnosis of PMDD and detection of symptomatology, respectively. Results: PMDD was present in 37% of the respondents. It was found at a higher rate in older and postgraduate students. PMDD was significantly associated with lifestyle factors, namely, sleep, physical activity, total tea/coffee intake, and change in tea/coffee and food intake under stress. The most common physical and psychological symptoms were body ache/joint pain and feeling depressed/blue, respectively. Conclusions: PMDD is fairly common in Indian medical students residing in hostel although cultural factors may influence symptom expression. This study suggests that PMDD is associated with lifestyle factors in young, professional, urban women. Modification in lifestyle may thus be an important approach for management of PMS/PMDD. Prospective studies with larger representative samples are needed to validate these findings.

  10. Factors Affecting Candidate Placement on an Emergency Medicine Residency Program’s Rank Order List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Breyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors influence the final placement of a medical student candidate on an emergency medicine (EM residency program's rank order list, including EM grade, standardized letter of recommendation, medical school class rank, and US Medical License Examination (USMLE scores. We sought to determine the correlation of these parameters with a candidate's final rank on a residency program's rank order list.Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design to examine 129 candidate packets from an EM residency program. Class ranks were assessed according to the instructions provided by the students' medical schools. EM grades were scored from 1 (honors to 5 (fail. Global assessments noted on the standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR were scored from 1 (outstanding to 4 (good. USMLE scores were reported as the candidate's 3-digit scores. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to analyze data.Results: Electronic Residency Application Service packets for 127/129 (98.4% candidates were examined. The following parameters correlated positively with a candidate's final placement on the rank order list: EM grade, p = 0.379, P < 0.001; global assessment, p = 0.332, P < 0.001; and class rank, p = 0.234, P= 0.035. We found a negative correlation between final placement on the rank order list with both USMLE step 1 scores, p = —0.253, P= 0.006; and USMLE step 2 scores, p=-0.348, P= 0.004.Conclusion: Higher scores on EM rotations, medical school class ranks, and SLOR global assessments correlated with higher placements on a rank order list, whereas candidates with higher USMLE scores had lower placements on a rank order list. However, none of the parameters examined correlated strongly with ultimate position of a candidate on the rank list, which underscores that other factors may influence a candidate's final ranking.

  11. [Understanding the risk factors for infectious diseases, their prevention, and control, among residents of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y S; Wu, Q Q; Xu, S Y; Wang, L; Liu, H; Yao, D M; Di, Z Q; Tian, X Y

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To investigate the understanding of infectious diseases, their prevention, and control, and the factors influencing this literacy among urban and rural residents of Zhejiang Province. Methods: In November- December 2014, a multistage stratified cluster sampling questionnaire was administered at study sites in eight districts of Zhejiang province: Hangzhou city Gongshu district, Hangzhou city Chun'an county, Wenzhou city Cangnan county, Dongyang city, Jiaxing city Jiashan county, Zhoushan city Putuo district, Linhai city, Lishui city Jinyun county. The inclusion criteria were: 15-60 years old, living locally for more than six continuous months, and no mental illness. The exclusion criteria were: foreigner residing locally, resident of Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, or unable to communicate through speech or writing. In this study, 4 091 questionnaires were distributed, and 4 020 valid questionnaires were returned(98.26%). Health literacy regarding infectious diseases was measured at five levels: knowledge, skills, behaviors, access to information, and understanding of the prevention of infectious diseases. A total score was calculated for each questionnaire, and a total score of ≥80 was deemed to indicate an understanding of the prevention of infectious diseases. A χ(2) test was used to compare the levels of health literacy in different populations with single-factor analyses, and a multivariate unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting infectious diseases prevention and treatment literacy levels. Results: Of the 4 020 respondents(aged(43.84 ± 10.28)years), 1 964 were male(48.86%)and 2 056 were female(51.14%). In the total surveyed population, 15.17%(n=610)understood the prevention of infectious diseases, 294 were male(14.97%)and 316 were female(15.37%)(χ(2)=2.48, P=0.115). When the participants in the different age groups were analyzed, 23.11%, 20.29%, 13.27%, and 11.04% of those aged 18- 29(n=116), 30- 39(n

  12. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h.

  13. [Factors associated with the blood levels of lead in residents of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Flores, E; Alagón-Cano, J; Bobadilla, J L; Hernández-Prado, B; Ciscomani-Begoña, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at detecting risk factors for high blood lead levels in Mexico City inhabitants, undertaken at the local National Institute of Public Health, is described. Measurements of blood lead levels for a sample of 300 civil servants were related to several potential risk factors. The statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance and logistic regression. The results of the analysis seem to suggest differences in blood levels by sex, zone of residence, hours of transportation and eating habits, such as the consumption of canned meals and the use of "earthenware dishes" in the preparation of meals. The nature of the study is exploratory, but it seems to suggest directions of research in the complex problem of lead levels in people of polluted cities.

  14. Discrepancies in Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD items between residents and caregivers, and the CSDD's factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Robert van Reekum2,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: This validation study aims to examine Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD items in terms of the agreement found between residents and caregivers, and also to compare alternative models of the Thai version of the CSDD. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 84 elderly residents (46 women, 38 men, age range 60–94 years in a long-term residential home setting in Thailand between March and June 2011. The selected residents went through a comprehensive geriatric assessment that included use of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and CSDD instruments. Intraclass correlation (ICC was calculated in order to establish the level of agreement between the residents and caregivers, in light of the residents' cognitive status. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was adopted to evaluate the alternative CSDD models. Results: The CSDD yielded a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and moderate agreement between residents and caregivers (ICC = 0.55; however, it was stronger in cognitively impaired subjects (ICC = 0.71. CFA revealed that there was no difference between the four-factor model, in which factors A (mood-related signs and E (ideational disturbance were collapsed into a single factor, and the five-factor model as per the original theoretical construct. Both models were found to be similar, and displayed a poor fit. Conclusion: The CSDD demonstrated a moderate level of interrater agreement between residents and caregivers, and was more reliable when used with cognitively impaired residents. CFA indicated a poorly fitting model in this sample. Keywords: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, factor structure

  15. The Factors Influencing the Sense of Home in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review from the Perspective of Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rijnaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1 original and peer-reviewed research, (2 qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3 research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing, and (4 research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were included. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by 15 factors, divided into three themes: (1 psychological factors (sense of acknowledgement, preservation of one’s habits and values, autonomy and control, and coping; (2 social factors (interaction and relationship with staff, residents, family and friends, and pets and activities; and (3 the built environment (private space and (quasi-public space, personal belongings, technology, look and feel, and the outdoors and location. Conclusions. The sense of home is influenced by numerous factors related to the psychology of the residents and the social and built environmental contexts. Further research is needed to determine if and how the identified factors are interrelated, if perspectives of various stakeholders involved differ, and how the factors can be improved in practice.

  16. Factors determining medical students' and residents' satisfaction during VA-based training: findings from the VA Learners' Perceptions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Grant W; Keitz, Sheri A; Holland, Gloria J; Chang, Barbara K; Byrne, John M; Tomolo, Anne; Aron, David C; Wicker, Annie B; Kashner, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    To compare medical students' and physician residents' satisfaction with Veterans Affairs (VA) training to determine the factors that were most strongly associated with trainee satisfaction ratings. Each year from 2001 to 2006, all medical students and residents in VA teaching facilities were invited to complete the Learners' Perceptions Survey. Participants rated their overall training satisfaction on a 100-point scale and ranked specific satisfaction in four separate educational domains (learning environment, clinical faculty, working environment, and physical environment) on a five-point Likert scale. Each domain was composed of unique items. A total of 6,527 medical students and 16,583 physician residents responded to the survey. The overall training satisfaction scores for medical students and physician residents were 84 and 79, respectively (P training continuum. For both medical students and residents, the rating of each of the four educational domains was statistically significantly associated with the overall training satisfaction score (P training satisfaction score, followed by the clinical preceptor, working environment, and physical environment domains; no significant differences were found between medical students and physician residents in the rank order. Satisfaction with quality of care and faculty teaching contributed significantly to training satisfaction. Factors that influence training satisfaction were similar for residents and medical students. The domain with the highest association was the learning environment; quality of care was a key item within this domain.

  17. The Factors Influencing the Sense of Home in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review from the Perspective of Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Rijnaard, M. D.; J. van Hoof; Janssen, B.M.; Verbeek, H.; Pocornie, W.; Eijkelenboom, A; Beerens, H.C.; Molony, S. L.; Wouters, E. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1) original and peer-reviewed research, (2) qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3) research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing), and (4) research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were i...

  18. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  19. Factors influencing residency choice of general surgery applicants--how important is the availability of a skills curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Miles, William S; Greene, Frederick L

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors that impact residency choice by general surgery applicants and the importance of the availability of skill curricula. Fourth-year medical students (n = 104) interviewing for a general surgery position in an academic medical center voluntarily completed an anonymous survey detailing questions about the factors that influenced their choice of a residency program. Applicants were asked to rank in order of importance 14 factors potentially influencing their decision making and to address specifically the value of skills training. Data are reported as medians (range). The applicants' median age was 26 (range, 24-35) years; 44% were women, and the prior simulator exposure was 1 (range, 0-90) hour. The factors influencing the choice of residency in order of importance were the quality of life of current residents, the volume and variety of cases, and the quality of the curriculum (medians, 3-4), followed by the reputation of the institution and the program director, the location, and mentor advice (medians, 6-8); and the presence of expertise in areas of interest, the availability of a skills curriculum, the academic versus private designation, the efficiency of the hospital, and the size of residency (medians, 9-10). Women were more likely than men to rank lifestyle higher. Applicants' decision making was influenced positively in 92% by the presence of an organized skills curriculum. The main determinants of the applicants' choice of a general surgery program are the quality of life of the residents and the anticipated clinical experience and curriculum quality. The availability of organized skills curricula is low in the applicant priorities, but it does influence their decision-making process. These findings may help program directors to optimize their residency curriculum and interviewing process.

  20. Malnutrition, Prevalence and Relation to Some Risk Factors among Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and dehydration are two most common types of ailments residents of nursing homes (NH prone to. It is very important to assess these problems because they can predispose the residents to severe illnesses. The aim of this study was to gather information on nutritional status and its associated risk factors in elderly residents of NHs in Tehran, Iran.From 16 NHs in Tehran, 263 residents were randomly selected. Data were collected via questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, past medical history, present health problems and daily routines. The MNA questionnaire was used to gather information regarding their nutritional status.The present study showed that 10.3% of the elderly residents in nursing homes were malnourished. 66.4% of males and 70.8% of females were at risk of malnutrition. Multivariate analysis showed that after adjusting for confounders the following elderly-related factors were the independent risk factors of malnutrition: consuming half or less than of the food (OR=8.0, 95%CI=3.7-17.7, having no teeth or good prosthesis (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.7, diabetes (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.1-2.4, smoking (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.3-1.2, studying (OR=0.4 95%CI=0.2-0.9 and praying in their free time (OR=1.8 95%CI=1.2-2.6.The subjects' health-related factors and their free-time activities and nutritional behavior are the most important factors associated with poor nutrition among elderly residents of NHs; however, further investigation is needed to clarify the role of other factors in maintaining a suitable nutritional plan for them.

  1. Off-Campus Residence as a Risk Factor for Heavy Drinking Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Madeline B; DiBello, Angelo M; Balestrieri, Sara G; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E; Lowery, Ashley D; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Carey, Kate B

    2017-07-29

    College student alcohol use is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to examine associations between residence and drinking behaviors among college students. We hypothesized that living off-campus independently or with peers would be associated with riskier drinking than living on-campus, and living with parents would be associated with less risky drinking than living on-campus. We analyzed data from two separate studies conducted at two four-year universities in the Northeast. Study 1 examined data from 1286 students (57% female) attending a private university. In Study 2, analyses were replicated and extended with 2408 students (67% female) from a public university. We conducted regression analyses that controlled for age, race, gender, and class year to determine the unique association of residence on typical and peak drinking, frequency of heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. In both samples, students living off-campus without parents reported more frequent alcohol consumption, larger drinking quantities, more frequent heavy drinking, and a greater number of alcohol-related consequences than students living on-campus (ps <.001). In Study 2, students living off-campus with their parents exhibited significantly fewer risky drinking behaviors than those living on-campus (ps <.001). Living off-campus - either independently or with peers - is a risk factor for heavy drinking and consequences. This group exhibits more risky drinking behaviors and alcohol-related consequences than students living on-campus, independent of age and class year. Therefore, students moving off-campus may be appropriate targets for alcohol misuse prevention programs.

  2. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Clonorchiasis among Residents of Riverside Areas in Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Soon; Na, Sung-Jin; Cho, Shin Hyeong; June, Kyung Ja; Cho, Young-Chae

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the status of Clonorchis sinensis infection and potential risk factors among residents of riverside areas (Geumgang) in Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Province), Korea. From January to February 2010, a total of 349 (171 males, 178 females) stool samples were collected and examined by the formalin-ether concentration technique. Also, village residents were interviewed using questionnaires to obtain information about C. sinensis infection-related risk factors. Overall egg-positive rate of C. sinensis was 13.2%. Egg-positive rates were significantly higher in males, farmers, and residents who had lived there more than 20 years, and in residents who had eaten raw freshwater fish than in opposite groups, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between age groups, education levels, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, health status, past history of infection, and experience of clonorchiasis medication and examination. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for clonorchiasis. On univariate analysis, the odds ratios for males, farmers, those who had lived there more than 20 years, and who had eaten raw freshwater fish were 2.41, 4.44, 3.16, and 4.88 times higher than those of the opposites, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of residents who had eaten raw freshwater fish was 3.2-fold higher than that of those who had not. These results indicate that residents living in Muju-gun, along the Geum River, Korea, have relatively high C. sinensis egg-positive rates, and the habit of eating raw freshwater fish was the major factor for the maintenance of clonorchiasis. PMID:25246718

  5. Residents' experiences of interpersonal factors in nursing home care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrem, Sigrid; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Seim, Arnfinn

    2011-11-01

    With life expectancy lengthening, the number of those who will require care in a nursing home will increase dramatically in the next 20 years. Nursing home residents are frail older adults with complex needs, dependent on advanced nursing care. Long-term residents in nursing homes have long-term relationships with the nurses, which require a unique approach to the interpersonal aspects of nursing care. Understanding what is experienced as care quality, including quality of interpersonal processes, requires insight into the residents' perspectives for best value in care to be realized. Main objective was to describe the nursing home residents' experience with direct nursing care, related to the interpersonal aspects of quality of care. A descriptive, exploratory design was used. Four public municipal nursing homes in Norway with long-term residents were purposely selected for the study. Fifteen mentally lucid residents were included. The inclusion criteria were aged 65 and over, being a resident of the nursing home for one month or longer, and physical and mental capacity to participate in the interview. In-depth interviews with the residents were performed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using meaning categorizing. The residents emphasized the importance of nurses acknowledging their individual needs, which included need for general and specialized care, health promotion and prevention of complications, and prioritizing the individuals. The challenging balance between self-determination and dependency, the altered role from homeowner to resident, and feelings of indignity and depreciation of social status were key issues in which the residents perceived that their integrity was at risk in the patient-nurse interaction and care. Psychosocial well-being was a major issue, and the residents expressed an important role of the nursing staff helping them to balance the need for social contact and to be alone, and preserving a social network. Quality nursing

  6. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  7. Prevalence and risk factor of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H; Lim, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2013-05-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact.

  8. Wind farm development: An analysis of factors influencing residents' perceptions of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Theresa M.

    Assisting communities adjust to change is crucial in ensuring that successful, vibrant communities continue to flourish. Recent studies have suggested that a lack of community involvement in planning stages, uncertainty regarding proposals, place attachment and NIMBY (Not-In-My-Backyard) are some factors used to explain resistance to wind development (Jones & Eiser, 2009; 2010; Swofford & Slattery, 2010). This research studies perceptions and support levels held by residents in four townships of Huron County, MI of wind farm development. The aim of this study was to determine whether proximity to a wind turbine, ownership of land, and knowledge of wind energy influenced perceptions of and support of wind farm development. Social exchange theory aided in the interpretation of the research results. Social, economic and environmental belief factors were tested to evaluate their role in shaping perceptions and support. Data were collected using the mixed methods of interviews of stakeholders and mail surveys to landowners (n=497 respondents, 50% response rate). The results suggested proximity, amount of land owned, and self-rated knowledge of wind energy were not related to perceptions of or support for wind farm development. Social beliefs about positive outcomes were strongly related to perceptions of wind farm development, followed by economic beliefs about outcomes of wind farm development. Respondents who were neutral in their opinions before development tended to perceive wind farms negatively after construction. Social and environmental beliefs about positive outcomes of wind turbines were strongly related to support for wind farm development, yet concerns regarding impact on the environment, economy and people existed.

  9. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors in Teachers Residing in Shiraz-Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tahmasebi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: coronary artery diseases (CAD are the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disability with high health care cost in any countries including Iran. The prevalence of all CAD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, lipid profile abnormalities and obesity is rising in the population of Iran. Knowing the population at risk would lead to proper education to decrease these risk factors and ultimately would reduce CAD.Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted in February to December 2009 and comprised a total of 3115 Shiraz educational staff, aged 21- 73 years.Questionnaires were applied to collect information including; demographic data, physical activity, history of CAD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking. In addition, waist circumference, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and hip circumference (HC were measured and serum biochemistry profiles were determined on venous blood samples. Such data helped identify the prevalence of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, overweight and obesity, central obesity, and smoking. Results: The mean age of 3115 participant was 42.7 and 41.5 years for men and women respectively. The prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were %10.2, %4, %18.2, %38.30 and %33.2 respectively. Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were more prevalent among males and older subjects. The prevalence of central obesity was %75.05 (IDF criteria and %40.64 (ATP- III criteria. The frequency of obesity, current smoking, ex-smoking and passive smoking were %12.1, %5.85 , %1.52 ,%7.9 respectively which were below the reported prevalence in Iran in previous studies, but physical inactivity was %73.3 which is very high in this study group.Conclusion: Although CAD risk factors seem to be very common in the study population, clinical and paraclinical data indicated that teachers residing in Shiraz have a

  10. Educational system factors that engage resident physicians in an integrated quality improvement curriculum at a VA hospital: a realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, Greg; Ercolano, Ellyn; Cohen, Emily S; Harwood, Beth; Baum, Karyn; van Aalst, Robertus; Jones, Anne C; Davies, Louise

    2014-10-01

    Learning about quality improvement (QI) in resident physician training is often relegated to elective or noncore clinical activities. The authors integrated teaching, learning, and doing QI into the routine clinical work of inpatient internal medicine teams at a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. This study describes the design factors that facilitated and inhibited the integration of a QI curriculum-including real QI work-into the routine work of inpatient internal medicine teams. A realist evaluation framework used three data sources: field notes from QI faculty; semistructured interviews with resident physicians; and a group interview with QI faculty and staff. From April 2011 to July 2012, resident physician teams at the White River Junction VA Medical Center used the Model for Improvement for their QI work and analyzed data using statistical process control charts. Three domains affected the delivery of the QI curriculum and engagement of residents in QI work: setting, learner, and teacher. The constant presence of the QI material on a public space in the team workroom was a facilitating mechanism in the setting. Explicit sign-out of QI work to the next resident team formalized the handoff in the learner domain. QI teachers who were respected clinical leaders with QI expertise provided role modeling and local system knowledge. Integrating QI teaching into the routine clinical and educational systems of an inpatient service is challenging. Identifiable, concrete strategies in the setting, learner, and teacher domains helped integrate QI into the clinical and educational systems.

  11. Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes.

  12. How demographic and economic factors have influenced ways of residing measured by urbanisation, type of dwelling, and type of tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    in this period. The aim is especially to give an overview of how the economic and financial crisis affected the ways of residing in ten countries in: a) the Nordic countries, b) Western Europe, and in c) Eastern Europe. This is done by analysing how demographic and economic factors have influenced ways......The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss factors influencing ways of residing up to and during the years leading up to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) as well as presently. The activity in the housing construction sector in the Nordic and Baltic countries was at a very high level until...... 2005–2007. Urban sprawl and overinvestment in business premises and housing were important risks to be considered. The high economic activity also led to an increase in the cost of housing and hence to affordability problems in major cities. Many new urban quarters and towns came into planning...

  13. Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the residents of urban community housing projects in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Mohammadreza; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Hairi, FarizahMohd; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives are to assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the residents of Community Housing Projects in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Method By using simple random sampling, we selected and surveyed 833 households which comprised of 3,722 individuals. Out of the 2,360 adults, 50.5% participated in blood sampling and anthropometric measurement sessions. Uni and bivariate data analysis and multivariate binary logistic regr...

  14. [Influence of nutrition on selected metabolic cardiovascular risk factors among female residents of Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piórecka, Beata; Jagielski, Paweł; Zwirska, Jaśmina; Piskorz, Anna; Brzostek, Tomasz; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The study involved influence of nutritional factors on select anthropometrical and lipid indices (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) in female residents of Krakow who were voluntarily participating in the investigation. Only women free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases were included. The study group consisting of 100 women aged 30-65 years, was divided into two groups: pre-menopause (PM, n=47) and after menopause (AM, n=53). The anthropometrical measurements, % of fat tissue - Tanita scale and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The energy value and the consumption of basic nutrients intake were calculated using 24-hour recalls from the day before the examination. The AM group presented higher anthropometrical and metabolic risk profile: overweight and obesity (BMI-PM = 25.51 +/- 4.16 kg/m2; AM = 28.28 +/- 4.89 kg/m2) and central adiposity type (WC-PM = 81.04 +/- 10.00 cm; AM = 86.46 +/- 11.73 cm); lipids (Total cholesterol-PM = 5.14 +/- 0.87 mmol/l, AM = 5.67 +/- 1.10 mmol/l; LDL-chol-PM = 2.98 +/- 0.90 mmol/l, AM = 3.40 +/- 0.93 mmol/l; HDL-chol-PM = 1.65 +/- 0.39 mmol/l; AM = 1.63 + 0.46 mmol/l). The irregular participation of fatty acids, proteins from plant sources and dietary fibers in daily diet were found (%Energy PM: SFA = 11.66 +/- 4.34, MUFA = 10.91 +/- 4.04, PUFA = 4.76 +/- 2.75, Keys index = 41.89 +/- 14.91; %EnergyAM: SFA = 11.48 +/- 3.86, MUFA = 11.02 +/- 4.12, PUFA = 4.89 +/- 2.92, Keys index = 40.87 +/- 14.4). Women in the AM group represented healthier nutritional behaviors. Results presented indicate that in further study concerning evaluation of nutrients consumption among women the fact of natural menopause should be considered.

  15. [A study on risk factors and perceptions of diabetes among urban and suburban residents from six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Nie, Xueqiong; Sun, Siwei; Huang, Xianggang; Shi, Mingfei; Li, Fangbo; Wei, Wei

    2014-07-01

    To study the epidemiological status of diabetes' risk factors among urban and suburban residents and their perceptions of their own health status and risk of diabetes. Stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to conduct the survey among 18-60 years old residents from Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Henan, Yunnan, and Qinghai provinces in China from March to May in 2013. The Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China was used to conduct the survey, and then the data were analyzed. The main contents of the questionnaire included diabetes mellitus knowledge, diabetes mellitus risk factors and diabetes mellitus risk self-assessment. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6(th) national census data. A total of 4 416 respondents were surveyed, and 4 282 valid questionnaires were successfully collected during the survey and the response rate was 97.0%. After weighted adjustment, the overweight and obesity rate of the residents in 6 provinces was 35.3%, abdominal obesity rate was 54.7%. 77.8% of the residents without diabetes had more than one risk factor, but only 8.5% thought they might got diabetes. The residents with high risk behavior possessing rates of diabetes were in eastern areas (79.7%), urban areas (80.7%), men (84.1%), aged from 45 to 60(100.0%), below primary school education level (83.4%) and enterprise personnel (79.7%). The residents with high risk consciousness of getting diabetes were in eastern areas (11.0%), urban areas (9.7%), men (9.7%), aged from 45 to 60 (12.3%), over college education level (12.7%) and the offices (14.7%). The results of logistic regression showed that residents in the middle areas (OR = 2.148, 95% CI: 1.633-2.920), urban residents (OR = 2.100, 95% CI: 1.611-2.738), male (OR = 2.488, 95% CI: 1.962-3.154), the older (OR = 1.102, 95% CI: 1.090-1.115) had a higher risk behavior rate of diabetes mellitus. Urban residents (OR = 2.784, 95% CI: 1.497-5.175), male (OR = 1.522, 95% CI: 1

  16. The Reported Value of Rural Internal Medicine Residency Electives and Factors That Influence Rural Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C.; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 58 medical residents participating in a 1-2 month rural elective and 51 matched nonparticipants found that participants' interest in rural practice increased significantly after the elective. Respondents suggested means to increase rural career choice, barriers to rural practice, and ways of increasing the rural elective's influence on…

  17. Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke M.; de Groot, Maartje H.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and fa

  18. Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke M.; de Groot, Maartje H.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and

  19. Factors influencing the proportion of food consumed by nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amella, E J

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of and interventions for promoting eating in persons with late-stage dementia have primarily focused on facilitation of safe feeding and methods to promote ingestion of nutrients via several routes. Using Social Exchange Theory, this study examined how the quality of the interaction between care giver and care receiver influenced the proportion of food consumed by persons with late-stage dementia. Fifty-three dyads composed of nursing home residents with late-stage dementia and Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) were observed during the breakfast meal. The proportion of food consumed by the residents was measured by weight. The study included measures of the quality of interaction between the resident and the CNA (Interaction Behavior Measure-Modified (IBM-M) and the IBM), CNA empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), and CNA power (Control subscale of the FIRO-B). Specific resident behaviors and the CNA's ability to allow another person to control a relationship were most predictive of the variance in the proportion of food consumed (R2 = .41; F(3,49) = 12.54; P < .001). The quality of the resident-CNA interaction accounted for 32% of the variance in the proportion of food consumed. One aspect of power was correlated significantly to the proportion of food consumed whereas CNA empathy was not. Because eating is the most social of all ADLs and is culturally bound, clinicians need to examine the interactional components of meals within the caregiving dyad when a person with late-stage dementia fails to ingest adequate nutrients.

  20. Factors associated with mental health status of medical residents: a model-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sykioti, Panagiota; Niakas, Dimitris; Zis, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Residency is a stressful period in a physician's development, characterized by long work hours, time pressure, and excessive work load, that can exert negative effects on residents' mental health. Job burnout and negative work-home interference may play a major role in residents' mental health problems. The present study used the job demands-resources model as a theoretical framework to examine the way in which job demands (e.g., workload, emotional demands) and job resources (e.g., supervisor support, job autonomy) were associated with residents' mental health. From a pool of 290 medical residents, 264 (91 %) completed the questionnaires. Applying structural equation modeling techniques, the results showed that greater emotional exhaustion (β = -.65, SE = .09, p < .001) and more work-home interference (β = -.26, SE = .10, p < .05) were related to poor mental health. Specific job demands (i.e., high workload) and particular job resources (i.e., low opportunities for professional development and low supervisor support) were related to poor mental health not directly but only indirectly, via emotional exhaustion or work-home interference. Thus, through work-related emotional exhaustion, the impact of work conditions might be transmitted to and interfere with non-work related domains such as family life, as well as with domain-unspecific aspects of well-being, such as mental health and psychological distress. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  1. How demographic and economic factors have influenced ways of residing measured by urbanisation, type of dwelling, and type of tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss factors influencing ways of residing up to and during the years leading up to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) as well as presently. The activity in the housing construction sector in the Nordic and Baltic countries was at a very high level until...... 2005–2007. Urban sprawl and overinvestment in business premises and housing were important risks to be considered. The high economic activity also led to an increase in the cost of housing and hence to affordability problems in major cities. Many new urban quarters and towns came into planning...... of residing measured by urbanisation, type of dwelling, and type of tenure....

  2. Risk factors for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence after hip fracture: a prospective longitudinal study of 444 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.H. Vochteloo (Anne); S.T. Vliet-Koppert; A.B. Maier (Andrea); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); M.R. de Vries (Mark); R.M. Bloem (Rolf); R.G.H.H. Nelissen (Rob); P. Pilot (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Long-term place of residence after hip fracture is not often described in literature. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors, known at admission, for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence of hip fracture patients in the Wrst year after a hip

  3. Risk factors for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence after hip fracture: a prospective longitudinal study of 444 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.H. Vochteloo (Anne); S.T. Vliet-Koppert; A.B. Maier (Andrea); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); M.R. de Vries (Mark); R.M. Bloem (Rolf); R.G.H.H. Nelissen (Rob); P. Pilot (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Long-term place of residence after hip fracture is not often described in literature. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors, known at admission, for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence of hip fracture patients in the Wrst year after a hip

  4. Resident, nursing home, and state factors affecting the reliability of Minimum Data Set quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Mor, Vincent; Roy, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Nursing home quality measures impact policy decisions such as reimbursement or consumer choice. Quality indicators in the United States are collected through the federally mandated Minimum Data Set (MDS). Bias in MDS data collection or coding can thus have a negative impact on policy applications. To understand whether bias was present in coding, the authors studied 5174 pairs of MDS assessments that were independently collected by nursing home staff and study nurses from 206 nursing homes. The authors developed multivariate multilevel models to identify nursing home and resident characteristics that were significantly associated with the data quality of multiple MDS measures of nursing home quality. The outcomes were coding differences between nursing home staff and study nurses. Resident characteristics explained little of the variation in coding differences among facilities, while facilities characteristics explained 4% to 20% of the variation and state location further explained 13% to 34% of the variation. A generalized effect of nursing home state location tended to be consistent across measures. States that overidentified problems also tended to have worse quality indicators and vice versa. Comparisons of MDS-based quality indicators reflect differences in assessment practices at least as much as true quality differences. Efforts to standardize assessment practices across states are needed.

  5. Energy consumption and human factors. Residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses; Energy shohi to human factor. Jutaku ni okeru kyojusha no ishiki sumaikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, N. [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Living Science

    1996-09-05

    Energy consumption and human factors, which mean residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses, are considered on the basis of the survey results for residents living in residential houses with the same specifications in the Kansai district in 1994. The outside climate condition is loosened through the shelter performance of building, solar radiation, and clothes, to form the climate under clothes. Additionally, as a result of physiological control of body heat, the warm, cool, and comfortable sensations are formed. Various factors affect this process. Conception of satisfaction was considered as upper criteria. There are residents satisfying the non-use of air-conditioner, even though it is not comfortable. The concept of satisfaction determines dissatisfaction, patience, and otherwise satisfaction of environment modification action and escape action from environment. Concrete examples of the life style are illustrated based on the survey. Dispersion of room temperature and the various consciousness and styles of living are also illustrated, qualitatively, on the basis of the field survey. For the investigation of domestic energy consumption items, it is not avoidable to illustrate the common actual conditions of living. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Factors Related to Rejection of Care and Behaviors Directed towards Others: A Longitudinal Study in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Galindo-Garre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze factors related to rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods: The relationship of lack of understanding, depression, psychosis and pain with rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others was explored using four assessments from the Minimum Data Set (MDS within a period of 15 months on 1,101 residents with dementia in Dutch nursing homes. Presence of depressive symptoms was ascertained using a validated MDS scale, and presence of lack of understanding, rejection of care, psychosis and pain through the individual MDS items. A structural equation modeling approach and latent growth models were used to investigate the longitudinal relationship between changes in rejection of care and physical or verbal behaviors directed towards others, and changes in lack of understanding, pain, depression and psychotic symptoms. Results: Changes in lack of understanding predicted changes in rejection of care, and there was also a relationship between changes in depression and rejection of care. Changes of behaviors directed towards others were related to changes in lack of understanding and depression. Pain and behaviors directed towards others were unrelated, and psychosis was rather stable throughout. A mediation model suggested that the relationship of lack of understanding with behaviors directed towards others was mediated by rejection of care. Conclusion: These results indicate that lack of understanding and depression are important factors in development of rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others. The relationship between lack of understanding and behaviors directed towards others is mediated by rejection of care. Improvement in communication between residents and caregivers, and perhaps also effective treatment of depression may prevent or ameliorate these behaviors directed towards others.

  7. Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z.; Hardison, Ross C.; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2013-01-01

    GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function. PMID:24367609

  8. Factors influencing deprescribing for residents in Advanced Care Facilities: insights from General Practitioners in Australia and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmsjö, Beata Borgström; Palagyi, Anna; Keay, Lisa; Potter, Jan; Lindley, Richard I

    2016-11-05

    General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for primary prescribing decisions in most settings. Elderly patients living in Advanced Care Facilities (ACFs) often have significant co-morbidities to consider when selecting an appropriate drug therapy. Careful assessment is required when considering appropriate medication use in frail older patients as they have multiple diseases and thus multiple medication. Many physicians seem reluctant to discontinue other physicians' prescriptions, resulting in further polypharmacy. Therefore it is relevant to ascertain and synthesise the GP views from multiple settings to understand the processes that might promote appropriate deprescribing medications in the elderly. The aims of this study were to 1) compare and contrast behavioural factors influencing the deprescribing practices of GPs providing care for ACF residents in two separate countries, 2) review health policy and ACF systems in each setting for their potential impact on the prescribing of medications for an older person in residential care of the elderly, and 3) based on these findings, provide recommendations for future ACF deprescribing initiatives. A review and critical synthesis of qualitative data from two interview studies of knowledge, attitudes, and behavioural practices held by GPs towards medication management and deprescribing for residents of ACFs in Australia and Sweden was conducted. A review of policies and health care infrastructure was also carried out to describe the system of residential aged care in the both countries. Our study has identified that deprescribing by GPs in ACFs is a complex process and that there are numerous barriers to medication reduction for aged care residents in both countries, both with similarities and differences. The factors affecting deprescribing behaviour were identified and divided into: intentions, skills and abilities and environmental factors. In this study we show that the GPs' behaviour of deprescribing in two

  9. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  10. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P Myanmar, and this should be further confirmed parasitologically and kept under surveillance. Proper trainings on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be provided to the healthcare providers. ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458 . Registered 28 September 2014, retrospectively registered.

  11. Overweight in men and women among urban area residents: individual factors and socioeconomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Gomes de Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate factors associated with overweight among adults living in urban areas, with the income of the census tract as a context variable. The survey assessed individuals from two health districts of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Excess weight was determined by body mass index > 25kg/m2. Multilevel logistic regression was used. The sample comprised 2,935 individuals aged 20 to 60 years. The prevalence of overweight was 52.3% (95%CI: 49.9-54.8, similar between men and women. Higher schooling proved to be protective against overweight in women and a risk for men. Living in census tracts with higher income was associated with excess weight only in males. Report of the consumption of diet soft drinks was positively associated with overweight in both sexes. The occurrence of this event seems to be influenced by different factors or to interrelate differently in men and women.

  12. Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents' job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Early, Sean F; Mahrer, Nicole E; Klaristenfeld, Jessica L; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Stress can have detrimental effects on nurse residents' levels of job satisfaction, compassion, fatigue, and burnout. This can lead to high turnover rates and poor quality of care among novice nurses. Therefore, it is critical to identify protective factors to prevent the onset of negative nurse outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout, and job dissatisfaction) and to promote positive nurse outcomes (job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction). This study aimed to determine whether factors such as group cohesion and organizational commitment would be protective and moderate the association between stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms and other negative nurse outcomes, thus facilitating positive outcomes. Findings showed that group cohesion was effective in moderating the negative effects of current stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms on negative nurse outcomes, specifically on increased compassion fatigue and burnout, and reduced compassion satisfaction. In addition, organizational commitment was determined to promote positive nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and compassion satisfaction. The study findings are promising, as retention of quality nurses is a significant problem for hospitals. Nurse managers and hospital administrators should be aware of the benefits of group cohesion and organizational commitment and strive to make the promotion of these factors a priority.

  13. MRSA Prevalence and Risk Factors among Health Personnel and Residents in Nursing Homes in Hamburg, Germany – A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Claudia; Dulon, Madeleine; Kleinmüller, Olaf; Nienhaus, Albert; Schablon, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals causes problems in nursing homes. Staff in geriatric nursing homes are at greater risk of MRSA colonisation. The aim of the study was to describe the occupational exposure to MRSA among health personnel in geriatric nursing. Methods A point prevalence survey was conducted among health personnel and residents of geriatric nursing homes within the greater Hamburg district. Nasal swabs and, where relevant, wound swabs were collected for the screening survey. Risk factors for MRSA colonisation were identified by means of a questionnaire and using the files held on the residents. Where tests on nursing staff were positive, a control swab was taken; when the results were confirmed positive, decolonisation was performed. The responsible general practitioners were notified of positive MRSA findings among residents. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed. Results A total of 19 institutions participated in the study. Nasal swabs were taken from 759 nursing staff and 422 residents. Prevalence of MRSA was 1.6% among staff and 5.5% among residents. MRSA colonisation among health personnel indicated a correlation with male gender (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4–14.1). Among the residents, chronic skin diseases (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0–10.3) and indwelling devices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.1) were identified as risk factors. No link between MRSA in residents and in health personnel could be established. Conclusion The number of MRSA colonisations among nursing staff and residents of geriatric nursing homes in Hamburg was rather low at 1.6% and 5.5% respectively and equates to the results of other surveys in non-outbreak scenarios. PMID:28068356

  14. HIV/AIDS risk factors among residence students at the University of the Free State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, G; van Staden, A; Coetsee, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sexual campus culture of students at the University of the Free State (UFS), by specifically focussing on gender and culture as patterns of high-risk sexual behaviour. The sample consisted of 396 participants, 211 female and 185 male students, with a mean age of 19.9 years. Sixty one percent (61%) of the students associated themselves with a Western cultural background and 39% with an African cultural background. In this article an exposition is provided on information collected in a survey conducted at the UFS to help provide a better understanding of risk factors for HIV infection among UFS students in comparison with the behaviour patterns of students at other universities. Stereotypes identified as known risk factors making students at other universities more vulnerable to HIV and high-risk sexual behaviour, were also found among UFS students. Results indicated the existence of the following statistical significant correlations: African cultural students, gender and their viewpoint that there is a stronger relationship between homosexuality and HIV/AIDS; their opinion that HIV/AIDS is more strongly associated with African students. Data obtained from this survey questionnaire show that even if students have a great deal of knowledge to their disposal, and even if they recognised that they were personally at risk, some students' sexual practices and risk-taking behaviour remained unchanged. Despite the fact that the majority of students (85%) concluded that it is unacceptable for a woman or a man to have more than one sexual partner and that it is better to wait until marriage before engaging in a sexual relationship, 17% of male students (Western culture) and 4% of female students indicated that they have had more than five sexual partners in their lives. Statistical significant correlations also existed between African students, gender and their sexual activity the last six months. Contradictory to research results

  15. Sleep quality and some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Yavuz Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100

  16. Brain derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the cardiogenic potential of adult resident progenitor cells in failing murine heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmita Samal

    Full Text Available Resident cardiac progenitor cells show homing properties when injected into the injured but not to the healthy myocardium. The molecular background behind this difference in behavior needs to be studied to elucidate how adult progenitor cells can restore cardiac function of the damaged myocardium. Since the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF moderates cardioprotection in injured hearts, we focused on delineating its regulatory role in the damaged myocardium.Comparative gene expression profiling of freshly isolated undifferentiated Sca-1 progenitor cells derived either from heart failure transgenic αMHC-CyclinT1/Gαq overexpressing mice or wildtype littermates revealed transcriptional variations. Bdnf expression was up regulated 5-fold during heart failure which was verified by qRT-PCR and confirmed at protein level. The migratory capacity of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts was improved by 15% in the presence of 25 ng/ml BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-mediated effects on Sca-1 cells were studied via pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC proteomics approach. After BDNF treatment significant differences between newly synthesized proteins in Sca-1 cells from control and transgenic hearts were observed for CDK1, SRRT, HDGF, and MAP2K3 which are known to regulate cell cycle, survival and differentiation. Moreover BDNF repressed the proliferation of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts.Comparative profiling of resident Sca-1 cells revealed elevated BDNF levels in the failing heart. Exogenous BDNF (i stimulated migration, which might improve the homing ability of Sca-1 cells derived from the failing heart and (ii repressed the cell cycle progression suggesting its potency to ameliorate heart failure.

  17. An epidemiological survey of prevalence and risk factors for fatty liver disease in adults residing in Yan′an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Li′na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence and major risk factors for fatty liver disease among adult residents in Yan’an, Shanxi Province, China.MethodsThe study enrolled healthy adults who had physical examination with complete clinical records in our hospital from February 2011 to March 2013. All participants underwent anthropometric measurement (height, weight, and blood pressure, biochemical and immunological tests (liver and renal function; blood glucose, lipids, and uric acid [UA]; viral markers, and ultrasound examination. Data analysis was performed using the t test, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis. ResultsA total of 6236 adult residents participated in the survey, who accounted for approximately 3.76/1000 of the total population in Yan’an. There were 3532 males and 2704 females, with a mean age of 49.27±12.93 years. Fatty liver disease was detected with ultrasound examination in 1602 participants (2568%, among whom alcoholic, suspected alcoholic, and nonalcoholic forms accounted for 4.55%, 7.08%, and 88.37%, respectively. The fatty liver group had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hyperuricemia, higher-than-normal fasting serum glucose (FSG level, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia than the non-fatty-liver group (P<0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, gender (male, drinking, waist circumference, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglyceride (TG, UA, FSG, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were influential factors for fatty liver disease, of which HDL-C was a protective factor. Compared with the normal FSG group, the impaired fasting glycaemia and diabetes groups were at an increased risk for fatty liver disease by 1.584-and 2.638-fold, respectively (P<0.001. The risk increased by1.627-, 1.796-, 9.544-fold, respectively, in the overweight, grade I obesity, and grade Ⅱ obesity groups versus the

  18. Foraging strategy of a neotropical primate: how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence destination and residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Sabrina; Colchero, Fernando; Calmé, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Most animals need to actively search for food to meet energetic requirements and live in heterogeneous environments where food resources have complex spatio-temporal patterns of availability. Consequently, foraging animals need to find a balance between effort and resource allocation while accounting for intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are often overlooked when modelling foraging behaviour. We identified the decision rules for foraging in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), according to food preferences, locations of high-quality patches and previously eaten trees, phenology of food resources and hunger state. We depicted foraging in two stages: (i) the choice of the immediate next tree and (ii) the time spent on this tree. We used a recently developed model for inference of movement processes, incorporating resource selection functions into a Markov chain framework. We found that monkeys tend to move to preferred tree species at each step. However, we did not find conclusively that, at each step, monkeys direct their movements to reach high-quality patches. In fact, they were using these patches intensively, thus limiting the possibility to move towards other high-quality patches. Time spent on a tree was positively and strongly affected by the presence of preferred food items, but not by its species. We also showed that time spent on trees increased as a function of satiation state. We suggest that the strategy adopted by black howlers tends to be efficient because choosing preferred trees at each step and spending spend more time where preferred resources are available should favour energy intake and restrain movement costs. This study showcases a modelling framework that can be widely used in ecology to describe movements as a combination of multiple attraction and repulsion sources, such as mates and competitors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  19. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  20. Weight loss, mortality and associated potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors among nursing home residents--a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, A M

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 441 nursing home resident living in 11 nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratio was calculated and used to assess the strength of association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors and nutritional status of the participants. The difference in mortality between those......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this follow-up study is to assess the association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors; weight loss after six and 12 months and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING: A one year follow-up project among Danish nursing home residents. PARTICIPANTS...... uneaten at most meals, chewing and swallowing problems. The prevalence of eating dependency; leaves 25% or more of food uneaten at most meals; swallowing problems and enteral nutrition were higher among those who died than among survivors. CONCLUSION: A high percentage of old nursing home residents suffer...

  1. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Matsubara

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors.A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2.Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively, the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67, being female (odds ratio, 1.47, middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53 and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively.The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  3. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  4. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Construct Validity of the Resident Choice Assessment Scale with Paid Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior in Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Victoria; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Crabtree, Jason; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Resident Choice Assessment Scale (RCAS) is used to assess choice availability for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of the study was to explore the factor structure, construct validity, and internal consistency of the measure in community settings to further validate this tool. Method: 108 paid carers of adults…

  5. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  6. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  7. Teaching maternity care in family medicine residencies: what factors predict graduate continuation of obstetrics? A 2013 CERA program directors study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Roberts, Mary B; Magee, Susanna R

    2015-06-01

    Maternity care is an essential component of family medicine, yet the number of residency graduates providing this care continues to decline. Residency programs have struggled to identify strategies to increase continuation of obstetric practice among graduates. Leaders in family medicine obstetrics previously proposed a tiered model of training to ensure adequate volume for those desiring to continue maternity care upon graduation. However, whether this approach will be successful is unknown. This study aimed to identify program characteristics and teaching methods that may influence residents to continue obstetrics practice upon graduation. A nationwide survey of family medicine residency program directors (PDs) was conducted as part of the 2013 CERA survey to characterize teaching in maternity care and identify program-level predictors of graduate continuation of obstetrics (OB). Family medicine programs, which were community-based, university-affiliated programs in the Midwest and West, contributed more trainees who continued to provide OB care upon graduation. Trainees at these programs received greater supervision by family medicine faculty preceptors on labor and delivery, reported at least 80 deliveries by graduates during residency, and experienced greater autonomy in decision-making during OB rotations. This study supports a targeted approach to teaching maternity care in family medicine residency programs. Prioritizing continuity delivery experiences and fostering resident independence are strategies toward promoting increased provision of obstetric care by family medicine graduates. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of tiered or track systems in practice.

  8. Resident-to-resident violence triggers in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C

    2013-11-01

    Certified nurses' assistants (CNAs) employed by a rural nursing home in Northeast Arkansas described their perceptions of resident-to-resident violence in order to provide insight on factors, including unmet needs, that may trigger the phenomenon. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 CNAs. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Two categories of triggers emerged from the data-active and passive. Active triggers involved the actions of other residents that were intrusive in nature, such as wandering into a residents' personal space, taking a resident's belongings, and so forth. Passive triggers did not involve the actions of residents but related to the internal and external environment of the residents. Examples were factors such as boredom, competition for attention and communication difficulties. Results indicate that there are factors, including unmet needs within the nursing home environment that may be identified and altered to prevent violence between residents.

  9. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  10. A Cross-sectional Investigation on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer for Residents over 40 Years Old in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojiang CHEN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective In the previous studies, we have designed the Self-evaluation Scoring Questionnaire for High-risk Individuals of Lung Cancer. In order to make a better understanding of the status of risk factors of lung cancer for residents in Chengdu, we carried out the investigation from June 2009 to December 2009. Methods With the stratified random sampling method, eligible residents were included and their risk factors of lung cancer were collected with the Self-evaluation Scoring Questionnaire for High-risk Individuals of Lung Cancer. Results According to the criteria of the questionnaire, 21.34% of the population were at high risk of lung cancer. The smoking rate for male was 48.58%, higher than that of 2.65% for female. About 5.39% of male smokers began smoking before 15 years old. The average daily tobacco consumption in the most population was less than 20 pieces, with a duration between 20 to 40 years. However, there were 11.34% of all women suffered from passive smoking, and another 15.30% and 5.86% of residents were exposed to cooking fumes, minerals or asbestos. As for the previous illness history, 0.77%-18.08% of individuals have connective tissue diseases, pulmonary tuberculosis, emphysema and others. Finally, 4.91% of residents endured the long-term mental depression, and 7.24% had a positive family history of tumors. Conclusion The status of risk factors for lung cancer among residents in Chengdu was not optimistic. It should be paid more attention to tobacco control and environmental improvement to improve people's health.

  11. Can changes in psychosocial factors and residency explain the decrease in physical activity during the transition from high school to college or university?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-04-01

    When students make the transition from high school to college or university, their physical activity (PA) levels decrease strongly. Consequently, it is of crucial importance to identify the determinants of this decline in PA. The study aims were to (1) examine changes in psychosocial factors in students during the transition from high school to college/university, (2) examine if changes in psychosocial factors and residency can predict changes in PA, and (3) investigate the moderating effects of residency on the relationship between changes in psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Between March 2008 and October 2010, 291 Flemish students participated in a longitudinal study, with baseline measurements during the final year of high school and follow-up measurements at the start of second year of college/university. At both time points, participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, active transportation, leisure-time sports, psychosocial variables, and residency. Repeated measures MANOVA analyses and multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted. Modeling, self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and health-related, external and social barriers decreased, while health-related benefits and time-related barriers increased from baseline to follow-up. Decreases in modeling and time-related barriers were associated with a decrease in active transportation (adjusted R(2) = 3.2%); residency, decreases in self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and increases in health- and time-related barriers predicted a decrease in leisure-time sports (adjusted R(2) = 29.3%). Residency only moderated two associations between psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Residency and changes in psychosocial factors were mainly important to explain the decrease in leisure-time sports. Other factors such as distance to college/university are likely more important to explain the decrease in active transportation; these are worth exploring in

  12. [Prevalence and factors associated with clinical counselling on drug use among internal specialists residents of Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Jiménez, María de la Villa; Pérez-Milena, Alejandro; Valverde-Bolívar, Francisco Javier; Rosa-Garrido, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    To determine the frequency of offering clinical counseling against the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs by internal specialist residents (EIR) of Andalusia, and the factors related to such advice. Multicenter cross-sectional study by self-administered questionnaire sent by mail. EIR of Andalusia. The questionnaire collected the frequency of counseling against the use of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs (dependent variable). age/gender, specialty, drug consumption and Fagerström test. Out of a total of 4245 participants, 66% responded, 29% did not respond, and 5% poorly completed questionnaires. The mean age was 29.1(±SD 5.1) years, 69% female, 89% Spanish nationality, 84% in medical training (73% hospital, 27% family medicine). The frequency of counseling against tobacco (85%) and alcohol (82%) is higher than illegal drugs (56%, p<.001, χ(2) test). Counseling against alcohol consumption is related to family medicine (OR=2.8; 95% CI [1.4-4.6]) and nursing (OR=2.5 [1.7-4.4]), and the age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.07 [1.03-1.1]). Counseling against smoking is related to family medicine (OR=12.9;[7.6-21.9]) and nursing (OR=8.4;[4.3-16.5]), personal consumption of tobacco (OR=1.5 [1.2-2.0]), and wine (OR=1.1 [1.04-1.3]), and age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.06 [1.01-1.1]). Counseling against illegal drugs is related to the age of first alcohol consumption (OR=1.09 [1.05-1.1]) and smoking (OR=.58 [.4-.7]). There is a high frequency of counseling against consumption of tobacco and alcohol by EIR, although remarkably smaller for illegal drugs. The influencing factors are both formative elements of their own specialty such as personal consumption of alcohol and tobacco, which should be considered for improvement of this preventive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with rushed and missed resident care in western Canadian nursing homes: a cross-sectional survey of health care aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer A; Niehaus, Linda; Squires, Janet E; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-10-01

    To describe the nature, frequency and factors associated with care that was rushed or missed by health care aides in western Canadian nursing homes. The growing number of nursing home residents with dementia has created job strain for frontline health care providers, the majority of whom are health care aides. Due to the associated complexity of care, health care aides are challenged to complete more care tasks in less time. Rushed or missed resident care are associated with adverse resident outcomes (e.g. falls) and poorer quality of staff work life (e.g. burnout) making this an important quality of care concern. Cross-sectional survey of health care aides (n = 583) working in a representative sample of nursing homes (30 urban, six rural) in western Canada. Data were collected in 2010 as part of the Translating Research in Elder Care study. We collected data on individual health care aides (demographic characteristics, job and vocational satisfaction, physical and mental health, burnout), unit level characteristics associated with organisational context, facility characteristics (location, size, owner/operator model), and the outcome variables of rushed and missed resident care. Most health care aides (86%) reported being rushed. Due to lack of time, 75% left at least one care task missed during their previous shift. Tasks most frequently missed were talking with residents (52% of health care aides) and assisting with mobility (51%). Health care aides working on units with higher organisational context scores were less likely to report rushed and missed care. Health care aides frequently report care that is rushed and tasks omitted due to lack of time. Considering the resident population in nursing homes today--many with advanced dementia and all with complex care needs--health care aides having enough time to provide physical and psychosocial care of high quality is a critical concern. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Successful ingredients in the SMILE study: resident, staff, and management factors influence the effects of humor therapy in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Low, Lee-Fay; Liu, Zhixin; Fletcher, Jennifer; Roast, Joel; Goodenough, Belinda; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individual and institutional-level factors influence the effects of a humor therapy intervention on aged care residents. Data were from the humor therapy group of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns, or SMILE, study, a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of humor therapy conducted over 12 weeks; assessments were performed at baseline, week 13, and week 26. One hundred eighty-nine individuals from 17 Sydney residential aged care facilities were randomly allocated to the humor therapy intervention. Professional performers called "ElderClowns" provided 9-12 weekly humor therapy 2-hour sessions, augmented by trained staff, called "LaughterBosses." Outcome measures were as follows: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and proxy-rated quality of life in dementia population scale. Facility-level measures were as follows: support of the management for the intervention, commitment levels of LaughterBosses, Environmental Audit Tool scores, and facility level of care provided (high/low). Resident-level measures were engagement, functional ability, disease severity, and time-in-care. Multilevel path analyses simultaneously modeled resident engagement at the individual level (repeated measures) and the effects of management support and staff commitment to humor therapy at the cluster level. Models indicated flow-on effects, whereby management support had positive effects on LaughterBoss commitment, and LaughterBoss commitment increased resident engagement. Higher resident engagement was associated with reduced depression, agitation, and neuropsychiatric scores. Effectiveness of psychosocial programs in residential aged care can be enhanced by management support, staff commitment, and active resident engagement. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  15. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Cattle Farmers and Farm Residents in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Cong, Wei; Li, Mao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about Coxiella burnetii infection among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to detect the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and estimate associated risk factors among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. A cross-sectional study was designed, and sera of 362 people living or working on 106 cattle farms were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescence assay. Overall C. burnetii seroprevalence was 35.6% (129/362, 95% CI: 30.70-40.57), and 112 participants had experienced a past infection and seventeen (4.7%) had experienced a relatively recent infection. In the final combined multilevel model, the following activities were significantly associated with presence of antibodies against C. burnetii: milking cattle, providing general healthcare to cattle, providing birth assistance, contact dead-born animals, urbanization, and presence of mice and/or rats in the stable. Moreover, presence of disinfection equipment was a significant protective factor. This is the first study addressing the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. burnetii infection in cattle farmers and farm residents in three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

  16. Risk factors for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence after hip fracture: a prospective longitudinal study of 444 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochteloo, Anne J H; van Vliet-Koppert, Sabine T; Maier, Andrea B; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Röling, Maarten L; de Vries, Mark R; Bloem, Rolf M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Pilot, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Long-term place of residence after hip fracture is not often described in literature. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors, known at admission, for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence of hip fracture patients in the first year after a hip fracture. This is a prospective longitudinal study of 444 consecutive admissions of hip fracture patients aged ≥ 65 years. Place of residence prior to admission, at discharge, after 3 and 12 months was registered. Patients admitted from a nursing home (n = 49) were excluded from statistical analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, using age, gender, presence of a partner, ASA-score, dementia, anaemia at admission, type of fracture, pre-fracture level of mobility and level of activities of daily living (ADL) as possible risk factors. Two hundred eighty-nine patients lived in their own home, 31.8% returned at discharge, 72.9% at 3 months and 72.8% at 12 months. Age, absence of a partner, dementia, and a lower pre-fracture level of ADL or mobility were independent contributors to failure to return to their own home at discharge, 3 or 12 months. 106 patients lived in a residential home; 33.3% returned at discharge, 68.4% at 3 months and 64.4% at 12 months. Age was an independent contributor to failure to return to a residential home. Age, dementia and a lower pre-fracture level of ADL were the main significant risk factors for failure to return to the pre-fracture residence. As the 3- and 12-month return-rates were similar, 3-month follow-up might be used as an endpoint in future research.

  17. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.

  18. Risk Factors for the Development of Gastrointestinal Colonization With Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H.; Maslow, Joel; Han, Xiaoyan; Xie, Sharon X.; Tolomeo, Pam; Santana, Evelyn; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for the development of fluoroquinolone (FQ)–resistant Escherichia coli gastrointestinal tract colonization in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 at 3 LTCFs. Residents initially colonized with FQ-susceptible E. coli were followed by means of serial fecal sampling for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization for up to 12 months or until discharge or death. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify risk factors for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization, with antibiotic and device exposures modeled as time-varying covariates. Results. Fifty-seven (47.5%) of 120 residents became newly colonized with FQ-resistant E. coli, with a median time to colonization of 57 days. Fecal incontinence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–3.06; P = .04) was significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli acquisition. Receipt of amoxicillin-clavulanate (HR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.43–29.4; P = .02) and the presence of a urinary catheter (HR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.06–13.8; P = .04) during LTCF stay increased the risk of new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Conclusions. Acquisition of FQ-resistant E. coli was common, with nearly half of LTCF residents developing new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Further studies are needed on interventions to limit the emergence of FQ-resistant E. coli in LTCFs. PMID:23986544

  19. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  20. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  1. 制约辽宁省居民消费能力提升的因素%Restrictive Factors To Enhance Consumption Capacity Of Liaoning Province Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜羽西

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient household consumption has become a great obstacle to develop economy.It also profoundly affects the coordinated development of investment,consumption and export.The overall consumption ability of liaoning province residents is insufficient.According to analysis,we suggest that unreasonable resident income distribution,lower consumption concept,lower expectation of social security in the future and imperfect consumption environment become restrictive factors to enhance ability of residents'consumption in liaoning and then we put forward countermeasures and suggestions.Finally we hope realize the new pattern of consumption,investment and export to drive economic growth.%居民消费不足已成为经济发展的巨大障碍,也影响着投资、消费、出口的协调发展. 辽宁省居民的总体消费能力不足,通过分析得出,居民收入分配不合理、消费理念偏低、未来保障预期低以及消费环境不完善等都成为制约辽宁居民消费能力提升的因素,据此提出对策建议,最终实现消费、投资、出口协同驱动经济增长的新格局.

  2. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  3. Analysis on resident burnout and its related organizational factors%住院医师职业倦怠及组织相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文瑄; 王惠; 唐佃珍; 成颢; 张宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status of resident burnout and explore its organizational factors. Methods:A total of 1 098 residents were assessed by Chinese maslach burnout inventory (CMBI), distributive and procedural justice scale, role conflict and ambiguity scale, job demands and decision latitude scale. Results: 76.7% residents experience at least mild burnout. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that, workload and role conflict could significantly predict emotional exhaustion, while organizational justice had negative prediction. Role conflict and role ambiguity could significantly predict depersonalization. Procedural Justice, job control and workload could significantly negatively predict reduced achievement. Conclusion: The situation of occupational burnout among Chinese resident doctors is serious. Resident burnout has particular related organizational factors. An intervention and prevention should take place at the level of organization.%目的:研究中国住院医师职业倦怠的现状及其组织相关因素。方法采用中国职业倦怠量表(CMBI)、分配和程序公平量表、角色冲突分量表和角色混淆分量表、工作要求和决策自主量表对国内1098名住院医生进行调查。结果住院医师轻度以上倦怠达到76.7%;工作负荷、角色冲突和组织公平对住院医师有显著的预测作用;角色冲突和角色混淆对人格解体有显著的预测作用;程序公平、工作控制和工作负荷对成就感降低有显著的预测作用。结论国内住院医师职业倦怠情况严重,并具有特异性的组织相关影响因素,应予以重视。

  4. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Guo-Li; Su, Yin-Xia; Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-Xia; Su, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    .... To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur...

  5. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: the mediating role of social and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Sorensen, Glorian C

    2014-12-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  7. Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Rosaria I; Loffredo, Stefania; Borriello, Francesco; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Orlando, Pierangelo; Secondo, Agnese; Granata, Francescopaolo; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Varricchi, Gilda; Santini, Mario; Triggiani, Massimo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marone, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are pivotal effector cells in immune responses and tissue remodeling by producing a wide spectrum of mediators, including angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 has been suggested as a new strategy to modulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether human lung-resident macrophages express a complete endocannabinoid system by assessing their production of endocannabinoids and expression of cannabinoid receptors. Unstimulated human lung macrophage produce 2-arachidonoylglycerol,N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine,N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine. On LPS stimulation, human lung macrophages selectively synthesize 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a calcium-dependent manner. Human lung macrophages express cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, and their activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. Cannabinoid receptor activation by the specific synthetic agonists ACEA and JWH-133 (but not the endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol) markedly inhibits LPS-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and angiopoietins and modestly affects IL-6 secretion. No significant modulation of TNF-α or IL-8/CXCL8 release was observed. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by human monocyte-derived macrophages is not modulated by activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2. Given the prominent role of macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling in many tumors, we identified the expression of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer-associated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cannabinoid receptor activation selectively inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from human lung macrophage but not from monocyte-derived macrophages. Activation of cannabinoid receptors on tissue-resident macrophages might be a novel strategy to modulate macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling

  8. The Last Habitual Residence of the Deceased as the Principal Connecting Factor in the Context of the Succession Regulation (650/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah Max

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to gather information about the last habitual residence (LHR of the deceased in the context of the upcoming EU Succession Regulation. In addition, the aim was to analyze the adequacy of the legally undefined LHR as the principal connecting factor in cross-border succession within the EU. This study was carried out as a part of a bachelor thesis conducted on the same subject. The data were collected from relevant jurisprudence, international law, national acts, the EU published materials and case law. These results suggest that the legally undefined LHR is an unstable connecting factor for the purposes of the Succession Regulation, since it cannot guarantee sufficient legal certainty, and hence, the EU citizens are not able to fully utilize their right to free movement. The findings indicate that there might be a need to amend a legal definition for the LHR, not only for the EU Member States to be able to apply the concept in an harmonized way, but also for the EU citizens to know whether they are considered habitually resident in a state or not.

  9. An Empirical Study on Influencing Factors of Residents Environmental Behavior%城市居民环境行为影响因素的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩; 宋金波; 宋丹荣

    2012-01-01

    在对现有国内外相关研究系统整理的基础上,界定了环境行为的概念,归纳出环境态度、个性和情境因素这3类环境行为的影响变量;探讨了上述变量对我国居民环境行为的影响差异,结果表明:环境态度因素中的环境敏感度、个性变量中的环境道德感以及情境因素中的行为约束和公共规范是影响我国城市居民环境行为最为重要的变量.最后提出了改善我国公民环境行为的相关对策.%The conception of environmental behavior(EB) is defined and environmental attitude, personality and contextual factors are concluded as three major variables influencing EB on the basis of a systematic literature review. The influencing differences of four variables on Chinese residents' EB are analyzed. The results show that environmental sensitivity of environmental attitude, environmental morality of personality, and behavior barriers and public norms of contextual factors are the most significant variables influencing EB of Chinese residents. At last, the countermeasures are presented to improve Citizens' EB.

  10. Study on the factors related with intention of cancer screening among Korean residents: application of information-motivation-behavioral skills model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Ki; Jo, Heui Sug; Lee, Hey Jean

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intention of undergoing cancer screening and information, motivation, and behavioral skills using an information-motivation-behavioral skills model. The authors performed a telephone survey of a random sample of 2030 residents aged 30 to 69 years from 6 counties of Gangwon province, South Korea from July 15 to July 25, 2009. Questions about information, motivation, and behavioral skills were examined using a confirmatory factor analysis and relationships among factors were analyzed using a structure equation model. The intention of undergoing cancer screening showed a positive relationship between intention to undergo cancer screening and information(r = .134, P behavioral skills(r = .129, P behavioral skills as well as information is necessary to improve cancer screening rates. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor-10 (FGF-10) Mobilizes Lung-resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Protects Against Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lin; Zhou, Jian; Rong, Linyi; Seeley, Eric J; Pan, Jue; Zhu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Qin; Tang, Xinjun; Qu, Jieming; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin

    2016-02-12

    FGF-10 can prevent or reduce lung specific inflammation due to traumatic or infectious lung injury. However, the exact mechanisms are poorly characterized. Additionally, the effect of FGF-10 on lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) has not been studied. To better characterize the effect of FGF-10 on LR-MSCs, FGF-10 was intratracheally delivered into the lungs of rats. Three days after instillation, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and plastic-adherent cells were cultured, characterized and then delivered therapeutically to rats after LPS intratracheal instillation. Immunophenotyping analysis of FGF-10 mobilized and cultured cells revealed expression of the MSC markers CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105, and the absence of the hematopoietic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Multipotency of these cells was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Delivery of LR-MSCs into the lungs after LPS injury reduced the inflammatory response as evidenced by decreased wet-to-dry ratio, reduced neutrophil and leukocyte recruitment and decreased inflammatory cytokines compared to control rats. Lastly, direct delivery of FGF-10 in the lungs of rats led to an increase of LR-MSCs in the treated lungs, suggesting that the protective effect of FGF-10 might be mediated, in part, by the mobilization of LR-MSCs in lungs.

  13. Competency-based (CanMEDS) residency training programme in radiology: systematic design procedure, curriculum and success factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jippes, Erik [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Postgraduate School of Medicine, Wenckebach Institute, Hanzeplein 1, Postbus 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Engelen, Jo M.L. van [University of Groningen, Product Development and Strategy, Faculty Economics and Business, Groningen (Netherlands); Brand, Paul L.P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, UMCG Postgraduate School of Medicine, Hanzeplein 1, Postbus 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Amalia Children' s Clinic, Isala Klinieken Zwolle, Zwolle (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, Postbus 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Based on the CanMEDS framework and the European Training Charter for Clinical Radiology a new radiology curriculum was designed in the Netherlands. Both the development process and the resulting new curriculum are presented in this paper. The new curriculum was developed according to four systematic design principles: discursiveness, hierarchical decomposition, systematic variation and satisficing (satisficing is different from satisfying; in this context, satisficing means searching for an acceptable solution instead of searching for an optimal solution). The new curriculum is organ based with integration of radiological diagnostic techniques, comprises a uniform national common trunk followed by a 2-year subspecialisation, is competency outcome based with appropriate assessment tools and techniques, and is based on regional collaboration among radiology departments. The application of the systematic design principles proved successful in producing a new curriculum approved by all authorities. The principles led to a structured, yet flexible, development process in which creative solutions could be generated and adopters (programme directors, supervisors and residents) were highly involved. Further research is needed to empirically test the components of the new curriculum. (orig.)

  14. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Carolina Pallottini; Cristiane Hermes Sales; Diva Aliete dos Santos; Dirce Maria Marchioni; Regina Mara Fisberg

    2017-01-01

    ...) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods...

  15. Improved Variable Selection Algorithm Using a LASSO-Type Penalty, with an Application to Assessing Hepatitis B Infection Relevant Factors in Community Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    Full Text Available In epidemiological studies, it is important to identify independent associations between collective exposures and a health outcome. The current stepwise selection technique ignores stochastic errors and suffers from a lack of stability. The alternative LASSO-penalized regression model can be applied to detect significant predictors from a pool of candidate variables. However, this technique is prone to false positives and tends to create excessive biases. It remains challenging to develop robust variable selection methods and enhance predictability.Two improved algorithms denoted the two-stage hybrid and bootstrap ranking procedures, both using a LASSO-type penalty, were developed for epidemiological association analysis. The performance of the proposed procedures and other methods including conventional LASSO, Bolasso, stepwise and stability selection models were evaluated using intensive simulation. In addition, methods were compared by using an empirical analysis based on large-scale survey data of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors among Guangdong residents.The proposed procedures produced comparable or less biased selection results when compared to conventional variable selection models. In total, the two newly proposed procedures were stable with respect to various scenarios of simulation, demonstrating a higher power and a lower false positive rate during variable selection than the compared methods. In empirical analysis, the proposed procedures yielding a sparse set of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors gave the best predictive performance and showed that the procedures were able to select a more stringent set of factors. The individual history of hepatitis B vaccination, family and individual history of hepatitis B infection were associated with hepatitis B infection in the studied residents according to the proposed procedures.The newly proposed procedures improve the identification of significant variables and enable us to

  16. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors among children residing at high altitude in Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goswami, Ravinder; Sharma, Brij; Sharma, Neetu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Singh, Gajendra; Sareen, Neha; Sati, Hem Chandra; Gupta, Aakriti; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D is important for bone development in children. A high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been documented from different parts of India. However, limited data are available on VDD among children residing at high altitude region of country. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of VDD and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 6–18 years in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014–2015. A total of 626 children in the age group of 6–18 years were enrolled from 30 clusters which were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method. A minimum of 20 children in the age group of 6–18 years per cluster were selected using random number tables. The data on socioeconomic status, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were assessed. Results: Ninety-three percent of school-age children were found Vitamin D deficient as per serum 25(OH) D levels of <20 ng/ml. The prevalence was significantly higher among females. Conclusion: A high prevalence of VDD was found in children residing in high altitude region. PMID:28217519

  17. Geographic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in middle class urban residents in India: cross–sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors according to geographic distribution and macro-level social development index among urban middle class subjects in India. Methods: We performed cross-sectional surveys in 11 cities in India during years 2005–2009. 6198 subjects aged 20–75 years (men 3426, women 2772, response 62% were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors. Cities were grouped according to geographic distribution into northern (3 cities, n=1321, western (2 cities, n=1814, southern (3 cities, n=1237 and eastern (3 cities, n=1826. They were also grouped according to human social development index into low (3 cities, n=1794, middle (5 cities, n=2634 and high (3 cities, n=1825. Standard definitions were used to determine risk factors. Differences in risk factors were evaluated using χ2test. Trends were examined by least squares regression. Findings Age–adjusted prevalence (95% confidence intervals of various risk factors was: low physical activity 42.1% (40.9–43.3, high dietary fat 49.9% (47.8–52.0, low fruit/vegetables 26.9% (25.8–28.0, smoking 10.1% (9.1–11.1, smokeless tobacco use 9.8% (9.1–10.5, overweight 42.9% (41.7–44.1, obesity 11.6% (10.8–12.4, high waist circumference 45.5% (44.3–46.7, high waist–hip ratio 75.7% (74.7–76.8, hypertension 31.6% (30.4– 32.8, hypercholesterolemia 25.0% (23.9–26.9, low HDL cholesterol 42.5% (41.3–43.7, hypertriglyceridemia 36.9% (35.7–38.1, diabetes 15.7% (14.8–16.6, and metabolic syndrome 35.7% (34.5–36.9. Compared with national average, prevalence of most risk factors was not significantly different in various geographic regions, however, cities in eastern region had significantly lower prevalence of overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome compared with other regions (P<0.05 for various comparisons. It was also observed that cities with low human social development index had lowest prevalence of

  18. [Body image perception and associated factors among elderly residents in a city in northeast Brazil: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Brito, Kyonayra Quezia Duarte; Oliveira, Elaine Cristina Tôrres; Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    The article aims to verify body image perception and associated factors among elderly individuals in Campina Grande, State of Paraiba. It involves a cross-sectional, population and home-based study, with individuals 60 years or older of both sexes. Body image perception was considered the dependent variable for purposes of analysis and study of possible associations. The independent variables were: age group, nutritional status, number of diseases, health perception and regular practice of physical activities. To identify associated factors, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out using SPSS 17.0 software. Overall, 806 elderly individuals were interviewed. Men showed greater satisfaction with body image when compared to women and older participants were more satisfied than younger participants. Among the factors related to dissatisfaction in women, underweight and overweight/obesity were associated with an increased risk of dissatisfaction. Among men, older age constituted a protective factor for dissatisfaction, while underweight and overweight/obesity were risk factors for dissatisfaction. The results of this study suggest a possible influence of nutritional status on body image perception among the elderly, negatively affecting their perception of body image.

  19. Geographic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in middle class urban residents in India: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Bal Kishan; Gupta, Arvind; Saboo, Banshi; Maheshwari, Anuj; Mahanta, Tulika; Deedwania, Prakash C

    2015-06-01

    To determine epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors according to geographic distribution and macrolevel social development index among urban middle class subjects in India. We performed cross-sectional surveys in 11 cities in India during years 2005-2009. 6198 subjects aged 20-75 years (men 3426, women 2772, response 62%) were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors. Cities were grouped according to geographic distribution into northern (3 cities, n = 1321), western (2 cities, n = 1814), southern (3 cities, n = 1237) and eastern (3 cities, n = 1826). They were also grouped according to human social development index into low (3 cities, n = 1794), middle (5 cities, n = 2634) and high (3 cities, n = 1825). Standard definitions were used to determine risk factors. Differences in risk factors were evaluated using χ(2) test. Trends were examined by least squares regression. Age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of various risk factors was: low physical activity 42.1% (40.9-43.3), high dietary fat 49.9% (47.8-52.0), low fruit/vegetables 26.9% (25.8-28.0), smoking 10.1% (9.1-11.1), smokeless tobacco use 9.8% (9.1-10.5), overweight 42.9% (41.7-44.1), obesity 11.6% (10.8-12.4), high waist circumference 45.5% (44.3-46.7), high waist-hip ratio 75.7% (74.7-76.8), hypertension 31.6% (30.4-32.8), hypercholesterolemia 25.0% (23.9-26.9), low HDL cholesterol 42.5% (41.3-43.7), hypertriglyceridemia 36.9% (35.7-38.1), diabetes 15.7% (14.8-16.6), and metabolic syndrome 35.7% (34.5-36.9). Compared with national average, prevalence of most risk factors was not significantly different in various geographic regions, however, cities in eastern region had significantly lower prevalence of overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome compared with other regions (P middle-class men and women in eastern region of India have significantly lower cardiometabolic risk factors compared to northern, western and

  20. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, PTSD, and risk factors among lower Manhattan residents 2-3 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Perrin, Megan A; Thorpe, Lorna E; Thalji, Lisa; Murphy, Joseph; Wu, David; Farfel, Mark; Brackbill, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Manhattan residents living near the World Trade Center may have been particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. In 2003-2004, the authors administered the PTSD Checklist to 11,037 adults who lived south of Canal Street in New York City on 9/11. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 12.6% and associated with older age, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, low education and income, and divorce. Injury, witnessing horror, and dust cloud exposure on 9/11 increased risk for chronic PTSD. Postdisaster risk factors included evacuation and rescue and recovery work. The results indicate that PTSD is a continued health problem in the local community. The relationship between socioeconomic status and PTSD suggests services must target marginalized populations. Followup is necessary on the course and long-term consequences of PTSD.

  1. The Status and Associated Factors of Successful Aging among Older Adults Residing in Longevity Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen Hui; andSHI Xiao Ming; ZHANG Hong Yan; ZHANG Juan; LYU Yue Bin; Melanie Sereny Brasher; YIN Zhao Xue; LUO Jie Si; HU Dong Sheng; FEN Lei

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study aims to assess the status of successful aging (SA) in longevity areas in Chinaand explore multiple factors associated with SA among the young-old and oldest-old. MethodsA total of 2296 elderly people aged 65 and older were interviewed in the longevity areas sub-sample of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2012. Baseline assessments included a researcher-administered questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory testing. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with SA. ResultsThe prevalenceof SA was 38.81% in the CLHLS in 2012. There were significant differences between ages groups, with SA compromising 56.85%among≥65 years group and 20.31% among ≥100 years group (χ2trend=126.73,P ConclusionPreventing central obesity, improving sleep quality and promoting healthy lifestyle may contribute to achieve SA among the elderly.

  2. Life-space and movement behavior in nursing home residents: results of a new sensor-based assessment and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Diegelmann, Mona; Schnabel, Eva-Luisa; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Hauer, Klaus

    2017-01-28

    Studies on life-space (LS) and its determinants have previously been limited to community-dwelling subjects but are lacking in institutionalized older persons. The purpose of this study was to provide an advanced descriptive analysis of LS in nursing home residents and to identify associated factors based on an established theoretical framework, using an objective, sensor-based assessment with a high spatiotemporal resolution. Cross-sectional study in two nursing homes in Heidelberg, Germany (n = 65; mean age: 82.9 years; 2/3 female). Changes of location in the nursing home (Transits) as well as time spent away from the private room (TAFR) were assessed using a wireless sensor network. Measures of physical, psychosocial, cognitive, socio-demographic, and environmental factors were assessed via established motor performance tests, interviews, and proxy-reports. LS of residents was largely restricted to the private room and the surrounding living unit (90%); 10% of daytime was spent outside the living unit and/or the facility. On average, TAFR was 5.1 h per day (±2.3; Range: 0-8); seven Transits (6.9 ± 3.2; Range: 0-18) were performed per day. Linear regression analyses revealed being male, lower gait speed, higher cognitive status, and lower apathy to be associated with more Transits; higher gait speed, lower cognitive status, and less depressive symptoms were associated with more TAFR. LS was significantly increased during institutional routines (mealtimes) as compared to the rest of the day. The sensor-based LS assessment provided new, objective insights into LS of institutionalized persons living in nursing homes. It revealed that residents' LS was severely limited to private rooms and adjacent living units, and that in institutional settings, daily routines such as meal times seem to be the major determinant of LS utilization. Gait speed, apathy, and depressive symptoms as well as institutional meal routines were the only modifiable predictors of

  3. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Kwan, Joseph S K; Wai Kwan, Chi; Chong, Alice M L; Lai, Claudia K Y; Lou, Vivian W Q; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Justina Y W; Bai, Xue; Chi, Iris

    2017-08-23

    Negative effects of restraint use have been well-documented. However, the prevalence of restraints use has been high in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong compared with other countries and this goes against the basic principles of ethical and compassionate care for older people. The present study aimed to review the change in the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) over a period of 11 years in Hong Kong and to identify the major factors associated with their use. This is an observational study with data obtained from the Hong Kong Longitudinal Study on LTCF Residents between 2005 and 2015. Trained assessors (nurses, social workers, and therapists) used the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument to collect the data from 10 residential LTCFs. Physical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following: full bedside rails on all open sides of bed, other types of bedside rails used, trunk restraint, limb restraint, or the use of chair to prevent rising during the past 7 days. Chemical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following medications: antipsychotic, antianxiety, or hypnotic agents during past 7 days, excluding elder residents with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness. Annual prevalence of restraint use over 11 years and factors that were associated with the use of physical and chemical restraints. We analyzed the data for 2896 older people (978 male individuals, mean age = 83.3 years). Between 2005 and 2015, the prevalence of restraint use was as follows: physical restraint use increased from 52.7% to 70.2%; chemical restraint use increased from 15.9% to 21.78%; and either physical or chemical restraint use increased from 57.9% to 75.7%. Physical restraint use was independently associated with older age, impaired activities of daily living or cognitive function, bowel and bladder incontinence, dementia, and negative mood. Chemical restraint use was independently associated

  4. Factors impacting the use of antenatal care and hospital child delivery services: a case study of rural residents in the Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Minxing; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Zhang, Changli; Sun, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the factors that impact whether rural women obtain antenatal care (ANC) and choose to use hospital delivery services in central and western China. We chose to conduct field research with the rural residents in Hubei Province through a combination of random sampling and purposive sampling methods. A mixed method approach was taken to analyze the factors impacting the use of ANC and hospital delivery services from the perspective of the villagers. Our results indicate that the quality of the available ANC services is poor. In particular, women who have special circumstances and unplanned pregnancies or who become pregnant prior to marriage are confronted with inadequate ANC and hospital child delivery services. The factors that impact whether women use or not use ANC and hospital delivery services and that cause women to choose hospital or home delivery can be understood at three levels: macro, middle, and micro. We strongly suggest that the policies and projects that promote maternal healthcare in rural areas be sustained with an added focus on including women with special circumstances. Village doctors can be enlisted to regularly visit pregnant women at home and to provide extra explanation about the ANC services available and the purpose of maternal healthcare. These findings and suggestions can be used by local health providers and decision-makers to improve the quality of ANC and hospital delivery services.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of disability in Chinese residents%中国居民残疾患病现状及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 郑晓瑛; 陈功

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中国居民残疾患病现状及其影响因素,为降低残疾患病率提供参考依据.方法 利用2006年第二次全国残疾人抽样调查数据,计算中国居民残疾患病率,分析社会、经济、人口环境的变化对残疾发生的影响以及各类因素作用的方向和强度.结果 中国居民残疾患病率为6.39%,不同性别、年龄、民族、文化程度、婚姻状况、居住地、就业状况、职业、家庭人均年收入、省人均国内生产总值(GDP)居民残疾患病率均不同(P <0.001);多元Logistic回归分析结果表明,年龄(OR=1.043)、女性(OR =0.586)、在城市居住(OR=0.899)、不识字/文盲(OR=4.585)、小学文化程度(OR=2.743)、中学文化程度(OR=1.416)、在婚(OR =0.394)、离婚(OR=1.139)、丧偶(OR =0.412)、有工作(OR =0.304)、第Ⅰ类职业(OR =0.707)、第Ⅱ类职业(OR =1.160)、第Ⅲ类职业(OR=0.800)、第Ⅴ类职业(OR=1.092)、第Ⅶ类职业(OR =0.773)、第ⅧII类职业(OR =0.809)、第Ⅸ类职业(OR =0.562)、第Ⅹ类职业(OR =0.522)、家庭人均年收入(OR=1.000)是中国居民残疾患病的主要影响因素;最大似然值变化幅度最大的因素依次为年龄、性别、在婚、不识字/文盲、家庭人均年收入、丧偶、有无工作、小学文化程度、第Ⅸ类职业、中学文化程度、第Ⅹ类职业、居住地、第Ⅶ类职业、第Ⅷ类职业、第Ⅱ类职业、第Ⅰ类职业、离婚、第Ⅴ类职业、第Ⅲ类职业.结论 人口年龄结构的老化为残疾发生的最主要影响因素,教育水平的普遍提升会降低残疾发生的危险性,职业残疾风险的类别差异提示了工伤致残预防的重要性和优先级,宏微观经济环境对残疾发生具有间接影响作用.%Objective To examine the prevalence and the risk factors of disability in Chinese residents and to provide reference to reduce the prevalence of disability. Methods Based on the investigation of the Second National

  6. Risk factors for diarrhea in children under five years of age residing in peri-urban communities in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J; Norman, W Ray; Perry, Henry; Davis, Thomas P; Lindquist, Erik D

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood diarrhea prevalence and caregiver knowledge of the causes and prevention of diarrhea in a prospective cohort of 952 children diarrhea. Furthermore, when asked how to keep food safe for children to eat only 17% of caregivers reported hand washing before cooking and feeding a child. Lack of caregiver awareness of the importance of practices related to hygiene and sanitation for diarrhea prevention were significant risk factors for diarrheal disease in this cohort. The knowledge findings from this study suggest that health promotion in these communities should put further emphasis on increasing knowledge of how water treatment, hand washing with soap, proper disposal of child feces, and food preparation relate to childhood diarrhea prevention. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need

  8. 城市居民健康体检的影响因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing health check-up of residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增芳; 杨芬芳; 蔡菊芳; 陈斌; 孙飞

    2015-01-01

    目的 获取杭州市区居民对健康体检的认知、了解、需求和意向,探讨健康体检的影响因素.方法 采用整群随机抽样的方法,选取城市居民1 183人,其中男性542人,女性641人,性别比为1:1.183;年龄为15~80岁.从人口学特征、健康状况、体检行为与认知、不愿体检的主要原因、选择机构意向等开展问卷调查,采取单因素卡方检验及logistic回归分析.结果 单因素分析居民健康体检参与率,有统计学意义的差异因素分别为:性别(χ2=11.61,P=0.000),年龄(χ2=0.09,P=0.028),户籍(χ2=44.16,P=0.000),婚姻状况(χ2=8.96,P=0.03),教育程度(χ2=17.33,P=0.000)就业状况(χ2=7.97,P=0.005),个人月收入(χ2=22.82,P=0.000),参加各类医疗保险(χ2=16.08,P=0.000),单位组织并承担费用(χ2=44.78,P=0.000).logistic回归显示:影响居民健康体检参与率的相关因素为性别(P=0.003, OR=1.782)、户籍(P=0.000,OR=2.208)、个人月收入(P=0.009,OR=1.307)、参加各类医疗保险(P=0.004,OR=2.913)和单位组织体检并承担费用(P=0.000,OR=1.923).结论 男性、45岁以下、离婚、非本地户籍的常住人口、非在业、学历低、收入低、未参加医保和自费等因素影响城市居民健康体检参与率.%Objective To obtain Hangzhou residents' awareness, understanding, demands, and intentions of health examination and explore the factors influencing health examination. Methods Totally 1 183 residents (male: 542, female: 641, aged from15 to 80 years) were investigated by mean of questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, health status, medical behavior and awareness, the subjective reasons of unwilling to take health examination, the intention of choosing an institution, and the data of questionnaire were analyzed using single factor Chi-square test and conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Single factor Chi-square test showed that the factors affecting health examination participation which have

  9. Analysis of influencing factors for standardized resident training%住院医师规范化培训的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段链; 陈红; 路阳; 王晶桐; 王淑云; 叶丽娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the influencing factors for the quality and efficiency of standardized resident training in order to scientifically select and train qualified resident physicians.Methods The exam passing rate served as the indicator to measure the quality of training; the year(s) used to pass the exam the indicator to measure the efficiency,while such methods as descriptive study,chi-square test,logistic regression,rank sum test and stratified analysis were used for data analysis and processing. Results The exam passing rate of research postgraduates is lower than clinical postgraduates,the year(s) needed to pass the exam of research postgraduates is longer than clinical postgraduates. Conclusion Clinical postgraduates deserve higher priority in selecting clinicians.Research-based postgraduates shifted to clinical work require a longer training time.%目的 探寻影响住院医师规范化培训质量及效率的因素,为遴选和培养合格的住院医师提供科学依据.方法 以考试通过率为衡量培训质量的指标,以通过考试所需年限为衡量培训效率的指标,通过描述性研究、卡方检验、logistic回归分析、秩和检验及分层分析等方法对数据进行分析处理.结果 科研型研究生参加培训考试的通过率低于临床型研究生;在学历相同的情况下,科研型研究生通过培训考试所需年限多于临床型研究生.结论 在遴选临床医师时应优先考虑临床型研究生;对于进入临床工作的科研型研究生,应适当延长培训时间.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Tariku; Shikur, Bilal; Shimels, Tariku; Firdu, Naod

    2016-11-28

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and factors associated with it, nowadays, are increasing in alarming rates among different occupational groups. Of these occupational groups are Police officers that, often, are exposed to unique life styles and stressful situations which may lead to diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular diseases. Due to this reason, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May 2015. Multistage and systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select the study participants. The study population was federal police commission members living in Addis Ababa and served for at least a year. The data were collected using structured questionnaire, physical examinations and blood samples, based on the WHO stepwise approach. Data were entered in to SPSS version 20.0 and descriptive statistics and logistics regression were used for analysis. Out of the 1003 eligible subjects, 936 (93.3%) police officers have participated in this study. The prevalence of overall impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH) was 120 (13%) of which 47 (5%) were diabetes and 73 (8%) were impaired fasting glucose. Whereas police rank, history of first degree relative who suffered from diabetes, hypertension and waist hip ratio showed a statistical significance with prevalence of diabetes mellitus, age, family history, hypertension, BMI and waist hip ratio were found to be associated with impaired fasting glucose. The study identified a high prevalence of IGH among the police officers. A priority should be given on preventive strategies of diabetes mellitus, as that of communicable diseases, by Federal Police Commission Health Service Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health and other concerned partners.

  11. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  12. [An analysis of health literacy about diabetes prevention and control and its influencing factors among the residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Yinghua; Nie, Xueqiong; Huang, Xianggang; Shi, Mingfei; Li, Fangbo; Wei, Wei

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the health literacy about diabetes prevention and control and its influencing factors among the public in China. A multistage stratified random sampling method was applied to investigate urban and rural residents aged 18-60 years among six provinces in China during March and May, 2013. The Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China was used to conduct the survey. The influencing factors of health literacy about diabetes prevention and control were analyzed by logistic regression. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6(th) national census data. A total of 4 416 persons were interviewed. A total of 4 282 valid questionnaires including 1 986 males (46.4%) and 2 296 females (53.6%) were obtained. The efficiency rate was 97.0%. The level of health literacy about diabetes prevention and control among the public in China was 32.7% (1 036/2 399). And this rate was 40.5%, 36.5% and 15.4% in east, middle and west of China, respectively. Take the west region as reference, the health literacy about diabetes prevention and control in east China was high (OR = 2.510, 95% CI: 1.931-3.263), central China was in the second place (OR = 2.083, 95% CI: 1.579-2.749). The health literacy about diabetes prevention and control among males was lower than that in females (OR = 0.488, 95% CI: 0.402-0.593). The higher education level the respondents had, the higher the health lireracy level about diabetes prevention and control. Taking the primary school and below education level as reference, the health lireracy level about diabetes prevention and control of respondents with a secondary education was higher (OR = 1.103, 95% CI: 0.812-1.499), and that of college or above degree was the highest (OR = 2.029, 95% CI: 0.460-0.870). The health literacy about diabetes prevention and control among civil servants and institution staff was high, the enterprise personnel was in the second place (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.460-0.870), the

  13. Beverage consumption of community residents and influencing factors%苏州城区居民饮品饮用现况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽丽; 滕臣刚; 傅春玲; 王大朋; 刘建; 汤玲燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解苏州市社区居民饮品饮用现况及影响因素.方法 用分层整群随机抽样方法抽取苏州4个城区社区居民共600人,采用问卷调查的方法收集社区居民饮品饮用情况及相关健康资料,利用SPSS软件进行统计描述和Logistic逐步回归分析.结果 苏州市区居民各年龄组日均总饮水量(包括各种饮品)为890~1450ml,其中除饮用水外,牛奶饮用量最高.其他饮品,学龄前儿童、儿童青少年和中老年人饮用量最多的分别为果蔬汁饮料、碳酸饮料和茶水.年龄和饮食偏嗜是影响饮品饮用的关键因素,其他影响因素尚包括经济收入、体质指数和性别等.结论 苏州市居民饮品饮用相关知识和健康意识有待提高,可依据年龄特征,从改善饮食偏嗜、控制体重等方面采取健康教育干预措施,引导正确的饮品消费.%Objective To investigate the beverage consumption and affective factors about residents of Suzhou and provide basic information for nutrition improvement. Method The study population included 600 residents selected from four communities using the method of stratified multistage cluster random sampling. The data on beverage consumption were collected through a questionnaire survey, and analyzed through SPSS, including statistic description and Logistic regression. Results The average water consumption of four age groups was 889 - 1450ml. Excluding drinking water, the overall milk consumption was highest, reaching to 1372ml per week. Apart from those, the highest consumption beverages of preschool children, children and youth, and adults were juice, carbonated beverage, and tea, respectively. Age and food preference were . important factors affecting beverage consumption, other influencing factors including gender, BMI and income. Conclusion The health consciousness on beverage consumption need to be further improved, and intervention measures could be carried out through changing food

  14. Analyzing the Influencing Factors of the Willingness of Rural Residents to Buy Commercial Pension Insurance%农村居民购买商业养老保险意愿的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其芳

    2016-01-01

    Through the survey of 1 12 rural residents in Hunan province,this paper analyzes the influencing factors of rural residents to buy commercial pension insurance empirically using the Probit model.The paper draws a conclusion that at present our country,more than half of the rural residents is not willing to buy commercial pension insurance,and commercial pension in-surance in rural areas have yet to give full play to their role.The age of rural residents,the level of education,the family income,the rural residents understanding degree of commercial pension insurance,the rural residents attitude to raise children to provide against old age,the influence degree of the government's publicity of commercial pension insurance on rural residents to buy commercial pension insurance will have a significant impact.%通过对湖南省112户农村居民的调查,运用 Probit 模型对农村居民购买商业养老保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析,结果表明:目前我国有超半数以上的农村居民不愿意购买商业养老保险,商业养老保险在农村地区还未充分发挥其保障作用。农村居民年龄、受教育程度、家庭年纯收入、对商业养老保险的了解程度、对养儿防老的态度、政府宣传商业养老保险的影响程度等对农村居民购买商业养老保险的意愿有显著影响。

  15. Incidence and risk factors of functional upper airway complications of primary esthetic closed rhinoplasty in two residency programs: A 6-month preliminary prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohajerani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : High complication rates were observed in both residency programs. Failure to follow home care instructions might prevent/delay recovery. Further in-depth studies are needed to assess this.

  16. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in a rural district of Beijing, China: a population-based survey of 58,308 residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of global disease burden. Although stroke was thought to be more prevalent than coronary heart disease (CHD in Chinese, the epidemic pattern might have been changed in some rural areas nowadays. This study was to estimate up-to-date prevalence of CVD and its risk factors in rural communities of Fangshan District, Beijing, China. Methods A cross-sectional population survey was carried out by stratified cluster sampling. A total of 58,308 rural residents aged over 40 years were surveyed by face-to-face interview and physical examination during 2008 and 2010. The standardized prevalence was calculated according to adult sample data of China's 5th Population Census in 2000, and the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR was calculated for the association of CHD/stroke with its cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Age- and sex-standardized prevalence was 5.6% for CHD (5.2% in males and 5.9% in females, higher than the counterpart of 3.7% (4.7% in males and 2.6% in females for stroke. Compared with previous studies, higher prevalence of 7.7%, 47.2%, 53.3% in males and 8.2%, 44.8%, 60.7% in females for diabetes, hypertension and overweight/obesity were presented accordingly. Moreover, adjusted POR (95% confidence interval of diabetes, obesity, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension for CHD as 2.51 (2.29 to 2.75, 1.53 (1.38 to 1.70, 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26 and 1.35 (1.20 to 1.52, and for stroke as 2.24 (1.98 to 2.52, 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44, 1.44 (1.25 to 1.66 and 1.70 (1.46 to 1.98 were shown respectively in the multivariate logistic regression models. Conclusions High prevalence of CVD and probably changed epidemic pattern in rural communities of Beijing, together with the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and population aging, might cause public health challenges in rural Chinese population.

  17. Econometric Analysis of Factors Influenced Chinese Residents'Savings%基于我国居民储蓄影响因素的计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲; 朱家明

    2016-01-01

    我国经济发展增速、居民的储蓄量也在逐渐增多,一国居民储蓄量的多少会影响一国经济的发展,合适的储蓄量有利于国家经济良性循环和均衡发展,会使银行有足够的可贷资金,使企业能够获得运行发展所需资金,促进经济有效运转。通过运用计量经济学的方法,从宏观和微观的角度,采用数据分析,建立各因素与我国居民储蓄的计量模型,分析影响居民储蓄的因素。%In recent years , China adopted many policies to promote economic development , such as new economic norm , re-peated interest rate cuts , etc.Along with the growth of China's economy, residents savings also has been gradually increasing , which would affect the development of a country's economy.Appropriate savings rate is conducive to national economic virtuous cycle and balanced development and enterprises could get the funds needed for the operation and development ,.With the method of econ-ometrics, the paper made an analysis of historical data from the macro and micro perspective and establish factor analysis and the measurement model to deal with China's household savings .

  18. Community Attitude and Associated Factors towards People with Mental Illness among Residents of Worabe Town, Silte Zone, Southern Nation's Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Bedaso

    Full Text Available Mental illnesses worldwide are accompanied by another pandemic, that of stigma and discrimination. Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of people with mental illness.To assess community attitude and associated factors towards people with mental illness.Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 28 to May 28, 2014. Quantitative data were collected through interview from 435 adults selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected using community attitude towards mentally ill (CAMI tool to assess community attitude towards people with mental illness and associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of community attitude towards people with mental illness and the level of significance association was determined by beta with 95% confidence interval and P less than 0.05.The highest mean score was on social restrictiveness subscale (31.55±5.62. Farmers had more socially restrictive view (β = 0.291, CI [0.09, 0.49] and have less humanistic view towards mentally ill (β = 0.193, CI [-0.36, -0.03]. Having mental health information had significantly less socially restrictive (β = -0.59, CI [-1.13, -0.05] and less authoritarian (β = -0.10, CI [-1.11, -0.06] view towards mentally ill but respondents who are at university or college level reported to be more socially restrictive (β = 0.298, CI [0.059, 0.54]. Respondents whose age is above 48 years old had significantly less view of community mental health ideology (β = -0.59, CI [-1.09, -0.08].Residents of Worabe town were highly socially restrictive but less authoritarian. There was high level of negative attitude towards people with mental illness along all the subscales with relative variation indicating a need to develop strategies to change negative attitude attached to

  19. 农村居民健康影响因素研究%Study on influencing factors of rural residents health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜维婧; 陶茂萱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the farmers health and health resources utilization and to provide basic data for social determinants of farmer health. Methods A typical questionnaire survey was conducted on farmers those over 18 in two economic medium level villages in Shanxi and Qinghai. Results 1409 subjects participated in this survey. The two week prevalence was 19. 8% , and 60. 1% of subjects thought they had good health status. 16.6% of subjects correctly answer whether the hypertension, diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, dysentery, influenza can be transmitted or not, only 21.9% of subjects thought dysentery can be transmitted; 95. 5% of subjects knew and 96. 6% of subjects took part in the new rural cooperative medical care (NRCMC) , but only 27.6% new the NRCMC reimbursement; 95.2% of subjects didn' t know the equalization of public health services. Logistic multifactor analysis shows that the influencing factors of on male and female are different The awareness of health knowledge is the protective factor and alcohol consumption is the risk factor for male's health. For female, to stay at home for housework is the protective factor. Conclusion Rural residents self-rated health in good condition. The main factors affecting fanners health are age, education, occupation, health related behaviours and use of health services.%目的 了解调查地区农民健康及卫生资源的利用状况,为农民健康的社会决定因素研究提供基础数据.方法 采用典型调查整群抽样的方法,在山西、青海分别选取经济中等的2个村庄,对18岁以上居民进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1409人,被调查人群两周患病率为19.8%,认为自己健康状况好及以上的为60.1%.16.6%的调查对象能够全部正确回答关于高血压、糖尿病、肺结核、心脏病、痢疾、流感6种疾病是否能够传染的问题,只有21.9%的调查对象认为痢疾能够传染.95.5%的调查对象知道新

  20. 城乡居民教育支出的影响因素及其模式研究%Study on Factors and Modes Influencing Education Expenditures of Urban and Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃利春; 沈百福

    2015-01-01

    在教育经费与国民经济的关系框架下,居民教育支出的影响因素众多且影响模式多样。1992年至2010年,随着居民收入与支出的增加,农村居民教育支出倾向普遍低于城镇居民;城乡居民教育支出对人均GDP的变动反应比较敏感;随着家庭设备及服务比例的提高,城镇居民边际教育支出持续下降,而农村居民边际教育支出则先下降后上升;城乡居民边际教育支出则随着人均财政支出和人均财政预算教育经费的增加先递减后递增。%Within the framework of relationship between education expenditure and national economy, there are various factors and modes that affect education expenditure of residents. Between 1992 and 2010, the educational expenditure propensity of rural residents was generally lower than that of urban residents with the augmentation of income and expenditure. Residential educational expenditures in urban and rural areas were sensitive to per capita GDP. With the increase in ratio of equipment and services, the marginal educational expenditure declined continuously for urban residents, while it declined first and then rose for rural residents. The marginal educational expenditure for urban and rural residents decreased first and then rose along with the augmentation of per capita educational expenditure budget and per capita fiscal expenditure.

  1. An analysis of main lifestyle cognition factors which affect the health status of Guangzhou residents%影响广州居民健康状况的主要生活方式认知因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建才

    2013-01-01

    The author did a factor analysis on main lifestyle cognition factors regarding the healthy lifestyles of Guang-zhou residents, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis on the overall results of health self-evaluation and sleep quality of the surveyed residents by using the said factors, and revealed the following findings:the health self-evaluation and sleep quality of Guangzhou residents were significantly correlative-usually those residents who had a poor subjective sense of health had a sleep problem; it is feasible to reduce main cognition factors regarding the healthy lifestyles of Guangzhou residents into such 4 factors as exercising, eating, reading and smoking/drinking, in which the exercising factor made the greatest contribution to healthy lifestyles;cognition factors in the said factors mainly include the followings:Ex-ercising helps me shape my body and keep fit;I try not to quench my thirst by having a soft drink whenever possible;Reading helps me refine myself;whenever possible I try to keep away when others are smoking or drinking.%  对广州市居民健康生活方式的主要认知因素进行因子分析,并将各因素与受调查者健康自评和睡眠质量总体状况进行多元逻辑回归分析。结果发现:广州市居民健康自评与睡眠质量显著相关,主观健康感较差者往往存在睡眠问题;将广州市居民健康生活方式主要认知因素归纳为锻炼、饮食、阅读和烟酒4个因子是可行的,其中锻炼因子对健康生活方式的贡献度最高;各因子中的认知因素主要包括运动能帮我健身塑形、少用饮料解渴、阅读提升自身境界和别人抽烟、喝酒时尽量避开等方面。

  2. Obstetrics and gynaecology chief resident attitudes toward teaching junior residents under normal working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Karen M; Savitski, Jennifer L; Bazan, Sara; Patterson, Laurene R; Kirven, Melissa

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that chief residents believe impact the teaching of junior residents under normal working conditions and the areas in which they believe education on the role of resident as teacher would be beneficial. Obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) chief residents were asked to rate the importance of teaching various skills, how often conflict situations arose, and to identify training that would be helpful through a national web-based survey. An e-mail was sent to coordinators of the Residency Review Committee (RRC) O&G residency programmes with a request that they forward the link to their chief residents three times from January through March 2006. Responses were received from 204 postgraduate Year 4 (PGY4) residents (18% of all PGY4 residents) from 133 programmes (54% of all residency programmes) and 33 states. Teaching junior residents how to prioritise patient care and obtain critical information in an emergent situation was considered very to extremely important by 97%. Conflict situations with junior residents were reported to occur between one and five times by 41-58%; an additional 26-28% reported that these situations occurred six or more times. Residents felt it would be helpful to extremely helpful to have training in resolving conflicts that involved patient care (48-59%), as well as in resolving conflict among junior residents, communicating effectively with them and becoming an effective leader (65-78%). The skills that chief residents considered most important to teach junior residents involved direct patient care. Chief residents would like training in how to resolve conflict with, and among, junior residents, and in how to become an effective leader.

  3. The surgical residency baby boom: changing patterns of childbearing during residency over a 30-year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Galante, Joseph M; Pierce, Jonathan L; Scherer, Lynette A

    2013-12-01

    Birthrates during surgical residency appear to be rising. One assumption is that this is due to changes in the structure of surgical residencies. The purpose of our study was to explore whether an increase in birthrates has occurred and the reasons for this. We conducted an anonymous survey of current residents and alumni from 1976 to 2009 at a single university-based surgery training program. Alumni (46 of 116) and current residents (38 of 51) were surveyed, and our response rate was approximately 50% (84 of 167). Respondents were grouped into cohorts based on their residency start year. The early cohort consisted of residents starting residency between 1976 and 1999, and the late cohort consisted of residents starting residency between 2000 and 2009. The percentage of male residents with children during residency training was similar for the early and late cohorts (34% [10 of 29] versus 41% [9 of 22]). For female residents, there was a substantial increase in childbearing for the late cohort (7% [1 of 15] versus 35% [6 of 18]). Fifty-two percent (44 of 84) of the respondents who had children during residency reported that work hours and schedule had a negative effect on their decision to have children. Most respondents reported that availability or cost of child care, impact on residency, support from the program, increased length of training, or availability of family leave did not factor as concerns. Childbearing during residency has increased in female residents in our study. Surgical residency programs may need to accommodate this change if they want to continue to recruit and retain talented residents.

  4. Predictors of success in an anesthesiology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, S S; Crumrine, R S

    1986-07-01

    The selection of residents in medical specialty programs is a difficult task facing all selection committees. The present authors examined factors that contribute to successful residency performance by 26 anesthesiology residents in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anesthesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialties. Comparison of the residents' scores on the Anesthesiology In-Training Examination (ITE) and their scores on Part I of the examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) showed a statistically significant negative correlation. The higher that residents scored on the NBME Part I examination, the lower they scored on the ITE. No significant correlations were found between the residents' ITE scores and undergraduate grade-point average or nonacademic variables such as the residents' age or parents' level of education. The residents' composite grade-point average (GPA) for the residency and their interview scores had a strong positive relationship significant at the 0.06 level.

  5. The analysis of risk factor for smoking behavior in countryside residents%农村居民吸烟行为的危险因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪秀梅; 孙美莲; 方芳; 王大勇; 何晓丽; 王时敏; 陈常中

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of cigarette smoking in the coutrysides Methods By cluster sampling, 12,696 residents aged over 15 years old were inquired about the state of smoking and other related information. Chi-square test and multiple Logistic analysis were conducted in SAS software. Results 32.12% were smokers, The prevalence of smoking in male(61.68%), was significantly higher than that in female (3.37%); 11.78% of smokers had succeeded in abstinence from smoking, but "suffering from illness" was the main reason for abstinence, which account for 72.14%; The result of logistic regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was influenced by sex, age, poor education, marriage state and other smokers in the family. Conclusion Those Males who being divorced, poor educated and aged less than 45 are the high-risk population for smoking behavior。%目的调查农村居民吸烟情况及其危险因素。方法通过整群抽样方法调查了12696名15岁以上农村居民的吸烟情况,同时收集其他相关信息。利用SAS软件包对这些资料进行卡方检验及logistic 回归等分析。结果现吸烟者占3.12%, 男性现吸烟率(61.68%)明显高于女性(3.37%);人群总戒烟率为11.78%,其中因“”患病”而戒烟者占72.14%;经Logistic回归分析,发现性别、年龄、低文化程度、婚史、家庭成员有吸烟者均为吸烟行为的影响因素。结论那些离异、文化程度低、年龄小于45岁的男性为吸烟行为的高危人群。

  6. Associations of mental distress with residency in conflict zones, ethnic minority status, and potentially modifiable social factors following conflict in Sri Lanka: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Dinuk; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Silove, Derrick

    2016-02-01

    The subject of post-conflict mental health lacks studies that are nationally representative or large enough to allow robust examination of levels of distress according to residency in geographical zones of conflict and ethnic minority status. We undertook a nationwide study in Sri Lanka to address these issues. We used tablet devices to survey 20,632 people across 18 of 25 districts in Sri Lanka, of which nine were purposefully selected and nine randomly selected districts. Based on their exposure to war and levels of population displacement, these districts were classified as being in the severe, moderate, or minimal conflict zones. Trained local fieldworkers did private interviews with the participants in the local language; responses were entered directly into the tablet devices. The questions assessed exposure to a wide range of stresses, including ongoing adversities, threat or protection issues, and service access factors, and respondents provided categorical responses (yes/no) to a list of items. We used the 25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist to measure depression and anxiety in participants. We used multivariate analysis and calculated population-attributable fractions to estimate potential improvement in mental distress if modifiable factors were addressed. Our results showed a stepwise increase in symptoms of depression (10%, 33%, 40%) and anxiety (13%, 23%, 23%) across minimal, moderate, and severe conflict zones, respectively. Membership of an ethnic minority group was associated with depression (Tamil odds ratio [OR] 2·4 [95% CI 1·8-3·1], other ethnic minority OR 2·7 [2·1-3·6]) and anxiety (Tamil OR 1·5 [1·1-2·0], other ethnic minority OR 1·5 [1·2-1·8]). Other fixed characteristics associated with depression and anxiety were older age (both depression and anxiety; OR 2·7 [95% CI 2·0-3·7] for anxiety and 2·3 [1·7-3·0] for depression), being married (anxiety only; OR 1·5 [95% CI 1·1-2·1]), and time spent in camps for internally

  7. Attenuation of ground-borne vibration affecting residents near railway. Lines Deliverable 2.1: Exposure response relationships and factors influencing these relationships (Work Package WP1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Koopman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present deliverable is to describe and assess reported health impacts of vibration among residents living near railway lines, in particular the response to freight trains. To this end, first a state of the art overview is given of the results from all field studies reported so f

  8. 南昌市居民吸烟现状及影响因素分析%Smoking Status and Influencing Factors among Residents in Nanchang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪凌燕; 李钟捷; 习青华; 李琦; 阮世颖; 周小军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解南昌市社区居民的吸烟现状,分析影响吸烟的因素,为制定控烟干预措施提供依据.方法 采用单纯随机抽样方法,随机抽取南昌市15岁及以上常住居民956例,调查其吸烟现状,采用Logistic回归分析对吸烟的影响因素进行分析.结果 调查对象的平均年龄为(33.22±13.23)岁,其中男性562人占58.8%,年人均家庭经济收入以1~2万为主占34.1%.吸烟率为37.97%,吸烟者平均年龄为(38.18±13.58)岁,平均吸烟(11.97±9.12)支·d-1,80.9%的吸烟者意识到烟雾会危害他人的健康.影响吸烟的因素包括:性别(β=-2.241,P=0.000)、介意周围人吸烟(β=1.753,P=0.000)、家中对吸烟的限制(β=-0.358,P=0.000)、单位内吸烟情况(β=0.287,P=0.000).结论 调查对象男性较多,吸烟率较高,室内吸烟者较多,家庭与单位的控烟环境较为宽松;多数公共场所虽然有禁烟标识,但在公共场所吸烟者仍有相当高的比例,香烟广告或变相广告仍然充满了社会环境,吸烟影响因素多,提高居民的文化素质、营造无烟的环境对于降低吸烟具有十分重要的意义.%Objective To investigate the possible causes of smoking among residents in Nanchang city,and to provide the basis for the development of smoking control. Methods Smoking status was investigated in 956 inhabitants aged 15 and above using stratified cluster sampling and the influencing factors were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. Results The average age of the subjects (58. 8% male) was (33. 22±13. 23) years and 34. 1% of the subjects had annual per capita family income of 10 000-20 000 yuan. The average age of smoking was (38.18±13. 58) years and smoking rate was 37. 97%,with a smoking quantity of (11. 97±9. 12) cigarettes per day. A total of 80. 9 % of smokers realized that the smoke could endanger health of others. The factors influencing smoking included gender(β=- 2. 241,P=0. 000),minding people smoking a

  9. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  10. Expression of Wnt and TGF-β pathway components and key adrenal transcription factors in adrenocortical tumors – association to carcinoma aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Schrade, Anja; Kiiveri, Sanne; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Haglund, Caj; Vainio, Seppo; Wilson, David B.; Arola, Johanna; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Factors controlling benign and malignant adrenocortical tumorigenesis are largely unknown, but several mouse models suggest an important role for inhibin-alpha (INHA). To show that findings in the mouse are relevant to human tumors and clinical outcome, we investigated the expression of signaling proteins and transcription factors involved in the regulation of INHA in human tumor samples. Thirty-one adrenocortical tumor samples, including 13 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), were categorized according to Weiss score, hormonal profile, and patient survival data and analyzed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of the TGF-β signaling mediator SMAD3 varied inversely with Weiss score, so that SMAD3 expression was lowest in the most malignant tumors. By contrast, SMAD2 expression was upregulated in most malignant tumors. Wnt pathway co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 were predominantly expressed in benign adrenocortical tumors. In ACCs, expression of transcription factors GATA-6 and SF-1 correlated with that of their target gene INHA. Moreover, the diminished expression of GATA-6 and SF-1 in ACCs correlated with poor outcome. We conclude that the factors driving INHA expression are reduced in ACCs with poor outcome, implicating a role for INHAas a tumor suppressor in humans. PMID:23866946

  11. Expression of Wnt and TGF-β pathway components and key adrenal transcription factors in adrenocortical tumors: association to carcinoma aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Schrade, Anja; Kiiveri, Sanne; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Haglund, Caj; Vainio, Seppo; Wilson, David B; Arola, Johanna; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2013-08-01

    Factors controlling benign and malignant adrenocortical tumorigenesis are largely unknown, but several mouse models suggest an important role for inhibin-alpha (INHA). To show that findings in the mouse are relevant to human tumors and clinical outcome, we investigated the expression of signaling proteins and transcription factors involved in the regulation of INHA in human tumor samples⋅ Thirty-one adrenocortical tumor samples, including 13 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), were categorized according to Weiss score, hormonal profile, and patient survival data and analyzed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of the TGF-β signaling mediator SMAD3 varied inversely with Weiss score, so that SMAD3 expression was lowest in the most malignant tumors. By contrast, SMAD2 expression was upregulated in most malignant tumors. Wnt pathway co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 were predominantly expressed in benign adrenocortical tumors. In ACCs, expression of transcription factors GATA-6 and SF-1 correlated with that of their target gene INHA. Moreover, the diminished expression of GATA-6 and SF-1 in ACCs correlated with poor outcome. We conclude that the factors driving INHA expression are reduced in ACCs with poor outcome, implicating a role for INHA as a tumor suppressor in humans.

  12. 温州市城镇居民消费水平影响因素的计量分析%Quantitative Analysis of the Influence Factors of Wenzhou Urban Residents Consumption Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月凤

    2015-01-01

    对城镇居民消费水平的影响因素进行分析有助于推进形成与经济发展形式相适应的居民消费格局,促进国民经济的良性循环和健康发展.借助温州统计年鉴,收集1994—2013年温州城镇居民人均消费支出、城镇居民人均可支配收入、城镇消费价格指数、全社会固定资产投资、城镇人口自然增长率等相关数据,采用多元线性回归分析方法,分析影响温州城镇居民消费水平的因素,进而提出促进温州城镇居民消费水平的政策建议.%To analyze the influence factors of urban residents consumption level will help to promote the formation and form of economic development that meet the needs of residents' consumption structure, and promote the virtuous cycle of national economy and healthy development. With the aid of statistical yearbook of Wenzhou, it collected in 1994-2013 urban residents per capita con-sumption expenditure in Wenzhou, urban per capita disposable income, urban consumer price index, the whole society investment in fixed assets a, urban natural population growth rate, etc., by using multiple linear regression analysis method, to analyze the influential elements of the Wenzhou urban residents consumption level, and brings forward policy suggestions to promote the urban residents con-sumption level in Wenzhou.

  13. Contrasting Attitudes of Dormitory and Apartment Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Clinton I.; Wolosin, Myrna A.

    This study was designed to discover the attitudes that distinguish apartment-dwelling students from dormitory residents at Indiana University. The study appears to support the following conclusions. Apartment dwellers see independence as a major factor in their choice of residence. They also believe that apartments are more convenient than…

  14. Burnout in medical residents : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Tubben, B.J.; van der Heijden, F.M.M.A.; De Wiel, H.B.M.V.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to review current knowledge on burnout in medical residents, including reported prevalence rates, and to establish which risk and resistance factors contribute to or prevent burnout in medical residents. METHODS We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature publis

  15. The Ideal Resident Doctor: Á Resident's Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trainer relationship can only then be imagined. ... like these lend themselves to personal and cultural ... An ideal resident's clinical options .... of humanistic and professional values, the lack of .... graduate medical education should do more in mak-.

  16. Polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity as factors associated with staff informant rated quality of life in residents of aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, Samanta; Jamsen, Kris M; Wimmer, Barbara C; Tan, Edwin C K; Hilmer, Sarah N; Robson, Leonie; Emery, Tina; Bell, J Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between polypharmacy with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and medication regimen complexity with HRQoL in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A cross-sectional study of 383 residents from six Australian RACFs was conducted. The primary exposures were polypharmacy (≥9 regular medications) and the validated Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). The outcome measure was staff informant rated quality of life assessed using the Quality of Life Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD) scale. Covariates included age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, activities of daily living, and dementia severity. Logistic quantile regression was used to characterize the association between polypharmacy and QoL-AD (model 1) and MRCI and QoL-AD (model 2). The median age of the 383 residents was 88 years and 297 (78 %) residents were female. In total, 63 % of residents were exposed to polypharmacy and the median MRCI score (range) was 43.5 (4-113). After adjusting for the covariates, polypharmacy was not associated with either higher or lower QoL-AD scores (estimate -0.02; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.165, 0.124; p = 0.78). Similarly, after adjusting for the covariates, MRCI was not associated with either higher or lower QoL-AD scores (estimate -0.0009, 95 % CI -0.005, 0.003; p = 0.63). These findings suggest that polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity are not associated with staff informant rated HRQoL. Further research is needed to investigate how specific medication classes may impact change in quality of life over time.

  17. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  18. 基于因子分析法的我国农村居民主观幸福感研究%Study on the Subjective Sense of Happiness of China Rural Residents Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉彬

    2012-01-01

    According to the investigation data of 300 rural inhabitants in Yuxi of Yunnan Province, the factors affecting the subjective sense of happiness of rural residents were studied. 20 indices were selected to establish an index system, and a comprehensive evaluation model was constructed through factor analysis to analyze and evaluate each factor. The influence factors were found out, including macro environmental factors, personal characteristics factors, the objective conditions of personal life factors, the subjective feelings of personal life factors, the income factors, health factors and children's education factor.%以云南省玉溪市300户农村居民的调查数据为资料,研究了农村居民幸福感的影响因素.选取了20个指标构建农村居民主观幸福感的指标体系,用因子分析法建立了综合评价模型,对各因子进行了分析和评价,找出了影响农村居民主观幸福感的主要因子,分别为宏观环境因子、个人特征因子、个人生活的客观条件因子、个人生活的主观感受因子、收入因子、健康状况因子和子女教育因子.

  19. 月坛社区居民两周患病率调查及影响因素分析%Analysis of factors of two week prevalence rate of Yuetan community residents investigation and influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立涛; 杜雪平; 孙艳格

    2016-01-01

    目的:确认居民两周患病率及相关影响因素,为卫生服务决策提供客观依据。方法:2015年3-7月对月坛社区6993名居民采用分层随机抽样的方法,通过入户调查的方式展开调查。结果:月坛社区≥15岁居民两周患病率4.9%;影响居民两周患病率的影响因素有性别、年龄、文化程度、婚姻状况以及职业。结论:应重视本地区妇女、老年人、低文化程度者、离婚丧偶者、离退休者的健康情况,降低两周患病率,全面提高居民健康水平。%Objective:To confirm the prevalence rate and related influencing factors of residents in two weeks,and provide objective evidence for health service decision.Methods:March 2015-July2015 of Yuetan community 6 993 residents by stratified random sampling method,by way of the household survey investigation.Results:The Yuetan community is more than or equal to 15 years old residents two weeks prevalence rate of 4.9%;influence the two-week prevalence rate influencing factors are gender,age, educational level,marital status and career.Conclusion:More attention should be paid to the local women,the elderly,low culture degree,divorce widowed and retiree health,reduce the two week prevalence rate,and comprehensively improve the health level of residents.

  20. 北京市结膜炎症状发生现状及相关知识行为的调查%Prevalence of conjunctivitis symptoms and associated factors among residents in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阳; 吴双胜; 马春娜; 杨鹏; 王全意

    2014-01-01

    A multi-stage stratified sampling method and a self-designed questionnaire were used to evaluate the prevalence of conjunctivitis symptoms and associated factors among the Beijing residents.In total,12 890 residents aged over 18 years were recruited from 6 districts.The reported prevalence of conjunctivitis symptom at the last years was 1.60%.Self-reported health condition and personal health behaviors were risk factors associated with conjunctivitis among adult Beijing residents.No significant difference existed between different districts,age groups,educational levels,gender and races.Conjunctivitis symptom among Beijing residents was related with health condition and health behaviors.More measures should be taken to cultivate the health model of behaviors.%采用多阶段分层抽样和自行设计的问卷对北京市6个城区12 890名18岁以上居民调查,旨在了解成年居民结膜炎症状发生现况及相关知识行为因素.北京市居民2011年结膜炎症状报告率为1.60%,不同城区、年龄、文化、性别和民族的居民组间报告率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).健康状况差、外出回家后不洗手、与他人共用毛巾是居民患结膜炎的危险因素.相关部门应采取健康教育、行为干预等综合措施促进居民形成健康的行为模式,降低结膜炎的发生.

  1. Improving applicant selection: identifying qualities of the unsuccessful otolaryngology resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Kelley, Kanwar; Conderman, Christian; Mahboubi, Hossein; Armstrong, William B; Bhandarkar, Naveen D

    2015-04-01

    To identify the prevalence and management of problematic residents. Additionally, we hope to identify the factors associated with successful remediation of unsuccessful otolaryngology residents. Self-reported Internet and paper-based survey. An anonymous survey was distributed to 152 current and former program directors (PDs) in 2012. The factors associated with unsuccessful otolaryngology residents and those associated with the successful remediation of problematic residents were investigated. An unsuccessful resident is defined as one who quit or was removed from the program for any reason, or one whose actions resulted in criminal action or citation against their medical license after graduation from residency. Remediation is defined as an individualized program implemented to correct documented weaknesses. The overall response rate was 26% (40 PDs). Seventy-three unsuccessful or problematic residents were identified. Sixty-six problematic or unsuccessful residents were identified during residency, with 58 of 66 (88%) undergoing remediation. Thirty-one (47%) residents did not graduate. The most commonly identified factors of an unsuccessful resident were: change in specialty (21.5%), interpersonal and communication skills with health professionals (13.9%), and clinical judgment (10.1%). Characteristics of those residents who underwent successful remediation include: poor performance on in-training examination (17%, P otolaryngology PDs in this sample identified at least one unsuccessful resident. Improved methods of applicant screening may assist in optimizing otolaryngology resident selection. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. 急诊绿色通道影响创伤患者滞留时间的因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing residence time of trauma patients in the emergency green channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜安福; 黄亚娟; 吴小娟; 薛华; 陈慧智

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors affecting the green channel emergency trauma patients residence time for hospital managers to improve emergency trauma patient residence time related systems provide theoretical support. Methods A retrospective analysis of our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014 emergency green channel clinical data in patients with severe trauma to the residence time of the factors that may affect as independent variables,the residence time as the depend-ent variable,using binary logistic regression analysis 12 possible factors impact on the residence time. Results 1) two groups in age,mode of admission,treatment period and whether the merger on traumatic brain injury,there was a significant difference in the number of groups,with statistical significance (P 0. 05). The four main factors 2) emergency green channel residence time over 60min trauma patients:age,admission mode,the time period for treatment of head and neck injuries and whether the merger Multivariate Logistic regression found that the presence of the four highly correlated. Conclusion Affect my green channel hospital emergency trauma patients have a residence time of the main factors of age,admission mode,the time period for treat-ment of head and neck injuries and whether the merger,there is a high correlation between the four and deserves attention and further study.%目的:探索影响急诊绿色通道创伤患者滞留时间的相关因素,为医院管理者为患者滞留时间改善急救创伤相关制度提供理论支持。方法回顾性分析我院2013年6月~2014年6月急诊绿色通道创伤患者的临床资料,以可能影响滞留时间因素为自变量,滞留时间为因变量,采用二分类 Logistic 回归方法分析相关可能因素对滞留时间的影响程度。结果1)两组患者在年龄、入院方式、就诊时间段以及是否合并颅脑损伤上,两组人数比较差异有显著性(P 0.05)。2)影响急诊绿色通道创伤患者

  3. A comparison of cardiometabolic risk factors in households in rural Uganda with and without a resident with type 2 diabetes, 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People...... living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5...

  4. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette K.; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hansen, Dorthe H.;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  5. Study on influencing factors of health literacy among residents in Liaoning Province%辽宁省城乡居民健康素养影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 常慧; 刘懿卿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of health literacy and its influencing factors among residents in Liaoning Province, and provide basis for developments of health education policy. Methods A total of 2469 residents aged 15 to 69 years old were selected with multistage random sampling. A national standardized questionnaire survey was carried out Results The rates of correct answers were all below 20% , which were related to drug instruction, pain-killer drugs, diseases transmitted by four pests, treatment of fractured wounded and obesity. Multiple regression analysis showed health literacy of urban residents was higher than that of rural residents, the higher educational level, the higher proportion of health literacy, with ORs of 2.036 and 3.018 respectively of which educational level was the main influencing factor. Conclusion Health literacy of residents with different area and educational level have significant difference.%目的 了解辽宁省城乡居民健康素养状况及影响因素,为制定健康教育干预措施提供依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法,抽取2469名15 ~69岁常住人口采用全国统一编定的调查问卷进行调查.结果 辽宁省居民对“认识药品说明书”、“对镇静止痛药的正确理解”、“对四害传播疾病的认识”、“骨折伤员的处置”、“对肥胖的正确认识”等素养的正确回答率均低于20%.多因素回归分析显示,农村居民健康素养具备率明显低于城市(OR=2.036);文化程度越高,健康素养具备率越高(OR =3.018),且从偏回归系数上可以看出,文化程度的影响最大.结论 不同地区、文化程度人群健康素养存在差异.

  6. Factors Influencing of Urban and Rural Residents' Willingness to Pay for Non-market Value of Arable Land%城乡居民对耕地非市场价值支付意愿的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昕昕; 赵凯; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    155 effective data from Huludao City, Liaoning were analyzed by Pearson related coefficient and multiple regression model based on CVM theory to study the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents for non-market value of arable land for perfecting the protection policy of arable land and maintain microcosmic body interest of arable land protection. The results showed that the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban residents were age, annual family income, education status, acceptant level to externality of arable land utilization and the factors influencing willingness to pay of rural residents were family income level, family population number, education status, whether or not village cadre and annual family agricultural income. The common factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents were age, annual family income, family population number and education level.%研究影响城乡居民对耕地资源非市场价值支付意愿的因素对于完善耕地保护政策,切实维护耕地保护微观主体利益具有重要的理论和实践价值.根据在辽宁葫芦岛市调研的155个有效样本数据,结合CVM理论,运用Pearson相关系数和多元回归模型从城乡居民支付意愿视角对影响耕地资源非市场价值的因素进行了研究.结果表明,影响城镇居民支付意愿的因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、文化程度和对耕地利用外部性的认可程度;影响农村居民的支付意愿的因素主要有家庭收入水平、家庭人口数、文化程度、是否为村干部和家庭年农业收入;城乡居民的共同影响因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、家庭人口数和文化程度.

  7. Literature Study of Self-medication Behaviors and Influential Factors among Urban and Rural Residents in China%我国城乡居民自我药疗行为及影响因素的文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛淑乔; 俞海亮; 米光明

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the basis for the formulation of self-medication behavior intervention strategies for urban and rural residents in China. METHODS: By using literature review, about 60 related literatures from CNKI during 2000 ?2010 were reviewed using "self-medication behaviors" as key word to analyze status quo of self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents and its relationship with predisposing factors, shaping factors and reinforcing factors. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of self-medication behaviors increase in general, drug selection pattern has been influenced by physicians and media, etc. Antipyretic/analgesic drugs and antibiotics are commonly used. Urban and rural residents have many unhealthy self-medication behaviors, such as blind drug use, drug use out of package inserts and wrong methods of taking medicine. Predisposing factors are antecedent reasons and motive to behavior changes, which are internal cause of self-medication behaviors. Shaping factors are necessary to the achievement of motive and wishes; reinforcing factors urge or weaken self-medication behaviors; they are external causes. The three factors interact with one another and influence self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents. Self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents can be standardized by improving inhabitants' consciousness by health education and pharmaceutical care of pharmacists and shop assistants, reinforcing supervision of drug advertising in mass media.%目的:为我国城乡居民自我药疗行为干预策略的制定提供参考.方法:采用文献回顾的方法,以“自我药疗”为关键词,对2000-2010年中国学术期刊网全文数据库等收录的60余篇相关文献进行综述,分析我国城乡居民自我药疗行为的现状及其影响因素(倾向因素、促成因素、强化因素).结果与结论:自我药疗的比例呈总体上升趋势,药物的选择方式多受医师、媒体等因素影

  8. 中国农村居民旅游消费特征与影响因素分析%Tourism consumption of Chinese rural residents : Characteristics and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤龙; 黄震方; 方叶林

    2013-01-01

    Tourism consumption of Chinese rural residents is an important way of expanding domestic demand and balancing urban and rural development,and also contributes to promote the sustainable tourism development in China.Using the national statistical data collected from 1994 to 2010,the paper analyses development stage,characteristics and its changing trend,and influencing factors of tourism consumption of rural residents.The results are shown as follows:(1) Tourism consumption of rural residents can be divided into three stages.Before 1999,tourism consumption had been greatly improved,but the level of per capita tourism consumption was low.Tourism consumption showed a significant downward trend from 1999 to 2003.After that,tourism total consumption prohibited a continuous increasing tendency,but the growth of per capita tourism consumption was retarded,tourism consumption presented scale expansion,which was mainly due to the growth of tourism consumption person times.(2) Based on the comparison between urban and rural residents' tourism consumption,average tourism propensity to consumption of rural residents presents a downward trend in general,Q values which evaluate the level of tourism consumption show that the tourism consumption of rural residents lags behind income in most years.Transportation,accommodation,dining and sightseeing consumption have been steadily declining,the changing degree of tourism consumption structure is relatively strong,consumption level is relatively low and consumption structure is irrational.(3) The paper constructs an influential mechanism model of tourism consumption of rural residents.The conclusion shows that rural residents' income,traditional consumption habit,and consumption uncertainty are the three important influencing factors.Firstly,the model shows a significant positive correlation between tourism consumption and residents' income,and tourism consumption is sensitive to residents' income.Secondly,traditional consumption

  9. Study on quality of life and influencing factors of urban residents in Huaihai economic zone%淮海经济区城市居民生命质量与健康影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄水平; 黄晓静; 覃朝晖; 赵秋妮; 朱帅; 宋尧; 陈加玉; 刘会中

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors that affect the quality of life of urban residents in the Huaihai economic zone,and to improve the health level of the local urban residents. Methods World Health Organization on Quality of Life Brief Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) was adopted for investigation among 1 000 residents from 2 cities with better economic level (Xuzhou and Huai'an) and 3 cities with poorer economic level(Lianyungang,Suqian and Zaozhuang) in Huaihai economic zone,200 resi-dents were randomly selected from each city. Results Among different economic levels of the cities,the difference of residents on quality of life score was not statistically significant(P>0.05);factors affecting the quality of life of the residents mainly includ-ed the academic qnalification,marriage,chronic disease or not,smoking,drinking and sports. In the area of physiology,psycholo-gy,social relations and enviroment,physiology was the most influential factors. Conclusion Sports are the most important way to promote health,academic qaulification and marriage are the important protective factors for health,however,behaviors such as smoking and drinking can affect physical health.%目的:了解淮海经济区城市居民生命质量状况受到哪些因素的影响,以期提高该地区城市居民健康水平。方法采用世界卫生组织编写的生存质量测定简表(即WHOQOL-BREF)为主要内容的调查问卷对淮海经济区经济水平较好的2个城市(徐州和淮安)和经济水平较差的3个城市(连云港、宿迁和枣庄)1000名居民(每城市随机调查200名居民)进行调查。结果不同经济水平城市的居民生命质量得分比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);对居民生命质量产生影响的因素主要为学历、婚姻、有无慢性病、吸烟、饮酒和体育运动。在生理、心理、社会关系、环境领域中生理领域受到最广泛的因素影响。结论体育运动是最重要的促进健康的手

  10. Dentine dypersensitivity's disease status and risk factors of rural residents in Qiannan region%黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病现状及其危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雄伟; 潘兴富; 丁舒; 郭秋蝉

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解农村居民牙本质过敏症患病现状及其危险因素,为采取相应的干预措施提供参考依据。方法采用整群随机抽样方法对黔南地区39328名≥20岁农村常住居民进行问卷调查和口腔检查,对调查结果进行统计分析。结果检出牙本质过敏症患者16391例,患病率为41.68%。16391例牙本质过敏症患者因酸刺激敏感诱发9986例占60.92%、冷刺激2985例占18.21%、热刺激1398例占8.53%、甜刺激1246例占7.60%、刷牙刺激776例占4.73%。多因素非条件logistic回归分析结果显示,女性、年龄30岁~39岁、水族、喜欢酸性食物、胃肠道反酸(长期食新鲜水果、使用牙刷较硬、刷牙力量重)和6个月换1次牙刷是黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病的危险因素。结论黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病率高于国内其他地区,应引起重视。%ObjectiveUnderstand dentine hypersensitivity's disease status and risk factors of rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province,to provide reference basis for taking corresponding interventions.MethodsBy cluster random sampling method to carry out questionnaires and oral cavity examination to 39328 rural residents of≥20 years old,who are extracted from Qiannan region.Results16391 rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province have dentine hypersensitivity(DH),with prevalence rate of 41.68%. In 16391 patients with DH,9986 patients are induced by acid stimulation sensitivity(60.92%),2985 patients are cold stimulation(18.21%),1398 patients are hot stimulation(8.53%),1246 patients are sweet stimulation(7.60%)and 776 patients are stimulated by brushing teeth(4.73%). Multi-factor unconditioned logistic regression analysis results show that,the risk factors of DH disease of rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province are:female,aged 30-39 years old,Shui nationality, like acidic food,gastrointestinal reflux,long-term eating fresh fruit

  11. Burnout Comparison among Residents in Different Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Shahm; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Churchill, Amy; Balon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate resident burnout in relation to work and home-related factors. Method: Maslach Burnout Inventory was mailed to residents in eight different medical specialties, with a response rate of 35%. Results: Overall, 50% of residents met burnout criteria, ranging from 75% (obstetrics/gynecology) to 27% (family medicine). The first…

  12. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  13. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  14. Burnout Comparison among Residents in Different Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Shahm; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Churchill, Amy; Balon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate resident burnout in relation to work and home-related factors. Method: Maslach Burnout Inventory was mailed to residents in eight different medical specialties, with a response rate of 35%. Results: Overall, 50% of residents met burnout criteria, ranging from 75% (obstetrics/gynecology) to 27% (family medicine). The first…

  15. RNA from LPS-stirnulated macrophages induces the release of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 by resident macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ribeiro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous RNA on many cellular functions has been studied in a variety of eukaryotic cells but there are few reports on macrophages. In the present study, it is demonstrated that cytoplasmatic RNA extracted from rat macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, referred to as L-RNA, induced the release of TNF-α and IL-1 from monolayers of peritoneal resident macrophages. The activity of L-RNA was not altered by polymyxin B but was abolished by ribonuclease (RNase pretreatment, indicating the absence of LPS contamination and that the integrity of the polynucleotide chain is essential for this activity. Both the poly A(− and poly A(+ fractions obtained from L-RNA applied to oligo(dT–cellulose chromatography induced TNF-α and IL-1 release. The L-RNA-induced cytokine release was inhibited by dexamethasone and seemed to be dependent on protein synthesis since this effect was abolished by cycloheximide or actinomycin-D. The LPS-stimulated macrophages, when pre-incubated with [5-3H]-uridine, secreted a trichloroacetic acid (TCA precipitable material which was sensitive to RNase and KOH hydrolysis, suggesting that the material is RNA. This substance was also released from macrophage monolayers stimulated with IL-1β but not with TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-8. The substance secreted (3H-RNA sediments in the 4–5S region of a 5–20% sucrose gradient. These results show that L-RNA induces cytokine secretion by macrophage monolayers and support the idea that, during inflammation, stimulated macrophages could release RNA which may further induce the release of cytokines by the resident cell population.

  16. GATA-4/-6 and HNF-1/-4 families of transcription factors control the transcriptional regulation of the murine Muc5ac mucin during stomach development and in epithelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vincent, Audrey; Franquet-Ansart, Hélène; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; Korteland-van Male, Anita; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Renes, Ingrid B; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    During human embryonic and fetal development of the gastrointestinal tract, the gene encoding the MUC5AC mucin has a spatio-temporal pattern of expression restricted to the stomach. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for this restricted pattern of expression, we have studied Muc5ac expression in the developing stomach of the mouse and correlated it to that of transcription factors known to be involved in cell differentiation programs during development. Our results indicate that GATA-6 and HNF-4α expression increased concomitantly with the induction of Muc5ac expression in embryonic stomach. We then studied Muc5ac transcriptional regulation by these transcription factors and showed that they all transactivate Muc5ac promoter. We also identified several active GATA-4/-5/-6 and HNF-1/-4 cis-elements using gel shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis. Among all Muc5ac regulators, only GATA-6 and HNF-4a expression was concomitant to that of Muc5ac in the developing stomach. This is thus in favor of an important role for these two transcription factors as regulators of expression of the Muc5ac mucin during stomach development and in epithelial cancer cells.

  17. 开封市城市居民吸烟状况及其危险因素研究%Smoking Status and Risk Factors of Kaifeng City Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 赵腾林; 孙冬; 梁月

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the smoking status of residents in Kaifeng city,and analysis the risk factors,in order to provide the basis for effective intervention in urban residents smoking behavior.Methods:Two communities including 1220 residents in Kaifeng city were selected by stratified random sampling using tobacco usage behavior questionnaire.Results:The smoking rates of Kaifeng city residents was 32.29%,smoking rates of men was hihger than women,the difference was statistically significant.55.03%of residents have seen tobacco advertising in past year.19.66%of residents' mind if people smoke in your side during the people who smoke.78.03%people mind other people smoking in your side during the one who didn't smoke.21.04%of residents smoking every day. Men,don't mind the people around smoking,unit no strict demand a ban on smoking were risk factors for influence smoking behavior.Conclusion:Men are the focus of the crowd of controlling tobacco in Kaifeng.At the same time,further strengthen health education on smoking hazard should be carried out,intensify unit to ban smoking on tobacco control intervention work plays an important role.%目的:调查开封市城市居民吸烟现况,并进行危险因素分析,为有效干预城市居民吸烟行为提供依据。方法:分层随机抽取开封市两个社区,对1220名15岁以上社区居民进行烟草行为使用情况问卷调查。结果:开封市城市居民吸烟率为35.29%,其中男性吸烟率高于女性,差异有统计学意义。近半年,55.03%居民看过烟草广告。吸烟者中,19.66%的居民介意别人在自己身边吸烟,不吸烟者中,78.03%居民介意别人在自己身边吸烟。21.04%的居民每天吸烟。男性、不介意身边的人吸烟、单位没有严格要求禁止吸烟是影响吸烟行为的危险因素。结论:男性是开封市控烟工作的重点人群,同时需进一步加强对吸烟危害的健康教育,加大单位禁止吸烟的力度对控烟干预工作具有重要作用。

  18. 靖西县壮族居民高血压病患病及影响因素分析%Prevalence and related factors of hypertension among Zhuang residents in Jingxi county of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿翔; 梁烨; 李天资; 潘兴寿; 陆克兴; 韦柳青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and related factors of hypertension among Zhuang residents in Jingxi county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods A questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted among 561 Zhuang residents aged 20 years or older selected with stratified cluster random sampling from two villages in Jingxi county. Results The crude and standardized prevalence rate of hypertension were 22. 6% and 22. 1%. The results of multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses showed that gender (male), obesity, diabetes, smoking, alcohol-drinking, and eating fat meat or animal offal were risk factors of hypertension, whereas tea drinking, vegetarian, and exercise were protective factors of hypertension among the residents. Conclusion Hypertension prevalence is high and related to dietary pattern,life style,and exercise among Zhuang residents in Jingxi county.%目的 了解广西壮族自治区靖西县壮族居民高血压患病情况及其影响因素,为高血压的干预治疗提供参考依据.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法对在靖西县抽取的南坡乡汤峒村和同德乡亮表村共561名≥20周岁壮族居民进行问卷调查和体格检查.结果 靖西县壮族居民的高血压患病率和标化患病率分别为22.6%和22.1%;多因素非条件Logistic回归分析结果表明,男性、肥胖、糖尿病、吸烟.饮酒和喜食肥肉或动物内脏是壮族居民高血压患病的危险因素;饮茶、素食和运动是壮族居民高血压患病的保护因素.结论 靖西县壮族居民高血压患病率较高,性别、肥胖、糖尿病、吸烟、饮酒、喜食肥肉或动物内脏、饮茶、饮食类型和运动情况是壮族居民高血压患病的相关影响因素.

  19. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  20. Simulation and resident education in spinal neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Parker E; Arnold, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    A host of factors have contributed to the increasing use of simulation in neurosurgical resident education. Although the number of simulation-related publications has increased exponentially over the past two decades, no studies have specifically examined the role of simulation in resident education in spinal neurosurgery. We performed a structured search of several databases to identify articles detailing the use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education in an attempt to catalogue potential applications for its use. A brief history of simulation in medicine is given, followed by current trends of spinal simulation utilization in residency programs. General themes from the literature are identified that are integral for implementing simulation into neurosurgical residency curriculum. Finally, various applications are reported. The use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education is not as ubiquitous in comparison to other neurosurgical subspecialties, but many promising methods of simulation are available for augmenting resident education.

  1. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...

  2. Prevalência e fatores associados aos transtornos mentais comuns em residentes médicos e da área multiprofissional Prevalence and factors associated with commom mental disorders in medical and multiprofessional health residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Novaes Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC e sua associação a fatores sociodemográficos e profissionais em residentes de medicina, enfermagem, nutrição e saúde coletiva da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal foi conduzido, em 2007, envolvendo uma amostra aleatória de 178 residentes que responderam a questões sociodemográficas e sobre a formação profissional e ao Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Calcularam-se as prevalências de TMC e estimaram-se as razões de prevalência (RP e os intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total dos TMC foi de 51,1% e não se observou associação aos fatores sociodemográficos. A prevalência do evento foi 39% maior nos médicos que nos não médicos (p = 0,049 e 46% maior em residentes médicos das especialidades cirúrgicas que entre os de enfermagem, nutrição e saúde coletiva (p = 0,048. Cinco das queixas do SRQ-20 foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and its association with sociodemographics and professionals resident in medicine, nursing, nutrition and public health from the city of Recife (PE. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2007, involving a random sample of 178 residents, who responded to question about sociodemographics and professional training and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. The prevalence of CMD were calculated, also prevalence ratios (PR and confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CMD was 51.1%, and there was no association with sociodemographics factors. The prevalence of the event was 39% higher among the physicians than in the non-medical (p = 0,049 and 46% greater in the surgical specialties medical residents than among nursing, nutrition and public health (p = 0,048. Five of the SRQ-20 items were more frequent in female (p < 0,05. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the high magnitude of CMD in

  3. Resident and attending physician perception of maladaptive response to stress in residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ann Riesenberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Residency stress has been shown to interfere with resident well-being and patient safety. We developed a survey research study designed to explore factors that may affect perception of a maladaptive response to stress. Methods: A 16-item survey with 12 Likert-type perception items was designed to determine how often respondents agreed or disagreed with statements regarding the resident on the trigger tape. A total of 438 respondents from multiple institutions completed surveys. Results: Attending physicians were more likely than residents to agree that the resident on the trigger tape was impaired, p<0.0001; needed to seek professional counseling, p=0.0003; should be removed from the service, p=0.002; was not receiving adequate support from the attending physician, p=0.007; and was a risk to patient safety, p=0.02. Attending physicians were also less likely to agree that the resident was a good role model, p=0.001, and that the resident should be able to resolve these issues herself/himself, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Our data suggest that resident physicians may not be able to adequately detect maladaptive responses to stress and that attending physicians may be more adept at recognizing this problem. More innovative faculty and resident development workshops should be created to teach and encourage physicians to better observe and detect residents who are displaying maladaptive responses to stress.

  4. Predictors of final specialty choice by internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Andrew K; Kumar, Vineeta; Gateley, Ann; Appleby, Jane L; O'Keefe, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    Sociodemographic factors and personality attributes predict career decisions in medical students. Determinants of internal medicine residents' specialty choices have received little attention. To identify factors that predict the clinical practice of residents following their training. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred and four categorical residents from 2 university-based residency programs. Sociodemographic and personality inventories performed during residency, and actual careers 4 to 9 years later. International medical school graduates (IMGs) were less likely to practice general medicine than U.S. graduates (33.3% vs 70.6%, P personal attributes during the selection process.

  5. [Medical residency program: perceptions of medical residents in hospitals of Lima and Callao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miní, Elsy; Medina, Julio; Peralta, Verónica; Rojas, Luis; Butron, Joece; Gutiérrez, Ericson L

    2015-01-01

    In order to rate the medical residency training program from the perceptions of residents, a structured survey, based on international literature, was applied to 228 participants. 48.2% of residents rated their training as “good,” 36.4% as “fair” and 15.4% as “poor”. Most of the residents had low supervision while on call, were overworked and did not have rest after being on call. Having a good annual curriculum (OR: 8.5; 95% CI: 4.1 to 7.4) and university promotion of research (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.2) were independent factors associated with higher ratings of training. In conclusion, the rating of residents about their training is mostly good, but this percentage does not exceed 50%. Training authorities could use these results to propose improvements in training programs for medical residents in Peru.

  6. 西乌珠穆沁旗居民慢性病危险因素监测分析%Monitor and analysis of risk factors in chronic disease affecting the residents in West Wuzhumuqin Banner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国; 王亚军; 白华民; 闫芳; 曹玲玲; 余艳琴; 郝金奇

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解西乌珠穆沁旗居民慢性病的危险因素,为防治慢性病提供科学依据。方法:用按比例多阶段随机抽样的方法抽取在西乌珠穆沁旗居住满5年的18岁以上居民3528人作为调查对象,进行问卷调查及体格检查。结果:西乌珠穆沁旗居民中高血压、糖尿病和冠心病人群中危险因素是吸烟、饮酒、体育锻炼、体质指数,而脑卒中的人群危险因素是吸烟、饮酒。蒙古族人群吸烟率、饮酒率高于其他民族人群。调查人群的超重率和肥胖率分别为29.4%和16.8%,吸烟率为22.2%,饮酒率为15.9%,其中男性的吸烟率、饮酒率、锻炼率、超重率和肥胖率均高于女性。不同年龄组吸烟、饮酒、体育锻炼、体质指数差异均有统计学意义( P <0.05),多因素分析显示,性别、吸烟、饮酒、超重、肥胖、遗传等因素是西乌珠穆沁旗居民慢性病的患病危险因素。结论:影响西乌珠穆沁旗居民健康的危险因素较多,应积极采取预防控制措施,提高居民的生活质量。%Objective:To study the risk factors in chronic disease affecting the residents in West Wuzhumuqin Banner, providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of chronic disease. Methods:3,528 residents over 18 years old living more than 5 years in West Wuzhumuqin were randomly selected to answer questionnaires and have physical examinations. Results:It was smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index that were risk factors in patients with hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease, while it was smoking and drinking that were factors in patients with stroke. The smoking rate and the drinking rate in Mongolians are higher than those in other nationalities. The overweight , obesity , smoking and drinking rates in the people surveyed were 29. 4% ,16. 8%, 22. 2% and 15. 9% respectively. The smoking , drinking , exercise , overweight and obesity rates in men

  7. Risk Factors of Early Onset Coronary Heart Disease in Tibetan Residents: A Cross-sectional Study%藏族居民早发冠心病危险因素的横断面研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪卫; 周瑶; 王海燕; 杨淑娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨藏族居民早发冠心病的影响因素.方法 选择2011年1月至2013年5月在西藏自治区人民政府驻成都办事处医院心内科住院治疗的藏族冠心病患者为研究对象,按年龄分为早发冠心病组和晚发冠心病组.对两组患者性别、家族史、吸烟、饮酒、高血压、糖尿病和血脂水平进行单因素分析,提取有统计学意义的因素进一步进行多因素logistic回归分析.统计分析采用SPSS 16.0软件.结果 共纳入64例藏族冠心病患者,其中早发冠心病组22例,晚发冠心病组42例.单因素分析结果显示,两组患者在性别、家族史、HDL-C和LDL-C水平上差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).logistic回归分析结果显示,家族史(OR=3.374,P<0.05)、TG水平更高(OR=2.369,P<0.05)、HDL-C水平更低(OR=0.014,P<0.05)和LDL-C水平更高(OR=3.008,P<0.05)是早发冠心病的独立危险因素.结论 阳性家族史、TG升高、HDL-C降低和LDL-C升高是藏族居民早发冠心病的独立危险因素.%Objective To explore and discuss the risk factors of early onset coronary heart disease in Tibetan residents.Methods We selected Tibetan residents with coronary heart disease who were hospitalized in the Hospital of Chengdu Office of People's Government of Tibetan Autonomous Region between January 2011 and May 2013,and then divided them into two groups by age (early onset and late onset coronary heart disease groups).Univariate analysis was performed between two groups by gender,family history,smoking,drinking,hypertension,diabetes,levels of blood lipid,respectively.The factors with significant differences were extracted for logistic regression.Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software.Results A total of 64 Tibetan residents with coronary heart disease were included,of which,22 cases were in the early onset groups and 42 cases the late onset group.The results of univariate analysis showed that,significant differences were found in

  8. Analysis on the current situation and risk factors for the prevalence of hypertension among residents in Jingdezhen City%景德镇市居民高血压流行现状与危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文云; 刘志辉; 王平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨我市居民高血压流行现状,分析其危险因素,为制定预防措施以参考。方法采用随机抽样调查方法,收取2013年6月~2014年6月在我院门诊进行体检的600例居民(男女各300例),采用一对一面谈式问卷形式进行调查,分析不同性别、年龄患者高血压知晓率、控制率及治疗率情况。将患者分为患病组与健康组进行危险因素分析。结果600例体检者中患病156例,患病率、知晓率、治疗率和控制率分别为26%、54.49%、50%及20.51%,呈现出性别、年龄差异。健康者及患病者吸烟、大量饮酒、高盐饮食、肥胖、高血糖及血脂异常方面存在差异,以上为高血压危险因素。结论我市居民高血压知晓率、控制率及治疗率比较低,应结合其性别及年龄特点,加强宣教,降低其危害。%Objective To explore the current situation of the prevalence of hypertension among residents in our city and to analyze its risk factors, so as to provide references for formulating preventive measures. Methods All 600 residents(300 each for male and female) who received physical examination in the outpatient department in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014 were selected according to random sample. Questionnaire with the form of one-on-one inter-view was applied for the investigation. Awareness rate, control rate and treatment rate of hypertension among different genders and ages were analyzed. The patients were divided into disease group and healthy group,and risk factors were analyzed. Results Among 600 residents received physical examination, 156 patients had hypertension. The prevalence rate,awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate were 26%, 54.49%, 50% and 20.51% respectively, and the dif-ferences could be seen between genders and ages. Differences of smoking, heavy drinking, high-salt diet, obesity,high blood sugar and abnormal blood lipid compared between healthy people and

  9. Analysis of status and influence factors of health literacy among permanent residents in Shaanxi Province,2013%2013年陕西省居民健康素养现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳梅; 南海涛; 铁云丽; 郭健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To learn the health literacy level and analize it’s influencing factors among permanent resi-dents in Shaanxi Province.Methods Multistaged stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted in the surveillance and permanent residents aged 15 -69 years in Shaanxi Province were investigated,and the data has been standardized ad-justed.Results The health literacy level of permanent residents in Shaanxi was 6.15%.The level of basic knowledge and concept,healthy lifestyle and behavior,health related skills were 14.40%,6.46% and 9.68%,respectively.The level of 6 health issues as to heath safety and first aid,scientific attitude towards health,infectious diseases prevention,health in-formation,basic medical care and chronic diseases prevention among the whole Shaanxi residents was 42.18%,27.29%, 16.47%,14.76%,7.83% and 7.30%,respectively.Area (OR =0.685),gender (OR =0.932),age (OR =0.972 -1.139),educational background (OR =2.339 -4.032)were the influencing factors of residents.Conclusion The heath literacy level of Shaanxi residents was low,it should be improved through multi-sections,cooperation and various targeted health education and inventions based on health projects.%目的:了解陕西省城乡居民健康素养现状,分析主要影响因素。方法采取多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,经过5个阶段抽样,对陕西省15~69岁居民进行问卷调查,并进行标化分析。结果2013年陕西省居民健康素养水平为6.15%。居民基本知识和理念、健康生活方式与行为、基本技能素养水平分别为14.40%、6.46%和9.68%。居民6类健康问题素养水平由高到低依次为安全与急救、科学健康观、传染病防治、健康信息、基本医疗和慢性病防治素养,分别为42.18%、27.29%、16.47%、14.76%、7.83%和7.30%。多因素分析结果显示,城乡(OR =0.685)、性别(OR =0.932)、年龄(OR =0.972~1.139)、文化程度(OR =2

  10. The prevalence rate and influential factors of diabetes among residents aged over 15 in Hubei Province%湖北省15岁以上居民糖尿病患病率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘琦; 郭立新; 肖琛嫦; 张璇; 陈功; 李十月; 燕虹

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解湖北省15岁以上居民糖尿病患病率及其影响因素,为糖尿病防控提供依据。方法于2013年10~11月,采取分层整群随机抽样方法,对抽取的湖北省20个县市,100个乡镇及街道,200个行政村级居委会的住户进行了入户问卷调查。采用SPSS18.0软件进行统计分析。结果共调查28555人,患糖尿病者823例(2.88%),其中城市4.37%,农村1.83%;男性2.61%,女性3.13%;不同年龄间糖尿病患病率以大于或等于65岁组患病率最高(6.61%),25~<35岁组最低(0.06%)。经多元Logistic回归分析,城乡、年龄、就业状况、医保类型、饮酒和肥胖是糖尿病的影响因素。结论湖北省糖尿病患病率处于一个相对较低的水平,不同特征人群的糖尿病患病有差异。%Objective To study the prevalence rate and influential factors of diabetes among residents aged over 15 in Hubei province to provide evidences for diabetes control .Methods Through stratified cluster sampling ,20 cities and counties ,including 100 blocks and towns ,200 communities and villages were sampled .Household survey was carried out from October to November , 2013 .Data was analyzed with SPSS18 .0 .Results In total ,28 555 eligible residents were surveyed ,among which 823 (2 .88% ) self‐reported being diagnosed as diabetes .The prevalence rate for urban and rural residents were found as 4 .37% and 1 .83% respective‐ly ,that of male and female as 2 .61% and 3 .13% respectively .Residents aged 65 and above reported highest prevalence rate (6 .61% ) while those from 25 to 34 years old had the lowest (0 .06% ) .Multiple logistic regression analysis yielded results that ru‐ral‐urban residence ,age ,occupational status ,type of medical insurance ,alcohol drinking and obesity were influential factors of diabe‐tes .Conclusion Prevalence rate of diabetes among residents aged over 15 in Hubei province was at

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  12. 要素市场配置与我国城乡居民收入差距研究%A Research of Factor Market Allocation and China's Income Gap between Urban and Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖文燕

    2012-01-01

    在我国城乡要素市场人为分割情况下,劳动力、土地、资本等要素在城乡间的流动受到限制,要素的这种错误配置导致了较低的配置效率,从而使得城乡间经济收敛的内在机制无法发挥作用。通过选取一定的统计指标,对1990-2011年我国城乡要素收入进行分解,用定性与定量相结合的方法分析要素市场配置对城乡居民收入差距的影响。研究表明,土地要素和劳动力要素对城乡居民收入差距影响最大。应采取完善要素市场配置体制,促进劳动力、土地、资本等要素合理配置,完善政府宏观调控职能等政策缩小城乡居民收入差距。%In the situation of China's Urban and rural factor market being artificially divided, the movements of labor, land, capital and other factors between urban and rural areas are restricted. Such incorrect allocation of factors leads to lower allocation efficiency, which makes the internal mechanism of economic convergence between urban and rural areas unable to play a role. By selecting certain statistical indicators to decompose China's urban-rural income factors from 1990 to 2011, this paper uses the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the impact of factor market allocation on the income gap between urban and rural residents. According to the research, the factors of land and labor have the greatest impact on urban-rural income gap. Therefore, some countermeasures should be taken to narrow the income gap between urban and rural residents, such as improving factor market allocation system, promoting the rational allocation of labor, land, capital and other factors, improving the government's macro-control functions, etc.

  13. Morbidity profile of ex-servicemen residing in Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad municipal corporation area and its relationship with certain clinico-epidemiological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the morbidity profile of ex-servicemen residing at Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad corporation area. Objectives: 1 To determine types and extent of prevalent morbidities among ex-servicemen. 2 To ascertain the association between prevalent morbidities and selected predictor variables Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Ex-servicemen′s canteen, Vishrambag, Sangli. Participants: 416 ex-servicemen, registered under ex-servicemen′s canteen, Vishrambag. Statistical Analysis: Percentage, Chi-square test, and odds ratio. Results: 214 (52.16% subjects had one or more diseases/conditions. Commonest diseases detected were hypertension (26.20%, musculoskeletal problems (23.55%, and mental health problems (12.98%. Increase in the post-retirement period of ex-servicemen was significantly associated with increase in prevalence of hypertension, OR = 10.88 (4.54-26.52 and musculoskeletal disorders, OR = 8.75 (3073-20.52. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly more for those who served less than 10 years in the military job, OR = 1.90 (1.04-3.8. In the upper socio-economic class, the risk of hypertension was significantly more, OR = 6.08 (1.78-20.17; in the upper lower class, the risk of musculoskeletal disorders was significantly more, OR = 4.15 (1.88-9.16. Considering the importance of health of ex-servicemen and existence of high morbidity pattern, periodical screening was needed for every ex-serviceman who belonged to the high-risk group.

  14. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (Presearch (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students considering radiation oncology, current residents, training programs, and prospective employers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An investigation on health literacy and its influencing factors among urban and rural residents in Lishui City%丽水市城乡居民健康素养水平及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海芳; 梅少林; 雷永良; 张森荣; 尤丹; 孟华; 潜国跃

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解丽水市居民健康素养水平,从不同人口学特征分析健康素养的影响因素。方法使用分层多阶段整群抽样法调查2813名15~69岁人群健康素养水平,采用Logistic回归分析其影响因素。结果有效问卷2701份;具备健康素养的占15.25%,标化率为16.26%;基本知识和理念、健康生活方式与行为和健康技能3个维度健康素养分别为19.33%、8.63%和22.99%,科学健康观、传染病预防、慢性病预防、安全与急救、基本医疗和信息获取6类健康问题具备比例分别是42.69%、29.43%、9.11%、53.31%、18.29%和24.81%。Logistic回归分析显示,影响健康素养水平的主要因素有文化程度、职业和年收入水平。结论丽水市居民健康素养水平有待提高,文化程度、职业和年收入水平是影响居民健康素养水平的相关因素。%Objective To understand the status of health literacy among residents in Lishui City,and to analyze its influencing factors. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 2 813 residents aged 15 to 69 years old. Influencing factors of health literacy were also analyzed by logistic regression. Results A total of 2 071 valid questionnaires were collected. The general health literacy rate among residents was 15. 25%,and the standardized rate was 16. 26%. The proportion of residents with basic knowledge and health concept,healthy lifestyle and behavior and health related skills were 19. 33%,8. 63% and 22. 99% respectively. The proportion of scientific view,prevention of infectious disease,prevention of chronic disease,safety and emergency treatment,acquisition of basic health care and information were 42. 69%, 29. 43%, 9. 11%, 53. 31%, 18. 29% and 24. 81% respectively. Logistic regression showed that education,occupation and income were the influencing factors of health literacy. Conclusion It is important to improve the health literacy of residents in Lishui City

  16. 农村居民体育消费意愿的影响因素分析——以苏北地区为例%Influencing Factors of Countryside Resident Sports Consumption Intentionin Northern Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小垒

    2012-01-01

    在对苏北5市农村家庭深入调查的基础上,运用Logit模型对农村居民体育消费意愿的影响因素进行计量分析,认为家庭人均生活支出、家庭人均收入、家庭人数、家庭教育开支、个体年龄、性别、个人消费经历、个人当前的收入水平对农民体育消费意愿有显著的影响。%On the basis of the in-depth survey of countryside families in five cities of Northern Jiangsu Province,applying the Logit pattern to analyse the influencing factors of countryside resident sports consumption intention,the paper indicates that they have significant influences in countryside resident sports consumption intention is greatly influenced by per capita living expense,per capita income,the number of family members,family education expenditure,individual age,gender,personal consumption experience and individual current income level.

  17. Analysis of waist-hip ratio and its influencing factors among middle-aged residents with hypertension%中老年高血压患者腰臀比现状及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晶晶; 曹乾; 张晓

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨中老年高血压患者腰臀比( WHR)影响因素和中心性肥胖的中老年高血压患者的预防和控制。方法使用中国健康与营养调查(CHNS)2011年数据,共有1802名中老年高血压患者纳入研究。对WHR现状进行描述性分析,并通过 Logistic回归分析其影响因素。结果1802名中老年高血压患者样本中有1257人被诊断为中心性肥胖,中心肥胖率为69.8%。 Logistic逐步回归分析表明性别( OR=2.630)、户口(OR=1.404)、预防保健(OR=0.668)、吸烟(OR=1.653)、饮酒(OR=1.423)、糖尿病(OR=1.524)对中老年高血压患者腰臀比的影响有统计学意义( P<0.05),其中预防保健( OR=0.668)为保护因素。结论中老年高血压患者的中心性肥胖比较严峻,受到性别、户口、预防保健、吸烟、饮酒、糖尿病等因素的影响。应采取有效措施增加预防保健的接受度,营造控烟控酒的良好生活方式,减少中老年高血压患者的中心性肥胖人数,进而降低由中心性肥胖给高血压患者带来的其他慢性病风险。%Objective To investigate the situation of waist-hip ratio (WHR) among middle-aged residents with hypertension and ex-plore its influencing factors .To provide basis for preventing and controlling other chronic diseases for central obesity in middle -aged residents with hypertension .Methods From the data of 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey ( CHNS) ,there were 1 802 middle-aged residents with hypertension included in the study .Descriptive analysis was used for the situation of WHR and Longistic regression analysis was used for its influencing factors .Results There were 1 257 middle-aged residents with hypertension diagnosed as central obesity in 1 802 samples,central obesity was 69.8%.Longistic regression analysis showed that gender (OR=2.630),household register(OR=1.404),preventive health care (OR=0.668),smoking(OR=1

  18. Epidemiological status and influencing factors of hypertension among residents in Donghu District of Nanchang City%南昌市东湖区居民高血压流行现状及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童丽娟; 程飞

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective]To know the epidemiological status and influencing factors of hypertension among residents in Donghu District of Nanchang City, provide a scientific basis for formulating the intervention measures of hypertension. [Methods] Using the cluster sampling method, a certain amount of households were sampled based on the sampling unit of community, a questionnaire survey was conducted in residents over 18 years old, and related physical examination was performed. [ Results] A total of 7 437 people were investigated, and 1 226 were diagnosed with hypertension. The prevalence rate of hypertension was 16. 49% ; the awareness rate of hypertension was 78. 79% , the treatment rate was 51.04% , and the control rate was 43. 20%. The main risk factors of hypertension were overweight and obesity, long-term stress, family history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, unhealthy dietary pattern, and lack of physical exercise. [ Conclusion ] Hypertension is one of the main diseases that harm health of community residents, so it is necessary to carry our comprehensive prevention and intervention among high risk population according to main risk factors.%目的 了解南昌市东湖区社区居民高血压流行现状及相关危险因素,为有针对性地制定高血压预防干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,以社区为抽样单位,抽取一定数量的户数,入户对18岁及以上的常住人口进行问卷调查,并进行相应的体格检查.结果 共调查7437人,确诊高血压患者1 226人,高血压患病率为16.49%;高血压患病知晓率为78.79%,治疗率为51.04%,控制率为43.20%;超重肥胖、长期紧张、高血压家族史、饮酒、不合理的膳食结构、缺乏体育锻炼等是高血压主要危险因素.结论 高血压是威胁社区居民健康的主要疾病,应针对主要危险因素开展综合防治和对重点人群进行干预来控制高血压.

  19. The Survey on Oral Health Condition and its Influence Factors among Resi-dents in Panzhihua City%攀枝花市居民的口腔卫生状况及其影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊江; 王艳; 何丽; 罗世通; 周彩霞; 石文江; 张孟笛; 熊胜; 樊欣

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解攀枝花市居民的口腔卫生状况及其影响因素。方法自制结构式问卷,随机选择3个调查点调查。结果每天刷牙2次及以上占65.9%,每次刷牙时间大于3 min占12.4%,三个月内更换牙刷占64.8%,拥有正确刷牙方法占24.4%,患有口腔疾病占68.2%,一年内检查口腔占19.2%,去医院就医占37.2%,小诊所占13.8%,了解口腔保健知识的途径主要是电视、广播。结论攀枝花市居民口腔卫生状况总体较好,但在口腔健康知识的认识上存在一定的不足,并且居民存在一定的口腔问题,因此居民应进一步提高口腔健康知识的关注度。%Objective Investigate the oral health and its influence factors among residents in Panzhihua city. Methods In-vestigated by a self-administered questionnaire and the residents selected from survey sites by random. Results 65.9% of residents brush their teeth more than 2 times every day,only 12.4%of them has more than 3 minutes of brushing time every time,64.8% of them replace toothbrush within 3 months,24.4% of them have the right way of brushing,68.2% of them have oral diseases,19.2% of them check dental problems within 1 year,37.2% of them see a doctor in hospital,13.8% of them in clinic,the source of oral health knowledge of them is with TV and broadcasting. Conclusion In Panzhihua,residents general-ly gave good oral health,but still lack health knowledge and have oral problems.So they should have to improve the attention of oral health knowledge.

  20. Do otolaryngology residency applicants relocate for training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Grant M; Hauser, Leah J; Dally, Miranda J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether there is an association between the geographic location of an applicant's undergraduate school, medical school, and residency program among matched otolaryngology residency applicants. Observational. Otolaryngology residency program applications to our institution from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The geographic location of each applicant's undergraduate education and medical education were collected. Online public records were queried to determine the residency program location of matched applicants. Applicants who did not match or who attended medical school outside the United States were excluded. Metro area, state, and region were determined according to US Census Bureau definitions. From 2009 to 2013, 1,089 (78%) of 1,405 applicants who matched into otolaryngology residency applied to our institution. The number of subjects who attended medical school and residency in the same geographic region was 241 (22%) for metropolitan area, 305 (28%) for state, and 436 (40%) for region. There was no difference in geographic location retention by gender or couples match status of the subject. United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores correlated with an increased likelihood of subjects staying within the same geographic region (P = .03). Most otolaryngology applicants leave their previous geographic area to attend residency. Based on these data, the authors recommend against giving weight to geography as a factor when inviting applicants to interview. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. 广州市农村居民健康素养现状及影响因素分析%Status and influenling factors of health literacy among rural residents in Guangzhou municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许信红; 梁晓珊; 陈建伟; 刘洋; 廖枝成; 陈晓芳; 李丽嫦; 刘顺玉; 李茳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of health literacy among rural residents in Guangzhou municipality and to provide evidence for developing appropriate intervention measures and strategies of health literacy. Methods Using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling,630 permanent rural residents aged 18-69 years were investigated with a questionnaire of health literacy. Results The health literacy rate was 18.22%. The health literacy rates for basic health concept and knowledge, healthy lifestyle and behaviors, and health related skills were 33. 17% ,7. 64% ,and 45. 53% ,respectively. The health literacy rates for attitude towards health,infectious diseases prevention, chronic non-communicable disease prevention, safety and first aid, and basic medical care were 63.09%, 31.06% ,26. 83% , 40. 65% , and 13. 98% , respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that major influencing factors of health literacy among the residents were education ,a.ge,and years of living in a specific area. Conclusion The health literacy rates are different among the rural residents of different ages and educational level. Comprehensive health education should be carried out among rural residents according to their characteristics.%目的 了解广东省广州市农村居民健康素养现状及其影响因素,为制定有针对性的干预措施和政策提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,在广州市农村地区抽取630名18 ~69岁常往居民进行健康素养调查.结果 广州市农村居民具备健康素养的比例为18.22%,具备基本知识和理念、健康生活方式与行为、基本技能的比例分别为33.17%、7.64%和45.53%,具备科学健康观、传染病预防素养、慢性病预防素养、安全与急救素养和基本医疗素养的比例分别为63.09%、31.06%、26.83%、40.65%和13.98%;多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,农村居民健康素养

  2. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  3. Study on the Level of Health Knowledge and Related Influencing Factors Among Residents of Chaoyang District, Beijing City%北京市朝阳区居民健康知识水平及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琴; 孔浩南

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of health knowledge and related influencing factors among the residents in Chaoyang District of Beijing City, and to provide a scientific basis for developing strategies and intervention measures. Methods Using multi - stage stratified random cluster sampling, 1,800 residents aged between 18 and 79 years selected from 6 streets were investigated with the questionnaire about health knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the level of health knowledge and analyze its influencing factors. Results The scores of 5 aspects of health knowledge, including healthy lifestyles, safety and first aid, basic medical care and health care, chronic non-communicable diseases prevention, infectious diseases and endemic diseases prevention, among the residents of Chaoyang District were as follows: (69. 84 ± 12. 96), (80.99 ±14.56), (75.64±11.81), (66. 54 ± 15.30), and (72. 37 ± 13. 79), respectively. And the total score of health knowledge was (73.39 ± 9.49). The results of multivariate analysis showed that sex, age and educational background were the ' factors influencing the scores of health knowledge, and educational background was the main impact factor. Conclusions It is necessary to conduct targeted health education according to the level of health knowledge in the residents with different characteristics.%目的 了解北京市朝阳区居民健康知识水平状况及影响因素,为制定相关政策和干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,在6个街乡抽取1 800名18~~ 79岁常住居民,通过问卷进行居民健康知识现状调查,利用多元线性回归分析进行评价并分析影响因素. 结果 北京市朝阳区居民5类健康知识问题得分分别为健康生活方式(69.84±12.96)分、安全与急救(80.99±14.56)分、基本医疗与保健(75.64±11.81)分、慢性病预防(66.54±15.30)分、传染病与地方病预防(72.37±13.79)分,

  4. RELATIVE RISK FACTORS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AMONG MINING AREA RESIDENTS%矿区居民胃食管反流病相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊民强; 王宏伟; 周涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze related risk factors for GERD residents of the mining area,and to provide a scientific control measures.Methods The patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were investi-gated by using gastroesophageal reflux disease (RDQ)scale,RDQ score≥12 points or endoscopically with reflux esophagitis image were as a typical case group,non- GERD patients as the control group.Some possible risk factors were analyzed in two groups.Results Univariate analysis showed that age,waist circumference,body mass index (BMI),sex,coffee hobby,greasy food,eating too full,hiatal hernia (HH),spicy foods,Helicobacter pylori (Hp)infection,fatigue,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS),constipation,GERD-related career were relative with GERD mine residents (P <005).Mul-tivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that Hp (OR=3.005,P =0.020),fatigue (OR=0.150,P =0.001),spicy foods (OR=9.166,P = 0.000),constipation (OR=13.969,P =0.000)were the risk fac-tors for GERD mine residents.Conclusion Raising awareness of risk factors associated with GERD for mining area residents can improve the quality of life by enhancing health education,advocating science diet, developing good habits and individualized treatment.%目的:分析矿区居民胃食管反流病(GERD)的相关危险因素,为矿区居民提供科学的防治措施。方法使用胃食管反流病量表(RDQ)调查胃食管反流症状的患者,RDQ 评分≥12分或者胃镜下有反流性食管炎典型图像作为病例组,以非 GERD 患者作为对照组,分析可能的危险因素,有统计学意义的因素进一步作 Logistic 回归。结果单因素分析显示年龄、腹围、体重指数(BMI)、性别、咖啡、油腻食物、进食过饱、食管裂孔疝(HH)、辛辣食物、幽门螺旋杆菌(Hp)、劳累、非甾体抗炎药(NSAIDs)、便秘、职业与矿区居民 GERD 相关(P <0.05);多因素 Logistic 回归显示 Hp(OR =3.005,P =0.020)、劳累(OR =0.150,P=0.001)、辛辣食物(OR=9

  5. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested;

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...

  6. Epidemiology and risk factors for faecal extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage derived from residents of seven nursing homes in western Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y-L; Wang, Y-C; Xiao, S-Z; Gu, F-F; Guo, X-K; Ni, Y-X; Han, L-Z

    2016-03-01

    Nursing homes (NHs) have been implicated as significant reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant organisms causing severe infectious disease. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of, and risk factors for, faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in seven NHs in Shanghai between March 2014 and May 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect genes coding for ESBLs and carbapenemases. NH records at individual-resident level and facility level were examined for potential risk factors. Four hundred and fifty-seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected of which 183 (46·92%) were colonized by ESBL-E. CTX-M enzymes (198/200, 99%) predominated, with CTX-M-14 (84/200, 42%) the most common types. Two carbapenemase producers harboured blaKPC-2. Resistance rates to carbapenems, TZP, AK, FOS, CL and TGC were low. History of invasive procedures [odds ratio (OR) 2·384, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·318-4·310, P = 0·004], narrow-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 1·635, 95% CI 1·045-2·558, P = 0·031) and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 3·276, 95% CI 1·278-8·398, P = 0·014) were independently associated with ESBL-E carriage. In conclusion, NH residents have a very high prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-E. Continuous and active surveillance is important, as are prudent infection control measures and antibiotic use to prevent and control the spread of these antibiotic-resistant strains.

  7. 衢州市居民血脂水平及影响因素现况研究%A Study on Serum Lipid Level and Its Influencing Factors among Residents in Quzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘新花; 陈根成; 郑灿杰; 杨云贵

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨衢州市居民血脂异常的现状和影响因素.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取衢州市城区、郊区和农村3个街道(乡镇)6个行政村1800名30岁以上居民进行调查.通过检测血糖、血脂等血生化指标及体格检查、问卷调查进行血脂水平和影响因素分析.对结果进行单因素和多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 衢州市30岁以上居民血脂异常率为31.73%,男女之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),男女LDL异常率均随年龄增长而增加.血脂异常类型以高TG为主,不同地区男女高脂血症类型也不同.多因素Logistic分析结果显示,慢性病家族史、BMI≥24 kg/m2、缺乏体育锻炼是血脂异常的危险因素.结论 衙州市30岁以上人群血脂异常状况严重,建议控制体重、适量运动,建立良好的生活方式,以减少血脂异常的发生,降低心脑血管疾病发生率.%Objective To explore the current status of dyslipidemia and influencing factors among elderly residents in Quzhou.Methods A questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted among 1800 residents aged over 30,who were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 3 towns and 6 villages.The influencing factors were explored through single factor and multiple factor logistic regression analysis.Results The prevalence rate of dyslipidemia was 31.73% and there is no significant difference between men and women.The prevalence rate of LDL disorders increased with age.The types of dyslipidemia mainly included high TG,and there were different types of hyperlipidemia with different genders in different areas.Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors were the family history of chronic diseases,BMI≥24 kg/m2 and lack of physical exercise.Conclusion The status of dyslipidemia among elderly residents was serious in Quzhou.The key measures to reduce risk factors were suggested to be scientific diet,weight control,proper exercise and

  8. Analysis of the Difference in the Probability of House Taking by Urban Residents and Its Influencing Factors%城镇居民住房获取概率的差异及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢霄亭; 马子红

    2015-01-01

    基于城镇居民家庭特征变量和组织变量,采用 CGSS2013数据,通过 Logistic 模型分析我国城镇居民住房获取概率和获取不同类型住房概率的差异及其影响因素,研究表明:我国针对福利分房制度的市场化改革提高了居民的住房水平,但是在市场化转型过程中,再分配权力资源对住房资源仍然保持着占有上的优势。非市场因素对居民住房的获取产生了较为显著的影响,拥有制度优势的城镇户口居民、机关事业单位工作人员和商业精英在优质住房获取的机会上具有较为明显的优势。应继续深化以市场配置资源的住房制度改革,也要积极探索和推进户籍制度改革,消除“等级”观念的消极影响。%Based on characteristic variables and organizational variables of urban resident families,by using China's General Social Survey data (CGSS 2013),by Logistic model,this paper analyzes the difference in the probability of the house taking of urban residents of China and taking different type houses and its influencing factors.The research demonstrates that the urban residents’housing level is improved by welfare housing share,but in the market transition process,re-allocation right of the houses still takes advantages in housing resources.Non-market factors have obvious influence on housing taking,the residents who have urban register,the employees who work in governments and governmental units and who succeed in business have significant advantages in the house taking.China should deepen housing system reform by taking market to allocate resources,actively explore and push forward register system reform,and remove the passive influence by ranking ideas.

  9. A Research on Patterns of Physical Activity and Related Factors among Residents in Communities%城市社区居民体力活动现况及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章华米; 郑琳; 邵明; 刘瑛娜; 潘益峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of physical activity and its related factors among residents in Xihu District of Hangzhou. Methods 1000 residents were selected randomly using K1S11 table from one thousand households with simple random sampling methods and were investigated by face - to - face method. The physical activity level and its influencing factors were analyzed based on metabolic equivalent. Results The amount of total weekly physical activities was lower among residents with such characteristics as 35 ~ age group, education ( university, junior college and above ), married, office work or mental work. About 68. 37 ~ 80. 78% residents believed that physical activity could relieve depression, vexation, stress and tension, reduce the body weight and the occurrence of disease risk, improve cardiopulmonary function and health, promote better work and exercise muscles. The residents in the stages of pre - intention and intention about enhancing willingness of physical activity accounted for 60. 30% and 48. 04% , respectively. Shortage of time, weak willingness, lack of energy, bad weather and job were listed as five main reasons that obstructed residents from doing physical activity. Conclusion Residents with such characteristics as 35 ~ age group, education level of university ( junior college ) and above, married, office work or mental work should be focused on when intervention measures are carried out. It is important to strengthen health education for residents who are in the stages of pre - intention and intention.%目的 了解杭州市西湖区居民体力活动现状及其影响因素,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段单纯随机抽样方法随机抽取1000个居民户,对户内合格个体采用KISH表随机抽取一名个体作为调查对象,对所有抽到的调查对象进行面对面问卷调查,以代谢当量为基础分析不同人口学特征的体力活动水平及影响因素.结果 35岁~组、大

  10. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-xia; Su, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. Objective To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Results Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p 8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), physical inactivity and irregular eating habits (p = 0.035, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers. PMID:27622506

  11. Mentorship in physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, A R; Klima, R R; Date, E S

    1997-01-01

    Mentorship is considered by many authorities as being possibly the most important developmental tool for the progression of a professional in training. In recent years, progressively increasing support of mentoring programs has been documented, especially in business, academia, and overall career development. Despite its recognized importance, there is a paucity of literature examining the needs of physicians in residency training programs in regard to mentorship. A 21-item questionnaire was sent to all physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in training in United States residency programs in May of 1993. The objectives of this survey were 3-fold: to assess interest in mentorship among PM&R residents, to determine the effect of preresidency mentorship on candidates choosing PM&R as a specialty, and to identify the factors that establish a successful mentorship in PM&R residency. A response rate of 36.2% (406/1123) was obtained. Analysis of the results indicated that 97.3% (390/401) of the respondents were interested in mentorship programs during PM&R residency; however, only 28.1% (114/406) had a mentor at the time of the survey. Before residency, 35.4% (143/404) of the respondents had a mentor, and of those, 75.9% (107/141) indicated that mentorship had a positive effect on their decision to choose PM&R as a specialty. Regarding the current mentorship, respondents benefited the most in the categories of increased knowledge of PM&R, 72.8% (83/114), and improved clinical skills, 65.8% (75/114). The least satisfaction was with the mentor's assistance with a research project, 46% (52/113), and with the effect of mentorship on the resident's visibility and reputation, 38.6% (44/114). Overall resident satisfaction with mentorship was significantly higher (P communication between mentor and protégé, while gender and ethnicity had no effect.

  12. Analysis of the Life Expectancy of the Resident and the Influence Factors in Shanxi Province%山西省居民预期寿命及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱莲; 曹文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the life expectancy of the resident and the influence factors in Shanxi province.Meth-ods The abbreviated life table of the census was created by SAS 13.0 software.The effects of the economic level and the development of the health services on the life expectancy of resident were analyzed by the hierarchical clustering method. Results The life expectancy of resident in Shanxi province was up to 77.07 in 2010,and 75.02 for male,79.39 for fe-male,which was increased by 4.40,4.07 and 4.78 respectively comparing to the year of 2000.The life expectancy of urban areas was higher than that of rural areas.Among the 1 1 cities of Shanxi province,the life expectancy was highest in Taiyuan and lowest in Jincheng.The result of the cluster analysis showed that the life expectancy was higher in areas where the development level of economy and health service was higher.Statistics showed that the life expectancy was different among different regions,and the life expectancy was highest for resident in the midland. Conclusions The life expectancy is increasing continuously.The economic level,the development of the health services,and the natural environmental factors are influence factors of the life expectancy in Shanxi province.%目的了解山西省居民预期寿命水平,并探讨其影响因素。方法采用 SAS 13.0软件编制普查人口简略寿命表;用系统聚类法分析经济状况、卫生事业发展水平对居民预期寿命的影响。结果2010年山西省居民预期寿命为77.07岁,其中男性为75.02岁,女性为79.39岁,比2000年分别提高4.40岁、4.07岁和4.78岁,城镇居民预期寿命高于农村。2010年11个市居民预期寿命仍为太原市最高,晋城市最低。聚类分析结果显示,山西省经济及卫生事业发展越好的地区预期寿命越高。不同地理位置居民预期寿命有所差别,中部地区居民预期寿命较高。结论山西省居民预期寿命不断提高,社会

  13. Investigation and study on influencing factors of chronic diseases among residents in a community in Shengli oil field%胜利油田某社区居民慢性病影响因素调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦伟洁; 李志华; 刘维量; 钟传茂; 许国星; 刘俊德; 李惠平; 孙正刚; 张树芳; 张桂菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of chronic diseases among residents in a community in Shengli oil field. Methods A retrospective investigation was conducted among 3 471 people over 18 years old with multistage stratified-cluster sampling in a community in Shengli oil field. Data were input and statistically analyzed by SPSS 13. 0 statistical software. Results A total of 898 cases had chronic diseases out of 3 444 people( involving 1 451 male and 1 993 female) were surveyed. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 26. 07% , and the standardized prevalence rate was 24.94% , which was higher in male(43. 49% ) than in female( 13.40% ). The multivariate unconditional Logistic regression analysis showed that male, older, drinking, eat less fruit and obesity were influencing factors of chronic diseases among residents in this community. Compared with workers, office-clerk, doctor and teacher, retired were influencing factors of chronic dieases. Compared with boomers, water-pumper, oil-producioner, hot-operationer were influencing factors of chronic diseases. Besides, the work or housework activities'intensity was a protective factor. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of chronic diseases was moderate, and its influencing factors may be more among residents in this community in the Shengli oil field. So some preventive and control measures should be enhanced.%目的 了解胜利油田某社区居民慢性病患病情况及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段等比例分层整群抽样,在胜利油田滨州工作区某社区抽取18岁以上常住居民3 471人为调查对象进行慢性病相关调查.采用SPSS 13.0软件对数据进行统计分析.结果 共调查3 444人,其中男性1 451人,女性1 993人.各类慢性病患者898人,慢性病总患病率为26.07%,标化率为24.94%.其中男性慢性病患病率(43.49%)比女性(13.40%)高.多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示,男性、

  14. Teaching professionalism to residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eileen J; Jackson, J Craig; Kratz, Lyn; Marcuse, Edgar K; McPhillips, Heather A; Shugerman, Richard P; Watkins, Sandra; Stapleton, F Bruder

    2003-01-01

    The need to teach professionalism during residency has been affirmed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which will require documentation of education and evaluation of professionalism by 2007. Recently the American Academy of Pediatrics has proposed the following components of professionalism be taught and measured: honesty/integrity, reliability/responsibility, respect for others, compassion/empathy, self-improvement, self-awareness/knowledge of limits, communication/collaboration, and altruism/advocacy. The authors describe a curriculum for introducing the above principles of professionalism into a pediatrics residency that could serve as a model for other programs. The curriculum is taught at an annual five-day retreat for interns, with 11 mandatory sessions devoted to addressing key professionalism issues. The authors also explain how the retreat is evaluated and how the retreat's topics are revisited during the residency, and discuss general issues of teaching and evaluating professionalism.

  15. 河北省居民食管癌发病影响因素病例对照研究%Influential factors of esophageal cancer in residents of Hebei province:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶; 彭洋; 丁树荣; 王丽梅; 王瑞; 高永刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine influential factors of esophageal cancer among residents in Hebei province and to provide scientific evidences for prevention of esophageal cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among 208 esophageal cancer patients and 210 non-digestive tract disease patients recruited at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2009 to May 2011. Results There were singificant differences in smoking,alcohol consumption, eating hot and hard food,eating speed,regular eating time,eating mildewed food,taking fruit and fresh vegetables, taking beans and bean product, and taking milk and dairy product between the case and the control groups(P < 0.05 for all). The average scores of depression, anger, intrinsic anger, and reason in the cases were 44. 30 ± 7.47,24.74 ± 6.71, 14.71 ±2. 51,and 42.19 ±6.50 and higher than those in the controls (40.47 ±6.87,22.58 ±5.00,13.82 ±2. 25,and 40. 83 ±3. 58) (P <0.01 for all). The average score of social support in the cases was 16.24 ±3.20,lower than that in the control group( 17.53 ± 2.13) (t = 4. 867, P = 0.000). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that living in rural area,having a family history of esophageal cancer,having bad family relationship,smoking more than 20 cigarretes a day, eating hard food,eating mildewed food,and with high scores of reason,anger and depression were risk factors of esophageal cancer. Eating beans and its products frequently,drinking tap water,and with a high score of social support were protective factors of esophageal cancer. Having a family history of esophageal cancer, smoking more than 20 cigarrettes a day .eating hard food,eating mildewed food,with high scores of reason and anger were risk factors of esophageal cancer for male residents. Bating beans and its products and with a high score of social support were protective factors of esophageal cancer for male residents. Eating hot and hard food and with a high score of

  16. Integrated bariatric surgery residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltorai AE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adam EM Eltorai Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, RI, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major public health concern. Given its lasting efficacy for improving obesity and obesity-related diseases, bariatric surgery is an increasingly common treatment option. As the implementation of the Affordable Care Act progresses, the impending physician shortage will become more severe. Thus there will be an even greater need for doctors specialized in the management and treatment of obese patients. The development of integrated bariatric surgery residency programs could be considered and is discussed herein. Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, integrated residency, surgery education

  17. Relationship between behavior factors and chronic diseases in female community residents in Xi' an City%西安市某社区女性居民行为因素与常见慢性病关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇轩; 王亚峰; 赵晓丹; 王文宇; 杨运辉; 于燕

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解西安市某社区女性行为因素,揭示其行为影响因素与常见慢性病的关系. 方法 采用横断调查设计,随机整群抽样,对西安市某社区1 877户居民15岁以上常住人口进行问卷调查. 结果 该社区女性不吃早餐、运动不足、喜食重盐和烟熏食物人群比率分别为5.42%、30.14%、13.64%和5.04%. 常见慢性疾病为高血压、糖尿病、冠心病和脑卒中,患病率分别为15.93%、4.72%、1.75%、2.22%,其慢性病患病率随着年龄的增加而增高,30岁后的慢性病患病率增加更为明显,且糖尿病与高血压的患病呈明显的正相关性(r=0.998,P=0.002). 高龄、文化程度越高(静坐工作时间长)、BMI>24kg/m2 是该社区女性居民高血压的主要危险因素[OR(95%CI)分别为1.095(1.08,1.111)、2.464(1.214, 5.001)、2.287(1.535, 3.407),均P24、乳制品摄入较少、静态行为时间>6h、运动不足是该社区女性居民常见慢性病发病的主要危险因素[OR(95%CI)分别为1.103(1.077, 1.130)、1.852(1.184, 2.896)、1.137 (1.098, 1.186)、1.424(1.187, 1.961)、1.763(1.176, 2.693),均P400g则是防控该社区居民常见慢性病发病的主要保护因素( OR=0.460,P24、静态行为时间长、运动不足是该社区女性居民慢性病患病的主要危险因素,每日摄入400 g以上蔬菜水果、低盐饮食是其有效的保护因素.%Objective To study the behavior factors of the females in a community in Xi' an City and discover the relationship between these factors and chronic diseases in females.Methods Cross-section survey design and random cluster sampling were used to conduct the questionnaire survey among residents aged 15 and above in 1 877 families in the community.Results The proportions of the females with breakfast skipping, exercise refusing, favoring salty food and smoked foods were 5.42%, 30.14%, 13.64% and 5.04%, respectively. The common chronic diseases of the female residents in the community were hypertension

  18. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation at residences; Determinacao de fatores de dose para radiacao gama externa em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually concentrate such radionuclides to significant levels from the point of view of radiological protection. Phosphogypsum, a by product of fertilizers industry, shows radionuclide concentrations in these conditions. Therefore, the viability of its use as an alternative material for natural gypsum in dwellings construction is conditioned, among several additional aspects, to optimization studies. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in wall in an hypothetical room constructed of phosphogypsum sheets. Assessment of dose is being carried out through the application of photon transport model, taking into account self-absorption and buildup factors. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Fatores associados a quedas em mulheres idosas residentes na comunidade Factors related to falls of elderly women residents in a community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar quais os fatores associados à presença de queda em um grupo de mulheres idosas independentes e autônomas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo com 83 mulheres idosas participantes do Projeto para a Promoção da Saúde dos Idosos da Universidade Católica de Brasília - UCB. As pacientes responderam a questões sobre sua idade, fatores sociodemográficos, presença de tontura, medicamentos de uso contínuo, autopercepção da saúde e da visão e foram submetidas à Escala de Depressão Geriátrica Abreviada de Yesavage, ao Teste do Alcance Funcional e à Escala de Equilíbrio e Marcha de Tinetti. RESULTADOS: Não se encontrou relação estatisticamente significativa entre idade, fatores sociodemográficos, tontura, medicação psicotrópica, má autopercepção da saúde e da visão e presença de depressão com o fenômeno queda. Entretanto, houve relação de significância estatística para o Teste do Alcance Funcional e a Escala de Equilíbrio e Marcha de Tinetti. CONCLUSÃO: A condição de equilíbrio corporal apresentada pelas mulheres idosas foi o fator que teve associação com a ocorrência de quedas. O Teste do Alcance Funcional e a Escala de Tinetti foram consideradas eficientes na predição do risco de cair, o que sugere que podem ser utilizados tanto para avaliação quanto para identificação de melhora do equilíbrio corporal após o treinamento.OBJECTIVE: Verify the factors related to falls of a group of independent and autonomous elderly women. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted with 83 elderly women that participate in the Elderly Health Promotion Project of the Universidade Católica de Brasília. They replied to questions related to their age, social demographic factors, dizziness, use of continuous medication, self-perception of health and vision and were submitted to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale, Functional Reach Test and Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment

  20. The Study on Factors Influencing Resident's Behavior for Source Separation of Household Waste%城市居民生活垃圾源头分类行为的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲英

    2011-01-01

    It is the prerequisite and basis of effectively diverting waste into resource to identify the factors which have impact on resident's behavior for source separation (BSS) of household waste. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, this paper analyzed those factors. The results showed that behavior intention includes two dimensions. And influential factors have seven dimensions. The relationships between those factors and BOI & BEI, and between BOI, BEI and BSS were also discussed. Borrowed the method of AHP, this paper also showed the impacts of factors on behavior of source separation.%识别影响我国城市居民生活垃圾源头分类行为的影响因素是确保生活垃圾源头分类有效实施的基础和前提.本文以计划行为理论为基础,运用实证研究方法,分析了影响我国城市居民生活垃圾源头分类行为的影响因素,研究结果表明源头分类行为意向包含2个维度,影响因素包含7个维度,且借鉴层次分析方法解释说明了影响因素对源头分类行为的影响力.研究结论可以为城市市政相关部门制定政策和促进居民实施源头分类提供指导和借鉴.

  1. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoteme L. Mamabolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children’s anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 and socio-demographic status.Results: At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points.Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  2. 吉林省农村居民食物消费影响因素实证分析%THE EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING FACTORS OF JIlIN PROVINCE RURAL RESIDENTS' FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓茹; 姜会明

    2016-01-01

    of urban and other devel-oped rural areas. What's more, rural residents have its particularity in food consumption because they are both sup-pliers and consumers in the food supply chain. It means that what the rural residents consumed come from both themselves and the market. This paper deeply analyzed the influencing factors of rural residents' food consumption in Jilin province from perspectives of economy, policy, society and production, and empirically studied the factors affecting the food consumption of rural residents in Jilin province. The proportion of income, the wage, the food ex-penses in food consumption had significant effects on rural residents' food consumption. Finally, the paper put for-ward some suggestions including expanding the growth space of agricultural income, improving wages for rural resi-dents, and strengthening the construction of rural market in Jilin province.

  3. Financial debt of orthopedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, John S; Beebe, Kathleen S; Benevenia, Joseph; Karanfilian, Briette; Berberian, Wayne S

    2012-04-01

    Many orthopedic residents accrue considerable debt by residency graduation. These debts for graduating medical students continue to increase due to the yearly increase of medical school tuition. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of financial debt, as well the effects of debt on orthopedic residents.Orthopedic residents from postgraduate years 1 to 5 (N=27) completed an anonymous, optional financial survey. The survey asked questions regarding the characteristics of the residents' debt and their concern caused by their debt. All residents from our institute (N=27) voluntarily participated in the survey. The residents consisted of 4 (15%) women and 23 (85%) men, with 14 (56%) single residents and 12 (44%) married residents. No statistically significant difference existed in total debt >$100,000 between single and married residents or men and women. Forty-eight percent (n=13) of the residents had medical educational debt >$100,000, whereas 45% (n=12) had total debt >$200,000. Residents with total debt >$100,000 were concerned about their debt, whereas 1 of 4 residents with orthopedic residents financially and may cause stress and hinder their medical training. Appropriate measures should be taken to help residents properly manage their debt and to provide supplemental assistance with their financial struggles.

  4. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Fine Arts Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Patricia L.

    1982-01-01

    A four-week writer-in-residence program designed to stimulate the creativity of K-5 students was held in the Briar Glen Library Media Center, Wheaton, Illinois, with poet Joan Colby. This description of the program includes information on planning, funding, and future plans. (CHC)

  6. Selection of Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. David, III; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Selection data for all Medical University of South Carolina anesthesiology residency applicants (about 200 per year) and the 8 selected per year were compared for 4 years. Results showed standardized test scores, grades, and class ranks of those selected were not higher than of others, but interview and recommendation scores were higher.…

  7. Summer lodge residency

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The summer lodge residency was based in Nottingham from June 29th to July 10th Each of the artists was given a studio space and technical facilities. There were discussion points and meals, a seminar day, open presentations and reflection time.

  8. Impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of mentally retarded residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.

  9. 社区居民酒滥用者社会人口学特征及相关因素研究%Demographic Characteristics of Alcohol Abusers among Commity Residents and Their Relevant Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹤元; 张瀚宇; 赵崇偲; 高新义; 杨凤池

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the community residents in Xinjiang and analyze its relevant factors. Methods By multi - stage random sampling, 1992 community residents were inquired and screened using socio - demographic information questionnaire and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test ( AUDIT ). Simple variable a-nalysis and Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between alcohol abuse and each relevant factor. Results Alcohol abuse was significantly correlated with demographc data including gender, age, educational level, employment status, occupation, family members, per capita monthly household income ( all P <0. 05 ). Variables that entered the regression model included gender, age, occupation, family members, and education background. Conclusion The risk factors of alcohol abuse have changed gradually along with socio - economic development in Xinjiang. Urban employees have became high - risk alcohol abuse population and need to be screened and early intervented.%目的 调查新疆社区居民酒滥用的发生率,结合社会人口学特征分析酒滥用发生的危险因素.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样,使用自行设计的社会人口学特征调查表和酒精使用障碍筛查量表(AUDIT)对1 992例社区居民进行调查,采用单因素和Logistic多因素分析法,计算各因素与酒滥用的关联强度.结果 社区居民不同性别、年龄、文化程度、目前的工作状况、职业类型、家中常住人口数、家庭人均月收入的酒滥用率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);进入回归模型的变量是性别、年龄、职业类型、家中常住人口数和文化程度.结论 随着社会的发展和居民生活水平的提高,酒滥用的危险因素逐渐发生了变化,城市职场人群成为高危人群,应考虑对其进行筛查和早期干预.

  10. 城市社区老年高血压患者抑郁状况及影响因素分析%Analysis of depression rates among elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents and its risk factors in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 庄海林; 陈越; 林欲静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rates of depression and its risk factors in elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents in Fuzhou.Methods 882 elderly primary hypertensive patients aged 60 years and over and 1230 healthy elderly residents were assessed by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) and a self-made general information questionnaire, and SPSS 16.0 was used to analyze data.Results The average score of depression and the incidence of depression were higher in elderly hypertensive patients than in healthy elderly residents [(12.43±5.01) vs.(11.53±5.13), 64.4% vs.55.3%, t=-3.849, x2=16.386, P<0.01].Compared with healthy controls, scores of depression were higher for all age groups in elderly married male patients, with low levels of education (junior middle school or below), a monthly income less than 2000 yuan, and partial or no medical insurance coverage (P< 0.05 for all).Scores of depression were higher in elderly hypertensive patients who had smoking or drinking habits, social activity, hobby, or physical exercise than in healthy controls, (P<0.05 for all).Scores of depression were also higher in elderly hypertensive patients who had family support, barely enough or adequate family expenses or family support than in healthy controls, regardless of living conditions (P<0.05 for all).Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that risk factors for depression in elderly hypertensive patients were family support, age, medical insurance coverage, family expenses, living conditions, hobbies, and gender, while risk factors for depression in healthy elderly residents were family support, interests, medical insurance coverage, and age.Conclusions The incidence of depression is higher in elderly hypertensive patients than in health elderly people in communityin Fuzhou.Family support, hobbies, medical insurance coverage and age are the common risk factors for depression in both elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents.Family expenses

  11. 太原市社区居民高尿酸血症的影响因素研究%Influential factors related to hyperuricemia in community residents of Taiyuan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟民; 肖传实; 申秀敏; 刘改珍; 张慧萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence factors of hyperuricemia. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted in community residents of Taiyuan city from 2009 to 2010 for measurements of waist circumference, height and weight, etc. Results Multivariable analysis showed the risk factors of hyperuricemia were gender (male), age, meat diet, body mass index, abdominal obesity. Conclusion High attention should be paid to hyperuricemia by medical workers and the public mass so as to avoid or reduce the detrimental impacts of hyperuricemia on health.%目的 了解高尿酸血症的影响因素.方法 对2009-2010年太原市社区人群进行问卷调查,测定腰围、身高、体质量等指标.结果 多因素回归分析结果显示男性、年龄、肉食、体质量指数高、腹部肥胖是影响高尿酸血症的危险因素.结论 高尿酸血症应引起医务工作者及广大群众的高度重视,避免或减少高尿酸血症给人们的健康造成的危害.

  12. Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Interest and Participation in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Amy R; Blanchard, May Hsieh; Carson, Sandra A; Peterson, Herbert B; Flynn, Erica B; Ogburn, Tony

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate obstetrics and gynecology resident interest and participation in global health experiences and elucidate factors associated with resident expectation for involvement. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residents before the 2015 Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology in-training examination. The 23-item survey gathered demographic data and queried resident interest and participation in global health. Factors associated with resident expectation for participation in global health were analyzed by Pearson χ tests. Of the 5,005 eligible examinees administered the survey, 4,929 completed at least a portion of the survey for a response rate of 98.5%. Global health was rated as "somewhat important" or "very important" by 96.3% (3,761/3,904) of residents. "Educational opportunity" (69.2%) and "humanitarian effort" (17.7%) were cited as the two most important aspects of a global health experience. Residents with prior global health experience rated the importance of global health more highly and had an increased expectation for future participation. Global health electives were arranged by residency programs for 18.0% (747/4,155) of respondents, by residents themselves as an elective for 44.0% (1,828/4,155), and as a noncredit experience during vacation time for 36.4% (1,514/4,155) of respondents. Female gender, nonpartnered status, no children, prior global health experience, and intention to incorporate global health in future practice were associated with expectations for a global health experience. Most obstetrics and gynecology residents rate a global health experience as somewhat or very important, and participation before or during residency increases the perceived importance of global health and the likelihood of expectation for future participation. A majority of residents report arranging their own elective or using vacation time to participate, suggesting that residency programs have

  13. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Rosenman MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%; 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88% felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents.

  14. A novel tumor-promoting function residing in the 5' non-coding region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Masuda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is one of the key regulators of tumor development, hence it is considered to be an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s in cancer cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Knockdown of VEGF with vegf-targeting small-interfering (si RNAs increased susceptibility of human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 to apoptosis caused with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, or doxorubicin. Recombinant human VEGF165 did not completely inhibit this apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF165 increased resistance to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis, while an anti-VEGF165-neutralizing antibody did not completely block the resistance. We prepared plasmids encoding full-length vegf mRNA with mutation of signal sequence, vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs, or mutated 5'UTRs. Using these plasmids, we revealed that the 5'UTR of vegf mRNA possessed anti-apoptotic activity. The 5'UTR-mediated activity was not affected by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. We established HCT116 clones stably expressing either the vegf 5'UTR or the mutated 5'UTR. The clones expressing the 5'UTR, but not the mutated one, showed increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and formed progressive tumors when implanted in athymic nude mice. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that the vegf 5'UTR-expressing tumors had up-regulated anti-apoptotic genes, multidrug-resistant genes, and growth-promoting genes, while pro-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. Notably, expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1 was markedly repressed in the 5'UTR-expressing tumors, resulting in down-regulation of a STAT1-responsive cluster of genes (43 genes. As a result, the

  15. Missed opportunities for institutional delivery and associated factors among urban resident pregnant women in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia: a community-based follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every pregnant woman is considered to be at risk and some risks may not always be foreseeable or detectable. Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant at every delivery is considered to be the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in urban settings can be as low as 10%. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting unplanned home delivery in urban settings, where there is relatively good access in principle to modern healthcare institutions. Design: A community-based follow-up study was conducted from 17 January 2014 to 30 August 2014, among second- and third-trimester pregnant women who had planned for institutional delivery in South Tigray Zone. A systematic sampling technique was used to get a total of 522 study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Bivariate and multivariate data analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The study revealed that among 465 pregnant women who planned for institutional delivery, 134 (28.8% opted out and delivered at their home (missed opportunity. Single women (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.17–4.68, illiterate mothers (AOR 6.14, 95% CI 2.20–17.2, absence of antenatal clinic visit for indexed pregnancy (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.72–5.61, absence of obstetric complications during the index pregnancy (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.47–5.97, poor autonomy (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.27–3.49, and absence of birth preparedness and complication readiness (AOR 3.83, 95% CI 2.19–6.70 were significant predictors of unplanned home delivery. Conclusions: A significant proportion of pregnant women missed the opportunity of modern delivery assistance. Educational status, antenatal care status, lack of obstetric complications, poor autonomy, and lack of birth preparedness and complication readiness were among the important

  16. Analysis of hypertension influencing factors among rural residents in Urumqi Midong area%乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱蕾; 黄河

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of hypertension among rural residents in Urumqi Mi-dong areas,and provide basic health education for developing targeted interventions.Methods A multi-staged random sampling method was used.1200 residents from 4 administrative villages in Midong were selected to take part in questionnaire survey.Factors affecting hypertension were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Results The number of respondents in hypertension was 109,prevalence rate was 9.1%,After logistic regression analysis,hypertension risk factors among rural population were age (OR =1.72),culture (OR =0.63),farmer occupation (OR =0.86),smoking (OR =1.62),ex-cessive alcohol consumption (OR =1.54),physical exercise (OR =0.93),irrational diet (OR =3.05).Conclusion It should be carried out health education interventions according to different resident population characteristics to effectively improve the prevention of hypertension KAP.%目的:了解乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压影响因素,为制定有针对性的健康教育干预措施提供基础。方法采用多阶段随机抽样方法,随机抽取米东区4个行政村合计1200名不同人群常住人口开展问卷调查,通过单因素分析及对多因素 Logistic 非条件回归分析,探讨乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压患病的影响因素。结果调查对象高血压患病人数为109人,患病率为9.1%。单因素分析显示不同年龄、性别、文化程度、职业的居民高血压患病差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,影响米东区农村居民高血压患病的主要因素为年龄(OR =1.72)、文化程度(OR =0.63)、职业为农民(OR =0.86)、吸烟(OR =1.62)、过量饮酒(OR =1.54)、体育锻炼(OR =0.93)、超重/肥胖(OR =3.05)。结论应针对农村地区特点开展高血压健康教育干预工作,切实提高居民高血压预防知、信、行能力。

  17. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  18. 山东农村居民自杀意念的发生率及其危险因素研究%The prevalence and risk factors of suicide ideation anong rural residents in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志青; 李献云; 安静; 童永胜; 李可进

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解农村居民自杀意念的发生率及其危险因素,为自杀干预提供依据.方法 采用包括一般健康状况问卷、冲动性和攻击性量表、社会支持量表、家庭亲密度与适应性量表等对山东滕州市东郭镇19个村≥15岁的5039例农村居民进行自杀意念及其相关因素的调查,以多因素logistic模型分析自杀意念的危险因素.结果 在农村居民中,9.33%(470/5039)在过去任何时候有过自杀意念(95%CI:8.52%~10.13%),5.39%(299/5039,95%CI:5.28%~6.59%)近1年有过自杀意念.近1年自杀意念的危险因素排列为:近1年慢性压力大(OR=5.61,95%CI:4.04~7.78),攻击性高(OR=2.54,95%CI:1.93~3.35),非现婚状态(OR=2.04,95%CI:1.52~2.76),生命质量低(OR=1.86,95%CI:1.40~2.48),女性(OR=1.76,95%CI:1.34~2.32),自我感觉经济状况差(OR=1.70,95%CI:1.29~2.25),认识的人中有自杀(OR=1.53,95%CI:1.17~1.99),家庭亲密度低(OR=1.38,95%CI:1.06~1.80).结论 农村居民自杀意念发生率处于较高水平.慢性压力大、攻击性高、非现婚状态是近1年自杀意念最主要的危险因素.应根据其危险因素制订有针对性的干预计划.%Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of suicide ideation among rural residents and to provide appropriate suicide intervention strategies. Methods A battery of questionnaires including General Health Questionnaire, Impulsivity and Aggression Scale. Social Support Scale. Family Cohesion and Adaptability Scale was administered to 5039 residents who were 15 years or older from 19 villages of Dongguo Town, Tengzhou City, Shandong Province to investigate the prevalence of suicide ideation and related factors. Then we used the logistic regression to explore the risk factors of suicide ideation. Results The life-time prevalence of suicide ideation and the one-year prevalence among rural residents were 9. 33% ( 95% CI: 8. 52% ~ 10. 13% ) and 5. 39% ( 95% CI:5. 28% ~ 6. 59

  19. 广东省成年居民体重认知偏移及其影响因素分析%Prevalence regarding weight misperception and related influencing factors among residents in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐八一; 张永慧; 马文军; 许燕君; 宋秀玲; 聂少萍; 徐浩峰; 许晓君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence of weight misperception and related influencing factors among adult residents in Guangdong province so as to provide information for prevention and control on weight misperception.Methods A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select the sample.Forty-two streets/villages were selected from 21 counties/districts through randomly sampling.Four communities were then chosen from every selected town or district,followed by 40 families chosen from every village or community.Questionnaire was used to collect data on weight perception and its related risk factors.SPSS 16.0 was used for data analysis.Results There were 6625 respondents participating in the study.Out of them,50.2% participants misperceived their weight status,among which 35.9% of them underestimated while 14.3%overestimated their weights.Females aged 15-24 were more likely to overestimate weights than males in the same age group (38.6% vs.18.5%),while males were more likely to underestimate weights than females (25.8% vs.8.5% ).The prevalence of underestimation on weights increased with the increase of age in both males and females but the prevalence of overestimation on weights decreased.Data from multivariate results from logistic analysis showed that rural residents,males,being elderly,residents with low education level,manual occupations (agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery),low family income and with anxiety were the major risk factors on underestimation of weight.However,factors as being urban residents,females,adolescents,minority and never having received weight measurement etc.were the major risk factors of overestimated on weight.Conclusion Misperceptions of weight status in Guangdong province exhibited a high prevalence with complicated influencing factors,calling for more psychological research to be carried out to prevent and reduce the misperceptions on weight status.%目的 了解广东省居民体重认知

  20. 山东省居民糖调节受损及糖尿病影响因素分析%SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analysis on risk factors of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes mellitus among residents of Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希; 郭晓雷; 鹿子龙; 张吉玉; 唐俊利; 马吉祥; 付振涛; 董静; 徐爱强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore risk factors of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among residents of Shandong province and to provide evidence for the intervention of the disease. Methods Using multistage stratified cluster random sampling method ,15 262 residents were investigated with a standard questionnaire and the measurements of height, weight,waist circumference,hip circumference,and blood pressure. Results Totally 1 618,262 and 941 cases of impaired fasting glucose(IFG) ,impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) .and DM were detected with the weighted prevalences of 9.34% (95% confidence interval [ Cl] : 6.58 - 12. 10), 1.53% (95% C1:. 1.09 - 1. 98), and 5. 50% (95% CI-A. 51 -6. 48). At the age of more than 40 years,hypertension, waist circumference exceeding the standard ,and overweight were risk factors for IFG;having occupational physical labor more than 6 hours was protective factors for IFG. At the age of more than 40 years, hypertension, waist circumference exceeding the standard, and overweight were risk factors for IGT. At the age of more than 40 years,hypertension, waist circumference exceeding the standard, overweight .chronic disease history, and having occupational physical labor more than 6 hours were risk factors for DM. Conclusion At the age of more than 40 years .hypertension, waist circumference exceeding the standard,and overweight were common risk factors for IGR and DM.%目的 了解山东省居民糖调节受损(IGR)和糖尿病(DM)相关影响因素,为DM筛查和干预措施提供参考依据.方法 于2011年7-9月采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法对在山东省抽取的20个县(市、区)共15 262名常住居民进行问卷调查和体格检查.结果 调查的15 262名居民中,空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量受损(IGT)和DM患者分别为1 618、262和941例,经加权处理后患病率分别为9.34%(95% CI=6.58%~12.10%)、1.53% (95% CI=1.09%~1.98%)和5.50% (95% CI=4.51% ~6.48%);多因

  1. The Fundamentals of Resident Dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenarts, Paul J; Langenfeld, Sean

    2017-02-01

    Residents have the rights and responsibilities of both students and employees. Dismissal of a resident from a training program is traumatic and has lasting repercussions for the program director, the faculty, the dismissed resident, and the residency. A review of English language literature was performed using PUBMED and OVID databases, using the search terms, resident dismissal, resident termination, student dismissal, student and resident evaluation, legal aspects of education, and remediation. The references of each publication were also reviewed to identify additional appropriate citations. If the Just Cause threshold has been met, educators have the absolute discretion to evaluate academic and clinical performance. Legal opinion has stated that it is not necessary to wait until a patient is harmed to dismiss a resident. Evaluations should be standard and robust. Negative evaluations are not defamatory as the resident gave consent to be evaluated. Provided departmental and institutional polices have been followed, a resident can be dismissed without a formal hearing. Residencies are entitled to modify academic requirements and dismissal is not considered a breach of contract. Although there is anxiety regarding resident dismissal, the courts have uniformly supported faculty having this role. When indicated, failure to dismiss a resident also places the program director and the faculty at risk for educational malpractice.

  2. A Survey on Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Influential Factors in Community Residents in Beijing%北京市某社区成人牙本质敏感调查及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭利; 魏勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in adults aged between 20-70 years old in Zhanlanlu community in Beijing and discuss the factors related to the dentin hypersensitivity. Methods The multiple stage clusters sampling method was employed to survey the dentin hypersensitivity in the residents from Zhanlanlu community. The contents included the dentin sensitive clinical examination and health questionnaire survey (age, method of tooth brushing, source of acids). Clinical check was performed at room temperature. The tooth surface received the cold air flow 1 cm away,and the sensitive or pains were confirmed by clients. Results There were 2869 people in this community responding to the survey,66.6% of them narrated by themselves that they had sensitive symptoms. Combined with clinical examination, the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in the community residents was to be 30.8%. The average numbers of dentine hypersensitivity teeth was 1.6 for every resident. Premolar was the tooth easy to had dentine hypersensitivity. The temperature stimulation commonly caused the dentine hypersensitivity. Other factors such as lower level of education, long service time of a toothbrush, with gingival recession or gastroesophageal factors, were correlated to the dentine hypersensitivity. Conclusion The incidence of dentine hypersensitivity is high in community residents, especially in aged people. To improve the understanding of residents, pay more attentions on the community oral doctors,take more measures for oral health and prevent the periodontal disease should decrease the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity.%目的 了解北京市展览路社区居民20~70岁牙本质敏感的患病状况并分析其影响因素,以期为今后牙本质敏感的防治提供临床资料以供参考.方法 调查对象采取多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,抽取北京市展览路社区居民进行调查,调查内容包括牙本质敏感的临床检查

  3. The Empirical Analysis of Influence Factors of Egg Consumption in Urban Resident in Beijing%北京市城镇居民鸡蛋消费影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宁; 高堃; 马骥

    2012-01-01

    在对北京市城镇居民家庭鸡蛋消费行为进行实地调研的基础上,定量分析了影响城镇居民鸡蛋消费的主要因素。研究结果表明,鸡蛋的市场价格、相关商品(主要是牛肉和鸡肉)的价格、居民家庭人口规模、家庭人口结构等是影响城镇居民鸡蛋消费的主要因素。建议相关企业应根据城镇居民的鸡蛋消费行为特征以及影响鸡蛋消费的主要因素,生产符合消费者需求的鸡蛋,进行市场细分,合理定价,促进鸡蛋市场的健康发展。%On the basis of field research of urban households' egg consumption,this paper made an empirical analysis quantitatively about main factors which had an effect on the egg consumption of urban residents.Result showed that the main factors were market price and related products(mainly beef and chicken)prices,population of a household,household structure and so on.This paper suggested that the relevant enterprises should produce eggs that meet consumers' needs based on urban residents' consumption behavior and the relevant factors so to make market segmentation,reasonable pricing and promote the healthy development of the egg market.

  4. An analysis of complications and risk factors in senile resident patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries%老年外伤性脊髓损伤住院患者并发症及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 于铁强; 王国强; 左玉明; 王月光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complications and risk factors in senile resident patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Methods From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011, senile resident patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries were adopted, whose age was more than 60 years old. Their age, gender, spinal cord injury level, American Spinal Injury Association ( ASIA ) scores and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were 136 patients in total. Complications occurred in 39 patients, including respiratory complications in 20 patients, cardiovascular complications in 7 patients, digestive complications in 6 patients, urologic complications in 5 patients, bedsores in 5 patients, infections in 1 patient and spasticity in the lower limbs in 1 patients. The complications with more than 2 kinds of systems involved were found in 8 patients. The sensory score, motor score and surgery or not were correlated to the complications (P<0.05 ). The motor score and surgery or not are considered as the independent risk factors of spinal cord injuries in senile resident patients. A negative correlation existed between the motor score and the complications (P<0.05 ), and a positive correlation was noticed between the surgery or not and the complications (P<0.05 ).Conclusions The most common complications originate from the respiratory system in senile patients with spinal cord injuries, and the complications with multiple systems involved are frequently noticed. More serious the injuries are, higher the incidence rate of complications will be. The incidence rate of early complications will be increased due to the surgery.%目的:探讨老年外伤性脊髓损伤住院患者的并发症及其危险因素。方法回顾性分析2007年1月1日至2011年12月31日,就诊于我院的60岁以上的外伤性脊髓损伤住院患者的年龄、性别、脊髓损伤水平及美国脊髓损伤协会(Americanspinalinjuryassociation,ASIA

  5. Analysis of thyroid disease and related factors among residents in Qianshan district in Qilian mountain%祁连山浅山区居民甲状腺疾病构成及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    写国斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of thyroid disease and related factors among residents in Qianshan District ,Qilian Mountain .Methods A total of 630 residents with thyroid disease were chosen randomly and investigated .Results The total prevalence of thyroid disease was 4 .13% (26/630 );male patients accounted for 2 .1% (7/333) and female patients for 6 .4% (19/297) .there was significant difference between female and male (χ2 =7 .319 8 , P<0 .01) .The numbers of patients with hypothyroidism ,hyperthyroidism ,subclinical hypot-hyroidism ,subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroid nodules/tumors were 7 ,5 ,6 ,4 and 4 respectively .The average age ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI) of patients were all significantly higher than those of healthy people (P<0 .01) .Conclusions The prevalence of thyroid disease was high among residents in Qianshan District ,Qilian mountain .The female prevalence was higher than that of male . Related factors included age ,SBP ,DBP and BMI .Further interventions should be made to reduce the harm of thy-roid disease on the cardiovascular system .%目的:调查祁连山浅山区居民甲状腺疾病的构成和相关因素。方法对祁连山浅山区随机采样的630例居民甲状腺疾病状况进行调查分析。结果祁连山浅山区居民甲状腺疾病总患病率为4.13%(26/630),其中男性患者占2.1%(7/333),女性患者占6.4%(19/297),女性患病率明显高于男性(χ2=7.3198,P<0.01)。患病者中甲状腺功能减退症、甲状腺功能亢进症、亚临床甲减、亚临床甲亢、甲状腺结节/肿瘤的例数分别为7、5、6、4、4例。患病人群的平均年龄、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)和体质指数(BMI)均明显高于非患病人群,差异有统计学意义(均 P<0.05)。结论祁连山浅山区居民甲状腺疾病的患病率较高,且女性高于男性。相关危

  6. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  7. 山区居民2型糖尿病危险因素的病例对照研究%A Case-control Study on Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Mountain Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾长佑; 胡志勇; 李秋华; 王萍; 孙慧丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM)in mountainous countryside residents in order to provide relevant intervention measures.Methods 80 new cases of T2DM were selected from pingyuan community in Liandu District of Lishui City as case group,and 1 60 normal people were selected as control group at the same time and places,in which the 1∶2 matched design of case -control study method was used.Conditional Logistic regression analysis was applied in this study.Results The multiple conditional logistic regression analysis suggested that primary family history,history of hypertension,abdominal obesity were the risk factors of T2DM(OR=2.08,1.55 and 2.78 respectively);while education level,exercise and fish intake were the protective factors(OR=0.74,0.59 and 0.32 respectively).Conclusion T2DM is the result of both genetic factors and environmental factors.Moreover,health education,balanced diet and proper physical exercise should be encouraged among residents to prevent T2DM in mountainous countryside.%目的:探讨山区农村2型糖尿病(T2 DM )的可疑危险因素,为制定相关干预措施提供依据。方法对丽水市莲都区平原社区80例2型糖尿病新发病例按(1∶2)匹配进行病例对照研究方法,采用Logistic 回归分析。结果单因素和多因素分析结果提示:婚姻状况(离异或丧偶)(OR=1.59)、糖尿病一级家族遗传史(OR=2.28)、高血压史(OR=1.55)、腹型肥胖(OR=2.78)是糖尿病的危险因素;文化程度较高(OR=0.74)、经常体育锻炼(OR=0.59)、鱼虾摄入量较高(OR=0.32)是保护因素。结论 T2DM是遗传因素与环境因素共同作用的结果,山区农村糖尿病防治应采取健康教育与社会预防,控制饮食,长期有计划且适当的体育锻炼等综合措施。

  8. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ≥ 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits.

  9. 山东省农村居民消费需求影响因素实证研究%Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Consuming Demand of Rural Residents in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡保玲; 孙立娜

    2012-01-01

    扩大农村居民消费对提升山东省经济发展至关重要。文章建立农村居民消费需求固定效应变截距模型,运用1998—2010年的面板数据实证研究了经济、社会与心理诸因素与农村居民消费之间的关系。结果发现,工资性收入、财产性收入、人均储蓄余额、社会保障支出和消费习惯对农村居民消费呈现正的影响效应。%It is of great importance to enlarge the consumption of rural residents for the economic develop- ment of Shandong Province. By constructing rural consuming fixed effects variable intercept model, this thesis re- searches the relationship between economic, social, and psychological factors and rural consumption with the help of panel data from 1998 to 2010. The result shows that there is a positive influence between wage incomes, property incomes, per capita savings balance, social security spending and consuming habits and rural consumption.

  10. 温州市35岁以上居民血脂异常及影响因素分析%Analysis on dyslipidemia of residents over 35 years old in Wenzhou city and its influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 邵永强; 陈祎; 郑剑勇; 廖晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the prevalence and influence factors of dyslipidemia of residents in Wenzhou city for preparing reasonable precautions. Methods: Make multi - stage random cluster sampling, and sample 3495 permanent residents over 35 years old in Wenzhou city for questionnaire, physical examination ( measurement of height, weight and blood pressure) and laboratory testing (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar), and make statistical analysis on them. Results: For blood lipid levels of residents over 35 years old in Wenzhou city ( M ± Q, mmol/L), total cholesterol was 5.56 ± 1.39, high density lipoprotein cholesterol was 1. 64 ± 0.47, low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 2.83 ±0.69, triglyceride was1. 49 ± 1.11. Abnormal morbidity rate was 68.9%, and the morbidity rate of cities (72.6%) was higher than that of counties (66. 2% ). It was mainly mixed hypedipidemia in cities and mainly combination of mixed hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in countries. Low - risk, medium - risk and high - risk morbidity rates of dyslipidemia was respectively 33.7%, 9.1% and 8.6%. Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, living and working tension, constant eating fat and constant drinking beer were risk factors of dyslipidemia. Physical activity, constant drinking milk products, constant eating bean products, vegetables and pickled products were protection factors. Conclusion: Both average blood lipid level and abnormal morbidity rate of residents in Wenzhou city were in higher levels, and dyslipidemia showed a younger trend, and epidemiological characteristics between cities and countries were different. Except age, influence factors of dyslipidemia could be controlled. Comprehensive interventions should be prepared and implemented in the whole city.%目的:了解温州市居民血脂异常的流行现状及影响因素,以制定合理的预防措施.方法:采用多阶段

  11. Beijing Residents of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Population Estimation of Distribution%北京社区居民健康体检人群冠心病危险因素分布评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于哲新; 顾复生; 潘德民; 李禄金; 陆宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate atherosclerotic coronary heart disease(CHD) risk factors associated with estimation in the distribution of population in Beijing, community residents and provide early warning indications for the prevention and treatment of CHD. Methods:1528 healthy people Stratiifed by age and gender as factors, using principal component analysis and Dunnet test statistics method, risk factors for CHD comprehensive analysis, principal component extraction, exploring the relationship between the indexes, so that the results visualization. Results:(1) Women over the age of 50 and men aged 41 to 50 were a high risk of risk factors for CHD. (2) Body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure differences between men and women in different age groups is more signiifcant(P50 year-old female and male population aged 41 to 50 should be the focus of the crowd CHD risk factor intervention.%目的:探讨冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病,CHD)相关危险因素在北京市社区居民人群中的分布状况和为社区居民CHD危险因素控制提供依据。方法:选取2013年健康体检者1528人,以年龄和性别为分层因素,采用主成分分析方法和Dunnet检验的统计学方法,对CHD相关危险因素进行综合分析,提取主成分,探索指标间的相互关系,使结果可视化。结果:(1)50岁以上的女性、41~50岁的男性是CHD危险因素的多发人群。(2)体重指数、腰围、臀围、收缩压和舒张压在男女不同年龄组间差异较为显著(P50岁的女性及41~50岁男性人群应该是CHD危险因素干预的重点人群。

  12. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested; Macario, Alex

    2016-04-15

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the resident with the most patients, and in 2014, this equaled 48%. There were residents who had 75% more than the class average number of cases for several of the 12 case types and 3 procedure types required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Also, there were residents with fewer than half as many for some of the required cases or procedure types. Some of the variability may have been because of the hazards of self-reporting.

  13. Resident and Commuter Students: Is It Only the Living Situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the residence hall and commuter living situations on a freshman's intellectual and personal growth is studied. The study affirms previous findings that residence hall freshmen develop more rapidly, but the results suggest that other college experience factors beyond the living situation are important in facilitating student…

  14. Resident and Commuter Students: Is It Only the Living Situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the residence hall and commuter living situations on a freshman's intellectual and personal growth is studied. The study affirms previous findings that residence hall freshmen develop more rapidly, but the results suggest that other college experience factors beyond the living situation are important in facilitating student…

  15. Valued characteristics of community pharmacy residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alissa A; Ležaja, Gabrielle S; Nemec, Eric C; Spooner, Joshua J; Kennedy, Daniel R

    To determine the attributes of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) community pharmacy residency applicants and candidates that are most appealing to community residency program directors (CRPDs). A 22-question online survey, designed to collect residency demographics, desirable characteristics for consideration for interview invitation (applicants), and characteristics that should be displayed during an interview (candidates). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-recognized community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs). The CRPDs of 109 ASHP-recognized CPRPs throughout the United States. Not applicable. Minimum applicant requirements; rank order of valued characteristics at application and interview stage of hiring process. The response rate was 71/109 (65.1%). Applicant work experience in chain pharmacy (90.1%) and independent pharmacy (77.5%) was most highly valued by CRPDs, with 85.9% preferring applicants with a minimum of 1 year or more of community pharmacy experience. A large majority of CPRPs (91.4%) indicated a preference for applicants who have been an officer of a student organization. Among CPRPs that required minimum grade point averages (GPAs), a mean GPA of 2.88 ± 0.34 was reported (range 2.0 to 3.5; mode 3.0). Pharmacy work experience (68.1%) and letters of recommendation (59.4%) were most frequently cited as top factors in the decision-making process for selecting candidates to interview. At the interview stage, CRPDs rated interest and knowledge about the residency (62.3%), time management and prioritization (50.7%), and self-awareness and commitment to improvement (43.5%) as the most important skills for candidates to demonstrate. Community pharmacy work experience, organizational leadership experience, and positive letters of recommendation appear to be the most valued attributes of a community pharmacy residency applicant. Applicants should consider aligning themselves with these characteristics to successfully match to a community

  16. 武汉市养老院老年人生存质量现况、影响因素及对策研究%Quality of life, its influencing factors and countermeasures among nursing home residents in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雯; 严萍; 邵艺莲; 倪平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and its related factors and countermeasures for nursing home residents in Wuhan, to provide constructive advice for promoting quality of life of residents in nursing home. Methods A convenient sample of 292 nursing home residents from 22 nursing homes was enrolled in Wuhan from September 2012 to August 2013. Several questionnaires were used in this survey including demographic data such as modified version of the quality-of-life concerns in the end of life questionnaire (QOLC-E) and short portable mental status questionnaire (SPMSQ). Results A total of 257 (88%) elderly acquired chronic disease, and the main disorder resulted from heart and lung system (51. 0%), sensory system (43. 2%), musculoskeletal and skin system (37. 0%), and nervous system (32. 9%). The total score of life quality was (3. 02 ± 0. 61), of which discomfort level of body, diet, care and support, negative mood, stress and sense of worth were (3. 49 ± 0. 47), (2. 87 ± 0. 82), (3. 13 ± 0. 53), (3. 13 ± 1.11), (3.16 ±1.14) and (2.33 ±1.36) respectively. The main influencing factors contained chronic disease, social support ( self-feeling of financial burden, feeling of passing into silence, social contact ) , and widowed. Elderly without chronic disease history, with high social support and non-widowed obtained a high score of life quality. Conclusions It is necessary for us to improve the quality of life for nursing home residents in Wuhan. Several factors affect the elderly quality of life, so the faculty of nursing homes, family members as well as the community workers should have responsibility to take appropriate and corresponding measures in many ways to help elderly improve their life quality.%目的:调查武汉市养老院老年人的生存质量,并分析影响养老院老年人生存质量的相关因素,为改善养老院老年人的生存质量提供相应对策。方法2012年9月—2013年8月,便利抽取武汉市内22

  17. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  18. A three perspective study of the sense of home of nursing home residents: the views of residents, care professionals and relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, Joost van; Verbeek, H.; Janssen, B.M.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Felix, E.; Nieboer, K.A.; Zwerts-Verhelst, E.L.M.; Sijstermans, J.J.W.M.; Wouters, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Background The sense of home of nursing home residents is a multifactorial phenomenon which is important for the quality of living. This purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home from the perspective of residents, r

  19. Past residence outside of the United States is associated with diet quality in adults currently residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Poudrier, Jill; Waters, Nigel; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate healthy dietary factors in relation to prior residence outside the United States (US) among university-affiliated individuals currently residing in the US. Current diet information was collected via a 4-day food record and residential history data were collected by in-person interview for 114 individuals. Residence outside of the US at any point during the interviewee's life was associated with higher diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005: 50.0 vs. 46.8) and lower added sugar intake (25.8 vs. 34.9 g/d). Concordance of residence as a child (≤12 years of age) and within the prior 5 years was more strongly associated with higher HEI-2005 score (52.7) than if childhood was outside of the US and recent within the US (47.1), compared with individuals who have only resided within the US (46.9). Results were similar when also accounting for self-reported current residence as permanent residence. Current diet quality, food groups, and nutrient intakes differed depending on where in the world region individuals resided as a child. Restricting the analyzes to a subgroup of individuals of younger age and similar education attenuated associations. Lower added sugar intake and higher overall diet quality were most consistently associated with residence outside of the US, and recent residence outside of the US may be more strongly associated than childhood residence. Some of these differences may be explained by demographic or socioeconomic factors. Future studies could evaluate explanatory factors for these observations, including detailed socioeconomic factors, exposure to diverse foods, and accessibility of processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Major chronic diseases and risk factors survey of rural residents in Yandu District, 2011%2011年盐都区农村居民主要慢性病及危险因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何飞; 邱民; 陈万庚; 胥建军; 朱海波; 梅志峰; 孙晓凯; 刘荣海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the current major chronic non-communicable diseases (chronic diseases) situation and the main risk factors of rural residents in Yandu District of Yancheng City. Methods To understand the general condition, history of chronic disease and probably related factors with chronic disease, questionnaire survey was conducted among 5 068 rural residents, and blood pressure and blood glucose index were also measured. Univariate and multi-variate Logistic regression were performed to analyze the risk factors and protective (actors of the 5 major chronic diseases. Results The hypertension prevalence of rural residents above the age of 18 in Yandu District was 16.97%. A field study from one village showed the diabetes incidence was 3. 36%. The rate of hypertension disease awareness, treatment and blood pressure controlling was 73.98% , 68.26% and 34.77% respectively ; and the rate of blood glucose awareness and controlling respectively reached to 51.43% and 31. 43%. Malignant tumor which had the first 5 prevalence was gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, intestinal cancer, liver cancer and lung cancer respectively. The risk factors of major chronic disease in Yandu District were disease family history (genetic) , aged, male which could not be prevented, there were other risk factors that could be intervened, such as drinking, long waist, poor quality of sleep, insufficient physical exercises. Conclusions The prevalence rate of chronic diseases in Yandu District of Yancheng City is close to other areas. Targeted preventive measures should be carried out to improve the prevention effect.%目的 了解盐城市盐都区农村居民当前主要慢性非传染性疾病(慢性病)患病情况及其主要危险因素.方法 对盐城市盐都区5 068名农村居民进行问卷调查,了解其一般状况、慢性病史及可能与慢性病发病有关的影响因素,并测量血压、血糖等指标.描述5种主要慢性病的患病情况,并采用单因素和

  1. 重庆市永川区居民糖尿病患病率及影响因素分析%Analysis of diabetes prevalence and its influencing factors among residents in Yongchuan district of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷伟; 袁跃龙; 丁贤彬; 沈卓之; 张春华; 陈克江; 张红军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand diabetes prevalence and its factors is to provide the suggestion for diabetes prevention and control in Yongchuan district .Methods Residents aged above 18 years old from 3 towns and 1 street were sampled by stratified clustered random sampling method .Residents were investigated with the questionnaire and physical examination and taken blood sample to test fasting glucose ,2‐h glucose .The data were analyzed to calculate diabetes prevalence by SPSS17 .0 .The factors of dia‐betes was compared by chi‐square and the independent influencing factors of diabetes were identified by step backward logistic re‐gression .Results A total of 1 202 were investigated .The rate of cognition about diabetes was below 30% .21 .46% of residents smoke every day .31 .78% of them do exercise .The prevalence of overweight ,obesity and diabetes was 24 .63% ,6 .07% and 10 .48% .The result of multi‐variant logistic regression indicated that the independent influencing factors of diabetes prevalence in‐cluded age(OR=1 .41 ,95% CI=1 .24-1 .62) ,the rate of cognition about the dose of salt intake per person per day recommended by Chinese guideline of diet(OR= 2 .12 ,95% CI= 1 .13 -3 .96) ,smoking at present(OR= 1 .44 ,95% CI= 1 .10 -1 .89) ,body weight(OR=1 .06 ,95% CI= 1 .00 -1 .12) ,blood pressure(OR=0 .76 ,95% CI=0 .59 -0 .98) .Conclusion Diabetes prevalence was high in Yongchuan district .The risk factors such as unhealthy diet ,smoking ,physical inactivity were common .Government should take the major role for diabetes prevention and control .%目的:了解永川区居民糖尿病患病率及影响因素,为开展糖尿病综合防治工作提供建议。方法采用分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取3个镇与1个街道的18岁以上的常住居民进行问卷调查、体格检查与抽血检测空腹血糖和餐后2h血糖,采用SPSS17.0统计分析糖尿病患病率,χ2检验与多因素Logistic回归分析糖尿病影

  2. Oral and maxillofacial surgery residents have poor understanding of biostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Al M; Laskin, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate residents' understanding of biostatistics and interpretation of research results. A questionnaire previously used in internal medicine residents was modified to include oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) examples. The survey included sections to identify demographic and educational characteristics of residents, attitudes and confidence, and the primary outcome-knowledge of biostatistics. In 2009 an invitation to the Internet survey was sent to all 106 program directors in the United States, who were requested to forward it to their residents. One hundred twelve residents responded. The percentage of residents who had taken a course in epidemiology was 53%; biostatistics, 49%; and evidence-based dentistry, 65%. Conversely, 10% of OMS residents had taken none of these classes. Across the 6-item test of knowledge of statistical methods, the mean percentage of correct answers was 38% (SD, 22%). Nearly half of the residents (42%) could not correctly identify continuous, ordinal, or nominal variables. Only 21% correctly identified a case-control study, but 79% correctly identified that the purpose of blinding was to reduce bias. Only 46% correctly interpreted a clinically unimportant and statistically nonsignificant result. None of the demographic or experience factors of OMS residents were related to statistical knowledge. Overall, OMS resident knowledge was below that of internal medicine residents (Pbiostatistics and the interpretation of research and are thus unprepared to interpret the results of published clinical research. Residency programs should include effective biostatistical training in their curricula to prepare residents in evidence-based dentistry. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sub-health and its influencing factors among residents of Jiangmen city%江门市居民亚健康状况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁萍; 唐亚丽; 于雪芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广东省江门市居民亚健康状况及其影响因素,为采取有效的保健措施及制定健康促进策略提供参考依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法抽取2010年10月-2011年5月在江门市疾病预防控制中心体检中心进行健康体检的5 896名体检者进行问卷调查.结果 调查的5896名体检者中,检出亚健康者2136人,占36.23%;其中生理亚健康846人,占亚健康者总数的39.61%,心理亚健康623人,占亚健康者总数的29.17%,社会亚健康667人,占亚健康者总数的31.22%;多因素Logistic回归分析结果表明,女性、经常患病、工作时间>12 h/d、饮酒、经常饮食不正常、不注意和完全不理会饮食结构和营养是居民亚健康状况的危险因素;年龄30 ~49岁、除工人外的其他职业、文化程度高中/中专以上、混合型性格、工作时间5~6 h/d、心理状态和社会适应能力较好是江门市居民亚健康状况的保护因素.结论 江门市亚健康人群比例较高,性别、年龄、职业、文化程度、患病情况、性格类型、工作时间、饮酒、饮食情况、饮食类型、心理状态和社会适应能力是居民亚健康状况发生的影响因素.%Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of sub-health among residents of Hangmen city for making effective health promotion strategy. Methods Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted among health physical examinees randomly selected at Physical Examination Center of Jiangmen Municipal Center for Disease Control and Preveation from October 2010 to May 2011. Results A total of 2 136 persons (36. 23% ) were sub-health(846[39.61%] with physiological sub-health,623 [29. 17% ] with mental sub-health,and 667 [31. 22% ] with social sub-health). Logistic regression analyses showed that female,frequent illness,working time longer than 12 hours per day,alcohol consumption,irregular diet structure,and unreasonable diet

  4. Guidelines for resident teaching experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrda, Dawn E; Engle, Janet P; Anderson, Keri C; Ray, Shaunta' M; Haines, Seena L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ballard, Stephanie L; Crannage, Andrew J; Rochester, Charmaine D; Parman, Malinda G

    2013-07-01

    Postgraduate year one (PGY1) and postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies serve to develop pharmacists into skillful clinicians who provide advanced patient-centered care in various general and specialized areas of pharmacy practice. Pharmacy residencies are a minimum requirement for many clinical pharmacy positions, as well as for positions in academia. The role of clinical pharmacists typically includes teaching, regardless of whether they pursue an academic appointment. Common teaching duties of pharmacist-clinicians include giving continuing education or other invited presentations, providing education to colleagues regarding clinical initiatives, precepting pharmacy students (early and advanced experiences) and residents, and educating other health care professionals. Although ASHP provides accreditation standards for PGY1 and PGY2 residencies, the standards pertaining to teaching or education training are vague. Through the years, teaching certificate programs that develop residents' teaching skills and better prepare residents for a diverse pharmacy job market have increased in popularity; moreover, teaching certificate programs serve as an attractive recruitment tool. However, the consistency of requirements for teaching certificate programs is lacking, and standardization is needed. The Task Force on Residencies developed two sets of guidelines to define teaching experiences within residencies. The first guideline defines the minimum standards for teaching experiences in any residency-training program. The second guideline is for programs offering a teaching certificate program to provide standardization, ensuring similar outcomes and quality on program completion. One of the main differences between the guidelines is the recommendation that residency programs offering a teaching certificate program be affiliated with an academic institution to provide the pedagogy and variety of teaching experiences for the resident. Residency program directors should

  5. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Depressive Disorder after Sudden Mass Incidents a-mong Community Residents%突发群体暴力事件后社区居民抑郁障碍影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向东; 吕淑云; 张莉; 李月娥; 陈亮; 买买提热夏提·吐尔逊; 马瑞晨; 古丽娜尔·阿布都克里木

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨突发群体暴力事件后,社区居民抑郁障碍的发病规律及影响因素。方法由专业精神科医生以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版修订版(DSM‐IV‐TR)轴I障碍临床定式检查,对某突发群体暴力事件涉及人群中的新疆中湾街沿街年龄≥15岁的全体居民进行检测,使用DSM‐IV对抑郁障碍进行诊断;并以艾森克人格问卷和应付方式问卷进行测查,分析抑郁障碍发病规律及影响因素。结果抑郁障碍患病率13.10%。人格问卷比较,抑郁障碍组较无病组神经质得分高(P<0.05),掩饰性得分低(P<0.05);应付方式比较,抑郁障碍组较无病组退避、幻想、自责和合理化得分高(P<0.05)、求助和解决问题得分低(P<0.05)。Logistic逐步回归分析显示,年龄、文化、暴露程度、内外向、神经质、自责5个参数在抑郁障碍发生上有显著影响。结论抑郁障碍是灾后的常见疾病,其人格特质是情绪稳定性差,应付方式多消极、少积极。应激与抑郁障碍存在因果关系。%Objectives To explore the pathogenesis regularity and influencing factors of depressive disorder after the sudden mass incidents among community residents .Methods Along the zhong‐wan street ,the residents aged 15 years and older were assessed with DSM‐IV‐TR axis I disorder and diagnosised with DSM‐IV .And they were evaluated with Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and Coping Style questionnaire .The pathogenesis regularity and influencing factors of depressive disorder were analyzed .Results The prevalence rate of depressive disorder was 13 .10% .In compari‐son of EPQ ,the neuroticism scores of depressive disorder group were higher than the illness‐free group (P<0 .05) , and the masked scores of depressive disorder group were lower than the illness‐free group (P<0 .05) .In compari‐son of the coping style ,the avoidance

  6. Does where you live matter to your health? Investigating factors that influence the self-rated health of urban and rural Chinese residents: evidence drawn from Chinese General Social Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang

    2017-04-21

    China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships. Using a logistic regression model and data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a representative sample of data for 3,402 urban residents (46 ± 16 years) and 2,439 rural residents (48 ± 15 years) was analysed. The dependent variable used for the logistic regressions was whether or not respondents reported being healthy. Independent variables included respondents' evaluations of the living environment, and how frequently they participated in physical activities. Interaction terms were employed to measure the moderating effects of physical exercise on the relationship between perceived environmental quality and health. The percentage of healthy urban residents was significantly larger than that of healthy rural respondents (70.87% versus 62.87%). Urban respondents living in areas with sufficient green space were more likely to report good health (OR = 0.749, CI = [0.628, 0.895]), while rural respondents without reliable access to fresh water were more likely to report poor health (OR = 0.762, CI = [0.612, 0.949]). Urban respondents who were exposed to green spaces and exercised frequently were 21.6 per cent more likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 1.216, CI = [1.047, 1.413]). Those who lived in areas with insufficient green space and exercised frequently were 19.1 per cent less likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 0.805, CI = [0

  7. 江苏省淮安市常住居民健康素养影响因素分析%Affacting factors of health literacy among Huaian residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫东; 俞清; 刘林飞; 王莉娜; 张万红; 徐慧; 江荣; 刘静

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省淮安市常住居民健康素养水平分布状况,并探索其影响因素,为制定健康教育干预策略和措施提供依据.方法 采用分层多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,于2012年9至12月对淮安市15~ 69岁3 480名常住居民进行问卷调查,调查内容分为基本知识和理念、健康生活方式和行为、基本技能等三个维度;按健康问题分为科学健康观、传染病预防、慢性病预防、安全与急救、基本医疗和其他等6类.对健康素养水平影响因素进行x2检验和Logistic回归分析.结果 3 480名调查对象具备健康素养水平的人数为424名,健康素养水平为12.2%.单因素分析显示,城乡、性别、不同年龄组、不同文化程度、不同职业人群、家庭年收入高低,健康素养水平差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素Logistic回归分析显示,相对于农村,城市对健康素养影响的OR (95% CI)值为1.558(1.234~ 1.966);相对于不识字或识字很少,小学、初中、高中/职高/中专、大专/本科及以上对健康素养影响的OR(95%CI)值分别为4.651 (2.327~9.295)、9.833 (5.121~ 18.880)、15.451 (7.798~ 30.615)和22.937(10.766~ 48.870);相对于公务员,医务人员对健康素养影响的OR(95%CI)值为3.789(1.292~11.114);相对于家庭年收入<30 000元,≥30 000元对健康素养影响的OR(95%CI)值为1.478(1.149~1.901),是健康素养的促进(危险)因素.结论 淮安市15~ 69岁常住居民健康素养水平为12.2%,健康素养水平较低,应加强健康素养干预和监测研究,制定有效的对策和措施,促进健康素养水平的全面提高.%Objective To evaluate health literacy and its affacting factors in of Huaian residents so as to provide evidence for comprehensive health education.Methods A total of 3 480 subjects aged 15-69 years old were recruited from Huaian city in the second half of 2012 by using stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling

  8. A meta-analysis of risk factors of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in Chinese residents%中国居民颅内动脉粥样硬化性狭窄危险因素的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎炳护; 张莉莉; 皮燕; 杨清武; 方传勤; 高长越; 王景周; 向静; 李敬诚

    2011-01-01

    -analysis was carried out by software Review Manager (Version 5.0.23). The odds ratios (Ors) of sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes and the mean differences (MDs) of lipids level (TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C) were combined after heterogeneity test. Publication bias was tested by funnel plot and fail-safe number (Nfs). Sensitivity analysis was made to assess the stability. Results A total of 9 case-control studies were identified. The combined Ors (95%Ch) of sex (male), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes were 1.00 (0.82 ~ 1.23, P = 0.99), 1.04(0.82 ~ 1.33, P = 0.74), 0.91(0.69-1.20, P=0.51), 1.35(0.73-2.50, P=0.33) and 1.71(1.04 - 2.81, P = 0.03). The combined MDs (95%Ch) of TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C were 0.12(0.00 - 0.25, P= 0.05), 0.06(-0.09 - 0.20, P= 0.43), -0.12(-0.23 --0.01, P=0.03) and 0.24(0.14-0.33, P<0.001). Conclusions As to China mainland residents, diabetes and LDL-C are the risk factors for ICAS; HDL-C is the protective factor for ICAS; There is lack evidence that male, cigarette smoking , alcohol consumption, hypertension, TG, TC are the risk factors for ICAS.

  9. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Resident Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Supplementary Educational Models in Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2017-03-01

    The proposed implementation of work hour restrictions has presented a significant challenge of maintaining the quality of resident education and ensuring adequate hands-on experience that is essential for novice surgeons. To maintain the level of resident surgical competency, revision of the apprentice model of surgical education to include supplementary educational methods, such as laboratory and virtual reality (VR) simulations, have become frequent topics of discussion. We aimed to better understand the role of supplementary educational methods in Canadian neurosurgery residency training. An online survey was sent to program directors of all 14 Canadian neurosurgical residency programs and active resident members of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society (N=85). We asked 16 questions focusing on topics of surgeon perception, current implementation and barriers to supplementary educational models. Of the 99 surveys sent, 8 out of 14 (57%) program directors and 37 out of 85 (44%) residents completed the survey. Of the 14 neurosurgery residency programs across Canada, 7 reported utilizing laboratory-based teaching within their educational plan, while only 3 programs reported using VR simulation as a supplementary teaching method. The biggest barriers to implementing supplementary educational methods were resident availability, lack of resources, and cost. Work-hour restrictions threaten to compromise the traditional apprentice model of surgical training. The potential value of supplementary educational methods for surgical education is evident, as reported by both program directors and residents across Canada. However, availability and utilization of laboratory and VR simulations are limited by numerous factors such as time constrains and lack of resources.

  11. Analysis on Current Status and Influential Factors of Diabetes among Residents from Different Districts in Tianjin%天津市不同地区居民糖尿病流行现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常改; 田颖; 王德征; 李威; 江国虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the current status and impact factors of diabetes among residents from different districts in Tianjin. Methods 2 886 people aged above fifteen were randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling in urban, rural and Binhai new area to participate in a survey through questionnaires. The contents of the questionnaires included general information, health condition, lifestyle and behaviors, nutrition knowledge, etc. They also had taken physical and biochemical examination, such as height, body weight, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure and blood glucose. The method of multicollinearity diagnosis, principal component analysis and factor analysis, non-conditional Logistic regression were used to analyze the influential factors of diabetes among residents in Tianjin. Results The prevalence rate of diabetes in Tianjin was 8.14% and regional disparity was existed. There were differences of prevalence rates in sex and age in different districts. The results showed that the older the age, the higher the risk of diabetes, the OR was 4.25 and 5.96 for subgroups aged 45- and 60- yrs, respectively. The OR of diabetes was 1.04, 1.09, 1.73, 3.09 for high daily intake of cereal food, high daily intake of salts, high percentage of daily total energy consumption from fat, and abdominal adiposity, respectively. High score of nutrition knowledge was a protective factor and its OR was 0.64 and 0.47 for moderate and high score, respectively. Conclusion There is an increasing trend in prevalence rate of diabetes in Tianjin. The older age, high percentage of daily total energy consumption from fat, high daily intake of cereal food, high daily intake of salts, abdominal adiposity are mainly risk factors, and high score of nutrition knowledge is protective factor for diabetes mellitus.%目的 了解天津市不同地区人群糖尿病患病情况及其主要影响因素.方法 在天津市城区、农村、滨海新区随机抽取≥15岁2 886人进行调

  12. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RF Jr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard F Wagner Jr, Sharon S Raimer, Brent C Kelly Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA Abstract: Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by

  13. Resident physicians' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, John B; Bundrick, John B; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand residents' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching. A group facilitator solicited residents' reflections, based on their lived experiences, on teaching domains from previous factor analytic studies: interpersonal, clinical-teaching, and efficiency. Researchers coded focus group transcripts and identified themes within the domains. Final themes were determined by consensus. Leading themes were "kindness" and "teacher-learner relationships." Junior residents were sensitive to faculty who were brusque, harsh, and degrading. Senior residents respected faculty who were humble, collaborative, and allowed residents to co-manage teaching encounters. Seniors emphasized the importance of faculty role-modelling and preferentially staffed with experts to "gain wisdom from experience." Overall, residents expressed that effective learning requires grounded teacher-learner relationships. These findings support learning theories and previous factor analytic studies. However, this qualitative study provided insights that could not be gleaned from assessment scores alone.

  14. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  15. The changing trend of chronic disease prevalence and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents%南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳华; 周吉; 叶琳; 江珊; 杨建敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素的变化趋势。方法使用同一个心血管危险因素调查表分别在2007年、2012年调查南宁市某社区居民主要慢性病及其危险因素情况,并进行体格检查及统计学分析。结果2007年高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和脑卒中患病率分别为22.8%、14.4%、4.2%和2.7%;现在吸烟率、过去12个月饮酒率、中心性肥胖率、肥胖率分别为23.1%、22.0%、60.8%和9.8%。2012年高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和脑卒中患病率分别为23.2%、19.4%、8.3%和2.8%。现在吸烟率、过去12个月饮酒率、中心性肥胖率、肥胖率分别为17.5%、19.4%、68.1%和16.8%。与2007年相比,2012年高脂血症患病率和糖尿病患病率呈上升趋势(χ2=4.536,P=0.033和χ2=7.280,P=0.007)。中心性肥胖率、肥胖率呈上升趋势(χ2=5.655,P=0.017和χ2=10.858,P =0.001)。现在吸烟率呈下降趋势(χ2=4.779,P=0.029)。高血压和脑卒中患病率、过去12个月饮酒率变化不大(χ2=0.018、0.017、0.989,P=0.892、0.898、0.320)。结论5年间,南宁市某社区居民高脂血症、糖尿病患病率、肥胖率及中心性肥胖率显著上升,现在吸烟率稍有下降,应采取控制合理膳食和加强体育锻炼等针对性的“吃动两平衡”行为干预措施,重点控制高脂血症、糖尿病和肥胖的发生;继续加大控烟、限酒等宣传力度,减缓慢性病危险因素的上升速度。%[ Abstratc] Obje ctive To study the changing trend of chronic disease and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents.Methods The certain community residents in Nanning were investigated using the same ques-tionnaire in 2007 and 2012, respectively.The survey items included smoking, drinking risk factors, and physical ex-amination.The comparative analysis was done statistically.Results In 2007

  16. Related factors of Keshan disease on incidence influence of residents in endemic area%克山病发病相关因素对病区居民患病情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相有章; 王秀红; 张文静; 屈福荣; 刘源; 张文明; 王静

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察克山病发病相关因素对克山病患病情况的影响,为病因研究提供科学依据.方法 选择莒县、沂水、平邑、邹城4个克山病病区县(市)的克山病发病村设立监测点,自1990年起连续观察20年,每5年为一阶段.每阶段对同一组人群连续观察5年,第1、3、5年对全部观察对象进行临床查体和描记心电图,可疑病人X线胸部后前位摄片,诊断符合“克山病诊断标准”.同时采集头发、小麦、玉米、红薯干(地瓜干),应用荧光法测定硒含量.调查经济收入和人均占有粮食.结果 20年共观察人群15 368例/次,克山病年均检出率3.12%,潜在型为2.68%,慢型0.44%,慢型检出率并呈逐年下降趋势.采集发样800份,小麦766份,玉米658份和地瓜干668份.发硒水平逐年升高(P<0.05~0.01),1997年后达到硒适宜地区水平,粮食硒水平基本恒定.经济收入与人均占有粮食显著增加,从1990年的535.8元/人、254.6 kg/人逐年增加至2009年的3200.0元/人、683.0 kg/人.结论 克山病病情稳定,慢型克山病病情呈逐年下降态势,硒营养状况改善是影响病情变化的重要因素.%Objective To observe the related factors of Keshan disease ( KSD) on incidence influence of residents in endemic area in order to provide the scientific basis of etiology study of Keshan disease. Methods To choose the epidemic villages in KSD area of Juxian, Yishui, Pingyi, Zoucheng counties were set up observing points. Every five years was made as a stage since 1990.3 to 14 - year - old residents and over 14 - year - old suspicious patients were selected as surveillance subjects from first stage to third stage but all residents were selected as surveillance subjects in fourth stage. The same group of surveillance subjects in each stage were observed consecutively for 5 years. Surveillance contents included physical checkup, electrocardiogram( ECG) and X - ray. At the same time samples of hair, wheat

  17. GATA Transcription Factors in Tissue Homeostasis and Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Haveri, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian gastrointestinal tract and liver are self-renewing organs that are able to sustain themselves due to stem cells present in their tissues. In constant, inflammation-related epithelial damage, vigorous activation of stem cells may lead to their uncontrolled proliferation, and further, to cancer. GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in many mammalian organs. Lack of GATA-4 or GATA-6 leads to defective endodermal development and cell differentiation...

  18. 辽宁省居民酒精使用障碍及影响因素分析%Alcohol use disorder and its influence factors among residents in Liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓丽; 潘国伟; 姜潮; 富增国; 于泉福; 于传友; 颜廷梅; 于丽娅; 刘莉; 于连政

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解辽宁省城乡居民酒精使用障碍患病率、分布特点和主要危险因素.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,以复合性国际诊断交谈检查量表(CIDI 1.0)对辽宁省3个市3个县13 358名18~65岁城乡居民进行入户面访.结果 全部调查者和饮酒者的酒精使用障碍终生患病率分别为4.24%和16.17%,12月患病率为3.45%和13.59%,2周患病率为2.70%和10.93%;酒精使用障碍终生患病率与饮酒频率和饮酒量呈剂量-效应关系;多因素分析结果显示,男性(OR=2.01,95%CI=1.28~3.15)、离婚(OR=2.09,95%CI=1.30~3.36)、吸烟(OR=1.35,95%CI=1.08~1.68);饮酒量、饮酒频度是辽宁省城乡居民酒精使用障碍终生患病率的主要危险因素,年龄≥55岁(OR=0.63,95%CI=0.45~0.86)危险性较低.结论 男性、25~54岁、吸烟者及离婚者为酒精使用障碍高发人群和防治重点.%Objective To describe the prevalence and distribution of alcohol use disorders among adult residents in Liaoning province. Methods Totally 13 358 subjects aged 18 -65 years were randomly selected from 3 cities and 3 counties with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method and were assessed based on DSM Ⅲ-R diagnoses by face-to-face interview with Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 1.0. Results The lifetime, 12 month and 2 week prevalence of alcohol use disorder were 4. 24% ,3.45% ,and 2. 70% for all residents and 16. 17% ,6. 88% ,and 9. 30% for alcohol drinkers, respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was observed between the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders and the drinking days per week, and alcohol consumption daily. The risk factors of lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder were male( odds ratio [ OR ] = 2. 01,95% confidence interval [ CI]: 1.28 - 3. 15 ), smoking ( OR = 1.35,95 % CI: 1. 08 - 1.68 ), divorced ( OR = 2. 09,95 % CI: 1.30 - 3.36 ), alcohol consumption, and frequency of alcohol

  19. Analysis on the risk factors of the residents with impaired fasting glucose in Xuzhou%徐州市居民空腹血糖异常危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄培安; 陈培培; 余加席; 张雷; 张宁; 张盼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Xuzhou region area. Methods Using multistage stratified random sampling, 23 742 residents aged 15 or above were invited to participate in the survey. Questionnaire, physical examination and fasting glucose test were undertaken. The data was analyzed with single factor and multivariate factors non-conditional logistic regression model. Results A total of 3 958 cases with impaired fasting glucose were selected, multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that region, age, educational level, occupation, marriage, income, history of hypertension, coronary heart disease history, alcohol history, preserved foods, vegetable intake, daily sleep time, body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions The increasing age, low educational level, high income, history of hypertension, history of coronary heart disease, history of drinking, eating pickled foods, body mass index (BMI) increased,abdominal obesity (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) big were the risk factors for impaired fasting glueose, eating vegetables, adequate sleep are helpful to reduce the incidence of impaired fasting glucose.%目的 探讨徐州市人群空腹血糖异常(IFG)的危险因素.方法 采取多阶段分层整群抽样的方法进行调查,共调查≥15岁常住人口23 742人.调查内容涉及问卷调查、体格检查、空腹血糖(FBS)测量.采用单因素和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析方法进行资料处理.结果 共3 958例空腹血糖异常者入选,多因素Logistic回归分析显示,地区、年龄、文化程度、职业、婚姻状况、高血压病史、冠心病史、饮酒史、腌制食品摄入量、蔬菜摄入量、每天睡眠时间、睡眠质量、体质指数(BMI)、腹部肥胖(WC)、腰臀比(WHR)与空腹血糖异常有关.结论 年龄增大、文化程度低、经济收入高、有高血压病史、有冠

  20. Features on suicide attempts and its influencing factors among residents in Guangdong province%广东省居民自杀未遂的流行特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文军; 严青华; 许燕君; 许晓君; 蔡秋茂; 徐浩锋; 宋秀玲; 聂少萍

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解广东省居民自杀未遂的注行特征,探讨自杀未遂的影响因素.方法 通过分层随机抽样抽取广东省21个县区中街道/乡镇的家庭为调查样本户,对每个住户用KISH法确定1名15~69岁的家庭成员进行问卷调查,获得自杀未遂及相关的危险因素.采用SPSS 16.0软件对数据进行分析,筛选自杀未遂的危险凶素.结果 共调查6625人,过去一年内自杀未遂的发生率为0.8%,其中女性(1.1%)高于男性(0.5%),25~35岁女性自杀未遂率最高(1.6%),城市农村间差异无统计学意义.多因素分析显示,女性(OR=2.1)、经历负性事件(OR=15.5)、睡眠状况差(OR=1.6)、孤独感(OR=1.5)、焦虑感(OR=1.8)是自杀未遂的危险因素;而饮酒、吸烟、体力活动情况、文化程度、年龄、城乡、家庭农药存放情况与自杀未遂发生无显著相关.结论 广东省自杀未遂发生率高,影响因素复杂,应该采取综合的措施进行预防控制.%Objective To understand the prevalence of suicide attempts and its related risk factors in Guangdong province to provide scientific basis information for suicide intervention.Methods Multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select the sample.42 sweets or towns were selected from 21 counties or districts through randomly sampling.4 communities were then chosen from every selected town or district,followed by 40 families chosen from every village or community.Questionnaire was used to collect data on suicide attempts and its related risk factors.SPSS 16.0 was used for data analysis.Results 6625 peoples were participated in the study.The 12-month incidence of suicidal attempts was 0.8%.It was higher for females ( 1.1% ) than that for males(0.5%) ,and the 25-35 years(1.6%) age group was among the highest.There was no significant difference between the prevalence rates in urban or rural residents.Results from multivariate analysis showed that factors as:being female (OR=2

  1. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest percen

  2. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest percen

  3. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  4. Fellowship trends of pathology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagwinski, Nikolaj; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2009-09-01

    Recent changes in pathology residency education have included a decrease in the program length (from 5 years to 4 years for combined anatomic and clinical pathology training) and a national mandate for programs to assess 6 general competencies of trainees. These have undoubtedly led to changes in program curricula and in residents' desires to seek fellowship training. This study was designed to gather information about what residents are seeking from fellowship training programs. This study used an online survey to assess attitudes of residents in training programs toward fellowship training. The survey instrument had 26 questions pertaining to fellowship choices, motivations for pursuing fellowships, expectations of the fellowships, and postresidency concerns. There were 213 respondents from a mix of program types and representing each postgraduate year. Most residents will seek at least 1 or 2 fellowships after residency training. The most popular first-choice fellowship was surgical pathology (26%), followed by cytopathology (16%), hematopathology (15%), gastrointestinal pathology (10%), dermatopathology (8%), and forensic pathology (5%). The most common reasons for pursuing fellowship training were to "increase marketability" (43%) or to "become an expert in a particular area" (33%). Most trainees got their information about fellowship training programs from Internet sources. Fellowship programs will benefit from an optimally designed Web site because residents seek information predominantly from the Internet. Residents seeking fellowships are particularly concerned with selecting programs that provide job connections, an increase in their marketability, and the opportunity to develop diagnostic expertise.

  5. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  6. The Artist-in-Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James W.

    1977-01-01

    Institutions are bringing the professional artist into their instructional and cultural environments through five approaches: concert performances, extended performances, master classes, part-time residencies, and full-time residencies. The effect of each program on the artist and the college or university is examined. (Author/LBH)

  7. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  8. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula.

  9. 南京城镇居民血脂代谢异常率及其影响因素%The Rate and its Influencing Factors of Lipid Metabolism Abnormality in Urban Residents in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜言丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investe and analyze the rate and its influencing factors of lipid metabolism abnormality in urban residents in Nanjing.Methods Colected the check data of 7 749 cases aged 18 years or older in Nanjing. Analysis of the health status of physical examination,blood lipid metabolism and related factors.ResultsThe abnormalrate of total blood lipid was 57.4%,and the high levels of TC,TG,LDL and low levels of HDL were 36.7%,29.3%, 26.4% and 16.2%,respectively. The risk of dyslipidemia in woman was lower than in man. And the risk of dyslipidemia increased with age. The risk factors of dyslipidemiawere overweight or obesity(OR=2.15,P<0.001),eleated diastolic blood pressure (OR=1.37,P<0.001),elevated blood glucose(OR=1.46,P<0.001),and uric acid increased(OR=2.37,P=0.038).Conclusion The people in urbanization community have higher rates of lipid metabolic abnormalities. Overweight or obesity,high blood pressure,high blood sugar and high uric acid hematic disease affects lipid metabolism. We shuold strengthen the monitoring and comprehensive prevention.%目的:调查分析南京市区居民健康状况、血脂等情况及其危险因素。方法收集7749例南京地区≥18岁社区人群体检资料,分析体检健康状况、血脂代谢异常情况及其相关影响因素。结果总血脂代谢异常率为57.4%,高TC血症、高TG血症、高LDL血症、低HDL血症分别为36.7%、29.3%、26.4%、16.2%。女性发生血脂异常的风险低于男性,且随年龄增加,发生血脂的风险增高。血脂异常的危险因素为超重或肥胖(OR=2.15,P<0.001)、舒张压升高(OR=1.37,P<0.001)、血糖升高(OR=1.46,P<0.001)以及尿酸升高(OR=2.37, P=0.038)。结论城市化社区人群有较高的血脂代谢异常率,超重或肥胖、高血压、高血糖和高尿酸血症影响血脂代谢,需加强居民血脂异常的监测和综合防治。

  10. 秦皇岛市北戴河区社区居民超重和肥胖及其危险因素%Overweight and obesity status and its risk factors of residents in Beidaihe District of Qinhuangdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学双; 张海滨; 康凯燕; 王雪欧; 孙香云; 任力; 刘世娟

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristics and relative factors of adults with overweight and obesity in Beidaihe City, and provide scientific evidence for developing relevant control measures. [Methods] With randomized sampling,3 569 residents aged 20-92 years were selected from a community of Beidaihe District. Inquiry survey was used to obtain basic personal data and correlative factors, the height and weight were measured. [ Results] The overweight rate was 36. 79% and the obesity rate was 13.28% among adults in Beidaihe District, that of male was higher than female, the difference was significant (overweight :x2 =126.27,P<0.01 .obesity:x2 =70.06,.P<0.01). The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were increased with the age. Multivariate analysis showed male, age and lower educational level were the influencing factors of overweight and obesity. [ Conclusion] The prevalence status and trends of overweight and obesity is not optimistic. The overweight and obesity rates of adult were higher than the average levels of China in 2002. Interventions should be taken as soon as possible.%目的 了解北戴河成年居民超重与肥胖的流行特点及相关因素,为制定相关的防治措施提供科学依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,于2010年8-10月对区某社区20 -92岁人群进行面对面调查,抽取3569人,用询问调查法获得个人基本情况和相关因素,测量身高、体重.结果 北戴河成年人超重率为36.79%,肥胖率为13.28%.男性均高于女性,差异均有统计学意义(超重为x2=126.27,P<0.01,肥胖为X2=70.06,P <0.01),且超重、肥胖率均随年龄的增加而升高,经多因素分析,男性,大年龄和文化程度低是超重和肥胖的影响因素.结论 北戴河成年居民超重、肥胖患病现状和趋势不容乐观,超重、肥胖率均高于全国2002年平均水平,应尽快采取干预措施.

  11. Empirical Research on the Influencing Factors of Urban Residents' Satisfaction Degree on Agricultural Products Market Taking Huaian City as an Example%城市居民对农贸市场满意度影响因素实证研究--以淮安市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建华

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire survey is done to the city residents in Huaian about the influencing factors of their satisfaction degree of the agricultural market. The data obtained is analyzed by factor analysis and regression analysis for the empirical analysis. The study indicates that the farmer's market hardware factor, quality factor and agricultural products market service factor are the important factors that influence urban residents' satisfaction on the agricultural products market. The commodity value factor has no significant effects on agricultural products market satisfaction degree. Some suggestions are put forward accordingly.%本文通过对淮安城市居民关于农贸市场满意因素的问卷调研,所得数据运用因子分析、回归分析等方法进行实证分析,研究表明:农贸市场硬件设施因子、商品质量因子、农贸市场服务因子是影响城市居民对农贸市场满意度的重要因素,商品价值因子对农贸市场满意度影响不显著,并由此提出了相关的建议。

  12. How do Locals in Finland Identify Resident Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Säävälä

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the identi? cation by Finns of foreign residents in Finland by analyzing data from a representative sample survey carried out in 2002. When people were asked to name a group of foreigners residing in Finland, the majority ?rst mentioned Somalis, despite the fact that only 4 percent of foreign residents are Somali and 6 percent of foreign-language speakers speak Somali. The general tendency when identifying resident foreigners is to refer primarily to ethnic or national groups; references to status (e.g. refugee, return migrant, guest worker or religion (e.g. Muslim are rare in the survey. In terms of ethnicity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is inconsistent, particularly as Russians and Estonians, the two largest groups, are not readily seen as foreign residents. The prevalence of answering Somalis could be considered an outcome of the maximally visible difference between Finns and Somalis. A logistic regression analysis is used to examine whether identifying resident foreigners differs according to socio-economic and educational characteristics, age, gender, region, and attitude towards the number of resident foreigners in Finland. The variables that signi? cantly in? uence the probability of answering Somalis and Russians are the respondents region, age, attitude towards the number of foreign residents in Finland, and to some extent, gender and higher education. Respondents occupational status, vocational education or income does not have a signi? cant impact on the answers. Regional differences appear to be a major factor affecting how foreigners are identi? ed, which shows that although the need to consider resident foreigners as visibly, culturally and linguistically maximally different may be a nearly universal base line for creating difference and identity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is not entirely independent of demographic realities.

  13. Recent trends in resident career choices after plastic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Fernando A; Chang, Eric I; Suliman, Ahmed; Tseng, Charles Y; Bradley, James P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the initial career choice of plastic surgery residents after completion of training during the last five years and to identify any factors that may influence choice of career path. Demographic data were obtained from graduates of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited US plastic surgery residency programs between the years of 2005 and 2010. The type of practice and pursuit of fellowship were recorded for each graduate. Sex, age at graduation, marital status, dependents, advanced degrees, previous research, type of training program, primary residency, and length of plastic surgery training were also documented. Comparison of outcomes between the two plastic surgery training pathways (integrated vs independent) was analyzed. Data were collected for 424 graduates from 37 different training programs. Of these programs, 11% were from the West coast, 32% from Midwest, 33% from East coast, and 24% from the South. Seventy-nine percent of residents were male, mean age at graduation was 35 (2.89) years. Forty-nine percent of residents were married, 30% had one or more dependents, 6% had advanced degrees, and 18% had previous research experience. Fifty-eight percent of graduates were from independent programs. Forty-eight percent of residents pursued private practice immediately after graduation, 8% pursued academic practice, 41% pursued specialty fellowships, and 3% had military commitments. Most of the residents chose to pursue private practice on completion of residency. Independent residents were significantly more likely to pursue private practice immediately compared to integrated/combined residents. No other factors were significant for practice choice.

  14. The application of models to find the relevance of residence time in lake and reservoir management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven E. JØRGENSEN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time is among the most important factors that determine the water quality of lakes and reservoirs. Models are useful tools to reveal the relationship between the residence time and the water quality. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the application of models to determine the importance of the residence time for the water quality. It was found that manipulation of the residence time, i.e. ecohydrology, may be a very useful environmental management tool.

  15. DiscussiOn Of the influence factOrs Of the cultivatiOn Of residents' clinical ability thrOugh the clinical ability cOmpetitiOn%由临床能力大赛谈住院医师临床能力培养影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芬; 王亚军; 樊洁; 康骅; 贾建国; 王晓辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析北京市住院医师临床能力大赛结果,探讨住院医师临床能力培养的影响因素。方法对北京市外科住院医师临床能力大赛250名参赛者的基本情况和考核结果进行统计分析。结果住院医师辅助检查判读、接诊患者成绩及对医疗法律法规的知晓程度较低(67.59±13.87、69.21±16.28、64.45±5.36);修改实习学生病历、书写病理申请单、危重病通知书和出院医嘱的能力较差(30.31±16.84、70.26±7.51、75.15±14.68、63.49±18.27)。结论住院医师临床能力大赛有利于检验住院医师水平,结业考核、指导老师带教意识、住院医师培训的积极性和主动性等影响住院医师临床能力培养。%Objective To analyze the results of the residents' clinical competency competition,and discuss the influ-ence factors of the cultivation of the residents' clinical ability. MethOd We made statistic analysis of the general condition and the performance of the competition of the 250 residents. Result The score of the auxiliary examination interpretation,dealing with patients and the awareness of health law and regulations were low ( 67. 59 ± 13. 87, 69. 21±16. 28,64. 45±5. 36). The ability of modifying the students' records,writing pathology application,critically ill noticing and writing discharge instructions were bad(30. 31±16. 84,70. 26±7. 51,75. 15±14. 68,63. 49± 18. 27). COnclusiOn The clinical competency competition of residents is helpful to test the residents' clinical abili-ty. System,social factors,the graduation examination,the teachers' teaching consciousness and the enthusiasm and initiative of the residents influence the cultivation of clinical ability of the residents.

  16. Investigation on Prehypertension Prevalence of Rural Aged Residents in Shaanxi Province and the Influencing Factors%陕西省农村老年人高血压前期患病率及其影响因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明贤; 周亚东; 高丽

    2016-01-01

    prehypertension prevalence of rural aged residents in Shaanxi province,to analyze the influencing factors of prehypertension. Methods From November 2013 to February 2014,cluster random sampling method was used to selected five administrative villages in the East,West,South and North of Xi′an,the East of Xianyang, including 256 cases;convenience sampling method was used to selected 20 administrative villages that junior nursing majority undergraduates of Medical College of Xi′ an International University live in,including 347 cases. Above 603 aged residents received questionnaire survey,simple physical examination,measure of blood pressure and blood glucose,then the data was analyzed. Results The effective rate of questionnaires was 88. 7% (603 / 680). Of the 603 aged residents,110 cases′ blood pressure were normal( accounting for 18. 2% ),232 cases occurred prehypertension( accounting for 38. 5% ),261 cases occurred hypertension(accounting for 43. 3% );the awareness rate of prehypertension was 10. 8% ,while the treatment ratio and control ratio were both 0. No statistically significant differences of incidence of prehypertension was found in aged residents with different territories,live alone or not,with chronic disease or not,passive smoking or not,drinking or not,take exercise or not,like sweetmeat or not,with high blood glucose or not(P ﹥ 0. 05);the incidence of prehypertension of male residents, 60 to 74 years old residents,residents with junior middle school and the following degree of education,residents with positive family history of hypertension,residents like salty food,residents with overweight was statistically significantly higher than that of female residents,equal or over 75 years old residents,residents with high school or above degree of education,residents without positive family history of hypertension,residents did not like salty food,residents without overweight,respectively(P < 0. 05). Binary variable logistic regression analysis showed that

  17. Resident and Non resident Persons in Theory and Practice Tax – Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitore Morina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In each country there is the attempt to impose their jurisdiction persons who derive income and require sufficient connection between the state and these persons to enable the collection of these revenues on behalf of taxes. However, it should be asked which connection is required between the state and subjects of law to achieve this goal. There is a number of factors stemming from the subjects of law that can create report - link between the state and subjects of law, such as: citizenship, residence, nationality, presence in the state concerned, etc. Tax systems in the country (domestic tax systems will determine which subject will be considered for the purposes of the tax legislation of the respective state tax subject to domestic (resident and which foreign (non- resident. In this context, local tax legislation must modulate two basic issues: The first, are the characteristics of natural and legal persons who are established, organized and operate within the boundaries of the respective state (resident and the Second, the characteristics of natural and legal persons who are established and organized under the laws of foreign (non- resident.

  18. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Predict Cost of Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainter, Christopher R.; Gentges, Joshua A.; Thomas, Stephen H.; Burns, Boyd D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diagnostic testing represents a significant portion of healthcare spending, and cost should be considered when ordering such tests. Needless and excessive spending may occur without an appreciation of the impact on the larger healthcare system. Knowledge regarding the cost of diagnostic testing among emergency medicine (EM) residents has not previously been studied. Methods A survey was administered to 20 EM residents from a single ACGME-accredited three-year EM residency program, asking for an estimation of patient charges for 20 commonly ordered laboratory tests and seven radiological exams. We compared responses between residency classes to evaluate whether there was a difference based on level of training. Results The survey completion rate was 100% (20/20 residents). We noted significant discrepancies between the median resident estimates and actual charge to patient for both laboratory and radiological exams. Nearly all responses were an underestimate of the actual cost. The group median underestimation for laboratory testing was $114, for radiographs $57, and for computed tomography exams was $1,058. There was improvement in accuracy with increasing level of training. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that EM residents have a poor understanding of the charges burdening patients and health insurance providers. In order to make balanced decisions with regard to diagnostic testing, providers must appreciate these factors. Education regarding the cost of providing emergency care is a potential area for improvement of EM residency curricula, and warrants further attention and investigation. PMID:28116030

  19. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  20. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people’s choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  1. The Impact of the 2008 Council of Emergency Residency Directors (CORD) Panel on Emergency Medicine Resident Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Dowin; Tunson, Java; Caruso, Emily; Angerhofer, Christy; Baker, Brooke; King, Renee; Bakes, Katherine; Oberfoell, Stephanie; Lowenstein, Steven; Druck, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    In 2008, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) developed a set of recruitment strategies designed to increase the number of under-represented minorities (URMs) in Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. We conducted a survey of United States (US) EM residency program directors to: describe the racial and ethnic composition of residents; ascertain whether each program had instituted CORD recruitment strategies; and identify program characteristics associated with recruitment of a high proportion of URM residents. The survey was distributed to accredited, nonmilitary US EM residency programs during 2013. Programs were dichotomized into high URM and low URM by the percentage of URM residents. High- and low-URM programs were compared with respect to size, geography, percentage of URM faculty, importance assigned to common applicant selection criteria, and CORD recruitment strategies utilized. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits were calculated. Of 154 residency programs, 72% responded. The median percentage of URM residents per program was 9%. Only 46% of EM programs engaged in at least two recruitment strategies. Factors associated with higher resident diversity (high-URM) included: diversity of EM faculty (high-URM) (odds ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-13.0); applicant's URM status considered important (OR 4.9; 95% CI 2.1-11.9); engaging in pipeline activities (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.4-15.7); and extracurricular activities considered important (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-6.0). Less than half of EM programs have instituted two or more recruitment strategies from the 2008 CORD diversity panel. EM faculty diversity, active pipeline programs, and attention paid to applicants' URM status and extracurricular activities were associated with higher resident diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Family medicine residents' and community physicians' concerns about patient truthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, D; Clements, T

    1997-02-01

    To assess how often family physicians question patient truthfulness, what factors influence them to do so, and how often resident physicians experience such doubts as compared with senior physicians. In 1994-95, after half-day patient care sessions, 44 residents from the University of Kansas School of Medicine's three Wichita family practice residency programs and nine community family physicians associated with the programs recorded their impressions of each patient's truthfulness, what issues prompted concern about patient truthfulness, and their feelings about each encounter. The residents doubted patients in 54 of 277 encounters (19.5%); the senior physicians doubted patients in 16 of 183 encounters (8.7%) (p = .003). Both groups had more negative than positive emotions toward such encounters, with no significant difference in feelings. The demographics of the resident and senior physician populations differed greatly. Although preliminary, the present study suggests that family physicians question patient truthfulness fairly often, resident physicians more than senior physicians, and that these physicians have some negative feelings toward such situations. Because such feelings may contribute to inadequate patient care, the authors recommend that further research is warranted to understand contributing factors and to guide the development of resident and student education programs in this neglected area of the doctor-patient relationship.

  3. 宁夏城市居民高血压患病及影响因素分析%Prevalence and influential factors of hypertension among urban residents in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚杰; 贾绍斌; 马学平; 徐清斌; 马列

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宁夏回族自治区城市居民高血压患病情况及其影响因素,为高血压社区干预治疗提供参考依据.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法对在宁夏回族自治区5个城市社区抽取的6071名≥18岁居民进行问卷调查.结果 宁夏回族自治区城市居民的高血压患病率和标化患病率分别为25.47%和16%;多因素非条件Logistic回归分析结果表明,年龄≥30岁、汉族、体质指数≥24、有糖尿病、高血压家族史、吸烟和饮酒是居民高血压患病的危险因素;文化程度初中及以上是居民高血压患病的保护因素.结论 宁夏回族自治区城市居民高血压患病率较高,年龄、民族、文化程度、体质指数、糖尿病史、高血压家族史、吸烟和饮酒是宁夏回族自治区城市居民高血压患病的影响因素.%Objective To examine the epidemiological feature and intervention effectiveness of hypertension in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region for improvement of hypertention control in communities. Methods A total of 6 071 subjects aged ≥18 years in 6 counties of Ningxia were selected with multi-stage randomized cluster sampling for a questionnaire survey. Results The prevalence rate of hypertension was 25.47% (25. 36% for male and 25.56 for female) ,with a standardized prevalence rate of 16.0%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence between the male and female subjects (P>0.05). The prevalence rate was 21.91% in Hui nationality and 26. 84% in Han nationality ( P <0. 001). Multiple factor unconditioned logistic regression analyses showed that the risk factors for hypertension in the population included age, nation, degree of education, history of diabetes, familial history of hypertension, smoking history ,drinking wine ,high salt diet,and body mass index(BMJ). Conclusion Hypertension prevalence rate is at a higher level and correlates with age. education level,BMI,history of diabetes,fimilial history of

  4. Finding Value in Surgical Didactics: Longitudinal Resident Feedback From Case-Based and Traditional Lectures in an Orthopaedic Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, Jonathan C; Halvorson, Jason J; Teasdall, Robert D; Carroll, Eben A

    To evaluate orthopedic resident perceptions of a didactic curriculum presented in traditional and case-based formats. Prospective cohort study using anonymous web-based survey after each conference evaluating resident perceptions of faculty participation, didactic delivery, content, and overall conference value. Conferences were structured as primarily case-based or traditional lecture. Logistic analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of rating a conference as valuable time spent. Orthopedic residency training program at single institution over an academic year. Orthopedic residents in postgraduate training year 1 to 5 attending mandatory didactic conference. Cased-based conferences received higher Likert ratings on residents' perception of faculty participation, instructor delivery, and improvement in topic understanding when compared to traditional lecture-based conferences (p didactic sessions. Junior levels residents are not perceived as effective as senior residents and faculty in presenting material in either format. These methods allow for a dynamic approach to identifying strengths and weaknesses in a resident curriculum as a well as a means for more focused and real-time improvements. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  6. Learning preference and personality type: their association in paediatric residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, L W; Goldberg, R M; Foley, R P

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the learning preferences and personality types of residents in paediatrics. As part of a study to teach residents in paediatrics how to teach, the authors administered the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO-B) instruments to 55 residents in paediatrics at all three levels of training. The instruments provided data that were used to provide feedback to residents on their learning preferences and interaction styles, as well as how these factors might affect teaching and learning in the clinical setting. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between the LPI and the FIRO-B. Fifty-two of the 55 residents (95%) completed the instruments. The results revealed that residents' learning preferences were significantly related to their personality types. For example, residents with high inclusion and affection scores on the FIRO-B preferred learning with others, which was significantly related to their high interpersonal scores on the LPI. Residents with low inclusion and affection scores were more likely to prefer independent learning (high individual and student-structured scores on the LPI) and abstract learning at statistically significant levels. The scores obtained by residents in paediatrics on the LPI were strongly correlated with those obtained on the FIRO-B. These data may have important implications for the way in which staff recruit, counsel and teach residents. The fact that the LPI is easy to administer and does not purport to measure personality styles makes it an acceptable educational tool that can be used in many areas of training.

  7. Fellows as teachers: a model to enhance pediatric resident education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles V. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on academic faculty to perform beyond their role as educators has stimulated interest in complementary approaches in resident medical education. While fellows are often believed to detract from resident learning and experience, we describe our preliminary investigations utilizing clinical fellows as a positive force in pediatric resident education. Our objectives were to implement a practical approach to engage fellows in resident education, evaluate the impact of a fellow-led education program on pediatric resident and fellow experience, and investigate if growth of a fellowship program detracts from resident procedural experience.This study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU where fellows designed and implemented an education program consisting of daily didactic teaching sessions before morning clinical rounds. The impact of a fellow-led education program on resident satisfaction with their NICU experience was assessed via anonymous student evaluations. The potential value of the program for participating fellows was also evaluated using an anonymous survey.The online evaluation was completed by 105 residents. Scores were markedly higher after the program was implemented in areas of teaching excellence (4.44 out of 5 versus 4.67, p<0.05 and overall resident learning (3.60 out of 5 versus 4.61, p<0.001. Fellows rated the acquisition of teaching skills and enhanced knowledge of neonatal pathophysiology as the most valuable aspects of their participation in the education program. The anonymous survey revealed that 87.5% of participating residents believed that NICU fellows were very important to their overall training and education.While fellows are often believed to be a detracting factor to residency training, we found that pediatric resident attitudes toward the fellows were generally positive. In our experience, in the specialty of neonatology a fellow-led education program can positively contribute to both

  8. 事件旅游城市居民分类及影响因素研究——以常州花博会为例%Segmentation and Influential Factors of Residents in an Event Tourism Host City ——A Case Study of China Flower Expo in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 黄震方; 胡小海; 张子昂

    2016-01-01

    针对事件旅游举办城市的旅游影响感知居民分类及影响因素在文献中讨论较少.以常州2013年中国花卉博览会为例,首先对事件旅游影响感知测量指标进行因子分析,然后以5个事件旅游影响因子作为分类依据,利用快速聚类法对居民群体进行聚类分析,最后采用多项名义变量逻辑斯回归模型分析居民事件旅游影响感知群体分类的影响因素.研究发现,可以将被调查居民分为淡漠支持者、矛盾支持者、理性支持者和热情支持者;居民分类的显著影响因素为性别、年龄和居住时间、与旅游业的相关程度、居住区域,同时结合深度访谈分析相关因素的影响机制.识别旅游地具有不同特征的群体,最小化潜在的消极影响,可以最大化居民的支持程度,对事件旅游的成功举办有一定的影响.%It hasn't been discussed more about segmentation and influential factors of residents in an event tourism host city until now. Based on a questionnaire survey on event tourism host city,taking 2013 China Flower Expo in Changzhou as an example,such research techniques as factor analysis,K-means cluster,multinomial logistic regression,crosstabs and non-structural in-depth interviews are employed on segmentation and influential factors of host city. The results show that host city residents are classified into indifferent supporters,ambivalent supporters,rational supporters and enthusiastic supporters. Significant influential factors of residents'segmentation are gender,age and residence time,the degree related to tourism,residence area. Furthermore,this paper provides a thorough analysis to formation mechanism beyond segmentation of host city residents. Identifying residents groups with different characteristics can minimize the potential negative impact and maximize the support degree of residents,which has a certain influence on success of event tourism.

  9. A survey on the behavioral risk factors of chronic diseases among residents in Yongjia County%永嘉县居民健康相关生活方式因素现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜则; 陈建平; 郑沛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the health related behavior among residents in Yongjia County,and to provide the basis for developing disease control and health promotion strategies.Methods Using cluster random sampling,4 002 people over the age of 18 were selected for this study from Yongjia County.Questionnaire developed including smoking, drinking,diet,physical activities and so on;an interview was performed.Results Among the 4 002 participants,The overall smoking rate was 17.14%,while the smoking rate in male was 41.65%,higher than that of female 1.83% (P 0.05).Vegetable oil was the major oil for cooking.Meat,aquatic products,eggs and soybean products were the major kinds of food.Active exercise rate was 37.78%,and qualified rate of daily walking was 35.66%.Conclusion There exist some kinds of unhealthy lifestyles and behavioral risk factors in Yongjia County,and appropriate intervention measures should be taken.%目的:了解永嘉县居民健康相关生活方式的因素现况,为制定慢性病控制措施提供依据。方法采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法,抽取永嘉县年满18周岁常住人口进行问卷调查,内容包括吸烟、饮酒、饮食、身体活动等状况。结果4002名调查居民吸烟率17.14%,男性吸烟率41.65%高于女性1.83%(P <0.01);被动吸烟率52.92%,男性被动吸烟率高于女性(P <0.01);戒烟率13.82%,饮酒率19.94%,饮酒率男性40.29%高于女性7.23%(P <0.01);戒酒率7.85%,男、女性戒酒率比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);烹调用油以植物油为主,饮食情况以肉类、水产类、蛋类和豆制品为主;主动性体育锻炼率37.78%,6000日步量达标率35.66%。结论永嘉县居民不健康的生活方式和行为普遍存在。

  10. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  11. Burnout in medical residents: a questionnaire and interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Rik; Houterman, Saskia; Koops, Willem; Oei, Guid

    2009-08-01

    High burnout levels have been observed in medical residents. The purpose of this study is to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants of burnout in a sample of medical residents. In total, 58 medical residents working in a Dutch teaching hospital, received questionnaires at home, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). In addition, they were asked for an in-depth interview to investigate the relevant indicators for developing burnout. In total, 47 residents responded (81%) from which 15 (31%) met the MBI criteria for burnout. Work-family conflict, work-related autonomy and level of work-engagement were significantly associated with burnout. Ten respondents were interviewed; none of those reported any serious burnout symptoms but two met the criteria for burnout. In this study, burnout rates from questionnaires and interviews in medical residents are not consistent. Regular burnout screenings and performing interviews are recommended in addition to burnout questionnaires, in order to efficiently identify residents at risk for burnout. This allows improved monitoring of a resident's mental state thus facilitating prevention of escalating burnout symptoms. Future research could focus on preventive factors for developing burnout.

  12. Gender difference in mask ventilation training of anesthesia residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tomomichi; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2009-05-01

    To investigate whether gender difference has an effect on an anesthesia resident's ability to perform successful mask ventilation. Cohort study. Surgical operation theater of a university-affiliated hospital. 839 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing general anesthesia performed by residents. Mask ventilation was performed by 21 different anesthesia residents. Difficult mask ventilation was defined as the inability of an unassisted resident to maintain oxygen saturation, significant gas flow leakage beneath the face mask, need to increase gas flow, no perceptible chest movement, assistance required using a two-handed mask ventilation technique, or use of the oxygen flush valve more than twice. Instances of difficult mask ventilation were observed in 210 patients (25.0%), though all were adequately ventilated with a face mask. Difficult mask ventilation was observed significantly more often with female (29.8%) than male (20.0%) residents. Residents' gender was shown to be an independent risk factor for difficult mask ventilation. Gender difference has an effect on the mask ventilation learning process, as it was more difficult for female residents to provide a tight air seal in the early stage of training.

  13. Research on influencing factors of residents' willingness to pay for green agro-ecological compensation——A case from Wuhan in Hubei Province%绿色农业生态补偿居民支付意愿影响因素研究——以湖北省武汉市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗; 严立冬; 邓远建; 袁浩

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the influencing factors of residents' willingness to pay for green agro-ecological compensation in order to provide references for transforming the agriculture mode, promoting the sustainable development of green agriculture, and establishing financial market channels based on public survey. [Method]Selecting four areas in Wuhan City of Hubei Province as survey locations, residents were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. In the survey, the I^ogit model was used to analyze the influencing factors on residents and evaluate their willingness to pay for the green agro-ecological compensation. [Result]Through analysis, the surveyed residents' willingness to pay for the green agro梕cological compensation highly depended upon occupation and education levels, in which the education levels of the residents were significantly positively correlated with their willingness to pay. Age was not a significant factor in the residents' willingness to pay, while communist party members were more likely to pay for the green agro-ecological compensation. [ Suggestion ] During the beginning stages of exercising the green agro-ecological compensation policy, the government should increase publication of the green agro-ecological system services and functions in order to improve the residents' environmental awareness. At the same time, residents should support government compensation as the primary compensator and the sales market compensation as the secondary compensator in order to set the compensation standard and to improve the development of local economics.%[目的]探讨绿色农业生态补偿居民支付意愿影响因素,以期为进一步转变农业发展方式、促进绿色农业可持续发展、建立基于公众参与的绿色农业生态补偿市场融资渠道提供依据.[方法]选取湖北省武汉市4个区居民进行问卷调查,并利用Logistic模型对影响受访居民支付意愿的因素进行分析.[结果]受访对象

  14. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Resident Participation in Community Governance Based on Theory of Planned Behavior-A Case Study of Tianjin%基于计划行为理论的居民参与社区治理行为影响因素分析--以天津市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 张再生

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior , we construct a theoretical model of factors affecting residents ’ partici-pation in community governance .On the basis of a questionnaire survey AMOS 17.0 is used to test the fit of structural equa-tion model for survey data and hypothetical model .The results show that:(1)subjective norms, participation attitudes and perceived behavioral control have a significant positive effect on residents ’ participation intention and behavior , in which the impact of social factors on residents ’ participation in community governance is greater than that of individual factors ;(2)participation intention has positive impacts on participation behavior and participation intentions serve as an intermedi -ary;(3) perceived behavioral control not only directly affects the intention and the behavior of participation of residents in community governance , but also indirectly affects participation intention and behavior through participation attitudes .Final-ly, this paper puts forward relevant policy implications on promoting the residents ’ participation in community governance .%基于计划行为理论,构建了居民参与社区治理影响因素理论模型。在问卷调查的基础上,运用AMOS 17.0软件对调查数据和假设模型进行了结构方程的拟合检验。研究结果表明:主观规范、参与态度和知觉行为控制对居民参与意向、参与行为具有显著正向作用,其中社会因素对居民参与社区治理的影响要大于个人因素的影响;参与意向正向影响参与行为,参与意向具有中介作用;知觉行为控制不仅直接影响居民参与社区治理的意向、行为,还通过参与态度间接作用于居民参与社区治理的意向、行为。最后提出了促进居民参与社区治理的相关政策启示。

  15. Dexterity testing and residents' surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, T J

    1979-01-01

    1. With some exceptions, those who choose ophthalmology as a career may approximate the general population in innate manual dexterity. 2. Many factors other than manual dexterity influence the development of surgical skills by residents. 3. If dexterity testing is to be used, the addition or inclusion of tests for spatial aptitudes may be more helpful than simple dexterity tests alone. The predictive value of such tests for surgical performance would need vertification. 4. The development of a special test directly related to handling surgical instruments, to cutting, and to sewing (the criteria) may be more practical than the ones used in this study.

  16. The effect of academic "misrepresentation" on residency match outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maverakis, Emanual; Li, Chin-Shang; Alikhan, Ali; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Idriss, Nayla; Armstrong, April W

    2012-01-15

    Studies have uniformly demonstrated misrepresentation of accomplishments by applicants to residency programs; yet it is unknown whether such applicants have a competitive advantage in the MATCH. Herein we identify the factors that influence an applicant's successful selection to a competitive residency. Comparative study of 317 dermatology residency applicants during the 2007 application season. successful matching of an applicant into a U.S. dermatology residency. Factors positively associated with matching in univariate analysis included age (p=0.023); membership, Alpha Omega Alpha honors society (p=0.007); medical school research rank (p=0.013); USMLE scores (p<0.001); and number of unpublished manuscripts (p<0.001). Factors not associated with matching included the number of published manuscripts (p=0.460) and the combined impact factor of all published manuscripts (p=0.490). Multivariate analysis revealed that the USMLE Step 1 score (p=0.001), medical school research rank (p=0.040), and total number of unpublished manuscripts (p=0.046) were significantly associated matching in dermatology. Male gender trended towards but did not reach significance (p=0.054). Applicants that list multiple unpublished manuscripts have a significant competitive advantage in matching into a dermatology residency, even if these manuscripts remain unpublished.

  17. Role of the GATA family of transcription factors in endocrine development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Robert S; Guittot, Séverine Mazaud; Anttonen, Mikko; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2008-04-01

    The WGATAR motif is a common nucleotide sequence found in the transcriptional regulatory regions of numerous genes. In vertebrates, these motifs are bound by one of six factors (GATA1 to GATA6) that constitute the GATA family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Although originally considered for their roles in hematopoietic cells and the heart, GATA factors are now known to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues where they act as critical regulators of cell-specific gene expression. This includes multiple endocrine organs such as the pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, and especially the gonads. Insights into the functional roles played by GATA factors in adult organ systems have been hampered by the early embryonic lethality associated with the different Gata-null mice. This is now being overcome with the generation of tissue-specific knockout models and other knockdown strategies. These approaches, together with the increasing number of human GATA-related pathologies have greatly broadened the scope of GATA-dependent genes and, importantly, have shown that GATA action is not necessarily limited to early development. This has been particularly evident in endocrine organs where GATA factors appear to contribute to the transcription of multiple hormone-encoding genes. This review provides an overview of the GATA family of transcription factors as they relate to endocrine function and disease.

  18. 农村居民家庭经营纯收入现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of Present Situation and Influencing Factors of Rural Residents'Net Income in Family Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季鹏

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the rural residents'net income in family management from 1985 to 2012 as explanatory variables and selects 5 relevant explanatory variables to establish time series model using stepwise regression and multiple linear regression .The analysis shows that rural residents 'private investment in fixed assets , family management costs and total power of farm machinery have a significant influence on their net income .And rural residents'private investment in fixed assets and family management costs have positive influence ,while total power of farm machinery has a negative influence on their net income due to its return delay .Accordingly ,the problems of increasing farmers'income are summarized and relevant suggestions are put forward .%以1985-2012年农村居民家庭经营纯收入为被解释变量,选取5个相关解释变量建立时间序列模型,采用逐步回归和多元线性回归方法进行分析。结果显示,农村家庭个人固定资产投资、家庭经营费用和农用机械总动力对其有显著影响,其中农村家庭个人固定资产投资和家庭经营费用呈正向影响,农用机械总动力由于投入后回报时滞呈负向影响。针对这一结果,总结了农民增收存在的问题并提出相关建议。

  19. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and its inflnence factors among residents in Dalian city%大连市居民酒精使用障碍现况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧灵; 王晶; 刘启贵; 李奕; 谢守付; 黄悦勤; 许俊亭

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解辽宁省大连市≥18岁人群酒精使用障碍的患病率和流行特征.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,以复合性国际诊断交谈检查量表(CIDI 3.0)对大连市5 059名≥18岁城乡居民进行调查.结果 酒精使用障碍的患病率为3.54%( 179/5 059),其中男性的患病率为7.35%( 17/2 314),女性的患病率为0.33% (9/2 745),男性高于女性(P<0.01);不同年龄段患病率存在差异,患病率随着年龄的增加而增高;酒精相关障碍的影响因素包括性别、婚姻状况、文化程度、慢性疾病及初饮年龄.结论 大连市酒精使用障碍患病率较低,男性、低文化程度是酒精使用障碍健康教育的重点人群.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of alcohol use disorders among residents aged more than 18 years in Dalian city. Methods Totally 5 059 urban and rural residents over 18 years old were selected with multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3. 0( CIDI 3. 0) was used as the interview tool. Results The total prevalence of alcohol use disorders was 3. 50% and there was a statistical difference in the prevalence between male and female(7. 30% vs 0. 30% ,P <0.01). There was no statistical difference in the prevalence between urban and rural residents. The prevalence increased with age. The people with different education level had different prevalence and the prevelence was inversely correlated with education level. Conclusion Alcohol use disorder has become a public health problem among the residents in Dalian city. Male and people with low education have a higher risk of alcohol use disorder.

  20. Research on Rural Resident Asset-income Difference and Its Influential Factors-Comparison of Empirical Data among Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing%农村居民财产性收入差异及其影响因素研究--基于重庆市的经验数据及其与京、津、沪的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清华; 唐丽桂

    2014-01-01

    and Shanghai and its gap is enlarging. The asset-income of rural residents and its difference depend on its initial resources endowment status and systematic and institutional factor, as a result, China should reform and perfect rural land management system, sufficiently exploit the land wealth effect of the rural residents and continuously boost the opportunity and the capacity for the rural residents to get asset-income.

  1. Family medicine residents' practice intentions: Theory of planned behaviour evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2015-11-01

    To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  2. Panel Study of the Subjective Well-being of Residents in the Pearl River Delta:Based on Micro-environmental Factors%珠三角居民主观幸福感的追踪研究--基于微观环境因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董翠玲

    2014-01-01

    为响应“建设幸福广东”的十二五目标,采用追踪研究法,跨越4年时间,获取8669个样本,关注微观环境因素对珠三角居民主观幸福感的影响,结果显示:居住地环境和工作单位性质对居民主观幸福感的影响最为显著。%In response to 12th five-year plan target of"Building Happy Guangdong",based on 8669 panel study samples,spanning 4 years,this paper researches on the influence of micro-environmental factors on the subjective well-being of residents in the Pearl River Delta. Results show that residence environment and type of organization have most significant impact on residents' subjective well-being.

  3. Effort-reward imbalance and depression in Japanese medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yumi; Wada, Koji; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The effort-reward imbalance is an important psychosocial factor which is related to poor health among employees. However, there are few studies that have evaluated effort-reward imbalance among medical residents. The present study was done to determine the association between psychosocial factors at work as defined by the effort-reward imbalance model and depression among Japanese medical residents. We distributed a questionnaire to 227 medical residents at 16 teaching hospitals in Japan at the end of August 2005. We asked participants to answer questions which included demographic information, depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance, over-commitment and social support. Depression was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The effort-reward imbalance and over-commitment were assessed by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire which Siegrist developed. Social support was determined on a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found in 35 (29.2%) 1st-year residents and 21 (27.6%) 2nd-year residents. The effort-reward ratio >1 (OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.87-27.12) and low social support score (OR, 2.77, 95% CI, 1.36-5.64) were associated with depressive symptoms among medical residents. Effort-reward imbalance was independently related to depression among Japanese medical residents. The present study suggests that balancing between effort and reward at work is important for medical residents' mental health.

  4. Nutrition Education for Family Practice Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappen, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Practice requires that nutrition be taught to residents throughout their three-year residencies, although it does not specify a block of nutrition instruction. The nutrition knowledge of residents in eight family practice residencies in California were examined. (MLW)

  5. 广东省流动和常住人口先天性心脏病危险因素的差异分析%Study on the differences of risk factors regarding congenital heart defects between floating population and permanent residents in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧艳秋; 聂志强; 刘小清; 麦劲壮; 吴勇; 高向民; 庄建; 陈寄梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究流动人口与常住人口中先天性心脏病(CHD)危险因素的差异.方法 按病例对照研究方法,在界定的危险因素范围内,对流动和常住人口中各危险因素进行单因素及多因素非条件logistic(ENTER法)回归分析,并比较两人群调整后的危险因素种类和OR值.结果 入选流动人口病例855例,对照617例;常住人口病例1673例,对照1912例.流动人口特有的危险因素是孕母孕早期被动吸烟,特有的保护因素是家庭月收入高(≥1201元);常住人口特有的危险因素是孕母糖尿病、梅毒感染、住装修半年居室以及胎婴儿为巨大儿.孕母文化程度高在流动人口中为危险因素,在常住人口中是保护因素.产次、孕母孕早期病毒感染、孕母接触化学制剂、孕母异常生育史等因素的OR值在流动人口中高于常住人口;孕母孕早期发热、胎婴儿低体重的OR值在流动人口中低于常住人口.结论 流动和常住人口各自有CHD危险因素,多个危险因素在不同人群中的风险有明显差异.%Objective To analyze the differences of risk factors on congenital heart defect (CHD) between floating population and permanent residents in Guangdong.Methods A multicenter case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of CHD in floating population and in permanent residents.Data was from 34 Guangdong CHD Monitoring Network centers during the year of 2004 to 2011.Exposed information related to the parents at pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy periods,was collected,using the same questionnaire survey methodology in the two populations.Possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression (ENTER method) methods.Risk factors were compared between the two populations.Results Totally,855 CHD cases and their controls from the floating population,as well as 1673 cases and their controls from the permanent residents were

  6. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  7. Simulation Activity in Otolaryngology Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Wiet, Gregory J; Seidman, Michael; Hussey, Heather M; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Fried, Marvin P

    2015-08-01

    Simulation has become a valuable tool in medical education, and several specialties accept or require simulation as a resource for resident training or assessment as well as for board certification or maintenance of certification. This study investigates current simulation resources and activities in US otolaryngology residency programs and examines interest in advancing simulation training and assessment within the specialty. Web-based survey. US otolaryngology residency training programs. An electronic web-based survey was disseminated to all US otolaryngology program directors to determine their respective institutional and departmental simulation resources, existing simulation activities, and interest in further simulation initiatives. Descriptive results are reported. Responses were received from 43 of 104 (43%) residency programs. Simulation capabilities and resources are available in most respondents' institutions (78.6% report onsite resources; 73.8% report availability of models, manikins, and devices). Most respondents (61%) report limited simulation activity within otolaryngology. Areas of simulation are broad, addressing technical and nontechnical skills related to clinical training (94%). Simulation is infrequently used for research, credentialing, or systems improvement. The majority of respondents (83.8%) expressed interest in participating in multicenter trials of simulation initiatives. Most respondents from otolaryngology residency programs have incorporated some simulation into their curriculum. Interest among program directors to participate in future multicenter trials appears high. Future research efforts in this area should aim to determine optimal simulators and simulation activities for training and assessment as well as how to best incorporate simulation into otolaryngology residency training programs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. Enhancing Mutual Respect among Nursing Assistants, Residents, and Residents' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselman, Terry; Noelker, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed nursing assistants (n=40) and nursing facility residents (n=37) regarding ways they experienced respect, disrespect, attachment, and distancing in their relationships with each other. As a result of finding evidence of disrespect, an inservice session on gaining respect as a nursing assistant was presented. (ABL)

  9. Nursing home residents' psychological barriers to sleeping well: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Flick, Uwe

    2012-08-01

    Sleep disorders are a relevant problem in the nursing home and difficult to treat for the residents' GPs. No intervention has yet addressed psychological factors contributing to nursing home residents' sleep disorders. To explore what nursing home residents perceive as psychological barriers to sleeping well. A qualitative research design. We conducted episodic interviews with 30 nursing home residents. Data were analysed by thematic coding. We constructed a typology of residents regarding their perceived barriers to sleeping well. The interviewed residents perceived traumatic memories, family problems, worries about their situation and future, disturbing events during the day, appointments the next day, anxiety and dreams and nightmares as psychological barriers to sleeping well. The residents could be allocated into three types: residents of Type I identified only non-psychological barriers, residents of Type II worried mainly about their current situation and residents of Type III suffered from traumatic memories and were easily disturbed by any type of psychological distress. Our results show the high importance of psychological factors for sleep disorders of the elderly. Future research should address nursing home residents' psychological barriers to sleeping well and the presented typology should be operationalized and tested quantitatively.

  10. 农村居民低碳消费行为影响因素的实证研究%Empirical study of factors influencing the lowcarbon consumption behavior of rural residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺爱忠; 盖延涛; 李韬武

    2011-01-01

    通过问卷调查,运用描述性统计、结构方程模型、多群组分析方法,建立了农村居民低碳消费行为的影响因素模型.结果表明:低碳认知、消费信贷、政策效果感知显著正向影响农村居民低碳消费意向,但不直接影响低碳消费行为;个人消费观念、低碳产品购买便利性对农村居民低碳消费意向和低碳消费行为都没有显著正向影响;环境关注对农村居民低碳消费意向和低碳消费行为都有显著正向影响,并且环境关注是影响低碳消费行为的关键变量;低碳消费意向显著正向影响低碳消费行为.多群组分析的结果表明,性别、家庭规模、年龄、收入等调节变量在不同假设路径中的影响存在差异.%This article aims to explore the (actors influencing the low-carbon consumption behavior of rural residents, or the people in the countryside, and in turn to put some new ideas of its author in hoping for the government to better guide such behaviors in the context of low-carbon economy. For this purpose, we have developed the sphere or scale of such low-carbon consumption behaviors of the rural people and corresponding questionnaires for them to fill in. Along with it, we have prepared some data analysis methods, such as the descriptive statistics together with the sample data to be used, the structural e-quation modeling to be used for the first-order confirmatory (actor analysis and the model checking and correction, a multi-group analysis to check the regulation effect of the demographic features and regions in the path of different assumptions, and so on. The results of our investigation shows that low carbon awareness, consumers' credit and perceived effect of the policy significantly and positively affect the low-carbon consumption intention of the rural residents, though not directly affect their consumption behavior. Hie influence of the idea of the residents' personal consumption and purchase

  11. Research on temporal and spatial decision-making process and influencing factors of residents' shopping behavior in medium-sized cities:A case study of Wuhu City in Anhui Province%中等城市居民购物行为时空决策过程及影响因素——以安徽省芜湖市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦华富; 韩会然

    2013-01-01

    As human geographers have paid more and more attention to practical problems of human and society,the focuses of urban geography have transformed from macroscopic level such as researches on city system to microscopic level such as studies on shopping space,living space and commercial space.At present,China is in a transitional period in which cities' main functions are changing from production to consumption.With the development of shopping behaviors,the complexity and the transformation of shopping patterns as well as their deep influences on society,economy,institution,culture and so on,residents' shopping behaviors have become a focus of certain fields such as urban geography,urban sociology and urban economics.Based on the residents' shopping decision-making theory,the data from the interview and questionnaire survey on Wuhu residents' shopping behavior in 2011,and the nested Logit model on residents' shopping tour behavior,the paper analyzes the residents'decision-making process and its factors influencing the decision-making in the following four aspects:shopping travel mode,shopping starting time,shopping destination,and shopping transportation mode.The results are shown as follows.(1) The characteristics of residents' attributes such as the gender,monthly income and family companions have a significant effect on residents' decision-making of shopping travel mode.The residents who live in the central city and those who live relatively far away are more likely to have a multi-purpose shopping tour.The residents living in the central city prefer shopping at noon,and their travel distance mainly extends from 1-2 km,while the suburbanites go shopping mainly after 19:00 p.m.to avoid the rush hour and tend to choose the shopping space in the range of 2-5 km.(2) The male residents who have private cars are more inclined to go shopping in the evening,2.94 times as many as in the moming.They are more likely to have a long-distance shopping.Residents on and off duty

  12. Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training across in- and outpatient clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Hudelson, Patricia; Demaurex, Florence; Luthy, Christophe; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu; De Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-05-01

    -centered than the needs perceived by inpatient residents. Residents' perceived needs for communication skills may differ not only because of their differing service priorities but also because of differences in their previous experiences with communication skills training. These factors should be taken into account when designing a training programme in communication skills.

  13. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  14. Resilience Approach for Medical Residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, R.A.; Bos, E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Medical residents are in a vulnerable position. While still in training, they are responsible for patient care. They have a dependent relation with their supervisor and low decision latitude. An intervention was developed to increase individual and system resilience, addressing burnout, patient safe

  15. A three perspective study of the sense of home of nursing home residents: the views of residents, care professionals and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J; Verbeek, H; Janssen, B M; Eijkelenboom, A; Molony, S L; Felix, E; Nieboer, K A; Zwerts-Verhelst, E L M; Sijstermans, J J W M; Wouters, E J M

    2016-10-03

    The sense of home of nursing home residents is a multifactorial phenomenon which is important for the quality of living. This purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home from the perspective of residents, relatives and care professionals. A total of 78 participants (n = 24 residents, n = 18 relatives and n = 26 care professionals) from 4 nursing homes in the Netherlands engaged in a qualitative study, in which photography was as a supportive tool for subsequent interviews and focus groups. The data were analyzed based on open ended coding, axial coding and selective coding. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by a number of jointly identified factors, including the building and interior design; eating and drinking; autonomy and control; involvement of relatives; engagement with others and activities; quality of care are shared themes. Residents and relatives stressed the importance of having a connection with nature and the outdoors, as well as coping strategies. Relatives and care professionals emphasized the role the organization of facilitation of care played, as well as making residents feel like they still matter. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by a multitude of factors related to the psychology of the residents, and the social and built environmental contexts. A holistic understanding of which factors influence the sense of home of residents can lead to strategies to optimize this sense of home. This study also indicated that the nursing home has a dual nature as a place of residence and a place where people are supported through numerous care strategies.

  16. 农村居民食源性疾病的影响分析及风险干预策略%Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Food Born Disease of Rural Residents and the Risk Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓纯; 张慧媛; 张星联

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of food safety cognition of rural residents, this paper studied the effects of the health risks about food born disease including food poisoning and advanced risk intervention measures. By the interview of rural residents from 8 provinces 602 households, the rural residents had basic cognition about food safety law, new measures of governmental regulation and food label identification. Recent three years, the consumption on restaurant increased and more than 90%respondents got vegetables and meat from market. Further, based on the metric results, there were five variables had distinct influence. They were sex ratio, age structure, the importance of packing material and business standing, the method of dealing with unsafe food. The importance of business standing had negative effect and others had positive effect. Based on the analysis, the paper advanced following intervention measures. Firstly, strengthen the supervision of food circulating market. Secondly, enhance the education of self-preservation to children and women Thirdly, improve the medical service level and make rural residents get medical resources more easily.%从农村居民食品安全认知和消费行为变化的视角,研究农民产生食源性疾病(包括食物中毒)的健康风险影响因素,并提出风险干预策略。文章通过对8省市602户农村居民的问卷调查表明,农村居民对于食品安全法、政府监管的新举措和食品标签标识有基本认知,近3年餐饮消费有明显增加趋势,肉禽类食品和蔬菜需要依靠市场供给的农户超过9成。进一步对影响农村居民健康的因素进行计量结果表明,有显著影响的5个变量分别是:女性比例、年龄结构、包装材料安全性、企业的信誉、不安全食品处理方式,其中企业的信誉呈负相关关系,其余为正相关。为此提出三点风险干预策略:第一加强农村食品流通市场的监管;第二加强

  17. A survey and analysis on influencing factors of the health status of rural residents in Bazhong, Sichuan%四川巴中农村居民健康状况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小杉; 蒋建中; 王琪; 何关琪; 孙华闽; 李小燕; 游文鋆; 庄勋

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解贫困农村居民的健康状况,为有关部门制定卫生决策提供依据.方法 从巴中市8个村共抽取3 600名18岁以上居民,以入户访谈的形式调查研究对象的两周患病率、慢性病患病率、近1年受伤率及近1年住院率.结果 巴中市农村居民两周患病率、慢性病患病率、近1年受伤率及近1年住院率分别为38.7%、24.1%、12.7%和11.0%,均高于西部农村居民和全国农村居民相应水平(均有P<0.001).高龄、农民、非在婚及经常饮酒的居民健康状况更差.结论 巴中市农村居民健康状况不容乐观,应合理配置农村卫生资源,满足卫生服务需求.积极开展健康教育,普及卫生保健知识、提高意识,改变不健康的生活行为.%Objective To investigate the health status of residents in the poor rural area,and to provide scientific basis for local authority to make healthy policies.Methods A total of 3 600 rural residents aged over 18 were selected randomly from eight villages under the jurisdiction of Bazhong.Two-week prevalence,Chronic disease prevalence,one-year injury rate and one-year hospitalization rate were recorded anonymously.Results The participants' two-week prevalence,chronic disease prevalence,one-year injury rate,and one-year hospitalization rate were 38.7%,24.1%,12.7%,and 11.0%,respectively,which were higher than those of the west and the national rural residents in china (P < 0.001).The health status was even worse among aged people,farmers,unmarried ones,as well as the ones with constant tobacco and alcohol consumption.Conclusions This survey showed that the health status of rural residents in Bazhong was alarming.The health resources should be allocated logically to meet the health service demand.Popularizing the health education,spreading knowledge of medical and health care,and enhancing self care consciousness should be addressed to reduce the risk behaviors such as smoking and drinking.

  18. 城乡居民生育意愿差异及其影响因素%The Difference of Desired Childbearing Gender Preference for Urban and Rural Residents and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风

    2012-01-01

    Though the desired birth gender preference is a kind of subjective fertility desires, it will produce certain effects to fertility behavior. When the number of child-birth is unrestricted, people will meet their gender preference through more birth. When the number of births is constrained by the family planning policy, people often meet their gender preference through various technical means. This paper analyzed causes of the difference of desired childbearing gender preference for urban and policy field, and put forward rural residents from productive forces, cultural, social, economic, which can weaken the difference of desired childbearing gender preference for urban and rural residents from cultural, economic, social, policy.%意愿生育性别偏好虽然只是人们的一种主观生育意愿,但会对生育行为产生一定的影响。当生育数量不受限制时,人们通过多育来满足性别偏好。当生育数量受到生育政策的约束和限制时,人们往往通过各种技术手段来满足性别偏好。生产力、文化、社会、经济、政策领域等方面因素是城乡居民意愿生育性别偏好差异的形成原因.应从文化、经济、社会、政策层面削弱城乡性别偏好差异。

  19. 合肥市城市居民体育消费结构及其影响因素研究%Hefei city residents'sports consumption structure and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫井明

    2015-01-01

    In 2014,the state council issued the several opinions on strengthening the sports industry development, the continuous development of sports industry stimulus related reform policy.But sports consumption structure di-rectly affects the development direction of sports industry,the scale and speed.In Hefei city residents as the re-search object,using the method of documentary,expert interview,questionnaire survey method,mathematical statis-tics and other research methods of Hefei city residents'sports.%2014年,国务院下达了关于加强体育产业发展的若干意见,不断出台刺激体育产业发展相关的改革政策。但体育消费结构直接影响着体育产业的发展方向、规模、速度。本文以合肥市城市居民为研究对象,运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法对合肥市城市居民体育消费现状和体育消费结构进行分析;采用 R 型因子分析得到居民体育消费结构的影响因素及其特征,提出体育消费供需结构研究的扶持政策,为合肥市相关部门决策提供借鉴。

  20. 河北农村居民服装消费方式变化及影响因素分析%Changes of Clothing Consumption Patterns and Influencing Factors of Rural Residents in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琨

    2016-01-01

    通过调查分析,当前河北农村居民服装消费方式呈现出消费支出增长较快、消费选择多元化、时尚化、城市化明显的趋势,但是又在很大程度上受到农村居民的年龄结构、社会观念、经济水平和文化层次的影响。因此,服装企业和服装从业者要有针对性的进行市场细分,设计开发符合农村居民服装消费的各个层次的服装产品,培育农村市场的服装消费质量品牌意识,形成统一的更加庞大的服装消费市场。%Through the investigation and analysis of the current consumption of rural residents in Hebei clothing, the results show that the consumer spending rose faster, consumer choice is diversified, fashionable, city trend is obvious, but it is also influenced by the age structure, social values, economic level and cultural level to a great extent. Therefore, clothing enterprises and clothing practitioners should be targeted for market segmentation, design with various levels of rural residents' consumption of clothing apparel products, and cultivate the rural market consumption quality clothing brand awareness, forming a unified large apparel consumer market.

  1. Willingness to Accept Appointed Outpatient Service Among Residents Signing the Contract of Family Doctor Service and Its Influencing Factors%家庭医生式服务签约居民对预约门诊的接受意愿及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解家庭医生式服务签约居民对预约门诊的接受意愿及影响因素,为今后推进预约门诊、提高预约成功率提供依据。方法在月坛社区卫生服务中心26个家庭医生团队中,采取单纯随机抽样方法选取8个团队,依据团队提供的家庭医生式服务签约居民名单,采用单纯随机抽样方法在每个团队选取80例,共640例签约居民作为调查对象。于2015年5月,由培训合格的医护人员对签约居民进行问卷调查,问卷内容包括签约居民的基本情况、是否愿意接受门诊预约服务及影响接受门诊预约的原因等。共发放问卷640份,回收有效问卷632份,有效回收率为98.8%。结果632例签约居民中,有538例知晓家庭医生对签约居民能够实施预约门诊服务,知晓率为85.1%;有213例愿意接受预约门诊,接受率为33.7%。签约居民接受预约门诊的原因主要有:医生相对固定〔80.8%(172/213)〕、医生了解病情〔78.9%(168/213)〕、避免排队从而节约就诊等候时间〔60.6%(129/213)〕;不接受预约门诊的原因主要有:预约和不预约区别不大〔74.7%(313/419)〕、容易忘记〔54.4%(228/419)〕、对就诊时间约束过多〔48.9%(205/419)〕。Logistic 回归分析结果显示,年龄、是否患有慢性病、是否接受社区首诊、对家庭医生式服务是否满意是签约居民接受预约门诊的影响因素(P 60岁、患有慢性病、接受社区首诊、对家庭医生式服务满意的签约居民对预约门诊的接受率更高。建议实施基层首诊,健全医疗保险制度,提高家庭医生服务质量,完善预约门诊的预约流程,全面推进预约门诊实施。%Objective To investigate the willingness to accept appointed outpatient service among residents signing the contract of family doctor service and its influencing factors,to provide references for the promotion of

  2. [Prevalence of burnout among obstetrics and gynecology residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, C; Body, G; Marret, H; Ouldamer, L

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence assessment of burnout among obstetrics and gynecology residents and predisposing factors. Multicentric cross-sectional survey based on a questionnaire sent by email to the residents including demographics data and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Mean burnout scores were 19.67±10.19 for emotional exhaustion, 33.94±5.01 for personal accomplishment and 8.72±6.10 for depersonalization, corresponding to a moderate burnout for each category. High scores of burnout were seen on 19.45 % of residents for emotional exhaustion, 33.33 % for depersonalization and 11.11 % for personal accomplishment. 36.11 % of residents showed evidence of high burnout in emotional exhaustion or depersonalization, and 5.55 % in the three dimensions. The number of semesters is correlated with depersonalization (P=0.01). There is a strong personal accomplishment among obstetrics and gynecology residents; however, burnout and emotional exhaustion remains a reality during obstetrics and gynecology residency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among residents of 30 years or above years old in Pengzhou city of Sichuan province%四川省彭州市30岁以上居民高血压患病情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗国金; 罗敏; 陈小芳; 王建; 陈晓芳; 卞铮; 郭彧; 吴先萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among residents in Pengzhou city of Sichuan province.Methods Among 20 townships in Pengzhou city of Sichuan Province,14 townships were selected using a clustered sampling based on the economic level and distance.The registered residents in the selected townships aged 30-79 years were recruited for a comprehensive survey from 2004 to 2007.A total of 55 687 residents (21 315 males and 34 372 females) were selected based on a face to face questionnaire interview and physical examination;the patient group included 14 151 residents with hypertension and the control group had 41 536 residents without hypertension were selected.Multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate the influence factors for hypertension.OR (95%CI) values were calculated.Different levels of risk exposure factors were transformed into the risk scores using a statistical model.Results The prevalence rate of hypertension was 25.41% among residents aged 30 years or above in Pengzhou (14 151/55 687),28.95% (6 170/21 315) for male residents and 23.22% (7 981/34 372) for female residents.Multivaraite logistic regression analysis showed that main risk factors for hypertension in male residents were age,low educational level,widower,low household income,no medical insurance,no fresh fruits intake,high body mass index (BMI),high waist to hip ratio,and low physical activity,which was less than 3 metabolic equivalent of task (MET) level,among which the highest three riskswere (not including the social demographic characteristics) BMI≥28 kg/m2,waist to hip ratio ≥0.90,and not consuming fresh fruits.OR (95% CI) values for these three key factors were 3.74 (3.27-4.28),1.34 (1.24-1.44),and 1.27 (1.14-1.41),respectively.The corresponding risk scores for these factors were 2.993,1.102,and 1.237,respectively.Main risk factors for hypertension in female residents were age,working hours,no medical insurance

  4. Residents' intentions and actions after patient safety education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cordula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering care and an important target group for patient safety education. The objective of this study was to assess residents' intentions and actions concerning patient safety improvement after patient safety education. Methods Four multi-specialty 2-day patient safety courses were organized, in which residents from five Dutch hospitals participated. At the end of these courses participants were asked to formulate an action point to improve patient safety. Three months later semi-structured interviews were conducted to reveal actions that were taken, factors that had influenced their behaviour and reactions concerning the education. An inductive theory approach was used to analyze transcriptions. Results Out of 71 participants, sixty-nine (97% residents were interviewed. In total they had formulated 91 action points, which mainly focused on: 'Improving organization of own work/Follow policies' and 'Improving culture/Educating colleagues about patient safety'. Sixty-two (90% residents declared to have taken action, and 50 (55% action points were fully carried out. Most actions taken were at the level of the individual professional, rather than at the level of their social or organizational context. Results of actions included adjusting the structure of their own work, organizing patient safety education for colleagues, communicating more efficiently and in a more structured way with colleagues, and reporting incidents. Promoters for action included: 'Awareness of the importance of the action to be taken', 'Supportive attitude of colleagues' and 'Having received patient safety education'. Barriers included: 'Impeding attitude of colleagues', 'High work-pressure', 'Hierarchy' and 'Switching of work stations'. Conclusions After patient safety training, residents reported various intentions to contribute to patient safety improvement. Numerous actions were taken, but there still is a

  5. Changing conversations: teaching safety and quality in residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, John D; May, Natalie B; Schorling, John B; Lyman, Jason A; Schectman, Joel M; Wolf, Andrew M D; Nadkarni, Mohan M; Plews-Ogan, Margaret

    2008-11-01

    Improving patient safety and quality in health care is one of medicine's most pressing challenges. Residency training programs have a unique opportunity to meet this challenge by training physicians in the science and methods of patient safety and quality improvement (QI).With support from the Health Resources and Services Administration, the authors developed an innovative, longitudinal, experiential curriculum in patient safety and QI for internal medicine residents at the University of Virginia. This two-year curriculum teaches the critical concepts and skills of patient safety and QI: systems thinking and human factors analysis, root cause analysis (RCA), and process mapping. Residents apply these skills in a series of QI and patient safety projects. The constructivist educational model creates a learning environment that actively engages residents in improving the quality and safety of their medical practice.Between 2003 and 2005, 38 residents completed RCAs of adverse events. The RCAs identified causes and proposed useful interventions that have produced important care improvements. Qualitative analysis demonstrates that the curriculum shifted residents' thinking about patient safety to a systems-based approach. Residents completed 237 outcome assessments during three years. Results indicate that seminars met predefined learning objectives and were interactive and enjoyable. Residents strongly believe they gained important skills in all domains.The challenge to improve quality and safety in health care requires physicians to learn new knowledge and skills. Graduate medical education can equip new physicians with the skills necessary to lead the movement to safer and better quality of care for all patients.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  6. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  7. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Team-Based Care and its Educational Value in the Continuity Clinic: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soones, Tacara N; O'Brien, Bridget C; Julian, Katherine A

    2015-09-01

    In order to teach residents how to work in interprofessional teams, educators in graduate medical education are implementing team-based care models in resident continuity clinics. However, little is known about the impact of interprofessional teams on residents' education in the ambulatory setting. To identify factors affecting residents' experience of team-based care within continuity clinics and the impact of these teams on residents' education. This was a qualitative study of focus groups with internal medicine residents. Seventy-seven internal medicine residents at the University of California San Francisco at three continuity clinic sites participated in the study. Qualitative interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The authors used a general inductive approach with sensitizing concepts in four frames (structural, human resources, political and symbolic) to develop codes and identify themes. Residents believed that team-based care improves continuity and quality of care. Factors in four frames affected their ability to achieve these goals. Structural factors included communication through the electronic medical record, consistent schedules and regular team meetings. Human resources factors included the presence of stable teams and clear roles. Political and symbolic factors negatively impacted team-based care, and included low staffing ratios and a culture of ultimate resident responsibility, respectively. Regardless of the presence of these factors or resident perceptions of their teams, residents did not see the practice of interprofessional team-based care as intrinsically educational. Residents' experiences practicing team-based care are influenced by many principles described in the interprofessional teamwork literature, including understanding team members' roles, good communication and sufficient staffing. However, these attributes are not correlated with residents' perceptions of the educational value of team-based care. Including residents in

  8. Effect of Doximity Residency Rankings on Residency Applicants’ Program Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Choosing a residency program is a stressful and important decision. Doximity released residency program rankings by specialty in September 2014. This study sought to investigate the impact of those rankings on residency application choices made by fourth year medical students. Methods: A 12-item survey was administered in October 2014 to fourth year medical students at three schools. Students indicated their specialty, awareness of and perceived accuracy of the rankings, and the rankings’ impact on the programs to which they chose to apply. Descriptive statistics were reported for all students and those applying to Emergency Medicine (EM. Results: A total of 461 (75.8% students responded, with 425 applying in one of the 20 Doximity ranked specialties. Of the 425, 247 (58% were aware of the rankings and 177 looked at them. On a 1-100 scale (100=very accurate, students reported a mean ranking accuracy rating of 56.7 (SD 20.3. Forty-five percent of students who looked at the rankings modified the number of programs to which they applied. The majority added programs. Of the 47 students applying to EM, 18 looked at the rankings and 33% changed their application list with most adding programs. Conclusion: The Doximity rankings had real effects on students applying to residencies as almost half of students who looked at the rankings modified their program list. Additionally, students found the rankings to be moderately accurate. Graduating students might benefit from emphasis on more objective characterization of programs to assess in light of their own interests and personal/career goals

  9. A patient safety curriculum for medical residents based on the perspectives of residents and supervisors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.D.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a patient safety course for medical residents based on the views of medical residents and their supervisors. Methods: In 2007, questionnaires were distributed to investigate residents' and supervisors' perspectives on the current patient safety performance and educational

  10. Measuring the competence of residents as teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabar, Sondra; Hanley, Kathleen; Stevens, David L; Kalet, Adina; Schwartz, Mark D; Pearlman, Ellen; Brenner, Judy; Kachur, Elizabeth K; Lipkin, Mack

    2004-05-01

    Medical residents, frontline clinical educators, must be competent teachers. Typically, resident teaching competence is not assessed through any other means than gleaning learner's comments. We developed, evaluated, and integrated into our annual objective structured clinical examination a resident teaching skills assessment using "standardized" students. Faculty observers rated residents using a customized 19-item rating instrument developed to assess teaching competencies that were identified and defined as part of our project. This was feasible, acceptable, and valuable to all 65 residents, 8 students, and 16 faculty who participated. Teaching scenarios have potential as reliable, valid, and practical measures of resident teaching skills.

  11. Role of Pharmacy Residency Training in Career Planning: A Student's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.

  12. 南京市城区40岁以上社区居民新诊断糖尿病的危险因素%Related risk factors for newly diagnosed diabetes among residents aged over 40 years in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉吉; 谢绍锋; 胡咏新; 孙洪平; 包薇萍; 余江毅

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the related risk factors of newly diagnosed diabetes among residents aged over 40 years in Nanjing City , and to provide evidence for diabetes prevention. Methods The clinical data were collected from the diabetes epidemiologic investigation among residents aged 40 -79 years from 6 communities in Nanjing City. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the potential risk factors for newly diagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence rate of new diagnosed diabetes from 8039 subjects was 10.87%. A higher prevalence rate of new diagnosed diabetes was found in male than that in female (13.15% vs. 9.74%, P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the main risk factors for newly diagnosed diabetes were male, age, family history, body mass index (BMI) and less physical activity after adjusting other factors (adjusted OR 1.339-1.862, P < 0.05). Conclusions Male, age, family history, body mass index (BMI) and less physical activity may be the main risk factors for diabetes among residents in Nanjing City.%目的:分析南京市城区40岁以上社区居民新诊断糖尿病相关危险因素,为该地区糖尿病防治提供依据.方法:对南京市城区6个社区40岁以上居民糖尿病流调资料,采用Logistic回归方法分析新诊断糖尿病的危险因素.结果:8039例社区居民新诊断糖尿病率10.87%,男性新诊断糖尿病率显著高于女性(13.15%vs.9.74%).多因素Logistic回归分析显示,男性、增龄、超重和肥胖、糖尿病家族史、缺乏体力活动是新诊断糖尿病发生的危险因素(OR值1.339~1.862,均P<0.05).结论:男性、增龄、超重和肥胖、糖尿病家族史、缺乏体力活动等是南京城区社区居民糖尿病发生的主要危险因素.

  13. The relationship between grit and resident well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Arghavan; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Mueller, Claudia M

    2014-02-01

    The well-being of residents in general surgery is an important factor in their success within training programs. Consequently, it is important to identify individuals at risk for burnout and low levels of well-being as early as possible. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that resident well-being may be related to grit, a psychological factor defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals. One hundred forty-one residents across 9 surgical specialties at 1 academic medical center were surveyed; the response rate was 84%. Perseverance was measured using the Short Grit Scale. Resident well-being was measured with (1) burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and (2) psychological well-being using the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Scale. Grit was predictive of later psychological well-being both as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (B = -.20, P = .05) and as measured by the Psychological General Well-Being Scale (B = .27, P < .01). Measuring grit may identify those who are at greatest risk for poor psychological well-being in the future. These residents may benefit from counseling to provide support and improve coping skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the anxiety level in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study.

  15. Willingness of local residents to accept paid influenza vaccine in Chongqing and its influencing factors: a survey%重庆市某城区人群自费接种流感疫苗意愿及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鑫; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    2011年10月,抽取巴南区城区3个居委会共450人,调查了解其自费接种流感疫苗的意愿及其影响因素.其中,273人愿意自费接种疫苗,占60.7%;年龄、经济状况、健康状况、流感认知情况和疫苗认可度是影响接种意愿的主要因素.%A total of 450 residents from three neighborhood committees of Ba'nan were selected to assess their willingness to accept paid influenza vaccine and the influencing factors.Among them,273(60.7%) were willing to accept paid influenza vaccine.Age,economic status,health,flu recognition and vaccine approval were the major influencing factors of vaccination.

  16. 我国居民婴儿喂养基本知识调查及影响因素分析%Study on the basic knowledge and effect factors of infant feeding among Chinese residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜维婧; 魏南方; 陶茂萱; 田向阳; 王萍; 严丽萍; 卫薇; 安家璈

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of residents knowledge about infant feeding, in order to further cany out health education and provide a theoretical basis for making strategies of health education . Methods: A multi - stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate 79 542 residents aged 15-69 years old. Results; The awareness rates of " breast milk is more nutritious than formula milk" , " starting breastfeeding the sooner the better" , " adding complementary foods at 6 months after birth" and " cereals should be added first" were 91. 1% , 78. 9% , 60. 0% and 33. 9% , respectively. Unconditional logistic regression multivariate analysis found that urban area or rural area, region, gender, age, educational level, nationality, occupation, marital status and average income per person in family were statistically linked to the awareness rate of " cereals should be added first" . Conclusion; 'Health education of breastfeeding should be further popularized and strengthened, especially the health communication of knowledge about categories of complementary foods aimed to farmers.%目的:了解我国居民对婴幼儿喂养知识了解的现状,为进一步开展健康教育,制定健康教育策略提供理论依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法调查了我国15~69岁的城乡常住居民79 542名.结果:调查对象对"母乳比配方奶更有营养"、"开始母乳喂养越早越好"、"孩子出生后6个月起添加辅食""辅食应首先添加谷物类"的知识知晓率分别为91.1%、78.9%,60.0%、33.9%.非条件Logistic回归模型多因素分析发现,城乡、地区、性别、年龄、文化程度、民族、职业、婚姻状况和家庭人均月收人与辅食应首先添加谷物类的知识知晓率具有统计学联系.结论:应进一步加强普及母乳喂养知识,尤其应加强辅食添加种类知识的健康传播,且开展健康教育的对象主要是农民.

  17. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  18. Screening Mammography Utilization in Tennessee Women: The Association with Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen C.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Neutens, James J.; Klein, Diane A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Approximately 70% of US women over age 40 report mammography screening within 2 years. However, rates are likely to vary by age, income, educational level, and residence. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of screening mammography and associated factors in women living in rural and urban areas of Tennessee. Methods: Using pooled data…

  19. Teaching professionalism in orthopaedic residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, R

    2001-04-01

    Two residents, wearing white coats with their names and "Department of Orthopaedics" conspicuously embroidered on them, boarded a hospital elevator crowded with physicians, employees, and visitors. In a clearly audible voice, one resident began a story: "You should have seen the patient I saw in my clinic the other day. She was beautiful. I should send her to see Dr. W. He would love to see her!" This comment drew the undivided attention of everyone in the elevator and cast a ghastly silence over the rest of the ride. In recent years, interest has expanded regarding professionalism and its importance in medicine and surgery. Orthopaedic surgery is no exception, as the topic has recently reached prominence in our literature and policies. It is unlikely that professionalism is a universal and innate characteristic of college students entering medical school, yet it becomes a necessary value in medical practice. Somewhere in the ongoing process of medical education, the issue must be addressed.

  20. Beyond requirements: residency management through the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, J M; Morejón, O V; Kirton, O C; Reilly, P J; Serebriakov, I I; Dobkin, E D; D'Angelica, M; Antonetti, M

    2001-04-01

    An Internet application could collect information to satisfy documentation required by the Residency Review Committee. Beyond replacing a difficult and inefficient paper system, it would collect, process, and distribute information to administration, faculty, and residents. Descriptive study. An integrated residency of 18 services at a university teaching hospital with 4 affiliated institutions. Residency administrators, faculty, and residents. The application included a procedure recorder, resident evaluation of faculty and rotations, goals and objectives (stratified by service and resident level), and matching faculty evaluation of residents with these goals as competencies. Policies, schedules, research opportunities, clinical site information, and curriculum support were created. Degree of compliance with Residency Review Committee standards, number of deficiencies corrected, and quantity and quality of information available to administration, faculty, and residents. The Internet system increased resident compliance for faculty and rotation evaluations from 20% and 34%, respectively, to 100%, which was maintained for 22 months. These evaluations can be displayed individually, in summary grids, and as postgraduate year-specific averages. Faculty evaluations of residents can be reviewed throughout the system. The defined category report for procedures, which had deficiencies in the preceding 6 years, had none for the last 2 years. The Internet application provides Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-validated operative logs to regulatory agencies. A Web-based system can satisfy requirements and provide processed data that are of better quality and more complete than our paper system. We are now able to use scarce time and personnel to nurture developing surgical residents instead of shuffling paper.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE--A Case Study of Putuo Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zhong; LU Lin; ZHANG Guang-sheng; LU Song; XUAN Guo-fu

    2004-01-01

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents'positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

  2. [Medical ethics in residency training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun

    2009-04-01

    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.

  3. Residency Training: Work engagement during neurology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K

    2016-08-02

    Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Residence time and physical processes in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta SALA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1 the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2 the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents with the production of active kinetic energy; 3 the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology, also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships

  5. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  6. Analysis on nutrition related knowledge,dietary status and influencing factors among residents in 5 regions of Guangxi%广西五地区居民营养知识、膳食行为及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉柱; 唐振柱; 方志峰; 陆武韬; 李忠友; 周为文; 李晓鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analysis the status and influencing factors of nutrition related knowledge,dietary among residents in 5 regions of Guangxi.Methods 1092 respondents were chosen by stratified random sampling method in 5 coun-ties of Guangxi.A questionnaire survey on nutrition related knowledge,dietary and others was carried out.Results There was 6.9% of respondents familiar with dietary pagoda.The awareness rates of right intake amount of salt per day was 42.8%,the benefits of iodized salt was 35.9%,damage of high salt was 49.1%,the foods that diabetes should not eat was 36.7%,and some food don’t eat was 19.0%.The differences were found statistically significant (Z =2.51,2.80,P<0.05)on fish,soy consumption habits between county town and rural residents.Logistics regression model showed that the influencing factors of nutrition knowledge were the region and education level.The nutrition knowledge awareness were higher in county town residents compared with rural residents (OR =1.44,95%CI:1.08 -1.92).The nutrition knowl-edge awareness were heigh in college or higher education level residents compared with illiterate (OR =3.06,95%CI:1.21 -7.83).Conclusion The nutritional knowledge are lack in county town and rural residents of Guangxi,it need tar-geted nutrition education.%目的:了解广西五地区居民的营养知识、膳食行为现状并探讨其影响因素。方法采用分层随机抽样的方法,抽取广西5个县或市共1092名调查对象,进行营养知识、膳食行为等问卷调查。结果调查对象对膳食宝塔熟悉的为6.9%;城镇和农村居民对每天食盐的量知晓率为42.8%、食盐加碘的好处知晓率为35.9%,高盐的危害知晓率为49.1%、糖尿病不宜吃的食物知晓率为36.7%,以及不宜食用的食物知晓率为19.0%;城镇和农村居民在水产品、豆制品摄入量,差异有统计学意义(Z 值分别为2.51、2.80,P <0.05)。Logistics 回归分析显

  7. An Analysis on Influencing Factors of the Willingness to Pay and the Level of Payment for Ecological Compensation of Residents-Taking the Lower Yellow River as an Example%居民生态补偿支付意愿与支付水平影响因素分析--以黄河下游为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    接玉梅; 葛颜祥

    2014-01-01

    文章以Probit、Tobit回归模型为主要工具,利用来自黄河流域下游山东省464份调查问卷的数据,研究了影响居民生态补偿的支付意愿与支付水平的主要因素。研究表明:影响居民生态补偿支付意愿与支付水平的因素并不完全相同。对生态环境问题的关注程度和性别因素显著影响居民的生态补偿支付意愿,但显著影响居民的生态补偿支付水平的因素是对黄河上游生态环境重要性的认识;另外,显著影响居民生态补偿支付意愿与支付水平的共同因素是对保护黄河上游生态环境需要大量投入的知晓程度和居民年收入。%The article applies Probit and Tobit regression model to study the main factors of the willingness to pay and the level of payment for ecological compensation of residents with 464 survey data from Shandong Province in the Lower Yellow River. The results show that the influencing factors of the willingness to pay and the level of payment for ecological compen-sation of residents are not identical. The degree of concern to ecological environmental issues and gender factor of residents significantly affect their willingness to pay for ecological compensation. However, the residents’ awareness on the impor-tance of ecological environment of the Upper Yellow Rive significantly affects their payment level for ecological compensa-tion. In addition, the common factors, that significantly affect residents’ willingness to pay and payment level, are the knowledge level of protecting the Upper Yellow River ecological environment needs large number of inputs and residents’ annual income.

  8. Quantile regression analysis of health-related quality of life of rural residents in Shaanxi and its associated factors%应用分位数回归对陕西省汉中市农村居民健康相关生命质量及其影响因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米白冰; 赵亚玲; 党少农; 李强; 杨睿海; 颜虹

    2015-01-01

    目的 应用分位数回归分析陕西省汉中市农村居民健康调查数据,探讨当地居民健康相关生命质量(HRQOL)的分布特点和影响因素,并展示分位数回归应用于HRQOL分析的价值.方法 使用横断面调查获得的2 737名被调查者的资料,采用SF-36量表评估被调查者的HRQOL现状,应用分位数回归模型分析精神健康状况(MCS)和躯体健康状况(PCS)得分,并了解HRQOL状态及其影响因素.结果 汉中市农村居民HRQOL分布情况与国内其他地区类似,但不同分位点MCS和PCS得分的影响因素及其影响程度有差异.整体而言,婚姻状况、教育程度、体力活动、既往疾病史对MCS和PCS得分存在显著影响.结论 了解汉中市农村居民HRQOL分布特征及其影响因素,可有针对性地采取措施提升当地居民的HRQOL.%Objective This study aimed to apply quantile regression to study Hanzhong rural residents health survey data,explore the local distribution characteristics of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and influencing factors and present the value of quantile regression applying in analysis of HRQOL.Methods In this cross-sectional population-based study,we evaluated the HRQOL of 2 737 subjects through filling Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).Quantile regression model was used to compare MCS and PCS scores and evaluate the associated factors.Results With different quantiles MCS and PCS score,the associated factors and influence degree were different.In general,the influences of marital status,educational level,physical activity,history of disease and HRQOL in the part of the percentile scores were significant.Conclusion Analysis of the distribution of HRQOL of rural residents in Hanzhong and influencing factors would benefit the improvement of HRQOL of local residents.

  9. Intolerance of ambiguity among family practice residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, B R; Sobal, J

    1991-08-01

    The art of clinical medicine involves learning to deal with varying levels of ambiguity and uncertainty. Tolerance of ambiguity was examined by giving Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale to a sample of 37 family practice residents from a university hospital residency and 22 from a community hospital residency. Residents in both the community and university programs had similar scores. No differences existed between men and women. Compared to studies of medical students, first-year family practice residents were slightly more intolerant of ambiguity. However, intolerance of ambiguity was lower among third-year residents, suggesting that as training advances, residents may become more tolerant of ambiguity. The residency training process may lead to a reduction in intolerance of ambiguity, which produces physicians who can deal with the ambiguity and uncertainty of clinical practice.

  10. Framing resident acceptance of sustainable renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boess, S.U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the initial theoretical framework adopted for a study into resident acceptance of sustainable renovation. Seven expert interviews and two retrospective case studies revealed that the relationship between social housing residents and the renovation process requires careful attenti

  11. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  12. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  13. 电子废弃物回收行为的影响因素分析——以北京市居民为调研对象%Study on the Influence Factors of Residents Participating Behavior in the Recycling of Electrical and Electronic Waste: A Case from Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈占锋; 陈纪瑛; 张斌; 王坤; 王兆华

    2013-01-01

    当前我国面临着严峻的电子废弃物回收处理形势,文章针对居民参与电子废弃物回收积极性不高的问题,采用结构方程研究方法对北京市居民参与电子废弃物回收行为的影响因素进行了探讨.研究结果显示:感知的行为控制、经济成本、环保认知、回收态度、回收习惯和信息宣传这几个变量对行为意向的影响显著,而主观规范、收入、学历三个变量对行为意向的影响并不显著,并据此提出相关改进建议,以期能够有效促进北京市居民积极参与电子废弃物回收.%Focusing on the problem that the enthusiastic of the residents in Beijing participating in the recycling of electrical and electronic waste is not very high, the paper used the structural equation to discuss the influence factors of the residents participating behavior. The results showed that the influence of perceived behavior control, economic cost, environmental awareness, recycling attitude, recycling habits, and information propaganda to behavior intention is remarkable, but the influence of subjective standard, income, education is not remarkable. According to the above, the paper put forward the related improvement proposal that can promote effectively the residents in Beijing to participate in the recycling of electrical and electronic waste.