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Sample records for factor family member

  1. Postnatal roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family members in nociceptors plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sacha A. Malin; Brian M. Davis

    2008-01-01

    The neurotrophin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of growth factors have been extensively studied because of their proven ability to regulate development of the peripheral nervous system. The neurotrophin family,which includes nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3, NT4/5 and BDNF, is also known for its ability to regulate the function of adult sensory neurons. Until recently, little was known concerning the role of the GNDF-family (that includes GDNF, artemin, neurturin and persephin) in adult sensory neuron function. Here we describe recent data that indicates that the GDNF family can regulate sensory neuron function, that some of its members are elevated in inflammatory pain models and that application of these growth factors produces pain in vivo. Finally we discuss how these two families of growth factors may converge on a single membrane receptor, TRPV 1, to produce long-lasting hyperalgesia.

  2. Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R; Mello, Craig C; Smith, Temple F; Hansen, Ulla

    2003-08-01

    The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen.

  3. Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, K.; Hayman, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Johnson, D.E.; Williams, L.T. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-02-15

    The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The authors have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. They demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that they have named FGFR-3.

  4. Risk Factors for Anticipatory Grief in Family Members of Terminally Ill Veterans Receiving Palliative Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention.

  5. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

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    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  6. Number of Family Members, a New Influencing Factor to Affect the Risk of Melamine-Associated Urinary Stones

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    Changjiang Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a new risk of urinary stones. Gansu province is a heavily affected area and has large population and underdeveloped economy. We hypothesized that number of family members and family income may play significant roles in the formation of urinary stones. A case-control study was performed among 190 infants. Results showed that the case group had less numbers of family members than the control (4.4 vs. 5.6, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of family members was an independent influencing factor associated with urinary stones (OR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.411-0.893; P = 0.011. Family income, however, did not exhibit a significant difference. Observed results suggested that number of family members was a new and significant influencing factor to affect the risk of melamine-associated urinary stones.

  7. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  8. Patient and Family Member Factors Influencing Outcomes of Poststroke Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunhua; Tao, Qian; Zhou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Shanjia; Huang, Jia; Jiang, Yingping; Wu, Yi; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Chan, Chetwyn C

    2017-02-01

    To investigate how family members' attitudes toward functional regain, and patients' knowledge and intention of independence influence poststroke rehabilitation. Cross-sectional study. Three rehabilitation inpatient settings. Younger (n=79) and older (n=84) poststroke patients, along with their family members (spouses, n=104; children, n=59). Not applicable. Custom-designed questionnaires were used to tap into the patients' knowledge about rehabilitation (Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Knowledge About Rehabilitation) and intention of independence (Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence), and family members' attitudes toward patients in performing basic activities of daily living (BADL) (Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-instrumental activities of daily living). The rehabilitation outcomes included gains in motor, cognitive, and emotional functions, and self-care independence, measured with common clinical instruments. The Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-BADL predicted cognitive outcome and the Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence predicted motor outcome for both groups. Differential age-related effects were revealed for the Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence in predicting emotional outcome only for the younger group, and self-care independence only for the older group. Patients' intention of independence positively affected motor recovery, while family members' positive attitudes promoted cognitive regain. The findings suggested plausible age-related differences in how patients' intentions affect emotion versus self-care independence outcomes. Future studies should explore strategies for promoting positive attitudes toward independence among patients and family members during poststroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  9. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  10. Targeted disruption of the CP2 gene, a member of the NTF family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, L; Barbour, V; Tuckfield, A; Clouston, D R; Topham, D; Cunningham, J M; Jane, S M

    2001-03-16

    The NTF-like family of transcription factors have been implicated in developmental regulation in organisms as diverse as Drosophila and man. The two mammalian members of this family, CP2 (LBP-1c/LSF) and LBP-1a (NF2d9), are highly related proteins sharing an overall amino acid identity of 72%. CP2, the best characterized of these factors, is a ubiquitously expressed 66-kDa protein that binds the regulatory regions of many diverse genes. Consequently, a role for CP2 has been proposed in globin gene expression, T-cell responses to mitogenic stimulation, and several other cellular processes. To elucidate the in vivo role of CP2, we have generated mice nullizygous for the CP2 allele. These animals were born in a normal Mendelian distribution and displayed no defects in growth, behavior, fertility, or development. Specifically, no perturbation of hematopoietic differentiation, globin gene expression, or immunological responses to T- and B-cell mitogenic stimulation was observed. RNA and protein analysis confirmed that the nullizygous mice expressed no full-length or truncated version of CP2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from multiple tissues demonstrated loss of CP2 DNA binding activity in the -/- lines. However, a slower migrating complex that was ablated with antiserum to NF2d9, the murine homologue of LBP-1a, was observed with these extracts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recombinant LBP-1a can bind to known CP2 consensus sites and form protein complexes with previously defined heteromeric partners of CP2. These results suggest that LBP-1a/NF2d9 may compensate for loss of CP2 expression in vivo and that further analysis of the role of the NTF family of proteins requires the targeting of the NF2d9 gene.

  11. Coactivator-dependent acetylation stabilizes members of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

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    Giandomenico, Valeria; Simonsson, Maria; Grönroos, Eva; Ericsson, Johan

    2003-04-01

    Members of the SREBP family of transcription factors control cholesterol and lipid homeostasis and play important roles during adipocyte differentiation. The transcriptional activity of SREBPs is dependent on the coactivators p300 and CBP. We now present evidence that SREBPs are acetylated by the intrinsic acetyltransferase activity of p300 and CBP. In SREBP1a, the acetylated lysine residue resides in the DNA-binding domain of the protein. Coexpression with p300 dramatically increases the expression of both SREBP1a and SREBP2, and this effect is dependent on the acetyltransferase activity of p300, indicating that acetylation of SREBPs regulates their stability. Indeed, acetylation or mutation of the acetylated lysine residue in SREBP1a stabilizes the protein. We demonstrate that the acetylated residue in SREBP1a is also targeted by ubiquitination and that acetylation inhibits this process. Thus, our studies define acetylation-dependent stabilization of transcription factors as a novel mechanism for coactivators to regulate gene expression.

  12. Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

  13. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2001-01-01

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of autopsie

  14. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  15. Paradoxical role of an Egr transcription factor family member, Egr2/Krox20, in learning and memory

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    Roseline Poirier

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that Egr1/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA sequence, they may have related functions in brain. Another Egr family member expressed in brain, Egr2/Krox20 is known to be crucial for normal hindbrain development and has been implicated in several inherited peripheral neuropathies; however, due to Egr2-null mice perinatal lethality, its potential role in cognitive functions in the adult has not been yet explored. Here, we generated Egr2 conditional mutant mice allowing postnatal, forebrain-specific Cre-mediated Egr2 excision and tested homozygous, heterozygous and control littermates on a battery of behavioural tasks to evaluate motor capacity, exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity and learning and memory performance in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Egr2-deficient mice had no sign of locomotor, exploratory or anxiety disturbances. Surprisingly, they also had no impairment in spatial learning and memory, taste aversion memory or fear memory using a trace conditioning paradigm. On the contrary, Egr2-deficient mice had improved performance in motor learning on a rotarod, and in object recognition memory. These results clearly do not extend the phenotypic consequences resulting from either Egr1 or Egr3 loss-of-function to Egr2. In contrast, they indicate that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain.

  16. Differential recognition of heat shock elements by members of the heat shock transcription factor family.

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    Yamamoto, Noritaka; Takemori, Yukiko; Sakurai, Mayumi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (HSF), an evolutionarily conserved stress response regulator, forms trimers and binds to heat shock element (HSE), comprising at least three continuous inverted repeats of the sequence 5'-nGAAn-3'. The single HSF of yeast is also able to bind discontinuously arranged nGAAn units. We investigated interactions between three human HSFs and various HSE types in vitro, in yeast cells, and in HeLa cells. Human HSF1, a stress-activated regulator, preferentially bound to continuous HSEs rather than discontinuous HSEs, and heat shock of HeLa cells caused expression of reporter genes containing continuous HSEs. HSF2, whose function is implicated in neuronal specification and spermatogenesis, exhibited a slightly higher binding affinity to discontinuous HSEs than did HSF1. HSF4, a protein required for ocular lens development, efficiently recognized discontinuous HSEs in a trimerization-dependent manner. Among four human gamma-crystallin genes encoding structural proteins of the lens, heat-induced HSF1 preferred HSEs on the gammaA-crystallin and gammaB-crystallin promoters, whereas HSF4 preferred HSE on the gammaC-crystallin promoter. These results suggest that the HSE architecture is an important determinant of which HSF members regulate genes in diverse cellular processes.

  17. Human brain factor 1, a new member of the fork head gene family

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    Murphy, D.B.; Wiese, S.; Burfeind, P. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Goettingen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of cDNA clones that cross-hybridized with the fork head domain of the rat HNF-3 gene family revealed 10 cDNAs from human fetal brain and human testis cDNA libraries containing this highly conserved DNA-binding domain. Three of these cDNAs (HFK1, HFK2, and HFK3) were further analyzed. The cDNA HFK1 has a length of 2557 nucleotides and shows strong homology at the nucleotide level (91.2%) to brain factor 1 (BF-1) from rat. The HFK1 cDNA codes for a putative 476 amino acid protein. The homology to BF-1 from rat in the coding region at the amino acid level is 87.5%. The fork head homologous region includes 111 amino acids starting at amino acid 160 and has a 97.5% homology to BF-1. Southern hybridization revealed that HFK1 is highly conserved among mammalian species and possibly birds. Northern analysis with total RNA from human tissues and poly(A)-rich RNA from mouse revealed a 3.2-kb transcript that is present in human and mouse fetal brain and in adult mouse brain. In situ hybridization with sections of mouse embryo and human fetal brain reveals that HFK1 expression is restricted to the neuronal cells in the telencepthalon, with strong expression being observed in the developing dentate gyrus and hippocampus. HFK1 was chromosomally localized by in situ hybridization to 14q12. The cDNA clones HFK2 and HFK3 were analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. HFK2 and HFK3 were found to be closely related but different from HFK1. Therefore, it would appear that HFK1, HFK2, HFK3, and BF-1 form a new fork head related subfamily. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Molecular cloning of a human gene that is a member of the nerve growth factor family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Reichardt, L.F. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Cell death within the developing vertebrate nervous system is regulated in part by interactions between neurons and their innervation targets that are mediated by neurotrophic factors. These factors also appear to have a role in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Two neurotrophic factors, nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, share substantial amino acid sequence identity. The authors have used a screen that combines polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and low-stringency hybridization with degenerate oligonucleotides to isolate human BDNF and a human gene, neurotrophin-3, that is closely related to both nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. mRNA products of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes were detected in the adult human brain, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Neurotrophin-3 is also expected to function in embryonic neural development.

  19. Toothbrush contamination in family members

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    Adolfo Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial contamination of toothbrushes in family members. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two healthy subjects were included in this descriptive study. Every individual was examined clinically and microbiologically using the CPITN index and collecting subgingival plaque samples. Each participant received a toothbrush for home use and after one month they returned it to the investigators. All toothbrushes were cultured to determine the presence of periodontopathic bacteria and enteric rods. Wilkoxon signed rank test and t student test (P d"0.05 were used to compare differences in the subgingival microbiota and toothbrush contamination and CPITN index among family members. Results: A high proportion of toothbrushes resulted highly contaminated with enteric rods (P d"0.001 compared to the subgingival environment where periodontopathic bacteria were more prevalent. The most frequent microorganisms found in toothbrushes used by parents and children for one month were Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae species (>50% and Fusobacterium spp (30%. Conclusions: High levels of enteric rods were commonly detected in toothbrushes used for 1 month among members of the families. These opportunistic organisms may have an important role in oral infections including gingivitis and periodontitis. Monthly replacement or disinfection of the toothbrush can reduce the risk of bacterial transmission/translocation and thus diminish the incidence of biofilm associated oral diseases.

  20. Reverse Genetic Analysis of Transcription FactorOsHox9, a Member of Homeobox Family, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Li-ping; SHEN Ao; GAO Zhi-chao; LI Zheng-long; SUN Qiong-lin; LI Ying-ying; LUAN Wei-jiang

    2014-01-01

    Homeobox transcription factors participate in the growth and development of plants by regulating cell differentiation, morphogenesis and environmental signal response. To reveal the functions of these transcription factors in rice, we constructed the RNAi vectors ofOsHox9, a member of homeobox family, and analyzed the function ofOsHox9 using reverse genetics. The plant height and tillering number of RNAi transgenic plants decreased compared with those of wild-type plants. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed thatOsHox9 expression reduced in the transgenic plants with phenotypic variance, whereas that in the transgenic plants without phenotypic variance was similar to that in the wild-type plants. This result suggests that the phenotypes of the transgenic plants were caused by RNAi effects. The tissue-specificity ofOsHox9 expression indicated that it was expressed in different organs, with high expression in stem apical meristem and young panicles. Subcelular location ofOsHox9 demonstrated that it was localized on the cell membrane.

  1. Members of the TEAD family of transcription factors regulate the expression of Myf5 in ventral somitic compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Ricardo; Moncaut, Natalia; Siligan, Christine; Taylor, Kevin; Cross, Joe W; Rigby, Peter W J; Carvajal, Jaime J

    2011-07-15

    The transcriptional regulation of the Mrf4/Myf5 locus depends on a multitude of enhancers that, in equilibria with transcription balancing sequences and the promoters, regulate the expression of the two genes throughout embryonic development and in the adult. Transcription in a particular set of muscle progenitors can be driven by the combined outputs of several enhancers that are not able to recapitulate the entire expression pattern in isolation, or by the action of a single enhancer the activity of which in isolation is equivalent to that within the context of the locus. We identified a new enhancer element of this second class, ECR111, which is highly conserved in all vertebrate species and is necessary and sufficient to drive Myf5 expression in ventro-caudal and ventro-rostral somitic compartments in the mouse embryo. EMSA analyses and data obtained from binding-site mutations in transgenic embryos show that a binding site for a TEA Domain (TEAD) transcription factor is essential for the function of this new enhancer, while ChIP assays show that at least two members of the family of transcription factors bind to it in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

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    Zhichao Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF (SmARF gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza. Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167, specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza.

  3. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to, such...

  4. The Prevalence of Pediculosis Capitis and Factors Related to The Treatment Success in Primary School Children and Their Family Members in Kocaeli

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    Aysun Sikar Akturk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the presented study was determine the prevalence of Pediculosis capitis and factors related to the treatment success in a public primary school situated in an area having a low socio-economic status in the city of Kocaeli. Materials and Methods: A total of 414 students attending at the first grade of a public primary school in Kocaeli and 267 family members of the students with head lice and/or nits were screened. Students and their family members were examined by visual inspection and dermoscopic examination whether they had head lice and/or nits. The data were collected about some socio demographic characteristics of children’ and those of their family members with active Pediculosis capitis and shampoos with 1% permethrin was used to get rid of Pediculosis capitis. After two weeks, people who had received treatment were re-examined and factors related to the successful treatment were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 14.3% in school children and 13% in their family members. The prevalence was statistically significant with education levels of the mothers and fathers, social security of family and by gender. The treatment was successful in 38 of school children (66%, and in 10 of their family members (29% with pediculosis capitis. The success of the treatment was no statistically significant in gender, education level of the mothers and fathers, having social security and income. It was noticed that successful treatment was correlated with proper use of the shampoo and proper mechanical cleaning. Conclusions: Head lice is a public health problem that concerns both the school children and their family members. School children who were infested with Pediculosis capitis and their families should be periodically screened and should be immediately and simultaneously treated to preventing reinfestation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 181-190

  5. Identification of Tctex2 beta, a novel dynein light chain family member that interacts with different transforming growth factor-beta receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, QingJun; Lux, Andreas; Holloschi, Andreas; Li, Jian; Hughes, John M. X.; Foerg, Tassilo; McCarthy, John E. G.; Heagerty, Anthony M.; Kioschis, Petra; Hafner, Mathias; Garland, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Endoglin is a membrane-inserted protein that is preferentially synthesized in angiogenic vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Endoglin associates with members of the transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-beta) receptor family and has been identified as the gene involved in hereditary hemorrha

  6. Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated MRSA and environmental exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, A.; Bos, M.E.H.; Graveland, H.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Verstappen, K.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) emergence is a major public health concern. This study was aimed at assessing risk factors for persistently carrying MRSA in veal calf farmers and their family members. We also evaluate the dynamics of MRSA

  7. Risk factors for persistence of livestock-associated exposure in veal calf farmers and their family members: an observational longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, A.; Bos, M.E.H.; Graveland, H.; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Verstappen, K.M.H.W.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) emergence is a major public health concern. This study was aimed at assessing risk factors for persistently carrying MRSA in veal calf farmers and their family members. We also evaluate the dynamics of MRSA

  8. Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Gregersen, Per L.

    2014-01-01

    The senescence process of plants is important for the completion of their life cycle, particularly for crop plants, it is essential for efficient nutrient remobilization during seed filling. It is a highly regulated process, and in order to address the regulatory aspect, the role of genes...... in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated...... activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47...

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Family Members as Prognostic Biomarkers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipenburg, Norbertus A.; Koole, Koos; Liem, K. Seng; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Koole, Ron; van Diest, Paul J.; van Es, Robert J. J.; Willems, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since head and neck cancer is characterized by poor survival rates, there is a demand for novel therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers. An upcoming therapeutic target is the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. However, their prognostic role in head and neck cancer rem

  10. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  11. Comprehensive Identification of Kruppel-Like Factor Family Members Contributing to the Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Cellular Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojung Jeon

    Full Text Available Pluripotency is maintained in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and is induced from somatic cells by the activation of appropriate transcriptional regulatory networks. Krüppel-like factor gene family members, such as Klf2, Klf4 and Klf5, have important roles in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mouse ES cells as well as in cellular reprogramming, yet it is not known whether other Klf family members exert self-renewal and reprogramming functions when overexpressed. In this study, we examined whether overexpression of any representative Klf family member, such as Klf1-Klf10, would be sufficient for the self-renewal of mouse ES cells. We found that only Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5 produced leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-independent self-renewal, although most KLF proteins, if not all, have the ability to occupy the regulatory regions of Nanog, a critical Klf target gene. We also examined whether overexpression of any of Klf1-Klf10 would be sufficient to convert epiblast stem cells into a naïve pluripotent state and found that Klf5 had such reprogramming ability, in addition to Klf2 and Klf4. We also delineated the functional domains of the Klf2 protein for LIF-independent self-renewal and reprogramming. Interestingly, we found that both the N-terminal transcriptional activation and C-terminal zinc finger domains were indispensable for this activity. Taken together, our comprehensive analysis provides new insight into the contribution of Klf family members to mouse ES self-renewal and cellular reprogramming.

  12. Structure of an MmyB-like regulator from C. aurantiacus, member of a new transcription factor family linked to antibiotic metabolism in actinomycetes.

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    Qingping Xu

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp (Caur_2278 from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid. MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed.

  13. Health Behaviors in Family Members of Patients Completing Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, Susan R.; Flocke, Susan A.; Daly, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the impact of the cancer experience on the health behaviors of survivors’ family members and to determine factors associated with family members’ intentions for health behavior change. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. Setting A National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center in the Midwestern United States. Sample 39 family members and 50 patients with diagnoses of breast, colon, head and neck, lung, or prostate cancer who were completing definitive cancer treatment. Methods Patients and family members were approached in the clinic at 3 weeks or less before the completion of their course of treatment. Family members completed surveys and a structured interview in-person or via telephone. Main Research Variables Intention, perceived benefit, and confidence for eating a healthy diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation; emotional distress; and family cohesiveness, conflict, and expressiveness. Findings Family members had, on average, high ratings for intention, perceived benefit, and confidence related to behaviors of eating a healthy diet and doing 30 minutes of daily moderate physical activity. They also had high ratings for the extent to which the cancer experience raised their awareness of their own cancer risk and made them think about having screening tests; ratings were lower for making changes in their health behaviors. Distress scores of family members were high at the completion of cancer treatment. Greater intention for physical activity and nutrition was associated with greater perceived benefit and confidence. Higher scores for family expressiveness was associated with intention for nutrition. Greater intention for smoking cessation was associated only with confidence. Conclusions Family members expressed strong intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors related to physical activity and nutrition at the transition to post-treatment survivorship. Implications for

  14. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  15. Assessing needs of family members of inpatients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, R; Špatenková, N; Fukasová-Hajnová, E; Feltl, D

    2016-07-01

    To provide high-quality and effective cancer care, problems and unmet needs of family members during their relatives' hospitalisation have to be identified as well. The aims were to determine how needs of family members of patients with terminal cancer are met and to analyse factors that influence them. The needs were assessed with the Family Inventory of Needs. Each item (n = 20) represents one need of family members, for which the importance and satisfaction are rated. The study comprised 270 family members of hospitalised advanced cancer patients staying in the University Hospital Ostrava who were receiving palliative care. The family members preferred sufficient basic information and patient comfort. The unmet needs were support of hope (73%) and provision of information (65%). The unmet needs were more frequently identified by women, individuals with lower education, younger persons, unemployed, patients' children and family members of patients with generally unfavourable health status (P family members may improve their quality of life.

  16. Members of the murine Pate family are predominantly expressed in the epididymis in a segment-specific fashion and regulated by androgens and other testicular factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damdimopoulos Anastasios E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatozoa leaving the testis are not able to fertilize the egg in vivo. They must undergo further maturation in the epididymis. Proteins secreted to the epididymal lumen by the epithelial cells interact with the spermatozoa and enable these maturational changes, and are responsible for proper storage conditions before ejaculation. The present study was carried out in order to characterize the expression of a novel Pate (prostate and testis expression gene family, coding for secreted cysteine-rich proteins, in the epididymis. Methods Murine genome databases were searched and sequence comparisons were performed to identify members of the Pate gene family, and their expression profiles in several mouse tissues were characterized by RT-PCR. Alternate transcripts were identified by RT-PCR, sequencing and Northern hybridization. Also, to study the regulation of expression of Pate family genes by the testis, quantitative (q RT-PCR analyses were performed to compare gene expression levels in the epididymides of intact mice, gonadectomized mice, and gonadectomized mice under testosterone replacement treatment. Results A revised family tree of Pate genes is presented, including a previously uncharacterized Pate gene named Pate-X, and the data revealed that Acrv1 and Sslp1 should also be considered as members of the Pate family. Alternate splicing was observed for Pate-X, Pate-C and Pate-M. All the Pate genes studied are predominantly expressed in the epididymis, whereas expression in the testis and prostate is notably lower. Loss of androgens and/or testicular luminal factors was observed to affect the epididymal expression of several Pate genes. Conclusions We have characterized a gene cluster consisting of at least 14 expressed Pate gene members, including Acrv1, Sslp1 and a previously uncharacterized gene which we named Pate-X. The genes code for putatively secreted, cysteine-rich proteins with a TFP/Ly-6/uPAR domain. Members of

  17. A Family Affair : Explaining Co-Working By Family Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der; Raub, Werner; Weessie, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on co-working by intimate partners and other family members in entrepreneurs’ businesses. We hypothesize that co-working by family is beneficial because it reduces trust problems associated with employment relations. On the other hand, co-working is risky because co-working family

  18. A Family Affair : Explaining Co-Working By Family Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der; Raub, Werner; Weessie, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on co-working by intimate partners and other family members in entrepreneurs’ businesses. We hypothesize that co-working by family is beneficial because it reduces trust problems associated with employment relations. On the other hand, co-working is risky because co-working family

  19. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  20. Metabolic regulation by p53 family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkers, Celia R; Maddocks, Oliver D K; Cheung, Eric C; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H

    2013-11-05

    The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs.

  1. Cartilage-specific over-expression of CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) stimulates insulin-like growth factor expression and bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nao; Hattori, Takako; Itoh, Shinsuke; Aoyama, Eriko; Yao, Mayumi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Takigawa, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Previously we showed that CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of growth cartilage cells in vitro. To elucidate the specific role and molecular mechanism of CCN2 in cartilage development in vivo, in the present study we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCN2 and analyzed them with respect to cartilage and bone development. Transgenic mice were generated expressing a ccn2/lacZ fusion gene in cartilage under the control of the 6 kb-Col2a1-enhancer/promoter. Changes in cartilage and bone development were analyzed histologically and immunohistologically and also by micro CT. Primary chondrocytes as well as limb bud mesenchymal cells were cultured and analyzed for changes in expression of cartilage-related genes, and non-transgenic chondrocytes were treated in culture with recombinant CCN2. Newborn transgenic mice showed extended length of their long bones, increased content of proteoglycans and collagen II accumulation. Micro-CT analysis of transgenic bones indicated increases in bone thickness and mineral density. Chondrocyte proliferation was enhanced in the transgenic cartilage. In in vitro short-term cultures of transgenic chondrocytes, the expression of col2a1, aggrecan and ccn2 genes was substantially enhanced; and in long-term cultures the expression levels of these genes were further enhanced. Also, in vitro chondrogenesis was strongly enhanced. IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels were elevated in transgenic chondrocytes, and treatment of non-transgenic chondrocytes with recombinant CCN2 stimulated the expression of these mRNA. The addition of CCN2 to non-transgenic chondrocytes induced the phosphorylation of IGFR, and ccn2-overexpressing chondrocytes showed enhanced phosphorylation of IGFR. Our data indicates that the observed effects of CCN2 may be mediated in part by CCN2-induced overexpression of IGF-I and IGF-II. These findings indicate that CCN2-overexpression in transgenic

  2. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  3. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Family Members Reduce Microglial Activation via Inhibiting p38MAPKs-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Rickert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF family ligands (GFL are potent survival factors for dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons with therapeutic potential for Parkinson’s disease. However, little is known about direct influences of the GFL on microglia function, which are known to express part of the GDNF receptor system. Using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistrym we investigated the expression of the GDNF family receptor alpha 1 (GFR alpha and the coreceptor transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RET in rat microglia in vitro as well as the effect of GFL on the expression of proinflammatory molecules in LPS activated microglia. We could show that GFL are able to regulate microglia functions and suggest that part of the well known neuroprotective action may be related to the suppression of microglial activation. We further elucidated the functional significance and pathophysiological implications of these findings and demonstrate that microglia are target cells of members of the GFL (GDNF and the structurally related neurotrophic factors neurturin (NRTN, artemin (ARTN, and persephin (PSPN.

  4. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  5. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  6. Functional interplay of SP family members and nuclear factor Y is essential for transcriptional activation of the human Calreticulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Julian A; Keller, Manuela; Seipel, Katja; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) is a highly conserved, multifunctional protein involved in a variety of cellular processes including the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, proper protein folding, differentiation and immunogenic cell death. More recently, a crucial role for CALR in the pathogenesis of certain hematologic malignancies was discovered: in clinical subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia, CALR overexpression mediates a block in differentiation, while somatic mutations have been found in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) or thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). However, the mechanisms underlying CALR promoter activation have insufficiently been investigated so far. By dissecting the core promoter region, we could identify a functional TATA-box relevant for transcriptional activation. In addition, we characterized two evolutionary highly conserved cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) within the proximal promoter each composed of one binding site for the transcription factors SP1 and SP3 as well as for the nuclear transcription factor Y (NFY) and we verified binding of these factors to their cognate sites in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Members of miR-169 family are induced by high salinity and transiently inhibit the NF-YA transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongxuan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed small RNAs with a length of about 21 nt. MiRNAs silence their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs play various developmental and physiological roles by cleavaging mRNAs predominantly. Drought and high salinity are the most severe environmental abiotic stresses and cause crop losses all over the world. Results In this study, we identified miR-169g and miR-169n (o as high salinity-responsive miRNAs in rice. MiR-169n and miR169o were in a miRNA cluster with a distance of 3707 base pairs (bp. The high degree of conservation and close phylogenic distance of pre-miR-169n and pre-miR-169o indicated that they were derived from a very recent tandem duplication evolutionary event. The existence of a cis-acting abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE in the upstream region of miR-169n (o suggested that miR-169n (o may be regulated by ABA. In our previous study, we found that miR-169g was induced by the osmotic stress caused by drought via a dehydration-responsive element (DRE. Thus, our data showed that there were both overlapping and distinct responses of the miR-169 family to drought and salt stresses. We also showed that these miR-169 members selectively cleaved one of the NF-YA genes, Os03g29760, which is a CCAAT-box binding transcription factor and participates in transcriptional regulation of large number genes. Finally, we found one or more ath-miR-169 member that was also induced by high salinity. Conclusion We identified members of the miR-169 family as salt-induced miRNAs and analyzed their evolution, gene organization, expression, transcriptional regulation motif and target gene. Our data also indicated that the salt-induction of some miR-169 members was a general property in plants.

  8. Members of miR-169 family are induced by high salinity and transiently inhibit the NF-YA transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Botao; Ge, Liangfa; Liang, Ruqiang; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng; Lin, Hongxuan; Jin, Youxin

    2009-04-08

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small RNAs with a length of about 21 nt. MiRNAs silence their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs play various developmental and physiological roles by cleavaging mRNAs predominantly. Drought and high salinity are the most severe environmental abiotic stresses and cause crop losses all over the world. In this study, we identified miR-169g and miR-169n (o) as high salinity-responsive miRNAs in rice. MiR-169n and miR169o were in a miRNA cluster with a distance of 3707 base pairs (bp). The high degree of conservation and close phylogenic distance of pre-miR-169n and pre-miR-169o indicated that they were derived from a very recent tandem duplication evolutionary event. The existence of a cis-acting abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) in the upstream region of miR-169n (o) suggested that miR-169n (o) may be regulated by ABA. In our previous study, we found that miR-169g was induced by the osmotic stress caused by drought via a dehydration-responsive element (DRE). Thus, our data showed that there were both overlapping and distinct responses of the miR-169 family to drought and salt stresses. We also showed that these miR-169 members selectively cleaved one of the NF-YA genes, Os03g29760, which is a CCAAT-box binding transcription factor and participates in transcriptional regulation of large number genes. Finally, we found one or more ath-miR-169 member that was also induced by high salinity. We identified members of the miR-169 family as salt-induced miRNAs and analyzed their evolution, gene organization, expression, transcriptional regulation motif and target gene. Our data also indicated that the salt-induction of some miR-169 members was a general property in plants.

  9. Country variations in family members' informal pressure to drink less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Knibbe, Ronald; Selin, Klara

    2009-04-01

    The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Uganda, UK and Uruguay (overall sample 44,115). In each country, the percentage of people who had experienced family member pressure to drink less were compared to country abstinence rate, mean drinking volume per drinker and other societal-level factors. While countries differed greatly on proportion of drinkers having experienced family members' pressure to drink less, in all countries drinking women reported less pressure than drinking men in their own society. In all studied countries, informal pressure was exerted most often by the spouse or sexual partner. However, other family members were also involved. Informal pressure was found to be highly correlated with the country's socioeconomic conditions. Informal pressure to drink less by family members is on one hand an expression of social and family problems, caused by heavy drinking, especially in the economically less developed countries, suggesting alcohol-related deprivation. On the other hand, similar gender differences were seen in all the societies, men reporting receiving more informal pressure than women. Thus, informal pressure to drink less tended to reflect the gender conflict caused by heavy use of alcohol by men.

  10. The gene encoding human intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is located on chromosome 21q22.3 clustered with other members of the trefoil peptide family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinery, R. [Royal College of Surgeons of England, London (United Kingdom); Williamson, J.; Poulsom, R. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    The gene coding for human intestinal trefoil factor (hITF), a recently described cellular motogen produced by gastrointestinal goblet cells and epithelia elsewhere, is a member of the rapidly growing trefoil peptide family. In a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel, the hITF (HGMW-approved symbol TFF3) genomic locus segregated with human chromosome 21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 2.1-kb genomic probe of the hITF gene mapped this locus more precisely to the q22.3 region. Triple fluorescence in situ hybridization, together with physical mapping of human genomic DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, revealed that the hITF gene is tightly linked to those encoding the other known human trefoil peptides, namely the breast cancer estrogen-inducable gene pS2 (BCEI) and human spasmolytic polypeptide (hSP/SML1). This gene family could become a useful marker for the genetic and physical mapping of chromosome 21 and for a better definition of the region involved in the clinical phenotype of several genetic diseases. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Haploinsufficiency of SOX5, a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors is a cause of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanze, Ina; Schanze, Denny; Bacino, Carlos A; Douzgou, Sofia; Kerr, Bronwyn; Zenker, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition; the cause is unknown in most non-specific and sporadic cases. To establish an etiological basis in those patients represents a difficult challenge. Over the last years it has become apparent that chromosomal rearrangements below the detection level of conventional karyotyping contribute significantly to the cause of ID. We present three patients with non-specific intellectual disability who all have overlapping microdeletions in the chromosomal region 12p12.1. De novo occurrence of the deletion could be proven in the two cases from which parental samples were available. All three identified deletions have different breakpoints and range in size from 120 kb to 4.9 Mb. The smallest deletion helps to narrow down the critical region to a genomic segment (chr12:23,924,800-24,041,698, build 37/hg19) encompassing only one gene, SOX5. SOX5 is a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors shown to play roles in chondroblast function, oligodendrocyte differentiation and migration, as well as ensuring proper development of specific neuronal cell types. Because of these biological functions, mutations in SOX5 are predicted to cause complex disease syndromes, as it is the case for other SOX genes, but such mutations have not yet been identified. Our findings indicate that haploinsufficiency of SOX5 is a cause of intellectual disability without any striking physical anomalies.

  12. The relationship between mental health workers and family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients. Observation

  13. Mass relations among family members of quarks and leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Gilani, A H S

    2005-01-01

    The various mass relations among members of quark and lepton families are given. Three mass relations for the charm, beauty, and top quark family members are given and three mass relations for the electron, muon, and tau lepton family members are presented.

  14. The relationship between mental health workers and family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.; Trappenburg, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients.

  15. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  16. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Tionni R; Brown, J Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Sixty-one low-income, married/cohabiting men (n = 28) and women (n = 33). Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored because of unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could (1) alter family norms about vegetables served, (2) change perceptions of experiences, (3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables, and (4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) repress reciprocally to regulate hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wang-Yu; Lin, Ling-Yun; Hao, Han; Zhang, Sai-Man; Ma, Fei; Hong, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Ye, Guo-Dong; Sun, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jia; Li, Sheng-Nan; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, Jian-Chun; Li, Bo-An

    2017-04-01

    Great progress has been achieved in the study of Hippo signaling in regulating tumorigenesis; however, the downstream molecular events that mediate this process have not been completely defined. Moreover, regulation of Hippo signaling during tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member (YAP-TEAD) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) in the hepatocarcinogenesis of HCC cells. Our results indicated that HNF4α expression was negatively regulated by YAP1 in HCC cells by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway. By contrast, HNF4α was found to directly associate with TEAD4 to compete with YAP1 for binding to TEAD4, thus inhibiting the transcriptional activity of YAP-TEAD and expression of their target genes. Moreover, overexpression of HNF4α was found to significantly compromise YAP-TEAD-induced HCC cell proliferation and stem cell expansion. Finally, we documented the regulatory mechanism between YAP-TEAD and HNF4α in rat and mouse tumor models, which confirmed our in vitro results. There is a double-negative feedback mechanism that controls TEAD-YAP and HNF4α expression in vitro and in vivo, thereby regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation. Given that YAP acts as a dominant oncogene in HCC and plays a crucial role in stem cell homeostasis and tissue regeneration, manipulating the interaction between YAP, TEADs, and HNF4α may provide a new approach for HCC treatment and regenerative medicine. (Hepatology 2017;65:1206-1221). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. A family-based diabetes intervention for Hispanic adults and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wallace, Debra C; McCoy, Thomas P; Amirehsani, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, 1-group longitudinal study is to examine the effects of a family-based intervention program on diabetes self-management behaviors, A1C, other biomarkers, psychosocial factors, and health-related quality of life in Hispanics with diabetes. Adult patients with diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited from a community clinic in rural central North Carolina. Patients and family members attended an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes educational program taught in Spanish. Data were collected pre- and post-intervention for both patients and family members, with an additional data collection for patients 1 month post-intervention. Most patients and family members were female, and almost all were immigrants. A1C decreased by 4.9% on average among patients from pre-intervention to 1 month post-intervention. Patients showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure, diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, and physical and mental components of health-related quality of life. Higher levels of intake of healthy foods and performance of blood glucose tests and foot inspections were reported. Family members significantly lowered body mass index and improved diabetes knowledge from pre-intervention to immediately post-intervention. No significant changes in levels of physical activity were found among patients with diabetes or family members. Findings suggest that including family members in educational interventions may provide emotional and psychological support to patients with diabetes, help to develop healthy family behaviors, and promote diabetes self-management.

  19. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of CIDE-3, a novel member of the cell-death-inducing DNA-fragmentation-factor (DFF45)-like effector family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Zhao, Mujun; Xu, Zhenhua; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Li, Tsaiping

    2003-02-15

    DNA fragmentation is one of the critical steps in apoptosis, which is induced by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF). DFF is composed of two subunits, a 40 kDa caspase-activated nuclease (DFF40) and a 45 kDa inhibitor (DFF45). Recently a novel family of cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effectors (CIDEs) has been identified. Among CIDEs, two from human (CIDE-A and CIDE-B) and three from mouse (CIDE-A, CIDE-B and FSP27) have been reported. In this study human CIDE-3, a novel member of CIDEs, was identified upon sequence analysis of a previously unidentified cDNA that encoded a protein of 238 amino acids. It was shown to be a human homologue of mouse FSP27, and shared homology with the CIDE-N and CIDE-C domains of CIDEs. Apoptosis-inducing activity was clearly shown by DNA-fragmentation assay of the nuclear DNA of CIDE-3 transfected 293T cells. The expression pattern of CIDE-3 was different from that of CIDE-B. As shown by Northern-blot analysis, CIDE-3 was expressed mainly in human small intestine, heart, colon and stomach, while CIDE-B showed strong expression in liver and small intestine and at a lower level in colon, kidney and spleen. Green-fluorescent-protein-tagged CIDE-3 was revealed in some cytosolic corpuscles. Alternative splicing of the CIDE-3 gene was also identified by reverse transcription PCR, revealing that two transcripts, CIDE-3 and CIDE-3alpha, were present in HepG2 and A375 cells. CIDE-3 comprised a full-length open reading frame with 238 amino acids; in CIDE-3alpha exon 3 was deleted and it encoded a protein of 164 amino acids. Interestingly the CIDE-3alpha isoform still kept the apoptosis-inducing activity and showed the same pattern of subcellular localization as CIDE-3. Consistent with its chromosome localization at 3p25, a region associated with high frequency loss of heterozygosity in many tumours, CIDE-3 may play an important role in prevention of tumorigenesis.

  1. Dumpy-30 family members as determinants of male fertility and interaction partners of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1 in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renkawitz-Pohl Renate

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1, which binds to metal response elements (MREs, plays a central role in transition metal detoxification and homeostasis. A Drosophila interactome analysis revealed two candidate dMTF-1 interactors, both of which are related to the small regulatory protein Dumpy-30 (Dpy-30 of the worm C. elegans. Dpy-30 is the founding member of a protein family involved in chromatin modifications, notably histone methylation. Mutants affect mating type in yeast and male mating in C. elegans. Results Constitutive expression of the stronger interactor, Dpy-30L1 (CG6444, in transgenic flies inhibits MTF-1 activity and results in elevated sensitivity to Cd(II and Zn(II, an effect that could be rescued by co-overexpression of dMTF-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA suggest that Dpy-30L1 interferes with the binding of MTF-1 to its cognate MRE binding site. Dpy-30L1 is expressed in the larval brain, gonads, imaginal discs, salivary glands and in the brain, testes, ovaries and salivary glands of adult flies. Expression of the second interactor, Dpy-30L2 (CG11591, is restricted to larval male gonads, and to the testes of adult males. Consistent with these findings, dpy-30-like transcripts are also prominently expressed in mouse testes. Targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination revealed that dpy-30L1 knockout flies are viable and show no overt disruption of metal homeostasis. In contrast, the knockout of the male-specific dpy-30L2 gene results in male sterility, as does the double knockout of dpy-30L1 and dpy-30L2. A closer inspection showed that Dpy-30L2 is expressed in elongated spermatids but not in early or mature sperm. Mutant sperm had impaired motility and failed to accumulate in sperm storage organs of females. Conclusion Our studies help to elucidate the physiological roles of the Dumpy-30 proteins, which are conserved from yeast to humans and typically act in concert with

  2. Quality of life and health status of dyads of women with lung cancer and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Cooley, Mary E; Brown, Jean K; Williams, Roma D; Chernecky, Cynthia; Padilla, Geraldine; Danao, Leda Layo

    2006-11-27

    To describe and compare the quality of life (QOL) and health status of dyads of women with lung cancer and their family members and to explore the correlates of family members' QOL. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Interview, self-report. 51 dyads consisting of women with lung cancer and their family members. One-time assessment of family members' and patients' QOL, health status, and demographics and patients' clinical characteristics. Family and patient QOL and health status. QOL of the dyads was not significantly related. Poorer physical QOL of family members was associated with older age, comorbid conditions, less education, and alcohol use. Poorer emotional QOL of family members was associated with younger age, depressed mood, and not being a spouse. Fifty-nine percent of family members had comorbid conditions. Significantly more family members continued to smoke and use alcohol. The QOL of family members of patients with lung cancer is diminished when their own health status is compromised. Further study is needed. Additional study is needed to identify family members at risk for diminished QOL and with compromised health status because these factors might affect ability to support patients with lung cancer.

  3. Spouses/Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    promotion causing excessive stress . 7 4. Service members sacrificing their own personal health to try to meet demands of military and family (e.g...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0113 TITLE: Spouses/ Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith D...SUBTITLE Spouses/ Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0113 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis M. Eaton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

  5. Family Members' Experience With Hospice in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, L Ashley; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin; Lewis, Alexandra; Demiris, George

    2016-05-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents' family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members' experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members' experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated.

  6. Myocardin Family Members Drive Formation of Caveolae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna K Krawczyk

    Full Text Available Caveolae are membrane organelles that play roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and in vascular function. Formation of caveolae requires caveolins and cavins. The make-up of caveolae and their density is considered to reflect cell-specific transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, but knowledge regarding regulation of caveolae genes is incomplete. Myocardin (MYOCD and its relative MRTF-A (MKL1 are transcriptional coactivators that control genes which promote smooth muscle differentiation. MRTF-A communicates changes in actin polymerization to nuclear gene transcription. Here we tested if myocardin family proteins control biogenesis of caveolae via activation of caveolin and cavin transcription. Using human coronary artery smooth muscle cells we found that jasplakinolide and latrunculin B (LatB, substances that promote and inhibit actin polymerization, increased and decreased protein levels of caveolins and cavins, respectively. The effect of LatB was associated with reduced mRNA levels for these genes and this was replicated by the MRTF inhibitor CCG-1423 which was non-additive with LatB. Overexpression of myocardin and MRTF-A caused 5-10-fold induction of caveolins whereas cavin-1 and cavin-2 were induced 2-3-fold. PACSIN2 also increased, establishing positive regulation of caveolae genes from three families. Full regulation of CAV1 was retained in its proximal promoter. Knock down of the serum response factor (SRF, which mediates many of the effects of myocardin, decreased cavin-1 but increased caveolin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Viral transduction of myocardin increased the density of caveolae 5-fold in vitro. A decrease of CAV1 was observed concomitant with a decrease of the smooth muscle marker calponin in aortic aneurysms from mice (C57Bl/6 infused with angiotensin II. Human expression data disclosed correlations of MYOCD with CAV1 in a majority of human tissues and in the heart, correlation with MKL2 (MRTF-B was observed. The

  7. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  8. Members of the CREB/ATF and AP1 family of transcription factors are involved in the regulation of SOX18 gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Isidora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOX18 transcription factor plays an important role in endothelial cell specification, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. By profiling transcription factor interactions (TranSignal TM TF Protein Array we identified several transcription factors implicated in angiogenesis that have the ability to bind to the SOX18 optimal promoter region in vitro. In this report we focused our attention on distinct transcription factors identified by the array as belonging to AP-1 and CREB/ATF protein families. In particular, we analyzed the effects of CREB, JunB, c-Jun and ATF3 on SOX18 gene expression. Functional analysis revealed that CREB acts as a repressor, while JunB, c-Jun and ATF3 act as activators of SOX18 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that a transcriptional network that includes CREB, JunB, c-Jun and ATF3 could be involved in angiogenesis-related transcriptional regulation of the SOX18 gene.

  9. FGFR Family Members Protein Expression as Prognostic Markers in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Koos; Clausen, Martijn J A M; van Es, Robert J. J.; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Melchers, Lieuwe J; Koole, Ron; Langendijk, Johannes A; van Diest, Paul J; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast growth factor receptor family member proteins (FGFR1-4) have been identified as promising novel therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in a wide spectrum of solid tumors. The present study investigates the expression and prognostic value of four FGFR family member protei

  10. FGFR Family Members Protein Expression as Prognostic Markers in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Koos; Clausen, Martijn J. A. M.; van Es, Robert J. J.; van Kempen, Pauline M. W.; Melchers, Lieuwe J.; Koole, Ron; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Diest, Paul J.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fibroblast growth factor receptor family member proteins (FGFR1-4) have been identified as promising novel therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in a wide spectrum of solid tumors. The present study investigates the expression and prognostic value of four FGFR family member protein

  11. Recurrent cutaneous abscesses in two Italian family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of such mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult since they can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. Absence of pathognomonic clinical signs and variable histological findings often delay diagnosis. We report a case of localized recurrent soft tissue swelling by Mycobacterium marinum in 2 members of the same family. The cases are being reported for their uncommon clinical presentation and the associated etiological agent. Patients recovered completely following therapy with rifampicin 600 mg plus isoniazide 300 mg daily for 45 days.

  12. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... eligible to file a single customs declaration for members of a family traveling together upon arrival in... family residing in one household'' to allow more U.S. returning residents to file a family customs...

  13. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  14. A special member of the rice SRO family, OsSRO1c, mediates responses to multiple abiotic stresses through interaction with various transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jun; Zong, Wei; Du, Hao; Hu, Honghong; Xiong, Lizhong

    2014-04-01

    SIMILAR TO RCD ONE (SRO) is a plant-specific gene family involved in development and abiotic stress responses. SRO proteins are characterized by containing poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase catalytic (PARP) and C-terminal RCD1-SRO-TAF4 domains, and can be classified into two groups and five subgroups on the basis of their PARP domain. Expression analysis of rice SRO genes in response to various abiotic stresses showed that OsSRO1c, a rice SRO gene which functions downstream of the stress-responsive transcription factor SNAC1, is the major stress-responsive gene in the rice SRO family. The ossro1c-1 mutant showed resistance not only to chloroplastic oxidative stress, but also to apoplastic oxidative stress. However, the ossro1c-1 mutant and artificial microRNA-OsSRO1c transgenic rice were significantly impaired in cold tolerance. When compared with the well-characterized Arabidopsis SRO protein radical-induced cell death 1 (RCD1), OsSRO1c has considerable variation in the protein sequence, and the two genes exhibit different expression profiles under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, ossro1c-1 and rcd1 showed different responses to multiple abiotic stresses. By screening an Arabidopsis transcription factor library, 29 transcription factors interacted with OsSRO1c in yeast, but only two of these transcription factors were reported to interact with RCD1, which may partly explain the different responses of the two mutants under various stresses. The data presented in this report provide important clues for further elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of OsSRO1c in mediating responses to multiple abiotic stresses.

  15. Wingless-type family member 3A triggers neuronal polarization via cross-activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Bernis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin. We also show that Wnt3a triggered a strong activation of IGF-1r, PI3k and Akt in developmental Stage 2 neurons and that the presence of activatable IGF-1r and PI3k activation were necessary for Wnt3a polarizing effects. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments show that Wnt3a did not bind specifically to the IGF-1r. Using crosslinking and immuno-precipitation experiments, we show that stimulation with Wnt3a triggered the formation of a complex including IGF-1r-Wnt3a-Frizzled-7. We conclude that Wnt3a triggers polarization of neurons via cross-activation of the IGF-1r/PI3k pathway upon binding to Fz7.

  16. INFLUENCING FACTORS AFFECTING STRESS LEVEL OF FAMILY MEMBERS OF CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS DURING PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD%宫颈癌围手术期患者家属应激水平影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芳; 颜春英

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨宫颈癌围手术期患者家属应激水平的影响因素,为制定相关心理干预措施提供理论依据。方法:应用家属应激量表(RSS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)调查90例宫颈癌围手术期患者家属的应激水平和焦虑、抑郁状况,并采用Pearson直线相关分析和Stepwise多元线性回归分析分析影响患者家属应激水平的因素。结果:宫颈癌围手术期患者家属应激反应水平较高,焦虑情况较轻,存在中至重度抑郁。直线相关分析显示,RSS及其三个因子评分与焦虑、抑郁均呈正相关关系(P<0.05)。多元线性回归分析表明,家属的民族、宗教信仰、家庭类型、焦虑、抑郁水平是影响其应激水平的因素(P<0.05)。结论:宫颈癌患者家属在围手术期同样存在严重的心理问题,医护人员应给予切实有效的心理指导,降低患者家属的心理应激水平。%Objective:To investigate the inlfuencing factors affecting stress level of family members of cervical cancer patients during perioperative period and provide theoretical basis for formulating psychological intervention measures. Methods:RSS scale, SAS scale and SDS scale were used to evaluate the stress level, anxiety and depression status of family members of cervical cancer patients during perioperative period; Pearson linear correlation analysis and Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were applied to analyze the inlfuencing factors affecting stress level of family members of cervical cancer patients.Results:The stress level of family members of cervical cancer patients was higher; the anxiety status was lighter but the depression status was moderate to severe. Linear correlation analysis showed RSS and its’ 3 factors positively correlated with anxiety and depression status. Multiple linear regression analysis showed nation, religion, family type, anxiety level and depression level were

  17. 78 FR 76529 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... definitions of family members residing in one household. As a result of this expansion, more U.S. returning resident and non-resident visitor families will be eligible to file a single customs declaration, and...

  18. Inhibition of TRPA1 channel activity in sensory neurons by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family member, artemin

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    Wang Shenglan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential (TRP channel subtype A1 (TRPA1 is known to be expressed on sensory neurons and respond to changes in temperature, pH and local application of certain noxious chemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC. Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor and belongs to the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF family. Both TRPA1 and artemin have been reported to be involved in pathological pain initiation and maintenance. In the present study, using whole-cell patch clamp recording technique, in situ hybridization and behavioral analyses, we examined the functional interaction between TRPA1 and artemin. Results We found that 85.8 ± 1.9% of TRPA1-expressing neurons also expressed GDNF family receptor alpha 3 (GFR α3, and 87.5 ± 4.1% of GFRα3-expressing neurons were TRPA1-positive. In whole-cell patch clamp analysis, a short-term treatment of 100 ng/ml artemin significantly suppressed the AITC-induced TRPA1 currents. A concentration-response curve of AITC resulting from the effect of artemin showed that this inhibition did not change EC50 but did lower the AITC-induced maximum response. In addition, pre-treatment of artemin significantly suppressed the number of paw lifts induced by intraplantar injection of AITC, as well as the formalin-induced pain behaviors. Conclusions These findings that a short-term application of artemin inhibits the TRPA1 channel's activity and the sequential pain behaviors suggest a role of artemin in regulation of sensory neurons.

  19. Research on related factors of WPV and cognition of family members of patients%对患者家属护士遭受工作场所暴力相关因素认知的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 隋树杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解患者家属对护士遭受工作场所暴力相关因素的认知状况,为减少暴力事件与干预提供依据。方法运用工作场所暴力事件相关因素调查问卷修订版对某三级甲等医院285名患者家属进行调查。结果285名患者家属对暴力事件相关因素调查总分为(87.32±26.38)分,条目平均分为(4.29±6.57)分,各维度条目平均分从高往低分别为护士方面因素、患者家属方面因素、医院方面因素、社会方面因素。结论护士工作场所暴力现象普遍存在,建议患者及家属、医院、媒体、政府部门多方面努力,进行综合干预,以减少医院工作场所暴力的发生。%Objective To know the cognitive status of patients′ family members about the related factors of workplace violence (WPV), and provide evidences for the reduction and intervention of violence. Methods Family members of 285 patients in a tertiary hospital were investigated about their cognition to WPV by using related factors of workplace violence questionnaire (revised edition).Results The total score of patients′ family members on related factors of WPV was (87.32±26.38) points, and the average score of entries was (4.29±6.57) points. The average score of related factors from high to low were:nurses, family members of patients, hospitals and society.Conclusions With the prevalence of the workplace violence, we recommend that, patients and their families, hospitals, the medias and government departments should reduce the incidence of hospital workplace violence by various comprehensive interventions.

  20. Patient and family members perspectives on radioactive iodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, P.; Fitch, M.I. [Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the findings of a survey of patients who received radioactive iodine therapy and their family members. The main objective of the survey was to gain an understanding of the experience of receiving radioactive iodine from the patient and family's perspective. The data from this study helped to inform the ARCP and GMA as they developed AC-9 - Principles of the management of radionuclide therapies. A survey was distributed to 700 patients and family members through physicians at 8 sites across Canada. Locations included: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario (2 sites), Quebec (2 sites), Manitoba and British Columbia. A total of 190 patients and 140 family members returned completed surveys. Data was analyzed separately for individuals treated as inpatients and those treated as outpatients. The results of the survey provided a perspective from patients and families about their experiences regarding radioactive iodine therapy. The data indicate variation in patients' and family members' perspectives about how precautions are to be implemented. Both patients and family members expressed the desire for more information regarding many aspects of the treatment experience. The results have implications for the development of patient information, continuing education (in particular in the areas of precaution), the provision of access to supportive and counselling services, and the importance of looking at the individual situations of patients and their families. (author)

  1. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  2. Country variations in family members' informal pressure to drink less

    OpenAIRE

    Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Knibbe, Ronald; Selin, Klara

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Uganda, UK and Uruguay (overall sample 44,115). In each country, the percentage of people who had experienced family member pressure to drink...

  3. Regulation of the PKCθ-NF-κB Axis in T lymphocytes by the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member OX40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori eSo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antigen primed T lymphocytes need to expand and persist to promote adaptive immunity. The growth and survival signals that control this are in large part provided by the NF-κB pathway in activated or effector/memory T cells. Although several membrane receptors impact NF-κB activation, signaling from OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, has proven to be important for T cell immunity and a strong contributor to NF-κB activity. PKCθ directs the TCR and CD28-dependent assembly of a CBM complex (CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1 for efficient activation of NF-κB, raising the question of whether other membrane bound receptors that activate NF-κB also require this PKCθ-CBM axis to control TCR-independent T cell activity. We discuss here our recent data demonstrating that after ligation by OX40L (CD252, TNFSF4 expressed on antigen-presenting cells, OX40 translocates into detergent-insoluble membrane lipid microdomains (DIM or lipid rafts in T cells irrespective of TCR signals, and assembles into a novel signaling complex containing PKCθ, together with TRAF2, RIP1, the CBM complex, and the IKKα/β/γ complex. PKCθ is required for optimal NF-κB activation mediated by OX40 and thus works as an essential component of this OX40 signalosome. We also discuss the likelihood that other TNFR superfamily molecules might complex with PKCθ in T cells, and whether PKC isoforms may be critical to the function of TNFR molecules in general. 

  4. Resilient Family Processes, Personal Reintegration, and Subjective Well-Being Outcomes for Military Personnel and Their Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; O'Neal, Catherine W; Conley, Kate M; Mancini, Jay A

    2017-06-15

    Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected survey data from 273 service members, their partners, and their adolescent children. Resilient family processes during the deployment itself (i.e., frequency of communication, household management), postdeployment positive and negative personal reintegration, and several indicators of well-being were assessed. Frequency of communication was related to personal reintegration for service members, while household management was related to personal reintegration for nondeployed partners; both factors were related to personal reintegration for adolescents. Negative and positive personal reintegration related to a variety of subjective well-being outcomes for each individual family member. Interindividual (i.e., crossover) effects were also found, particularly between adolescents and nondeployed partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Influencing factors of clinical decision of family members of end of life patients in intensive care unit%重症监护室生命末期病人家属临床决策的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦婕; 周厚秀; 朱京慈

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To about influencing factors of clinical decision of family members of end of life patients in intensive care unit(ICU).Methods:The phenomenological method was used to conduct semi structured deep interviews for ten family members of end of life patients in ICU from a third grade A hospital.Results:Influen-cing factors of clinical decision of family members of end of life patients in ICU were extracted as 3 elements and 9 sub elements:obj ective factor (quality of life,prognosis of the disease,lifetime wishes,deathbed place),fami-ly factors(economic conditions,whether family members’views unified or not),social and cultural factors (filial piety,fallen leaves return to the roots,and death attitude).Conclusion:The effective coping mechanism should be established from medical education training,medical institutions construction,medical legal guidelines and medical insurance system so as to arouse the attention to the quality of life of life of end patients in ICU.%[目的]了解重症监护室(ICU)生命末期病人家属临床决策的影响因素。[方法]采用现象学方法对某三级甲等医院的10名ICU生命末期病人家属进行半结构式深度访谈。[结果]ICU生命末期病人家属临床决策的影响因素提炼为3个要素9个亚要素:客观因素(生存质量、病情预后、生前意愿、临终场所)、家庭因素(经济条件、家属意见是否统一)、社会文化因素(孝道观、落叶归根、死亡态度)。[结论]应从医学教育培训、医疗机构设置、医学法律指南、医疗保险体制等方面建立有效的应对机制,唤起对 ICU 临终病人生命质量的重视。

  6. 艾滋病病毒感染者/患者家属自杀意念及其影响因素研究%Study on the risk factors of suicide ideation among family members of PLWHA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋栋; 孙业桓; 孙丽娜; 赵琼; 孙良; 张秀军; 杨林胜; 苏虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨安徽农村地区艾滋病病毒感染者/患者(people living with HIV/AIDS,PLWHA)家属自杀意念的发生及危险因素.方法 调查选择安徽省阜阳市颍州区京九乡的190名PLWHA非患病家属,使用自编一般情况调查问卷、家庭关怀度指数问卷(family APGAR index,APGAR)和客观歧视情况调查表进行调查,通过单因素和多因素分析探讨自杀意念与各影响因素之间的关系.结果 皖北农村地区PLWHA家属的自杀意念发生率为21.1%,单因素分析结果显示年龄偏大,配偶罹患艾滋病、家庭适应度低以及客观歧视中"疏远"、"朋友不再联系"、"同村的人不理睬"、"被他人看不起"和"不再受到帮助"等经历较多者易产生自杀意念;多因素分析显示配偶罹患艾滋病(OR=8.574,P<0.001)、其他亲属罹患艾滋病(OR=4.055,P=0.004)、被他人看不起(OR=4.445,P=0.003)和家庭适应度低(OR=5.857,P=0.010)是产生自杀意念的主要危险因素.结论 皖北农村地区PLWHA家属的自杀意念发生率较高,各种危险因素在不同角度影响其心理状况,应采取有针对性的措施进行引导和帮助.%Objective To explore the suicide ideation and risk factors among family members of PLWHA (people living with HIV/AIDS, PLWHA) in rural Anhui. Methods 190 family members of PLWHA, dwelling in Jingjiu township of Fuyang City were surveyed using the general self-efficacy scale, the situation of objective discrimination and Family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve) Index. Single-variable analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze therelationship between suicide ideation and risk factors. Results 21.1% family members of PLWHA had suicide ideation in northern rural area of Anhui. Single-variable analysis showed that suicide ideation was associated with age, spouse with HIV, lower family adaptation and objective discrimination such as “estranged”, “no contact with friends”,

  7. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  8. Characterization of Argonaute family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Hong Wang; Liang Jiang; Li Zhu; Ting-Cai Cheng; Wei-Huan Niu; Ya-Fei Yan; Qing-You Xia

    2013-01-01

    The Argonaute protein family is a highly conserved group of proteins,which have been implicated in RNA silencing in both plants and animals.Here,four members of the Argonaute family were systemically identified based on the genome sequence of Bombyx mori.Based on their sequence similarity,BmAgo1 and BmAgo2 belong to the Ago subfamily,while BmAgo3 and BmPiwi are in the Piwi subfamily.Phylogenetic analysis reveals that silkworm Argonaute family members are conserved in insects.Conserved amino acid residues involved in recognition of the 5' end of the small RNA guide strand and of the conserved(aspartate,aspartate and histidine [DDH])motif present in their PIWI domains suggest that these four Argonaute family members may have conserved slicer activities.The results of microarray expression analysis show that there is a low expression level for B.mori Argonaute family members in different tissues and different developmental stages,except for BmPiwi.All four B.mori Argonaute family members are upregulated upon infection with B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.The complete coding sequence of BmPiwi,the homolog of Drosophila piwi,was cloned and its expression occurred mainly in the area where spermatogonia and spermatocytes appear.Our results provide an overview of the B.mori Argonaute family members and suggest that they may have multiple roles.In addition,this is also the first report,to our knowledge,of the response of RNA silencing machinery to DNA virus infection in insects.

  9. Family Factors in Small Family Business Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Cater; Marilyn Young

    2016-01-01

    .... We suggest that while all three patterns of small family business growth may lead to individual company success and sustainability, businesses with units in multiple trade areas may be most adept at managing the six family factors.

  10. C68 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx is a novel member of the AbrB-like transcription factor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pirone, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    that are located upstream of its own promoter. The three-dimensional structure, solved by a single-wavelength anomalous diffraction experiment on a selenomethionine derivative, shows that the protein assumes a swapped-hairpin fold, which is a distinctive fold associated with a family of prokaryotic transcription...

  11. Service Members' Experiences in Staying Connected With Family While Deployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Susan W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the communication issues experienced by service members staying connected with families while deployed. Qualitative design guided data collection using interviews with 20 key informants who had been deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan. Inductive content analysis and NVivo software enabled data analysis. From the data, 5 main themes emerged: Creating Normalcy Through Connecting With Others; Understanding the Spoken and Unspoken; Connecting and Disconnecting; Changing Sense of Self; and Sustaining a Common Bond. A collective understanding of common communication challenges emerged that had an impact on service member/family relationships, mission focus, and safety.

  12. Characterization of ricin toxin family members from Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, Jonathan; Danielsen, Mark; Credle, Joel J; Weeks, Andrea; O'Connell, Kevin P; Dretchen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Ricin inhibits translation by removal of a specific adenine from 28S RNA. The Ricinus communis genome encodes seven full-length ricin family members. All encoded proteins have the ability of hydrolyzing adenine in 28S rRNA. As expected, these proteins also inhibited an in vitro transcription/translation system. These data show that the ricin gene family contains at least seven members that have the ability to inhibit translation and that may contribute to the toxicity of R. communis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life in adult patients with epilepsy and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Jaggi, Sabina; Bonomo, Armanda; Hediger, Hannele; Eggenschwiler, Priska; Krämer, Günther; Oberholzer, Erich

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy is not only a neurological disorder but may also have negative psychosocial consequences on people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives. Epilepsy has a major impact on quality of life (QoL) in PWE and family members. However, less is known about the impact of family support and family functioning on quality of life for PWE and family members and their interaction. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate factors that influence QoL in hospitalized adult patients with epilepsy and their relatives. An explorative cross-sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary clinic in Switzerland. Hospitalized adult patients with epilepsy and their relatives were enrolled in the study. Subjective QoL as well as family support and family functioning were measured with patients and family members. Patients and their relatives assessed the patients' support need and their satisfaction with the care provided. In addition, patients were administered a disease-related HRQoL measure (QoLIED-36, Version 2). Backward stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explain variances in patients and relatives' subjective QoL. One hundred and four dyads of patient and family member participated. Subjective QoL in patients and family members differed significantly, as did satisfaction with care delivery. In both groups family support contributed significantly to QoL. In the models 40% of the variance in QoL in patients and relatives could be explained. While the quality of life of the family members was affected by the patients' knowledge about the disease and the reason for their current hospitalization, patient QoL scores had no influence on the QoL of family members. The patients' QoL, however, depended significantly on the QoL of the family members. Interventions should address both PWE and family members and focus on the self-care improvement of PWE and the well-being and coping of family members. A patient-centred approach needs to include both the PWE and

  14. The challenges of reintegration for service members and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Steven J; Antonides, Bradley J

    2013-10-01

    The ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have posed a number of reintegration challenges to service members. Much of the research focuses on those service members experiencing psychological problems and being treated at the VA. In this article, we contend that much of the distress service members experience occurs following deployment and is a consequence of the difficulties encountered during their efforts to successfully reintegrate into their families and communities. We propose a new conceptual framework for intervening in this reintegration distress that is psycho-educational in nature as well as a new delivery model for providing such services. An example of this new intervention framework is presented.

  15. Global transcriptional regulator TrmB family members in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2016-10-01

    Members of the TrmB family act as global transcriptional regulators for the activation or repression of sugar ABC transporters and central sugar metabolic pathways, including glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and other metabolic pathways, and also as chromosomal stabilizers in archaea. As a relatively newly classified transcriptional regulator family, there is limited experimental evidence for their role in Thermococcales, halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC1, and crenarchaea Sulfolobus strains, despite being one of the extending protein families in archaea. Recently, the protein structures of Pyrococcus furiosus TrmB and TrmBL2 were solved, and the transcriptomic data uncovered by microarray and ChIP-Seq were published. In the present review, recent evidence of the functional roles of TrmB family members in archaea is explained and extended to bacteria.

  16. Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y

    2001-12-01

    The Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors are multifunctional molecules that transduce diverse intracellular signals leading to the activation of Rho GTPases. The tandem Dbl-homology and pleckstrin-homology domains shared by all members of this family represent the structural module responsible for catalyzing the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of Rho proteins. Recent progress in genomic, genetic, structural and biochemical studies has implicated Dbl family members in diverse biological processes, including growth and development, skeletal muscle formation, neuronal axon guidance and tissue organization. The detailed pictures of their autoregulation, agonist-controlled activation and mechanism of interaction with Rho GTPase substrates, have begun to emerge.

  17. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138 and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar and leaf

  18. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  19. The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Vieira, Florbela A; Gomes, Ana S; Power, Deborah M

    2010-05-06

    The secretin family is a pleotropic group of brain-gut peptides with affinity for class 2 G-protein coupled receptors (secretin family GPCRs) proposed to have emerged early in the metazoan radiation via gene or genome duplications. In human, 10 members exist and sequence and functional homologues and ligand-receptor pairs have been characterised in representatives of most vertebrate classes. Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic. In silico sequence comparisons failed to retrieve a non-vertebrate (porifera, cnidaria, protostome and early deuterostome) secretin family homologue. In contrast, secretin family members were identified in lamprey, several teleosts and tetrapods and comparative studies revealed that sequence and structure is in general maintained. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP, VIP and GCG are the most highly conserved members and two major peptide subfamilies exist; i) PACAP-like which includes PACAP, PRP, VIP, PH, GHRH, SCT and ii) GCG-like which includes GCG, GLP1, GLP2 and GIP. Conserved regions flanking secretin family members were established by comparative analysis of the Takifugu, Xenopus, chicken and human genomes and gene homologues were identified in nematode, Drosophila and Ciona genomes but no gene linkage occurred. However, in Drosophila and nematode genes which flank vertebrate secretin family members were identified in the same chromosome. Receptors of the secretin-like family GPCRs are present in protostomes but no sequence homologues of the vertebrate cognate ligands have been identified. It has not been possible to determine when the ligands evolved but it seems likely that it was after the protostome-deuterostome divergence from an exon that was part of an existing gene or gene fragment by rounds of gene/genome duplication. The duplicate exon

  20. The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Ana S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretin family is a pleotropic group of brain-gut peptides with affinity for class 2 G-protein coupled receptors (secretin family GPCRs proposed to have emerged early in the metazoan radiation via gene or genome duplications. In human, 10 members exist and sequence and functional homologues and ligand-receptor pairs have been characterised in representatives of most vertebrate classes. Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic. Results In silico sequence comparisons failed to retrieve a non-vertebrate (porifera, cnidaria, protostome and early deuterostome secretin family homologue. In contrast, secretin family members were identified in lamprey, several teleosts and tetrapods and comparative studies revealed that sequence and structure is in general maintained. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP, VIP and GCG are the most highly conserved members and two major peptide subfamilies exist; i PACAP-like which includes PACAP, PRP, VIP, PH, GHRH, SCT and ii GCG-like which includes GCG, GLP1, GLP2 and GIP. Conserved regions flanking secretin family members were established by comparative analysis of the Takifugu, Xenopus, chicken and human genomes and gene homologues were identified in nematode, Drosophila and Ciona genomes but no gene linkage occurred. However, in Drosophila and nematode genes which flank vertebrate secretin family members were identified in the same chromosome. Conclusions Receptors of the secretin-like family GPCRs are present in protostomes but no sequence homologues of the vertebrate cognate ligands have been identified. It has not been possible to determine when the ligands evolved but it seems likely that it was after the protostome-deuterostome divergence from an exon that was part of an existing gene or gene fragment

  1. Understanding disparities in aggressive care preferences between patients with terminal illness and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; You, Chang Hoon; Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kyung Sik; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Susie

    2006-06-01

    We examined the factors associated with the disparity in aggressive care preferences between patients with terminal cancer and their family members. Two hundred forty-four consecutive pairs recruited from three university hospitals participated in this study. Each pair completed questionnaires that measured two major aggressive care preferences-admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Sixty-eight percent of patients and their family members were in agreement regarding admission to the ICU and 71% agreed regarding CPR. Regarding admission to the ICU, younger, unmarried patients and patients who preferred to die in an institution were more likely to have a different preference from their family caregivers. Regarding CPR, younger patients and patients from severely dysfunctional families were more likely to have a different preference from their family caregivers. Elucidation of the factors associated with such disparities should help reduce them.

  2. The novel interleukin-1 cytokine family members in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Madelaine; Frey, Silke; Hueber, Axel J

    2017-03-01

    This review provides an update on the new interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family members in inflammatory diseases with focus on recent findings concerning the family members IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 and their different expression patterns. The IL-1 cytokines are known to be involved in many different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The latest IL-1 family members, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 have been shown to be differently regulated during course of disease. Studies of patients suffering from inflammatory diseases revealed that those cytokines are upregulated in the serum as well as in inflamed tissue. Both, epithelial cells and infiltrating peripheral mononuclear blood cells serve as source of the cytokines IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 triggering different outcomes. These results could be confirmed in different mouse models and in-vitro and ex-vivo studies. IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 are involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory diseases psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, systemic lupus erythematosus as well as Crohn's disease. Thereby IL-36 acts proinflammatory triggering further inflammatory mediators. In contrast, IL-37 and IL-38 are upregulated to counteract. Understanding the imbalance of the IL-1 family is crucial for future therapeutics.

  3. A corpus-based study on images of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative computer technology has sparked a revolutionary change in the area of languageanalysis. Individual researchers are increasingly likely to access huge corpora containingseveral hundred million words and to analyze the data using highly developed languageanalyzers via the Internet. Sketch Engine is one of such online language analyzers, whichregards the Internet as a data source for linguistic studies. The online system allows us toanalyze a wide range of Japanese texts with more than 400 million words, as well as texts inother languages. In this paper, we will examine the use of the words for family members inJapanese texts and reveal images of each member role hidden in the same.

  4. CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF has anti-aging effects that protect articular cartilage from age-related degenerative changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Itoh

    Full Text Available To examine the role of connective tissue growth factor CCN2/CTGF (CCN2 in the maintenance of the articular cartilaginous phenotype, we analyzed knee joints from aging transgenic mice (TG overexpressing CCN2 driven by the Col2a1 promoter. Knee joints from 3-, 14-, 40-, and 60-day-old and 5-, 12-, 18-, 21-, and 24-month-old littermates were analyzed. Ccn2-LacZ transgene expression in articular cartilage was followed by X-gal staining until 5 months of age. Overexpression of CCN2 protein was confirmed through all ages in TG articular cartilage and in growth plates. Radiographic analysis of knee joints showed a narrowing joint space and other features of osteoarthritis in 50% of WT, but not in any of the TG mice. Transgenic articular cartilage showed enhanced toluidine blue and safranin-O staining as well as chondrocyte proliferation but reduced staining for type X and I collagen and MMP-13 as compared with those parameters for WT cartilage. Staining for aggrecan neoepitope, a marker of aggrecan degradation in WT articular cartilage, increased at 5 and 12 months, but disappeared at 24 months due to loss of cartilage; whereas it was reduced in TG articular cartilage after 12 months. Expression of cartilage genes and MMPs under cyclic tension stress (CTS was measured by using primary cultures of chondrocytes obtained from wild-type (WT rib cartilage and TG or WT epiphyseal cartilage. CTS applied to primary cultures of mock-transfected rib chondrocytes from WT cartilage and WT epiphyseal cartilage induced expression of Col1a1, ColXa1, Mmp-13, and Mmp-9 mRNAs; however, their levels were not affected in CCN2-overexpressing chondrocytes and TG epiphyseal cartilage. In conclusion, cartilage-specific overexpression of CCN2 during the developmental and growth periods reduced age-related changes in articular cartilage. Thus CCN2 may play a role as an anti-aging factor by stabilizing articular cartilage.

  5. The chimeric repressor version of an Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family member, Sl-ERF.B3, shows contrasting effects on tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Diretto, Gianfranco; Pirrello, Julien; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Giuliano, Giovanni; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening involves a complex interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated transcriptional regulators. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of ethylene signaling, known to regulate the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Although fruit ripening is an ethylene-regulated process, the role of ERFs remains poorly understood. The role of Sl-ERF.B3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit maturation and ripening is addressed here using a chimeric dominant repressor version (ERF.B3-SRDX). Over-expression of ERF.B3-SRDX results in a dramatic delay of the onset of ripening, enhanced climacteric ethylene production and fruit softening, and reduced pigment accumulation. Consistently, genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and in softening are up-regulated and those of carotenoid biosynthesis are down-regulated. Moreover, the expression of ripening regulators, such as RIN, NOR, CNR and HB-1, is stimulated in ERF.B3-SRDX dominant repressor fruits and the expression pattern of a number of ERFs is severely altered. The data suggest the existence of a complex network enabling interconnection between ERF genes which may account for the pleiotropic alterations in fruit maturation and ripening. Overall, the study sheds new light on the role of Sl-ERF.B3 in the transcriptional network controlling the ripening process and uncovers a means towards uncoupling some of the main ripening-associated processes.

  6. Insider Research with Family Members who have a Member Living with Rare Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Foster PhD

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author explores insider research in relation to family members facing a diagnosis of rare cancer, using her experiences as one such family member undertaking doctoral research into journeys similar to hers. The “insider” issue is explored through three realms: the ethical realm, including issues of “fitness” to undertake the research; the methodological realm, including how data are obtained and used; and the trustworthiness realm, including research rigor. The exploration of her insider experiences includes personal challenges in relation to facing familiar emotionally charged experiences, insights gained as a result of her insider status, and her ability to join with participants in ways that might not be possible for an outsider. In the paper the author challenges taken-for-granted assumptions that trustworthiness can be assured only from the position of “objective” researcher. Rather, this analysis places knowledge gained through the processes and products of research as constituted and contextualized.

  7. Phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the H6 homeobox gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, H S; Murray, J C; Leysens, N J; Goodfellow, P J; Solursh, M

    1995-06-01

    Homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. Here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. These species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from Homo sapiens to Drosophila melanogaster. In humans, at least two homeobox sequences from this family were identified representing a previously reported member of this family as well as a novel homeobox sequence that we physically mapped to the 10q25.2-q26.3 region of human Chromosome (Chr) 10. Multiple members of this family were also detected in three additional vertebrate species including Equus caballus (horse), Gallus gallus (Chicken), and Mus musculus (mouse), whereas only single members were detected in Tripneustes gratilla (sea urchin), Petromyzon marinus (lamprey), Salmo salar (salmon), Ovis aries (sheep), and D. melanogaster (fruit fly).

  8. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers.

  9. [Proxy consent and responsibility: professional autonomy and adamant family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwen, D P; Cools, H J M; Engberts, D P

    2010-02-01

    Research into the role of family members in the decision making process concerning medical treatment of incompetent patients in nursing home care, shows that the involvement of a proxy decision maker implies a greater responsibility of the physician. It is the duty of the proxy decision-maker (mostly a family member) to look after the incompetent patient's interests. But it is the physician's duty to decide whether the proxy decision maker indeed fulfills this task. Even so, the physician has the professional responsibility to decide on the medical course of action. Involvement of others (relations and other health care professionals) is of great importance to the answer to the question 'What is good for this patient?' but does not absolve the physician from the obligation to decide professionally what is the right thing to do.

  10. IκBζ, an atypical member of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B family, is induced by γ-irradiation in glioma cells, regulating cytokine secretion and associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennenstuhl, Heiko; Armento, Angela; Braczysnki, Anne Kristin; Mittelbronn, Michel; Naumann, Ulrike

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B zeta (IκBζ) is an atypical member of the IκB protein family. Its function in regulating the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) as well as its involvement in cancer-associated processes is poorly understood. In glioma patients, enhanced expression of IκBζ in tumor specimen is associated with poor prognosis. Here we report that IκBζ is upregulated in a glioma cell line resistant towards NFκB-dependent non-apoptotic cell death. Upon γ-irradiation of glioma cells, IκBζ expression is enhanced, and subsequently serves as a transcriptional activator of the tumor promoting cytokines interleukin (IL-6), IL-8 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) that are known to be involved in glioma associated inflammatory processes. In contrast, shRNA-mediated knockdown of IκBζ reduces the expression of the aforementioned cytokines. We propose a previously unappreciated role of IκBζ in the inflammatory micromilieu as well as progression in glioma.

  11. Family members' experiences of schizophrenic disorders and violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlas, J.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper investigated the effects of violence by people with mental health problems. It briefly considered the link between mental illness and violence, before reviewing the literature on the targets of violence from people with mental health problems, concurrently addressing methodological limitations. Family members and/or caregivers are often the victims of violent behaviour from individuals with mental health problems. The effects of this violence were reviewed, integrating findi...

  12. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makmor Tumin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members.We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire.Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05.Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  13. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Chong, Chin-Sieng

    2014-07-01

    Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  14. Family members' perceived meaning of visiting nursing home residents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study to explore perceived family meaning of visiting older nursing home residents in Taiwan. Family involvement in the care of institutionalized elders benefits residents, family and staff. Families have traditionally been involved through in-person visits. One factor influencing family visits is motivation, which is a vague concept, creating a need to better understand the meaning families ascribe to visiting nursing home residents. Understanding this meaning is necessary to develop intervention programmes that facilitate the quality of families' nursing-home visits. However, little is known about the meaning of family visits to nursing home residents in Asian countries. Data were collected April 2009-2010 in audiotaped, individual, in-depth interviews with 15 family members of residents at four nursing homes in Taiwan. These family members included five women and 10 men, predominantly residents' children and spouses. The meaning of family visits to nursing home residents was captured by five major themes: hoping for recovery, honouring filial/karmic responsibility, insuring care quality, maintaining family relationships and making up for guilt. The findings of this study can be considered by nurses and policy makers when designing interventions and allocating resources to improve the quality of family visits with nursing home residents. These interventions can be tailored to family members' perceived meanings for visiting, e.g. those hoping for residents' recovery may benefit from health-promotion programmes, and those honouring filial/karmic responsibility might be helped by education on different ways to show filial respect. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  16. C8, a new member of the convertase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-01-01

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8. PMID:8615762

  17. PC8 [corrected], a new member of the convertase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-03-15

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8.

  18. Perspectives of family members on planning end-of-life care for terminally ill and frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eechoud, Ineke J; Piers, Ruth D; Van Camp, Sigrid; Grypdonck, Mieke; Van Den Noortgate, Nele J; Deveugele, Myriam; Verbeke, Natacha C; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2014-05-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) is the process by which patients, together with their physician and loved ones, establish preferences for future care. Because previous research has shown that relatives play a considerable role in end-of-life care decisions, it is important to understand how family members are involved in this process. To gain understanding of the involvement of family members in ACP for older people near the end of life by exploring their views and experiences concerning this process. This was a qualitative research study, done with semistructured interviews. Twenty-one family members were recruited from three geriatric settings in Flanders, Belgium. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method as proposed by the grounded theory. Family members took different positions in the ACP process depending on how much responsibility the family member wanted to take and to what extent the family member felt the patient expected him/her to play a part. The position of family members on these two dimensions was influenced by several factors, namely acknowledgment of the imminent death, experiences with death and dying, opinion about the benefits of ACP, burden of initiating conversations about death and dying, and trust in health care providers. Furthermore, the role of family members in ACP was embedded in the existing relationship patterns. This study provides insight into the different positions of family members in the end-of-life care planning of older patients with a short life expectancy. It is important for health care providers to understand the position of a family member in the ACP of the patient, take into account that family members may experience an active role in ACP as burdensome, and consider existing relationship patterns. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members The main aim of the research was to analyze certain lifestyle factors of flight crew members. This profession has rather high demands relating to body type, basic skills, as well as good mental and physical condition. The sample of respondents included 76 members of the Adria Airways d. d. cabin crew (19.7% men and 80.3% women with the average age of 30.3 years (SD = 9.88, most of them (74.1% finished high school and only one third had a full-time work contract. Using a questionnaire, we investigated the amount of exercise they get during work and in their free time, as well as their health conditions. Results show that in their free time most of the respondents participate in sports, with outdoor sports being the most popular form of exercise (running and walking, hiking, skiing, and swimming. The respondents spend most of their time at work standing up (18.4% and walking (27.6%. Many of them (35% find that they have to maintain postures that are uncomfortable. Most of them experience a combination of all the above. Most (38.2% do sports at least twice a week, and as many as 84.2% 3 to 5 times a week. Only 4% of the respondents participate in sports activities organized by their employer. Most (77.6% believe themselves to be in good health and only 6.6% believe themselves to be often under stress. Relatively many smoke. Among health problems, the highest percentage (46.1% of respondents list fatigue, followed by back pain (34.2% and neck pain (30.3%. Considering the characteristics of this profession, we recommend cabin crew members do aerobic exercise as well as more complex and preventative sport exercises intended to prevent back pain, and also to do more exercises for strength, core stability and flexibility. Různé faktory životního stylu členů letové posádky Hlavním cílem výzkumu bylo analyzovat některé faktory životního stylu členů letových posádek. Tato profese klade

  20. Murine insulin growth factor-like (IGFL) and human IGFL1 proteins are induced in inflammatory skin conditions and bind to a novel tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, IGFLR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobito, Adrian A; Ramani, Sree R; Tom, Irene; Bazan, J Fernando; Luis, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Ouyang, Wenjun; Gonzalez, Lino C

    2011-05-27

    Psoriasis is a human skin condition characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and infiltration of multiple leukocyte populations. In characterizing a novel insulin growth factor (IGF)-like (IGFL) gene in mice (mIGFL), we found transcripts of this gene to be most highly expressed in skin with enhanced expression in models of skin wounding and psoriatic-like inflammation. A possible functional ortholog in humans, IGFL1, was uniquely and significantly induced in psoriatic skin samples. In vitro IGFL1 expression was up-regulated in cultured primary keratinocytes stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α but not by other psoriasis-associated cytokines. Finally, using a secreted and transmembrane protein library, we discovered high affinity interactions between human IGFL1 and mIGFL and the TMEM149 ectodomain. TMEM149 (renamed here as IGFLR1) is an uncharacterized gene with structural similarity to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Our studies demonstrate that IGFLR1 is expressed primarily on the surface of mouse T cells. The connection between mIGFL and IGFLR1 receptor suggests mIGFL may influence T cell biology within inflammatory skin conditions.

  1. The relations of family members' unique and shared perspectives of family dysfunction to dyad adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2014-06-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members' shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members' shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family's family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father; the father's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent, as well as lower marital quality with mother; and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared with the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system-the adolescent's unique view in particular-independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research, as well as therapeutic interventions, that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction.

  2. Differential expression of Notch family members in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yu, Shizhu; Jiang, Rongcai; Kang, Chunsheng; Wang, Guangxiu; Jiang, Hao; Pu, Peiyu

    2009-12-01

    Notch signaling pathway plays an integral role in determining cell fates in development. Growing evidence demonstrates that Notch signaling pathway has versatile effects in tumorigenesis depending on the tumor type, grade and stage. Notch signaling pathway is deregulated in some brain tumors. To examine the differential expression of Notch family members (Notch1, 2, 3, 4) in human astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, and to evaluate their roles in the development of both tumor types. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to detect Notch1, 2, 3, 4 expression in tissue microarray and freshly resected tissue samples of normal brain, astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Notch family members were not expressed or barely detectable in normal brain tissues. Notch1, 3, 4 were highly expressed but Notch2 was not expressed in astrocytomas. The percentage of immunopositive tumor cells and level of Notch1 expression was increased with tumor grade. In addition, overexpression of Notch2 was detected in medulloblastomas in contrast to low or no expression of Notch1, 3, 4. Differential expression of Notch1, 2, 3, 4 is detected in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, that may be related to their different roles playing in the development of brain tumors.

  3. The nuclear factor κB family member RelB facilitates apoptosis of renal epithelial cells caused by cisplatin/tumor necrosis factor α synergy by suppressing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Giulia; Fokkelman, Michiel; Yan, Kuan; Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Meerman, John; van de Water, Bob; de Graauw, Marjo

    2013-07-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin)-induced renal proximal tubular apoptosis is known to be preceded by actin cytoskeleton reorganization, in conjunction with disruption of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. In the present study, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) aggravated these cisplatin-induced F-actin and cell adhesion changes, which was associated with enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis of immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. TNF-α-induced RelB expression and lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of RelB, but not other nuclear factor κB members, abrogated the synergistic apoptosis observed with cisplatin/TNF-α treatment to the level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protective effect was associated with increased stress fiber formation, cell-matrix, and cell-cell adhesion in the shRNARelB (shRelB) cells during cisplatin/TNF-α treatment, mimicking an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotypic switch. Indeed, gene array analysis revealed that knockdown of RelB was associated with upregulation of several actin regulatory genes, including Snai2 and the Rho GTPase proteins Rhophilin and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (ARHGEF3). Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase signaling re-established the synergistic apoptosis induced by combined cisplatin/TNF-α treatment of shRelB cells. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that RelB is required for the cisplatin/TNF-α-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptosis in renal cells by controlling a Rho kinase-dependent signaling network.

  4. Familial risk factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Xue Ming; Parikh, Amisha

    2007-05-01

    Familial history risk factors in relation to autism were examined in a cohort of 164 autistic children referred to The Autism Center at New Jersey Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, over a 2-year period (2001-2003). Information related to familial history was obtained from each family and reviewed by a clinician. It is shown that these families carry a higher overall burden of psychiatric and developmental illnesses compared to reported national levels. These families also carry a relatively high incidence of medical disorders, independently of developmental and psychiatric disorders. This work supports the underlying presence of genetic factors in the etiology of autism.

  5. A family operation: plastic surgeons who perform aesthetic surgery on spouses or other family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Sara A; Slavin, Sumner A; Goldwyn, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether plastic surgeons would perform elective cosmetic surgery on spouses or other family members and how many have done so, the type of procedures, the circumstances under which the surgery took place, and the results. Participants were 465 members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, representing 30.7 percent of the overall sample pool of 1513 members recruited through anonymous, voluntary participation in an online survey. Approximately half (51.8 percent) were 51 to 65 years old, most were men (91.2 percent), and most were from large urban areas; respondents had been in practice for 1 to 40 years. The plastic surgeons who returned the survey were comfortable performing elective cosmetic procedures on family members, the majority having already done so. Eighty-eight percent reported they would operate on a spouse or other family member, and 83.9 percent reported they already had. The main motivation (67 percent) was their belief that they were the best surgeon for the procedure. The most commonly listed operations were rhinoplasty, abdominoplasty, eyelidplasty, face lift, breast augmentation, and liposuction. Patients included spouses, children, parents, cousins, and in-laws, ranging from teenaged males to women in their 70s. The overwhelming majority (94.2 percent) reported no complications, and 99.5 percent believed the patients were satisfied with their outcome. Survey participants are comfortable with the idea of performing elective cosmetic procedures on family members. Regardless of the invasiveness of the procedure or their relationship with the patient, respondents reported no complications and a high level of patient satisfaction anomalous for any patient-surgeon sample, suggesting that surgeons who operate on family members hold confident opinions of their surgical skills and results.

  6. Suppression of CHK1 by ETS Family Members Promotes DNA Damage Response Bypass and Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Andrea; Varmeh, Shohreh; Chen, Ming; Taulli, Riccardo; Guarnerio, Jlenia; Ala, Ugo; Seitzer, Nina; Ishikawa, Tomoki; Carver, Brett S; Hobbs, Robin M; Quarantotti, Valentina; Ng, Christopher; Berger, Alice H; Nardella, Caterina; Poliseno, Laura; Montironi, Rodolfo; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Signoretti, Sabina; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors has been repeatedly implicated in tumorigenesis. In prostate cancer, ETS family members, such as ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, are frequently overexpressed due to chromosomal translocations, but the molecular mechanisms by which they promote prostate tumorigenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we show that ETS family members, such as ERG and ETV1, directly repress the expression of the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a key DNA damage response cell-cycle regulator essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. Critically, we find that ERG expression correlates with CHK1 downregulation in human patients and demonstrate that Chk1 heterozygosity promotes the progression of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia into prostatic invasive carcinoma in Pten(+) (/-) mice. Importantly, CHK1 downregulation sensitizes prostate tumor cells to etoposide but not to docetaxel treatment. Thus, we identify CHK1 as a key functional target of the ETS proto-oncogenic family with important therapeutic implications. Genetic translocation and aberrant expression of ETS family members is a common event in different types of human tumors. Here, we show that through the transcriptional repression of CHK1, ETS factors may favor DNA damage accumulation and consequent genetic instability in proliferating cells. Importantly, our findings provide a rationale for testing DNA replication inhibitor agents in ETS-positive TP53-proficient tumors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Perspectives of Family Members on Using Technology in Youth Mental Health Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Daniel, Winnie; Rivard, Lysanne

    2017-06-23

    and attitudes toward the role of technology in youth mental health, digital literacy skills, phases of recovery, and sociodemographic factors when engaging family members in technology-enabled youth mental health care research and practice. Innovative methods to recruit and elicit the perspectives of family members on this topic are warranted. It is also important to consider educational strategies to inform and empower family members on the role, benefits, and use of ICTs in relation to mental health care for FEP.

  8. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... and Positions § 734.405 Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a...

  9. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic medical, hygienic... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember...

  10. The burden of living with and caring for a suicidal family member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Columba; McGowan, Iain; O'Neill, Siobhan; Kernohan, George

    2014-10-01

    The family has a primary role in caring for family members who are suicidal and in the prevention of future suicide. However, the impact that suicidal behaviour has on these family members is poorly understood. To explore the lived experiences of participants who cared for suicidal family members. Eighteen participants were interviewed using a short topic guide. Responses were digitally recorded and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. One overarching theme: "Hard work for the whole family" and four sub-themes: (i) Family burden, (ii) competing pressures, (iii) secrecy and shame and (iv) helplessness and guilt. Caring for a suicidal family member may be euphemistically summarised as "hard work" that impacts heavily on the day-to-day tasks of other family members. Participants spent much time worrying and ruminating about the risk of suicide in their family member. Mental health care professionals ought to acknowledge and address the impact that suicidal behaviour has on family carers.

  11. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  12. Nursing interventions for family members waiting during cardiac procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecartin, Kelly; Carroll, Diane L

    2011-08-01

    Anxiety is shared by patients and family members (FMs) and can increase throughout the FMs waiting during invasive cardiac procedures (ICP). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of an informational report (IR) and a postprocedure visit (PPV), on the anxiety of waiting FMs. There were 151 FMs assigned to 3 groups; Group 1 (50 FMs: standard of care [SOC]), Group 2 (50 FMs: SOC + IR), and Group 3 (51 FMs: SOC + IR + PPV). Pre/ postvariables measured were: blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), skin temperature (ST), and anxiety. When comparing the BP, HR, ST, and anxiety there were no differences between groups with either SOC or IR. There was a significant reduction in anxiety, from baseline to the PPV in Group 3 (F = 10.1; p < .000). A PPV had an impact on FMs and a PPV should be incorporated as a nursing intervention during ICP.

  13. Informational support to family members of intensive care unit patients: the perspectives of families and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Mohammadi, Nooredin

    2014-09-25

    The receiving information about the patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is classified among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. Meeting the informational needs of families is a major goal for intensive care workers. Delivering honest, intelligible and effective information raises specific challenges in the stressful setting of the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this qualitative study was to explain perspectives of families of Intensive Care Unit patients and nurses about informational support. Using a conventional content analysis approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants to explore their perspectives of providing informational support to families of ICU patients. A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit nineteen family members of thirteen patients hospitalized in the ICU and twelve nurses from three teaching hospitals. In general, 31 persons participated in this study. Data collection continued to achieve data saturation. A conventional content analysis of the data produced three categories and seven sub-categories. The three main categories were as followed, a) providing information, b) handling information and c) using information. Providing information had three sub-categories consisting of "receiving admission news", "receiving truthful and complete information" and receiving general information. Handling information had two sub-categories consisting "keeping information" and "gradual revelation". Lastly, using information has two sub-categories consisting of "support of patient" and "support of family members". The results of this study revealed perspectives of families of Intensive Care Unit patients and nurses about informational support. It also determines the nurses' need to know more about the influence of their supportive role on family's ICU patients informing. In addition, the results of present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering

  14. Follow-Up Study to Family Members' Reactions to the Initial Special Education Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Paez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Family involvement is a central component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Family members are to be integrated in all aspects of the special education process. At the onset, of family involvement, it is imperative for educators to be aware of possible reactions family members may experience in this initial stage. This…

  15. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family... candidate for partisan political office may appear in a family photograph which is printed in a campaign...

  16. Follow-Up Study to Family Members' Reactions to the Initial Special Education Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Paez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Family involvement is a central component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Family members are to be integrated in all aspects of the special education process. At the onset, of family involvement, it is imperative for educators to be aware of possible reactions family members may experience in this initial stage. This…

  17. Posttraumatic Growth Among Family Members With Missing Persons From War in Kosovo: Association With Social Support and Community Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenliu, Aliriza; Shala-Kastrati, Fatmire; Berisha Avdiu, Vjollca; Landsman, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is almost no data on the role of social support and in general on posttraumatic growth among people who have missing family member(s) as result of war and who experience ambiguous loss. This study explores relationship between reported posttraumatic growth and perceived social support and social activism in community-based organizations dealing directly with issues of missing persons. Family members who reported higher levels of social support from family, friends, and important others reported significant higher levels of posttraumatic growth. Family members that reported being active in community-based organizations reported significant higher averages in posttraumatic growth scores in total and its subscales. Regression analyses indicates that factors associated posttraumatic growth were as follows: being active in community organization dealing with missing person's issues and higher levels of social support from friends and family. Findings provide insight for clinicians working with this population and psycho social experts working in postconflict contexts.

  18. Empowering family members in end-of-life care decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Annette M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses are often faced with working with families during the end-of-life care of a loved one. Often there is indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients when faced with making these difficult decisions. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe origins of indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients who are faced with end-of-life care decisions. Strategies to empower family members during this crucial time are also discussed.

  19. Psychological crisis intervention for the family members of patients in a vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work. METHODS: A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed. RESULTS: All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety.

  20. Forgotten family members: the importance of siblings in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; McGorry, Patrick; Howie, Linsey

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the significance of sibling inclusion in family interventions and support during early psychosis. This narrative review presents the current research related to the importance of family work during early psychosis, the needs and developmental significance of siblings during adolescence and early adulthood, the protective effects of sibling relationships, and the characteristics of early psychosis relevant to the sibling experience. It will also review the evidence of the sibling experience in chronic physical illness and disability, as well as long-term psychotic illness. Despite the evidence that working with families is important during early psychosis, siblings have been largely ignored. Siblings are an important reciprocal relationship of long duration. They play an important role in development during adolescence and early adulthood. These relationships may be an underutilized protective factor due to their inherent benefits and social support. Developmental theories imply that early psychosis could negatively impact the sibling relationship and their quality of life, effecting personality development and health outcomes. The evidence shows that adolescent physical illness or disability has a significantly negative impact on the sibling's quality of life and increases the risk for the onset of mental health issues. Long-term psychotic illness also results in negative experiences for siblings. Current evidence shows that siblings in early psychosis experience psychological distress and changes in functional performance. Further research using standard measures is required to understand the impact early psychosis has on the sibling relationship and their quality of life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA...) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths... their parents) of the Internal Revenue Code (``Code'') to entities that are disregarded as separate...

  2. 76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons employed by children and spouses and children under 21 employed by their parents) of the...

  3. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons employed by children and spouses and children under 21 employed by their parents) of the...

  4. Influence factor of primary burden in family members of hospitalized brain tumor patients%常见脑肿瘤住院患者主要照顾者负担的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞; 杨文君; 吴兰华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors affecting hospitalized cancer patients with common brain tumor bur-den primary caregivers. Methods:A questionnaire was used to survey the factors of brain tumor patients hospitalized primary caregiver burden. The contents of the questionnaire included general information,caregiver burden Scale Symptom Checklist(SCL - 90)dominated. Results:The evaluation of brain tumor burden scale inpatient primary car-egivers burden situations where brain tumor patients hospitalized primary caregiver burden was the heaviest burden of time - dependent,followed by the body burden and emotional burden. Brain tumors primary caregivers had significant difference in six areas of somatization,depression,anxiety,terror,paranoia,anxiety and other comparative norm group.The comparison of interpersonal sensitivity,hostility and psychotic three aspects were not statistically significant. Brain tumor patients hospitalized primary caregiver burden of impact,patient factors,whether there was a common caregiv-ers,care duration,patient medical costs and payment methods caregiver mental state. Conclusion:Cancer patients is the major factor in family members to take care them.%目的:探讨分析影响常见脑肿瘤住院患者主要照顾者的负担影响因素,以期在一定程度上能够针对性的帮助主要照顾者减轻其负担。方法:采用调查问卷的形式开展调查,问卷的内容包括一般资料调查、照顾者负担量表以及症状自评量表(SCL -90)。结果:用负担量表评价脑肿瘤住院患者主要照顾者的负担情况,其中负担最重的是时间依赖,接下来依次为身体负担和情感负担。脑肿瘤患者的主要照顾者在躯体化、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖、偏执、焦虑等六个方面对比常模组有显著性差异。而人际关系敏感度、敌对和精神病性等三个方面对比则没有统计学差异。影响脑肿瘤住院患者主要照顾者负担的影响有患

  5. Hereditary Angioedema: Three Cases Report, Members of the Same Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Kolokotronis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This current clinical case report highlights three cases of Hereditary angioedema (HAE patients who are all members of the same family (father and his two daughters. The father has C1–INH deficiency, while his daughters have low C1–INH levels: the first possesses only 10% function and the second has low C1–INH level with 0% function. Of note, the second daughter was discovered to have HAE at the age of 2, thus making her the youngest known HAE case report in the English literature.Methods: Assess the efficacy of administration of C1-INH before dental operation as regards the prevention of HAE episode, when total or partial C1-INH deficiency exists.Results: Acute angioedema leading to laryngeal oedema is a possibly fatal complication for HAE patients undergoing dental procedures. Use of both short-term and long-term HAE prophylaxis prior to dental operations might be life saving for those patients.Conclusions: Prevention and early recognition of potential laryngeal oedema that can occur as a complication of dental procedures may be lifesaving for HAE patients.

  6. Interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Gayle J; Winter, Mary A

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews 73 published and unpublished research reports of interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia by nurse researchers and researchers from other disciplines. Reports were identified through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Social Science Index, PsycINFO, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, American Association of Retired Persons database, CRISP index of the National Institutes of Health, Cochrane Center database, and Dissertation Abstracts using the following search terms: caregiver, caregiving, dementia, Alzheimer's, intervention study, evaluation study, experimental, and quasi-experimental design. Additional keywords were used to narrow or expand the search as necessary. All nursing research was included in the review and nonnursing research was included if published between 1991 and 2001. Studies were included if they used a design that included a treatment and control group or a one-group, pretest-posttest design (ex post facto designs were included if they used a comparison group). Key findings show that approximately 32% of the study outcomes (e.g., burden, depression, knowledge) were changed after intervention in the desired direction. In addition, several problematic issues were identified including small, diverse samples; lack of intervention specificity; diversity in the length, duration, and intensity of the intervention strategies; and problematic outcome measures.

  7. Still Searching: A Meta-Synthesis of a Good Death from the Bereaved Family Member Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Tenzek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a good death continues to receive attention in end-of-life (EOL scholarship. We sought to continue this line of inquiry related to a good death by conducting a meta-synthesis of published qualitative research studies that examined a good death from the bereaved family member’s perspective. Results of the meta-synthesis included 14 articles with 368 participants. Based on analysis, we present a conceptual model called The Opportunity Model for Presence during the EOL Process. The model is framed in socio-cultural factors, and major themes include EOL process engagement with categories of healthcare participants, communication and practical issues. The second theme, (discontinuity of care, includes categories of place of care, knowledge of family member dying and moment of death. Both of these themes lead to perceptions of either a good or bad death, which influences the bereavement process. We argue the main contribution of the model is the ability to identify moments throughout the interaction where family members can be present to the EOL process. Recommendations for healthcare participants, including patients, family members and clinical care providers are offered to improve the quality of experience throughout the EOL process and limitations of the study are discussed.

  8. Emotional disorders in pairs of patients and their family members during and after ICU stay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rego Lins Fumis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients and family members undergo different experiences of suffering from emotional disorders during ICU stay and after ICU discharge. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in pairs (patient and respective family member, during stay at an open visit ICU and at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge. We hypothesized that there was a positive correlation with the severity of symptoms among pairs and different patterns of suffering over time. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a 22-bed adult general ICU including patients with >48 hours stay. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was completed by the pairs (patients/respective family member. Interviews were made by phone at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge using the Impact of Event Scale (IES and the HADS. Multivariate models were constructed to predict IES score at 30 days for patients and family members. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventy one family members and 289 patients were interviewed in the ICU forming 184 pairs for analysis. Regarding HADS score, patients presented less symptoms than family members of patients who survived and who deceased at 30 and 90-days (p<0.001. However, family members of patients who deceased scored higher anxiety and depression symptoms (p = 0.048 at 90-days when compared with family members of patients who survived. Patients and family members at 30-days had a similar IES score, but it was higher in family members at 90-days (p = 0.019. For both family members and patients, age and symptoms of anxiety and depression during ICU were the major determinants for PTSD at 30-days. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms were higher in family members than in the patients. Furthermore, these symptoms in family members persisted at 3 months, while they decreased in patients.

  9. E2F family members are differentially regulated by reversible acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzio, G; Wagener, C; Gutierrez, M I;

    2000-01-01

    The six members of the E2F family of transcription factors play a key role in the control of cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation. E2F-1, -2, and -3 belong to a structural and functional subfamily distinct from those...... of the other E2F family members. Here we report that E2F-1, -2, and -3, but not E2F-4, -5, and -6, associate with and are acetylated by p300 and cAMP-response element-binding protein acetyltransferases. Acetylation occurs at three conserved lysine residues located at the N-terminal boundary of their DNA...

  10. Family Adjustment Following Disclosure of Homosexuality by a Member: Themes Discerned in Narrative Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff; DiProva, Vicky

    1999-01-01

    Using a narrative approach, study explores how families respond to homosexual disclosure of a member over time and how families integrate the family member once their homosexuality has been accepted. Discusses the relationship between 12 themes found through these narratives and current models in the literature within the context of heterosexism.…

  11. Importance of dimer formation of myocardin family members in the regulation of their nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Morita, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Myocardin (Mycd) family members function as a transcriptional cofactor for serum response factor (SRF). Dimer formation is necessary to exhibit their function, and the coiled-coil domain (CC) plays a critical role in their dimerization. We have recently revealed a detailed molecular mechanism for their Crm1 (exportin1)-mediated nuclear export. Here, we found other unique significances of the dimerization of Mycd family members. Introduction of mutations in the CC of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) and truncated Mycd resulted in significant decreases in their cytoplasmic localization and increases in their nuclear localization. In accordance with such subcellular localization changes, their binding to Crm1 were reduced. These results indicate that the dimerization of Mycd family members is necessary for their Crm1-mediated nuclear export. We have recently found that the N-terminal region of Mycd consisting of 128 amino acids (Mycd N128) self-associates to Mycd via the central basic domain (CB), resulting in masking the Crm1-binding site. Such self-association of MRTF-A would be unlikely. In this study, we also revealed that the dimerization of Mycd was also necessary for this self-association. Wild-type Mycd activated SRF-mediated transcription more potently than Mycd lacking the Mycd N128 (Mycd ΔN128) did. These results suggest two possible functions of the Mycd N128: 1) stabilization of Mycd dimer to enhance SRF-mediated transcription and 2) positive regulation of the transactivation ability of Mycd. These findings provide a new insight into the functional regulation of Mycd family members.

  12. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Expression and evolution of members of the Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote surface antigen multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruef, B J; Dawson, B D; Tewari, D; Fouts, D L; Manning, J E

    1994-01-01

    The trypomastigote specific surface antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi are encoded by a supergene family which includes the TSA family. The TSA family is characterized by the presence of a 27-bp tandem repeat array in the coding region. Here, we report the characterization and analysis of the three TSA family members in the Esmeraldo strain of the parasite. In this strain 2 distinct telomeric members are expressed abundantly as 3.7-kb mRNAs, while the remaining member is located at an internal chromosomal site and is expressed at less than 2% of the level seen for the telomeric members. Based on hybridization to DNA separated by PFGE, 3 chromosomes of sizes 1.8 Mb, 0.98 Mb, and 0.90 Mb each contain one of the telomeric members. In addition, the two smaller chromosomes also contain the single internal member. Since both chromosomes contain similar TSA family members, and vary only slightly in size, we suggest that they are homologues. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences of the different members of the family show that the internal gene differs from the telomeric genes primarily in sequences found 3' of the repeat array. These comparisons also reveal that the three genes are analogous, supporting the hypothesis that short segments between the family members are exchanged by gene conversion events. We propose that similar conversion events between members of different gene families may generate some of the diversity found within the supergene family.

  14. Association Between Resilience and Family Member Psychologic Symptoms in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Peter D; Lynch, Ylinne; Mealer, Meredith; Moss, Marc

    2016-08-01

    There are increased rates of depression, anxiety, and stress disorders in families of critically ill patients. Interventions directed at family members may help their ability to cope with this stress. Specifically, resilience is a teachable psychologic construct describing a person's ability to adapt to traumatic situations. Resilience can inherently assist individuals to diminish adverse psychologic outcomes. Consequently, we determined the relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress in family members of critically ill patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Three medical ICUs were screened by study staff. Family members of ICU patients admitted for greater than 48 hours were approached for enrollment. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was used to stratify family members as resilient or nonresilient. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and Family Satisfaction in the ICU were collected prior to ICU discharge to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress, as well as satisfaction with care. One-hundred and seventy family members were enrolled. Seventy-eight family members were resilient. Resilient family members had fewer symptoms of anxiety (14.2% vs 43.6%; p Resilient family members were more satisfied with care in the ICU (76.7 vs 70.8; p = 0.008). Resilience remained independently associated with these outcomes after adjusting for family member age and gender, as well as the patient's need for mechanical ventilation. When caring for the critically ill, resilient family members have fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress. Resilient families were generally better satisfied with the care delivered. These data suggest that interventions aimed at increasing resilience may improve a family member's experience in the ICU.

  15. The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on work-family interference and work-family facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Purpose – We analyze the effects of leadership on work-family spillovers. Specifically, we analyze the relationships between leadership (leader-member exchange, LMX) with one negative work-family spillover effect (work-family interference) and one positive work-family

  16. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  17. The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on work-family interference and work-family facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Purpose – We analyze the effects of leadership on work-family spillovers. Specifically, we analyze the relationships between leadership (leader-member exchange, LMX) with one negative work-family spillover effect (work-family interference) and one positive work-family s

  18. MOTIVES FOR RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY IN LATER LIFE: POST-MOVE PERSPECTIVES OF ELDERS AND FAMILY MEMBERS*

    OpenAIRE

    SERGEANT, JULIE F.; Ekerdt, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study delineates motives for residential mobility, describes dynamics between the elder and family members during the move decision process, and locates the move decision within ecological layers of the aging context. Interviews were conducted with 30 individuals and couples (ages 60-87) who experienced a community-based move within the past year, and with 14 extended family members. Reasons for moving (from perspectives of both elders who moved and their family members) were...

  19. Suicidal Ideation and Distress in Family Members Bereaved by Suicide in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C.; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, dep...

  20. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyu; Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3' UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3' UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired.

  1. Family members' lived experience in the intensive care unit: a phemenological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Margaret

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To describe the lived experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Admission of a critically ill relative to an intensive care unit causes anxiety and stress to family members. Nursing care is initially focused on maintaining the physiological stability of the patient and less on the needs and concerns of family members. Understanding how families make sense of this experience may help nurses focus on the delivery of family centred care. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experiences of family members of patients in an intensive care unit. In-depth interviews were conducted with six family members and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from the data: the need to know, making sense of it all, being there with them and caring and support. Family members needed honest information about the patient\\'s progress and outcome to make the situation more bearable for them. Making sense of the situation was a continuous process which involved tracking and evaluating care given. Being with their relative sustained their family bond and was a way to demonstrate love and support. Caring reassurance provided by the nurses enabled a sense of security. Support was needed by family members to assist them in coping. CONCLUSION: The research provided an insight into how family members viewed the impact of the admission and how they subsequently found ways of dealing with the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using a holistic approach to nursing assessment and care delivery in intensive care necessitates that nurses interact with and care for family members of patients. Development of a philosophy of family centred care is necessary, with formal assessment of families to take place soon after admission and an appropriate plan of care drawn up at this time.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of eIF4E-family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeder Dennis L

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional structures of eIF4Es bound to cap-analogues resemble 'cupped-hands' in which the cap-structure is sandwiched between two conserved Trp residues (Trp-56 and Trp-102 of H. sapiens eIF4E. A third conserved Trp residue (Trp-166 of H. sapiens eIF4E recognizes the 7-methyl moiety of the cap-structure. Assessment of GenBank NR and dbEST databases reveals that many organisms encode a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E. Little is understood about the relationships of these structurally related proteins to each other. Results By combining sequence data deposited in the Genbank databases, we have identified sequences encoding 411 eIF4E-family members from 230 species. These sequences have been deposited into an internet-accessible database designed for sequence comparisons of eIF4E-family members. Most members can be grouped into one of three classes. Class I members carry Trp residues equivalent to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E and appear to be present in all eukaryotes. Class II members, possess Trp→Tyr/Phe/Leu and Trp→Tyr/Phe substitutions relative to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Metazoa, Viridiplantae, and Fungi. Class III members possess a Trp residue equivalent to Trp-43 of H. sapiens eIF4E but carry a Trp→Cys/Tyr substitution relative to Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Coelomata and Cnidaria. Some eIF4E-family members from Protista show extension or compaction relative to prototypical eIF4E-family members. Conclusion The expansion of sequenced cDNAs and genomic DNAs from all eukaryotic kingdoms has revealed a variety of proteins related in structure to eIF4E. Evolutionarily it seems that a single early eIF4E gene has undergone multiple gene

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of eIF4E-family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhavesh; Lee, Kibwe; Maeder, Dennis L; Jagus, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Background Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional structures of eIF4Es bound to cap-analogues resemble 'cupped-hands' in which the cap-structure is sandwiched between two conserved Trp residues (Trp-56 and Trp-102 of H. sapiens eIF4E). A third conserved Trp residue (Trp-166 of H. sapiens eIF4E) recognizes the 7-methyl moiety of the cap-structure. Assessment of GenBank NR and dbEST databases reveals that many organisms encode a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E. Little is understood about the relationships of these structurally related proteins to each other. Results By combining sequence data deposited in the Genbank databases, we have identified sequences encoding 411 eIF4E-family members from 230 species. These sequences have been deposited into an internet-accessible database designed for sequence comparisons of eIF4E-family members. Most members can be grouped into one of three classes. Class I members carry Trp residues equivalent to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E and appear to be present in all eukaryotes. Class II members, possess Trp→Tyr/Phe/Leu and Trp→Tyr/Phe substitutions relative to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Metazoa, Viridiplantae, and Fungi. Class III members possess a Trp residue equivalent to Trp-43 of H. sapiens eIF4E but carry a Trp→Cys/Tyr substitution relative to Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Coelomata and Cnidaria. Some eIF4E-family members from Protista show extension or compaction relative to prototypical eIF4E-family members. Conclusion The expansion of sequenced cDNAs and genomic DNAs from all eukaryotic kingdoms has revealed a variety of proteins related in structure to eIF4E. Evolutionarily it seems that a single early eIF4E gene has undergone multiple gene duplications generating multiple

  4. A preliminary evaluation of trust and shared decision making among intensive care patients' family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth G; Wolfe, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate ICU family members' trust and shared decision making using modified versions of the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the Shared Decision Making-9 Survey. Using a descriptive approach, the perceptions of family members of ICU patients (n=69) of trust and shared decision making were measured using the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the 9-item Shared Decision Making (SDM-9) Questionnaire. Both surveys were modified slightly to apply to family members of ICU patients and to include perceptions of nurses as well as physicians. Overall, family members reported high levels of trust and inclusion in decision making. Family members who lived with the patient had higher levels of trust than those who did not. Family members who reported strong agreement among other family about treatment decisions had higher levels of trust and higher SDM-9 scores than those who reported less family agreement. The modified surveys may be useful in evaluating family members' trust and shared decision making in ICU settings. Future studies should include development of a comprehensive patient-centered care framework that focuses on its central goal of maintaining provider-patient/family partnerships as an avenue toward effective shared decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.

  6. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL....306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children may be eligible for coverage...

  7. Identification of the PDI-family member ERp90 as an interaction partner of ERFAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer, Jan; Hansen, Henning G; Appenzeller-Herzog, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family perform critical functions during protein maturation. Herein, we identify the previously uncharacterized PDI-family member ERp90. In cultured human cells, we find ERp90 to be a soluble ER-luminal glycoprotein...

  8. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them. 42.68 Section 42.68 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them....

  9. Emotional Disorders in Pairs of Patients and Their Family Members during and after ICU Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Martins, Paulo Sérgio; Schettino, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients and family members undergo different experiences of suffering from emotional disorders during ICU stay and after ICU discharge. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pairs (patient and respective family member), during stay at an open visit ICU and at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge. We hypothesized that there was a positive correlation with the severity of symptoms among pairs and different patterns of suffering over time. Methods A prospective study was conducted in a 22-bed adult general ICU including patients with >48 hours stay. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was completed by the pairs (patients/respective family member). Interviews were made by phone at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge using the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the HADS. Multivariate models were constructed to predict IES score at 30 days for patients and family members. Results Four hundred and seventy one family members and 289 patients were interviewed in the ICU forming 184 pairs for analysis. Regarding HADS score, patients presented less symptoms than family members of patients who survived and who deceased at 30 and 90-days (pICU were the major determinants for PTSD at 30-days. Conclusions Anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms were higher in family members than in the patients. Furthermore, these symptoms in family members persisted at 3 months, while they decreased in patients. PMID:25616059

  10. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  11. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed or... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...

  12. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control...

  13. Caregiving for Dementia in Family Members: Caregiving Burden and Prospects for Effective Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Robert J.; And Others

    Caring for a family member with dementia is a major source of stress for the caregiver. To assess the impact of caring for an impaired family member and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs, 34 caregivers of relatives with dementia completed an amended form of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center's Caregiver Survey and two…

  14. Crying in solitude or with someone for support and consolation--experiences from family members in palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydé, Kerstin; Strang, Peter; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Crying has not been studied from the perspective of family members of patients in palliative care. The aim of this study was to explore the significance of family members crying in a palliative care context with special reference to factors that influence crying. Interviews were carried out with 14 family members of patients admitted to palliative care. A hermeneutic approach according to Gadamer was used. Three main categories emerged. (1) Before the start of crying, some prerequisites for crying had to be fulfilled, such as an allowing attitude and courage, time, feeling secure, honesty, and trusting relationships. These prerequisites did not cause crying themselves; rather crying emerged when triggering factors occurred. (2) Triggers for crying were circumstances that created uncertainty and turbulence (bad news), exhaustion due to lack of own time, and sympathy from others. (3) Family members tried to do the best possible by adopting or hiding their crying, to ease the patient's burden and to create a positive counterbalance to suffering and grief. As an interpretation of the whole, crying could be expressed as being shared with someone for support and consolation or escape to solitude for integrity and respite. As a conclusion, crying may be an efficient strategy for family members in palliative care to express their suffering and to gain new energy to continue.

  15. Implement Family Member Assessment Component in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    military service ● Family cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict ● Child behavioral, developmental, and general health ● Health service use ● Alcohol ...military service ● Family cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict ● Child behavioral, developmental and general health ● Health services ● Alcohol and... maltreatment  Parental physical and mental health problems, or loss  Rising rates of military child mental health utilization NCTSN Collaborative

  16. Quality of life and consequences for daily life of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.F.L.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Gundy, C.M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  The study aimed to document the impact of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and several practical aspects of daily life and to identify factors associated significantly with HRQOL. This study is the first to compare HRQOL between FAP-patients, at-ris

  17. Quality of life and consequences for daily life of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.F.L.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Gundy, C.M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to document the impact of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and several practical aspects of daily life, and to identify factors significantly associated with HRQOL. This study is the first to compare HRQOL between patients with FAP, at-ri

  18. The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on work-family interference and work-family facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Purpose__ – We analyze the effects of leadership on work-family spillovers. Specifically, we analyze the relationships between leadership (leader-member exchange, LMX) with one negative work-family spillover effect (work-family interference) and one positive work-fam

  19. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS. Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers.

  20. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence strain", "emotional strain", "uncertainty", and "self-criticism" domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence", and "emotional strain" domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the "uncertainty", "self-criticism", and "emotional strain" domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers.

  1. Correlates and outcomes of worries about hypoglycemia in family members of adults with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, Francois; Holt, Richard I G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined (a) the demographic and clinical correlates of worries about hypoglycemia in adult family members of adults with diabetes, and (b) the association of these worries with measures of diabetes support. METHODS: The second multinational Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAW...... member involvement in diabetes care. Similar results were found for worries about nocturnal events. CONCLUSION: Worries about hypoglycemia were common in family members and were associated with suboptimal diabetes support. This issue therefore deserves increased clinician attention....

  2. Emotions experienced and coping strategies used by family members of organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, M

    1993-01-01

    In this descriptive study guided by the Lazarus and Folkman (1984) stress and coping theory, donor family members' emotional responses and coping strategies used during the anticipation and confrontation stages of the organ donation experience were explored. Seven families from Eastern Canada who had lost a loved one suddenly and consented to organ donation were interviewed in their homes. The findings clearly showed that family members experienced a variety of emotions and used several different types of coping strategies. The findings of this study contribute to the development of knowledge required to guide nursing interventions to provide sensitive care to family members of organ donors.

  3. 245例脑外伤所致精神障碍者家属抑郁状况及相关因素分析%Depression Status of the Family Member and Its Influencing Factors in the Patient with Mental Disorder Caused by Cerebral Trauma: 245 Cases Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成龙; 庞艳霞; 谢岩平; 许海峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解脑外伤所致精神障碍者家属抑郁状况及其影响因素. 方法 应用自行设计的一般资料调查问卷和抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS),对245名被鉴定人家属进行抑郁状况调查,并依据SDS评分指数分为抑郁组和非抑郁组,进行单因素以及多元逐步回归分析.结果 245名被鉴定人家属中117名家属存在不同程度的抑郁症状,其中轻度68例、中度42例、重度7例.在多元逐步回归分析中,亲缘关系、家属性格特征、付费方式为被鉴定人家属抑郁状况的主要影响因素. 结论 脑外伤所致精神障碍者家属抑郁状况应引起足够重视,给予针对性的心理干预.%Objective To determine the family member's depression status and its influencing factors in the patient with mental disorder caused by cerebral trauma.Methods The self-designed information questionnaire and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to investigate 245 family members' depression conditions.On the basis of SDS score index,all cases were divided into depression group and non-depression group.The data were analyzed by the tmivariate analysis and multiple factors regression analysis.Results In the 245 family members,117 family members had different degrees of depressive symptoms including 68 with mild depression,42 with moderate depression,and 7 with severe depression.In the multiple factors regression analysis,genetic relationship,personality characteristics and payment method were the main influencing factors of the depression status.Conclusion Much attention should be paid to the family member's depression condition of the patient with mental disorder caused by cerebral trauma through specific psychological intervention.

  4. Involvement of family members in life with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabowski, Dan; Andersen, Tue Helms; Varming, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Family involvement plays a key role in diabetes management. Problems and challenges related to type 2-diabetes often affect the whole family, and relatives are at increased risk of developing diabetes themselves. We highlight these issues in our objectives: (1) to uncover specific fam...... in healthcare settings. CONCLUSION: The study generated important knowledge about problems associated with family involvement in life with type 2 diabetes and about how family involvement can be supported in healthcare practice.......OBJECTIVES: Family involvement plays a key role in diabetes management. Problems and challenges related to type 2-diabetes often affect the whole family, and relatives are at increased risk of developing diabetes themselves. We highlight these issues in our objectives: (1) to uncover specific...... family problems associated with mutual involvement in life with type 2-diabetes and (2) to analytically look at ways of approaching these problems in healthcare settings. METHODS: Qualitative data were gathered in participatory problem assessment workshops. The data were analysed in three rounds using...

  5. The experiences of family members in the nursing home to hospital transfer decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Bernard, Brittany; Magnabosco, Lara; Nazir, Arif; Unroe, Kathleen T

    2016-11-15

    The objective of this study was to better understand the experiences of family members in the nursing home to hospital transfer decision making process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 family members who had recently been involved in a nursing home to hospital transfer decision. Family members perceived themselves to play an advocacy role in their resident's care and interview themes clustered within three over-arching categories: Family perception of the nursing home's capacity to provide medical care: Resident and family choices; and issues at 'hand-off' and the hospital. Multiple sub-themes were also identified. Findings from this study contribute to knowledge surrounding the nursing home transfer decision by illuminating the experiences of family members in the transfer decision process.

  6. Nuclear import mechanism for myocardin family members and their correlation with vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seiji; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Sobue, Kenji

    2010-11-26

    Myocardin (Mycd), which is essential for the differentiation of the smooth muscle cell lineage, is constitutively located in the nucleus, although its family members, myocardin-related transcription factors A and B (MRTF-A/B), mostly reside in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus in response to Rho signaling. The mechanism for their nuclear import is unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism for the nuclear import of Mycd family members and demonstrated any correlation between such mechanism and the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, the knockdown of importin β1 inhibited the nuclear import of Mycd and MRTF-A/B. Their NH(2)-terminal basic domain was identified as a binding site for importin α/β1 by in vitro analyses. However, Mycd had a higher affinity for importin α/β1 than did MRTF-A/B, even in the absence of G-actin, and Mycd affinity for importin α1/β1 was stronger than for any other importin α/β1 heterodimers. The binding of Mycd to importin α/β1 was insensitive to G-actin, whereas that of MRTF-A/B was differently inhibited by G-actin. In dedifferentiated VSMCs, the levels of importins α1 and β1 were reduced concomitant with down-regulation of Mycd, serum response factor, and smooth muscle cell markers. By contrast, in differentiated VSMCs, their expressions were up-regulated. Thus, the nuclear import of Mycd family members in VSMCs depends on importin α/β1, and their relative affinities for importin α/β1 heterodimers determine Mycd nuclear import. The expression of Mycd nuclear import machineries is related to the expression levels of VSMC phenotype-dependent smooth muscle cell markers.

  7. Family member involvement in audiology appointments with older people with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate family members' involvement in audiology rehabilitation appointments. Audiology appointments were video-recorded and analysed using quantitative coding and conversation analysis (CA). The study sample included 13 audiologists, 17 older adults with hearing impairment, and 17 family members. Initial coding showed that family members participated in 12% of the total talk time during audiology appointments. The CA results demonstrated that family members were not typically invited to join the conversation. However, family members would self-select to speak by: (1) responding to questions from the audiologist which were directed at the client; (2) self-initiating expansions on clients' turns; and (3) self-initiating questions. When family members did participate in the interaction, audiologists typically responded by shifting the conversation back to the client. While family members currently have minimal participation in audiology appointments, they display a strong interest in being involved and sharing their experiences of the client's hearing impairment. The findings suggest support for implementing family-centred care principles in audiology practice.

  8. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cross Month Latest News Health and Safety Training & Education Mission & Values History National Celebrity Cabinet National Celebrity Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief ... Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be ...

  9. Transcription Factor Families Regulate the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin structural gene transcription requires the expression of at least one member of each of three transcription factor families - MYC, MYB and WD40. These transcription factors form a complex that binds to structural gene promoters, thereby modulating gene expression. Capsicum annuum display...

  10. Regulation of the MAPK family members: role of subcellular localization and architectural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, G R

    1999-07-01

    The members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family are regulated by a diverse array of extracellular cues ranging from cytokines, growth factors and neuropeptides, which activate cell surface receptors, to stresses such as cold, heat, osmolarity changes and irradiation. The MAPK pathways control genetic expression by modifying transcription factor activity and cue important cell fate decisions including survival, proliferation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). One interesting feature of the MAPK pathways is that the components are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human, and many of the pathways are similarly organized and regulated. Unlike previously imagined, architectural organization or the multimeric organization of signaling proteins into complexes which are localized to distinct subcellular regions is an important mechanism that influences the regulation of these pathways. In addition, extracellular stimuli can induce relocalization of specific signal transduction proteins. The formation of multimeric signaling complexes, as well as the dynamic movement of signaling proteins, contribute to determine signaling specificity and efficacy. This review describes what is currently known about the subcellular localization of MAPK pathway signaling proteins and the relocalization that occurs during events associated with activation of the MAPK family members.

  11. Karyopherin alpha7 (KPNA7), a divergent member of the importin alpha family of nuclear import receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Talley, Ashley M; Spencer, Adam; Gioeli, Daniel; Paschal, Bryce M

    2010-08-11

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin alpha and importin beta. NLS cargo is recognized by importin alpha, which is bound by importin beta. Importin beta mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin beta triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin alpha family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin alpha family of transport factors, karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin beta (IBB) is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin beta than the IBB domains from of other importin alpha family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM) NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. KPNA7 is a novel importin alpha family member in humans that belongs to the importin alpha2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin alpha family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  12. Family members' informal roles in end-of-life decision making in adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jill R; Schmitt, Madeline; Baggs, Judith Gedney; Norton, Sally A; Dombeck, Mary T; Sellers, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    To support the process of effective family decision making, it is important to recognize and understand informal roles that various family members may play in the end-of-life decision-making process. To describe some informal roles consistently enacted by family members involved in the process of end-of-life decision making in intensive care units. Ethnographic study. Data were collected via participant observation with field notes and semistructured interviews on 4 intensive care units in an academic health center in the mid-Atlantic United States from 2001 to 2004. The units studied were a medical, a surgical, a burn and trauma, and a cardiovascular intensive care unit. Health care clinicians, patients, and family members. Informal roles for family members consistently observed were primary caregiver, primary decision maker, family spokesperson, out-of-towner, patient's wishes expert, protector, vulnerable member, and health care expert. The identified informal roles were part of families' decision-making processes, and each role was part of a potentially complicated family dynamic for end-of-life decision making within the family system and between the family and health care domains. These informal roles reflect the diverse responses to demands for family decision making in what is usually a novel and stressful situation. Identification and description of these informal roles of family members can help clinicians recognize and understand the functions of these roles in families' decision making at the end of life and guide development of strategies to support and facilitate increased effectiveness of family discussions and decision-making processes.

  13. Family resemblance: ten family members with prosopagnosia and within-class object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Bradley; Germine, Laura; Nakayama, Ken

    2007-06-01

    We report on neuropsychological testing done with a family in which many members reported severe face recognition impairments. These 10 individuals were high functioning in everyday life and performed normally on tests of low-level vision and high-level cognition. In contrast, they showed clear deficits with tests requiring face memory and judgements of facial similarity. They did not show deficits with all aspects of higher level visual processing as all tested performed normally on a challenging facial emotion recognition task and on a global-local letter identification task. On object memory tasks requiring recognition of particular cars and guns, they showed significant deficits so their recognition impairments were not restricted to facial identity. These results strongly suggest the existence of a genetic condition leading to a selective deficit of visual recognition.

  14. Family Benefits In Member States Of The European Union: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănescu Simona Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances. The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC. Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.

  15. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TRAF Family Member-associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Inhibits Genotoxic Nuclear Factor κB Activation by Facilitating Deubiquitinase USP10-dependent Deubiquitination of TRAF6 Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Xuan; Xin, Hong-Bo; Fu, Mingui; Xue, Aimin; Wu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-05-22

    DNA damage-induced NF-κB activation plays a critical role in regulating cellular response to genotoxic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the magnitude and duration of this genotoxic NF-κB signaling cascade are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that genotoxic NF-κB activation is regulated by reversible ubiquitination of several essential mediators involved in this signaling pathway. Here we show that TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) negatively regulates NF-κB activation by DNA damage via inhibiting ubiquitination of TRAF6. Despite the lack of a deubiquitination enzyme domain, TANK has been shown to negatively regulate the ubiquitination of TRAF proteins. We found TANK formed a complex with MCPIP1 (also known as ZC3H12A) and a deubiquitinase, USP10, which was essential for the USP10-dependent deubiquitination of TRAF6 and the resolution of genotoxic NF-κB activation upon DNA damage. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated deletion of TANK in human cells significantly enhanced NF-κB activation by genotoxic treatment, resulting in enhanced cell survival and increased inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, we found that the TANK-MCPIP1-USP10 complex also decreased TRAF6 ubiquitination in cells treated with IL-1β or LPS. In accordance, depletion of USP10 enhanced NF-κB activation induced by IL-1β or LPS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TANK serves as an important negative regulator of NF-κB signaling cascades induced by genotoxic stress and IL-1R/Toll-like receptor stimulation in a manner dependent on MCPIP1/USP10-mediated TRAF6 deubiquitination. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. To tell or not to tell: HIV disclosure to family members in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Lord, Lynwood; Wu, Sheng

    2008-12-01

    Laws in China relating to HIV disclosure are inconsistent. After a patient has tested HIV-positive, service providers struggle to decide who should be informed first: patients, family members, or both. To understand service providers' attitudes and practices regarding the HIV notification process in China, 1101 service providers from a southwestern province of China were surveyed. Opinions were gathered from providers at five different levels of health care facilities (provincial, city, county, township and village). A mixed methods approach was used to analyze perceptions of informing family members of a patient's HIV status. Quantitative analysis was used to examine whether providers held a favorable attitude toward notifying family members first and qualitative analysis was used to explore the reasons and consequences of notifying family members first. Nearly half of service providers felt family members should be informed of a patient's HIV status first. Providers who were older, had contact with HIV patients, or had less medical education were more likely to agree with a family-first notification practice. Psychological pressure, concern about protecting family members, the need for family support, and consideration for local regulations were cited as the main reasons for this practice. There is an immediate need to re-examine HIV notification policies so that there are consistent guidelines and procedures for providers throughout China.

  18. Suicidal ideation and distress in family members bereaved by suicide in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility related to suicidal ideation, whereas time since suicide also interacted with general distress and depression in predicting suicidal ideation.

  19. Stigma by association and family burden among family members of people with mental illness: the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Remko L M; Pryor, John B; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E R

    2016-09-01

    When someone has a mental illness, family members may share the experience of stigma. Past research has established that family members' experiences of stigma by association predict psychological distress and lower quality-of-life. The present study, conducted with 503 family members of people with mental illness examined the prevalence of 14 different coping strategies. Of greater importance, we examined the role of these coping strategies as mediators of the relationships between stigma by association and family burden, on the one hand, and outcomes, such as psychological distress and quality-of-life, on the other. The results showed that both perceived stigma by association and family burden are associated with greater psychological distress and lower quality-of-life, and that most coping strategies mediate these relationships. Adaptive coping strategies were related to reduced negative outcomes, while most maladaptive coping strategies were related to enhanced negative outcomes. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  20. The effect of an anger management program for family members of patients with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ju-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to test the structured anger management nursing program for the family members of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Families with the AUDs suffer from the dysfunctional family dynamic caused by the patients' deteriorative disease processes of alcohol dependence. Family members of AUDs feel bitter and angry about the uncontrolled behaviors and relapses of the patients in spite of great effort for a long time. This chronic anger threatens the optimal function of the family as well as obstructs the family to help the patients who are suffering from AUDs. Sixty three subjects were participated who were referred from community mental health centers, alcohol consultation centers, and an alcohol hospital in Korea. Pre-post scores of the Korean Anger Expression Inventory were used to test the program. An anger management program was developed and implemented to promote anger expression and anger management for the family members of the patients with AUDs. The total anger expression score of the experimental group was significantly more reduced as compared with that of the control group. Subjects in the experimental group reported after the program that they felt more comfortable and their life was changed in a better way. The anger management program was effective to promote anger expression and anger management for family members of AUDs. Nurses need to include family members in their nursing process as well as to care of patients with AUDs to maximize nursing outcome and patient satisfaction. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Dental Needs of Army Family Members, 1986: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-10

    pediatric dentistry programs as well as larger families appear to value access to free dental care. Since the DoD had not announced details of its dental insu...Category of Care and by Age Group: --For Children (age 4-14): Diagnostic & Preventive $27-$80 Restorations, stainless steel crowns , and extractions (Basic... crowns , and extractions. Comprehensive services consist of basic care, space maintenance, and orthodon- tics. For youths and adults, average costs were

  2. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Silvia

    2014-03-04

    The family's role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  3. What if we talk about it? Communication about consumption and family-member influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    family members, who may be able to exert significant influences on household subscription to these practices. The present study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate family members' communication in relation to four topics: organic food, water and energy, waste handling......Family decision making still constitutes a niche of consumer research. The preference towards using individualist approaches that characterizes consumer research is even more prevalent in research on environmentally oriented consumer behaviour. However, many "green" consumer choices involve several......, and transport. Results show that mutual, day-to-day influences in families are a common phenomenon, even when it comes to inconspicuous, every-day consumer behaviour....

  4. Mth10b, a unique member of the Sac10b family, does not bind nucleic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The Sac10b protein family is regarded as a group of nucleic acid-binding proteins that are highly conserved and widely distributed within archaea. All reported members of this family are basic proteins that exist as homodimers in solution and bind to DNA and/or RNA without apparent sequence specificity in vitro. Here, we reported a unique member of the family, Mth10b from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH, whose amino acid sequence shares high homology with other Sac10b family proteins. However, unlike those proteins, Mth10b is an acidic protein; its potential isoelectric point is only 4.56, which is inconsistent with the characteristics of a nucleic acid-binding protein. In this study, Mth10b was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a three-column chromatography purification procedure. Biochemical characterization indicated that Mth10b should be similar to typical Sac10b family proteins with respect to its secondary and tertiary structure and in its preferred oligomeric forms. However, an electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA showed that neither DNA nor RNA bound to Mth10b in vitro, indicating that either Mth10b likely has a physiological function that is distinct from those of other Sac10b family members or nucleic acid-binding ability may not be a fundamental factor to the actual function of the Sac10b family.

  5. [The phenomenon of families who are involved in decision making about life support withdrawal in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, M; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-12-01

    The overall objective of this study was to explore and describe the phenomenon of families who are involved in deciding about withdrawal of life-support treatment of a family member. A phenomenon analysis was undertaken in two phases. During the first phase, secondary analysis of primary data was done on the family used in Burger's study (1996: 1-175) and was followed up by phenomenological interviews with families used as member checking from the same circumstances and according to the same criteria that Burger (1996: 1-185) used in her study. Data were analysed in collaboration with an independent coder. The family used as member checking in this study is also used as data control. A literature control was conducted as part of data control. The themes that were identified included were: physical and bodily experiences of families; defence mechanisms used by families to cope with grief; emotional experiences of families; need of knowledge/perceptions/outlook on life/internal conflict/feelings of guilt/ability to make decisions/respect of patient wishes/the effect of time and prior experiences; support needed by an given to families; spiritual and supernatural experiences/hope/acceptance/ability to 'let go' of the patient. In phase two, guidelines were described for psychiatric nurse specialists to mobilise resources for families to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health.

  6. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  7. Quality of relationship between veterans with traumatic brain injury and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Moriarty, Helene J

    2017-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between patients with many illnesses and their family members has been shown to affect the well-being of both. Yet, relationship quality has not been studied in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and giving and receiving aspects have not been distinguished. The present study of veterans with TBI examined associations between relationship quality and caregiver burden, satisfaction with caregiving, and veterans' competence in interpersonal functioning, rated by veterans and family members. In this cross-sectional study, 83 veterans and their family members were interviewed at home. Measures of quality of relationship, veterans' interpersonal competence and sociodemographics were collected for both, caregiver burden and satisfaction for family members only. As predicted, veteran-rated Qrel/Giving was associated with family-rated Qrel/Receiving, and veteran-rated Qrel/Receiving with family-rated Qrel/Giving. Lower caregiver burden and higher caregiving satisfaction were associated with higher Qrel/Receiving scores but not with Qrel/Giving scores. Veterans' interpersonal competence was associated with total Qrel as rated by either veterans or family members. Relationship quality should be included in family research in TBI, and giving and receiving aspects should be differentiated. Findings suggest that lower caregiver burden and greater satisfaction should be more achievable by increasing caregivers' sense of benefits received from the relationship.

  8. Expression and prognostic significance of zinc fingers and homeoboxes family members in renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Cheon; Han, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Young; Liu, Liangwen; Jung, Jin-Sup; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2017-01-01

    Zinc fingers and homeoboxes (ZHX) is a transcription repressor family that contains three members; ZHX1, ZHX2, and ZHX3. Although ZHX family members have been associated with the progression of cancer, their values as prognostic factors in cancer patients have been poorly examined. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a highly heterogeneous, aggressive cancer that responds variably to treatment. Thus, prognostic molecular markers are required to evaluate disease progression and to improve the survival. In clear cell RCC (ccRCC), ZHX1 and ZHX3 expression were found to be down-regulated but ZHX2 was up-regulated, and the expressions of ZHX1 and ZHX3 were significantly associated with pathological stage. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analysis showed that reduction in the mRNA expression of ZHX1 was associated with poorer survival. Taken together, the present study shows loss of ZHX1 is correlated with ccRCC progression and suggests it is an independent prognostic marker in ccRCC. PMID:28152006

  9. The Needs of Family Members of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Northouse studied post mastectomy patients and their fear of recurrence. The study consisted of 30 women between the ages of 37-74 who had a mastectomy...Counseling and Health Education, 4(1), 36-39. Northouse , L.L. (1981). Mastectomy patients and the fear of recurrence. Cancer Nursing, 4(3), 213-220... Northouse , L.L. (1984). The impact of cancer on the family: an overview. International Journal of Psychiatry, 14(3), 215-242. O’Brien, M.E. (1983). An

  10. A critical review of Singapore's policies aimed at supporting families caring for older members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kalyani K

    2006-01-01

    This article critically examines the family-oriented social policies of the Singapore government aimed at supporting families caring for older members. The sectors focused on are financial security, health, and housing. Singaporeans have been reminded that the family should be the first line of defense for aging families, followed by the community - the state would step in as the last resort. Drawing from recent research and examination of the state policies, the author argues that more should be done to help family caregivers looking after elder relatives. Recommendations for innovative ways to recognize and reward family carers conclude the paper.

  11. Life Situation, Information Needs, and Information Seeking in Patients with Oesophageal Cancer and their Family Members

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Sissel

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the experiences of living with oesophageal cancer from the perspective of patients and family members. Also, their needs for information and how they seek information in relation to the illness were investigated. The thesis comprises one qualitative meta-analysis and three empirical studies including data from patients, family members, and health-care professionals. Paper I was a qualitative meta-analysis the aim of which was to extend knowledge abou...

  12. Existential challenges and coping in palliative cancer care : Experiences of patients and family members

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge about the existential crisis in patients and family members caused by an incurable cancer and how the crisis is managed. Two methodological approaches were used. Semi-structured tape-recorded interviews (20 patients enrolled in palliative care and 20 family members) were analysed using hermeneutics. A postal questionnaire with open-ended questions was distributed and the responses (103 patients enrolled in palliative c...

  13. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb Mark; Chan Carusone Soo; Lohfeld Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in...

  14. Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understandi...

  15. Distress in Portuguese Family Members Bereaved by Suicide: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara; Tavares, Sofia; Campos, Rui C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of several sociodemographic and suicide-related variables on the distress of family members bereaved by suicide. A sample of Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide (N¼93) living in the Alentejo region completed a sociodemographic and suicide information questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Forward multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that several sociodemographic and suicide variables were related to gener...

  16. Verbal communication of families with cancer patients at end of life: A questionnaire survey with bereaved family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuhiro; Shiozaki, Mariko; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya; Tatara, Ryuhei; Ichihara, Kaori; Sato, Shinichi; Simizu, Megumi; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyasita, Mitsunori

    2017-06-21

    To clarify the verbal communication of feelings between families and patients in Japanese palliative care units from the perspective of bereaved family members by examining (1) proportions of families' and patients' verbalization of six feelings (gratitude, love, seeking forgiveness, giving forgiveness, wishes after death, and continuing bonds), (2) recognition of receiving these feelings through verbalization from the family's perspective, and (3) the specific attitudes of family members that influence their verbalizations. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 968 bereaved families of cancer patients in palliative care units across Japan. Five hundred thirty-seven responses were analyzed. (1) "Gratitude" was verbalized most often (families: 47%; patients: 61%), and "expressing forgiveness" least often (families: 16%; patients: 11%). (2) Even if the words were not used, 81.2% to 88.2% of families answered that they had received the patient's feelings, and 71.8% to 85.4% of families felt the patient had received their feelings. (3) Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the strongest attitudes determining verbalizing were "not wanting to say farewell without conveying feelings," "a daily basis of expressing," and "heart-to-heart communication" (ishin-denshin). For both families and patients, verbalizing feelings was difficult. Our results showed that families' and patients' verbalizing and receiving of feelings must be aligned to understand their communication at the end of life in Japan. Future research is needed to verify how attitude helps promote or inhibit verbalization. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A qualitative study on communication between nursing students and the family members of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2017-09-12

    When caring for a family as a unit, it is as crucial to communicate with the family members of a patient as it is with the patient. However, there is a lack of research on the views of nursing students on communicating with the family members of patients, and little has been mentioned in the nursing curriculum on this topic. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' experiences of communicating with the family members of patients. A qualitative descriptive study. A total of 42 nursing students (21 undergraduate year-two students and 21 were master's year-one students) from one school of nursing in Hong Kong participated in in-depth individual interviews. Content analysis was adopted. The trustworthiness of this study was ensured by enhancing its credibility, confirmability, and dependability. Two main themes were discerned. The first, "inspirations gained from nursing student-family communication", included the following sub-themes: (a) responding to enquiries clearly, (b) avoiding sensitive topics, (c) listening to the patient's family, and (d) sharing one's own experiences. The second, "emotions aroused from nursing student-family communication", had the following sub-themes: (a) happiness, (b) anger, (c) sadness, and (d) anxiety. More studies on the perspectives of nursing students on communicating with family members should be conducted, to strengthen the contents and learning outcomes of nursing student-family communication in the existing nursing curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula-Maria Rintala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore family members’ experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members’ views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members’ participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members’ point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes.

  19. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in situ care for pneumonia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study design was used. Participants were residents and family members of residents treated for pneumonia drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway to manage nursing home-acquired pneumonia on-site. A total of 14 in-depth interviews were conducted. Interview data were analyzed using the editing style, described by Miller and Crabtree, to identify key themes. Results Both residents and family members preferred that pneumonia be treated in the nursing home, where possible. They both felt that caring and attention are key aspects of care which are more easily accessible in the nursing home setting. However, residents felt that staff or doctors should make the decision whether to hospitalize them, whereas family members wanted to be consulted or involved in the decision-making process. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce hospitalization of nursing home residents with pneumonia are consistent with resident and family member preferences.

  20. Puzzling Out Synaptic Vesicle 2 Family Members Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Bartholome

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicle proteins 2 (SV2 were discovered in the early 80s, but the clear demonstration that SV2A is the target of efficacious anti-epileptic drugs from the racetam family stimulated efforts to improve understanding of its role in the brain. Many functions have been suggested for SV2 proteins including ions or neurotransmitters transport or priming of SVs. Moreover, several recent studies highlighted the link between SV2 and different neuronal disorders such as epilepsy, Schizophrenia (SCZ, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. In this review article, we will summarize our present knowledge on SV2A function(s and its potential role(s in the pathophysiology of various brain disorders.

  1. Strange Stars : An interesting member of the compact object family

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Manjari; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2008-01-01

    We have studied strange star properties both at zero temperature and at finite temperatures and searched signatures of strange stars in gamma-ray, x-ray and radio astronomy. We have a set of Equations of State (EoS) for strange quark matter (SQM) and solving the TOV equations, we get the structure of strange stars. The maximum mass for a strange star decreases with the increase of temperature, because at high temperatures, the EoS become softer. One important aspect of strange star is that, surface tension depends on the size and structure of the star and is significantly larger than the conventional values. Moment of inertia is another important parameter for compact stars as by comparing theoretical values with observed estimate, it is possible to constrain the dense matter Equation of State. We hope that this approach will help us to decide whether the members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 are neutron stars or strange stars.

  2. CHIS - Information concerning the health insurance of frontalier workers who are family members of a CHIS main member

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We recently informed you that the Organization was still in discussions with the Host State authorities to clarify the situation regarding the health insurance of frontalier workers who are family members (as defined in the Staff Rules and Regulations) of a CHIS main member, and that we were hoping to arrive at a solution soon.   After extensive exchanges, we finally obtained a response a few days ago from the Swiss authorities, with which we are fully satisfied and which we can summarise as follows: 1) Frontalier workers who are currently using the CHIS as their basic health insurance can continue to do so. 2) Family members who become frontalier workers, or those who have not yet exercised their “right to choose” (droit d’option) can opt to use the CHIS as their basic health insurance. To this end, they must complete the form regarding the health insurance of frontaliers, ticking the LAMal box and submitting their certificate of CHIS membership (available from U...

  3. Routine HIV Testing of Family Members of Hospitalized Patients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Busari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV testing for family members of HIV-positive patients may enhance disclosure of status of spouses, encourage family social support and improve access to HIV services. Objective was to employ the approach of routine HIV testing to determine the prevalence of HIV among family members of both HIV positive and negative patients on admission in a federal HIV treatment designated hospital in Western Nigeria Methodology: This prospective study was conducted between January 2006 and June 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research and Ethics committee of the hospital prior to the study. Informed consent was obtained from each participant. HIV testing was offered to consenting family members of HIV positive and negative patients on admission. The family members included spouses, children of patients, parents of paediatric patients and other family members. Analysis was done in frequencies and percentages Results: 162 family members of 184 patients were tested. Spouses were, 81 (50.0%; fathers, 14 (8.6%; mothers, 20 (12.3%; children, 19 (11.7% and others family members, 28 (17.3%. 151 (93.2% of testers were first timers. Majority of those tested (82.1% had post-test counseling. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.3% (20/162. HIV prevalence within different family members was 14.8% (12/81, 20% (4/20, 7.1% (1/14, 10.5% (2/19 and 3.6% (1/28 for spouses, mothers, fathers, children and others respectively.In addition, the prevalence of HIV among family members of HIV positive and negative patients was 15.6% (14/90 and 8.3% (6/72 respectively. Of 12 spouses that were positive, 7 (13.5% were HIV-discordant; and in 71.4% (5/7 of discordant couples, the spouse was positive while the patient on admission was negative. Conclusion: The results indicate that routine HIV testing of family members of patients on admission is a strategy for identification of vast number of HIV infected persons. This method is not only innovative, but also a novel

  4. Redetermination of the space weathering rate using spectra of Iannini asteroid family members

    CERN Document Server

    Willman, Mark; Nesvorný, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Ivezić, Željko; Fevig, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We obtained moderate S/N ($\\sim85$) spectra at a realized resolution of R $\\sim100$ for 11 members of the Iannini family, until recently the youngest known family at under 5 million years of age \\citep{bib.nes03}. The spectra were acquired using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager in its low-resolution prism mode on the Keck II telescope. The family members belong to the S-complex of asteroids with perhaps some K class members. The Iannini family members's average spectral slope, defined as the slope of the best-fit line constrained to pivot about 1 at 550 nm, is $(0.30\\pm0.04)/\\mu m$, matching the $(0.26\\pm0.03)/\\mu m$ reported by \\citet{bib.jed04} using SDSS \\citep{bib.ive02} color photometry. Using our spectra for this family as well as new observations of Karin family members \\citep{bib.ver06} and new classifications of some older families we revised the space weathering rate of S-complex asteroids originally determined by \\citet{bib.jed04}. Following \\citet{bib.jed04} we parameterize the space weather...

  5. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-08-03

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experience and needs of family members of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramm, Ralph; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Sheldrake, Jayne; Pellegrino, Vincent; Hodgson, Carol

    2017-06-01

    To explore the experiences of family members of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Sudden onset of an unexpected and severe illness is associated with an increased stress experience of family members. Only one study to date has explored the experience of family members of patients who are at high risk of dying and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A qualitative descriptive research design was used. A total of 10 family members of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were recruited through a convenient sampling approach. Data were collected using open-ended semi-structured interviews. A six-step process was applied to analyse the data thematically. Four criteria were employed to evaluate methodological rigour. Family members of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients experienced psychological distress and strain during and after admission. Five main themes (Going Downhill, Intensive Care Unit Stress and Stressors, Carousel of Roles, Today and Advice) were identified. These themes were explored from the four roles of the Carousel of Roles theme (decision-maker, carer, manager and recorder) that participants experienced. Nurses and other staff involved in the care of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients must pay attention to individual needs of the family and activate all available support systems to help them cope with stress and strain. An information and recommendation guide for families and staff caring for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was developed and needs to be applied cautiously to the individual clinical setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

  8. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

  9. Evolutionary, structural and functional interplay of the IκB family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaherin Basith

    Full Text Available A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB. Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of IκB that appear to regulate NF-κB by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of IκB family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the IκB family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 IκB subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different IκB subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in IκB genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct IκB functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the IκB family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

  10. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  11. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  12. Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Based on their genomic mobility, some retroelements are known to be the cause of genetic diseases, not only in germ and embryonic stem cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the threat of the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3 family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins.

  13. Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

  14. A Quality Improvement Project to Improve Family Recognition of Medical Team Member Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Wickline, Afton; Hensley, Christina; Cowen, Kelsey; Jessie, Ashley; Akers, Melanie; Dolan, Jenna; Pritt, Audra; Goodrich, Shea; O'Neill, Kelly; Flesher, Susan L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that inpatients and families in academic settings have a limited ability to recall either their medical team members or the roles of those members. This is an important issue for patient and family satisfaction as well as patient safety. The objective of this study was to increase families' recognition of medical team members' roles. We established a multidisciplinary quality improvement leadership team, measured family recognition of medical team members and their roles, and conducted 2 PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) cycles. The first intervention was standardization of the content and delivery of our verbal team introductions to ensure inclusion of essential elements and family engagement. The second intervention was addition of an informational white board in each patient room. The prospective study included 105 families in the preintervention phase, 103 post-PDSA cycle 1, and 92 post-PDSA cycle 2. After conduction of 2 PDSA cycles, the recognition of the attending role increased from 49% to 87% (P = .000), the resident role from 39% to 73% (P = .000), and the medical student from 75% to 89% (P = .038). The multidisciplinary quality improvement model was effective in improving family recognition of the roles of attending physicians, resident physicians, and medical students. Consistent attention to engaging the families and explaining our roles as well as providing informational white boards are effective interventions to facilitate this process. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  16. [Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Alcoholics Anonymous Members in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Soon; Lee, Jongeun; Park, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine quality of life (QOL) related factors in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members based on PRECEDE Model. A cross sectional survey was conducted with participants (N =203) from AA meeting in 11 alcohol counsel centers all over South Korea. Data were collected using a specially designed questionnaire based on the PRECEDE model and including QOL, epidemiological factors (including depression and perceived health status), behavioral factors (continuous abstinence and physical health status and practice), predisposing factors (abstinence self-efficacy and self-esteem), reinforcing factors (social capital and family functioning), and enabling factors. Data were analyzed using t-test, one way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and hierarchical multiple regression analysis with SPSS (ver. 21.0). Of the educational diagnostic variables, self-esteem (β=.23), family functioning (β=.12), abstinence self-efficacy (β=.12) and social capital (β=.11) were strong influential factors in AA members' QOL. In addition, epidemiological diagnostic variables such as depression (β=-.44) and perceived health status (β=.35) were the main factors in QOL. Also, physical health status and practice (β=.106), one of behavioral diagnostic variables was a beneficial factor in QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed the determinant variables accounted for 44.0% of the variation in QOL (F=25.76, p<.001). The finding of the study can be used as a framework for planning interventions in order to promote the quality of life of AA members. It is necessary to develop nursing intervention strategies for strengthening educational and epidemiological diagnostic variables in order to improve AA members' QOL.

  17. Mental Health of Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia Ⅱ:The Burden of Care Factors%精神分裂症患者家属心理健康研究Ⅱ:照顾负担影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文军; 胡纪泽; 习萍; 肖永红

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨精神分裂症患者家属的照顾负担及其影响因素.方法:在深圳市某精神病专科医院住院部、门诊部共采集464名符合特定人组标准的患者家属,从精神分裂症患者家属的家庭功能水平、社会支持、应对方式等多个方面,运用多元逐步回归法进行分析.结果:①患者的父母、配偶常体验到较高程度的照顾负担;②家庭功能水平、病人复发加重次数以及与患者的关系等6个预测变量进人照顾负担的回归方程,共解释照顾负担33.5%的方差变异,其中家庭功能水平解释比例最多达到13.4%.结论:①精神分裂症患者的父母、配偶常体验到较高水平的照顾负担;②在东方社会文化背景下,家庭功能水平对于患者家属体验到的照顾负担大小影响显著.%Objective: To investigate the burden of care of family members of patients with schizophrenia and its influencing factors. Methods: 464 family members of schizophrenic patients from inpatient and outpatient departments of a psychiatric hospital inpatient in Shenzhen, were collected into groups that met certain standards of family members of schizophrenic patients from the level of family function, social support, coping style, and other aspects, and analyzed with multiple regression. Results: ①The patients' parents, and spouses often experienced a higher level of care burden; ②The level of family functioning, the number of patients relapse, and the relationship between the patient could explain 33.5% of the variance of the burden to take care. Conclusion: ①The parents and spouses of schizophrenic patients often experience higher levels of care burden; ②In Eastern social and cultural background, level of family functioning for families of patients experienced significant effect on the size of the burden of care.

  18. Complex Determinants in Specific Members of the Mannose Receptor Family Govern Collagen Endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer...... invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members u......PARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements...

  19. Receptivity and preferences of pancreatic cancer family members for participating in lifestyle programs to reduce cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Lisa A.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Decker, Paul A; Ehlers, Shawna L.; Nadeau, Ashley; Rabe, Kari G.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Gloria M Petersen

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a shared family experience that might provide an opportunity for lifestyle change among at-risk family members. The purpose of this study was to assess receptivity and preferences for cancer risk reduction programs among at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with pancreas cancer. Methods We surveyed 401 at-risk family members in an existing pancreatic cancer family registry. Participants completed a mailed survey which examined demographic, medical, a...

  20. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  1. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. Dornas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV, which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae.

  2. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Assis, Felipe L.; Aherfi, Sarah; Arantes, Thalita; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV), which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae. PMID:26978387

  3. Experiences of stigma by association among family members of people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Remko L M; Bos, Arjan E R; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the relationships between public stigma, stigma by association (SBA), psychological distress, perceived closeness, perceived heredity, and the type of family relationship among family members of people with a mental illness. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 527 family members of people with a mental illness were analyzed. Perceptions of public stigma were found to be positively related to SBA and SBA correlated with greater psychological distress and less perceived closeness. SBA also mediated relationships between perceived public stigma and psychological distress, and between perceived public stigma and perceived closeness. Further, among participants who reported SBA, immediate family members showed lower levels of perceived closeness than extended family members. Also, the perceived heredity of mental illness was associated with perceptions of public stigma and psychological distress. The findings suggest that family members of people with a mental illness could benefit from education on mental illnesses, their treatment, and the extent to which they are hereditary. Additionally, particular attention should be paid to the psychological needs that arise from being a caregiver of someone with a mental illness.

  4. How family members manage risk around functional decline: the autonomy management process in households facing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-04-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of in-depth interviewing in 2012-2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual's natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual's deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual's ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual's autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder's functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements.

  5. Pegasus, the 'atypical' Ikaros family member, influences left-right asymmetry and regulates pitx2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Liza B; Trengove, Monique C; Fraser, Fiona W; Yoong, Simon H; Ward, Alister C

    2013-05-01

    Members of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger transcription factors have been shown to be critical for immune and blood cell development. However, the role of the most divergent family member, Pegasus, has remained elusive, although it shows conservation to invertebrate Hunchback proteins that influence embryonic patterning through regulation of homeodomain genes. Zebrafish was employed as a relevant model to investigate the function of Pegasus since it possesses a single pegasus orthologue with high homology to its mammalian counterparts. During zebrafish embryogenesis pegasus transcripts were initially maternally-derived and later replaced by zygotic expression in the diencephalon, tectum, hindbrain, thymus, eye, and ultimately the exocrine pancreas and intestine. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the zebrafish pegasus gene resulted in disrupted left-right asymmetry of the gut and pancreas. Molecular analysis indicated that zebrafish Pegasus localised to the nucleus in discrete non-nucleolar structures and bound the 'atypical' DNA sequence GN3GN2G, confirming its presumed role as a transcriptional regulator. In vivo transcriptome analysis identified candidate target genes, several of which encoded homeodomain transcription factors. One of these, pitx2, implicated in left-right asymmetry, possessed appropriate 'atypical' Pegasus binding sites in its promoter. Knockdown of Pegasus affected both the level and asymmetry of pitx2 expression, as well as disrupting the asymmetry of the lefty2 and spaw genes, explaining the perturbed left-right patterning in pegasus morphants. Collectively these results provide the first definitive insights into the in vivo role of Pegasus, supporting the notion that it acts as a broader regulator of development, with potential parallels to the related invertebrate Hunchback proteins.

  6. Impact of family history assessment on communication with family members and health care providers: A report from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Acheson, Louise S

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (p'sfamily members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patients' and their family members' experiences of participation in care following an acute exacerbation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Charlotte; Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Bruun, Poul

    2017-01-01

    recovering from an exacerbation, the challenges associated with an unpredictable health condition dominate everyday life for patients and can involve their family members. Proper patient and family participation in care during discharge and follow-up can help patients to improve self-management. However......AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their family members relating to both participation in care during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation in COPD, and to the subsequent day-to-day care at home. BACKGROUND: When...... and increased uncertainty. While patients mostly demonstrated a reactive approach to care, family members strived to be more proactive. In hospital, preparing for discharge included an effort to find a balance between powerlessness and influence during interactions with healthcare professionals. At home...

  8. Quotidian of accompanying family members in an environment of care: the emergence of hospital tribes

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    Silvia da Silva Santos Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.

  9. Dementia and its influence on quality of life and what it means to be valued: family members' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Murfield, Jenny; Venturto, Lorraine; Griffiths, Susan; Grimbeek, Peter; McAllister, Margaret; Marshall, Jenni

    2014-05-01

    This pragmatic, exploratory qualitative study, as part of a larger funded research project, sought to explore families' perspectives on what it means to value a person with dementia and how this value might influence the quality of life of people with dementia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 family members who used one long-term care service provider in Australia. Families described the factors influencing a positive quality of life for the person with dementia as being related to the environment and, in particular, to the resident's room, supportive staff and individualised care that valued the person's life experience. Family also reported a negative impact on quality of life when staff and the care facility neglected to provide an individualised approach. This study highlights the importance of demonstrating the value of the person with dementia, the family role and partnerships of care.

  10. Perceptions of barriers in managing diabetes: perspectives of Hispanic immigrant patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Amirehsani, Karen; Wallace, Debra C; Letvak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics show poorer self-management of type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Although previous studies have reported socioeconomic and cultural barriers to diabetes self-management by Hispanics, little is known about perceived barriers to diabetes self-management from the perspectives of both Hispanics and their family members. The purpose of the study was to explore perceived barriers among Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and their family members. A qualitative study using 5 focus groups was conducted. A total of 73 Hispanic immigrants with type 2 diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited in the southeastern United States for a family-based intervention study of diabetes-self management. Participants were asked to describe their perceptions of barriers to self-management. The 5 sessions were audiotaped and transcribed, translated from Spanish into English, and analyzed using standard content analysis. Demographics, hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained both for participants with diabetes and for their family members. Barriers to diabetes self-management identified by participants with diabetes were in 3 major themes categorized as: suffering from diabetes, difficulties in managing the disease, and lack of resources/support. Two key themes emerged pertaining to family members: we can provide support and we lack knowledge. Perceived barriers to diabetes self-management described by Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and family members indicate a lack of intervention strategies to meet their needs. Interventions should include culturally relevant resources, family support, and diabetes self-management skills education.

  11. Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Kitto, Simon; Merkley, Jane; Lyons, Renee F; Bell, Chaim M

    2012-01-01

    To explore patients' and family members' perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations. Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients' and family members' perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach. OUR RESULTS REVEALED THREE KEY OVERARCHING THEMES IN THE PERCEPTIONS: lacking information, getting "funneled through" too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members. Study findings provide patients' and family members' perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management.

  12. The organ donor family members' perception of stressful situations during the organ donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what the individual organ/tissue donor family members appraised as most stressful during the anticipation, confrontation and post-confrontation stages of the organ-donation process. The Lazarus and Folkman stress and coping theory guided the development and interpretation of the study. Family members who had lost a loved one suddenly and consented to donation in 1988 were interviewed. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. Findings showed that family members appraised different types of stressful situations during the three stages. The most frequently reported stressful situations centred around the threat of losing a loved one, confirmation of brain death, failure of the health professionals to identify the loved one as a potential donor and to approach the family regarding organ donation, and adjusting to the many changes associated with the loss. Significantly, five families requested donation, while two readily consented when approached. All family members reported that organ donation had helped with their grief. The findings of this study contribute to the development of knowledge required to guide nursing interventions to provide sensitive care to donors and their families.

  13. [Influence of anxiety and depression status of family members on the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianning; Chen, Mingjiu; Su, Dan; Yu, Fenglei

    2011-12-01

    Facing the double pressures caused by cancer and surgery, many patients will appear series psychological problems like nervous, fear, pessimism, anxiety and so on. The aim of this study is to explone the anxiety, depression status of family members, the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer and the influence of the former on the latter. Total 97 patients and 97 patient family members from the thoracic department of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled as the study subjects. The general information, the anxiety and depression status of the family members, and the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer were investigated using self-made general information questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) and symptom check-list 90 (SCL-90). The scores of seven factors, including total scores (153.28±41.98), somatization (1.78±0.42), compulsion (1.96±0.52), depression (1.77±0.67), anxiety (1.82±0.56), hostility (1.68±0.87), panic (1.44±0.75) and psychosis (1.56±0.51) in SCL-90 were remarkerbly higher than those in domestic norm (Pfamily members was positively correlated with the compulsion, anxiety and bigoted factors of SCL-90 in the patients (Pfamily members was negatively correlated with the compulsion and psychosis factors of SCL-90 in the patients (PFamily members have different degrees of anxiety and depression, which have certain effects on the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer.

  14. Perceptional gaps among women, husbands and family members about intentions for birthplace: a cross-sectional study 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpuku, Yoko; Madeni, Frida Elikana; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Leshabari, Sebalda Charles

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: women are more likely to give birth at a health facility when their families agree with the birthplace. However, in rural areas of Tanzania, women are often marginalized from decision-making. This study predicted birthplace intention and identified factors to reduce perceptional gaps among pregnant women, husbands and family members. Method: explanatory cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in North Eastern Tanzania. Participants were 138 pregnant women and their families who answered the Birth Intention Questionnaire (BIQ), measuring knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention for birthplace. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Chi-square, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: the regression model showed that knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms predicted intention for birthplace (R2 = .28). While 81% of pregnant women thought their husbands were decision-makers for their birth, only 38% of husbands and 37% of family members agreed. Pregnant women had significantly lower scores on the item “I will prepare for childbirth with my family” compared with husbands (p < .01) and other family members (p < .001). Conclusion: providing evidence-based birth preparation and reducing the identified perceptual gaps may enhance women’s intention to deliver at health facilities. PMID:28146180

  15. In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies for coping with family members of patients with mental disorders

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    Daniele Alcalá Pompeo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. Method: this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. Results: the coping strategies most often used by family members were social support and problem solving. Mothers and fathers used more functional strategies (self-control p=0.037, positive reappraisal p=0.037, and social support p=0,021. We found no significant differences between the strategies and other variables examined. Conclusion: despite the suffering resulting from the illness of a dear one, family members make more use of functional strategies, allowing them to cope with adversities in a more well-adjusted way.

  17. Family dynamics in face of Alzheimer's in one of its members

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    Barbara Alana Vizzachi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the family dynamics when there is a member in the residence with Alzheimer's disease. METHOD A study of qualitative approach, using the creative sensitive method (CSM, and with participation of two families who had a member with Alzheimer's disease at home. RESULTS Three categories emerged: Effects of Alzheimer's disease and the family dynamics; Development process of Alzheimer's disease and Coping strategies in face of the disease. CONCLUSION It was possible to know the manifestations and consequences of Alzheimer's disease in the family, such as mutual help, the mobilization of resources to activate memories of the past, spirituality and faith. There was also understanding of the structure of family dynamics.

  18. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  19. Perceptions of the family members of children regarding well-child check-ups in the family healthcare strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Silva Melo Malaquias

    Full Text Available A qualitative descriptive study aimed at understanding the perceptions of the family members of children regarding well-child check-ups in the context of attention to child healthcare. Data collection was done using semi-structured interviews of 19 families, in the city of Maringá, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, from December 2012 to February 2013. The data was analyzed using content analysis, a thematic modality, which resulted in the thematic category "Revealing well-child check-ups from the family's point of view" and two secondary categories. The results showed the interviewees' insipient knowledge of well-child check-ups, reflecting the lack of adequate guidance about this type of care. The family members showed a preference for care of children by a pediatrician. Although secondary, the family noted the participation of the nurse in this activity. It is considered extremely important that well-child check-ups are valued by family members in order to promote effective multi-professional participation in this modality of attention.

  20. Karyopherin α7 (KPNA7, a divergent member of the importin α family of nuclear import receptors

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    Kelley Joshua B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin α and importin β. NLS cargo is recognized by importin α, which is bound by importin β. Importin β mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin β triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin α family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. Results We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin α family of transport factors, karyopherin α 7 (KPNA7, which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin β (IBB is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin β than the IBB domains from of other importin α family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. Conclusion KPNA7 is a novel importin α family member in humans that belongs to the importin α2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin α family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  1. Talking about death with terminally-ill cancer patients: What contributes to the regret of bereaved family members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanori; Yoshida, Saran; Shiozaki, Mariko; Baba, Mika; Morita, Tatsuya; Aoyama, Maho; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-07

    Talking about death is an important issue for terminally-ill cancer patients and their families. Little is known about how often and which bereaved families regret not having talked about death with their deceased loved one. To explore the prevalence of a regret of not having talked about death with a deceased loved one among bereaved family members of adult cancer patients, and to systematically explore factors contributing to their regret. We conducted a nationwide survey of 999 bereaved families of cancer patients admitted to 133 inpatient hospices in Japan and surveyed families' regret on talking about death. Exploratory analyses identified the underlying structures of process, option, and outcome subscales of factors contributing to regret. Among 678 bereaved families (response rate, 68%), 224 (33%) regretted not having talked about death sufficiently, while 40 (5.9%) conversely regretted having talked about death. Three process factors ( "prognostic disclosure to patient" (beta=0.082, p=0.039), "upsetting of patient and family" (beta=0.127, p=0.001), and "family's sense of uncertainty about when to act based on terminal awareness" (beta=0.141, p=0.000)) and an outcome factor ("having achieved a good death" (beta=-0.152, p=0.000)) contributed to the regret of talking insufficiently. A third of bereaved families of adult cancer patients regretted not having talked about death sufficiently. Clinicians may minimize this regret by facilitating a shared understanding of the disease and prognosis, advising families explicitly when to talk based on terminal awareness, providing continuous emotional support, and validating their decision on talking about death. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Female migrants, family members and community socio-demographic characteristics influence facility delivery in Rufiji, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levira, Francis; Gaydosh, Lauren; Ramaiya, Astha

    2014-09-23

    Health professionals and public health experts in maternal and newborn health encourage women to deliver at health facilities in an effort to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. In the existing literature, there is scant information on how migration, family members and community influence facility delivery. This study addresses this knowledge gap using 10 years of longitudinal surveillance data from a rural district of Tanzania. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify the influence of hypothesized migration, family and community-level factors on facility delivery while adjusting for known confounders identified in the literature. We report adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Overall, there has been an increase of 14% in facility delivery over the ten years, from 63% in 2001 to 77% in 2010 (p community were more likely to give birth in a facility AOR = 1.2 (95% CI 1.11-1.29). Furthermore, the previous facility delivery of sisters and sisters-in-law has a significant influence on women's facility delivery; AOR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45 and AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.35-2.13 respectively. Community level characteristics play a role as well; women in communities with higher socioeconomic status and older women of reproductive age had increased odds of facility delivery; AOR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.88-2.98 and AOR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32 respectively. Although there has been an increase in facility delivery over the last decade in Rufiji, this study underscores the importance of female migrants, family members and community in influencing women's place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that future interventions designed to increase facility delivery must integrate person-to-person facility delivery promotion, especially through women of the community and within families. Furthermore, the results suggest that investment in formal education of the community and increased community socio-economic status may increase facility delivery.

  3. Assessment of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia in a selected Medical College Hospital, Assam

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    Kunjalata Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental disorder which is chronic and disabling in nature. Family members of schizophrenia patients often show negative attitude with higher range of expressed emotion (EE towards their relative as they experience significant stress in coping with caring such patients. Material and methods: The present study was conducted to assess EE of family members of patients with schizophrenia. The study setting was outpatient department and psychiatric ward of Assam Medical College Hospital, Dibrugarh. Hundred schizophrenia patients and 100 family members were included in the study through purposive sampling technique. Tools used in the study were socio-demographic and clinical datasheet of patient, socio-demographic datasheet of family member, and Family Attitude Scale. Results: Majority of family members (79% had low level of EE. Their EE had significant association with age of onset of illness. EE was higher when schizophrenia started before 20 years of patient’s age. Age and marital status of the family members had significant associations with their EE. It increased along with increased age of the family members whereas majority of the younger family members had low level of EE. Married family members had higher level of EE. Conclusion: There is need for psychosocial nursing intervention for the family members of schizophrenia patients to help them cope with their stress.

  4. Young people's perspectives on open communication between family members when a parent is dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicola

    2017-07-03

    Living with a parent who is approaching the end of life is profoundly troubling for young people. Research indicates that family communication about life-limiting parental illness can influence how young people manage living with dying. In particular, open communication between family members has been shown to be helpful. This paper reports on a study of young people's experiences of family interaction when a parent is dying and considers the practice of open communication in the context of young people's involvement in giving and receiving family care. A narrative approach was employed based on in-depth semistructured interviews with 10 young people (aged 13-21) living with a parent thought to be in the last year of life. Young people's attitudes toward open communication between family members were more ambivalent and ambiguous than previous research suggests. Parental attempts at open communication were sometimes overlooked by young people, indicating that there may be differences between knowledge given and young people's acknowledgment of sensitive information. Some young people valued open communication as a signifier of the close relationships between family members, while others wanted to exercise more control over what they knew, when, and how. Young people's accounts challenged the positioning of young people as passive recipients of information. Young people were active in shaping family communication in their everyday lives, and deliberative acts of speaking or remaining silent were one way in which young people exercised care for themselves and others. This study extends research on communication within families when a parent has a life-limiting illness and suggests that supporting young people's agency in determining how they receive information may be more beneficial than promoting open communication between family members.

  5. Alcohol consumption and health status of family members: health impacts without ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W; Chikritzhs, T

    2013-09-01

    Over several decades, many cohort studies from the medical epidemiology literature have observed that compared with abstainers, moderate drinkers experience lower risk for a range of diseases. It was very difficult to separate the hypothesised physiological protective effect of moderate drinking from its well-correlated confounders in observational study settings. To investigate the association between current alcohol consumption levels of randomly selected family members and the current self-reported health status of other members living within the same family, using a large-scale representative general population survey. Poisson regression models of the association between randomly selected key respondent alcohol consumption and health status of cohabiting family members using data from the 2008, 2009 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Self-reported alcohol consumption of randomly selected key participants and self-reported health status of adult and child (parent reported) family members living in the same household were measured and compared. After controlling for a large range of commonly reported confounders, inverse associations were evident between light and moderate alcohol consumption of key participants and the prevalence of adverse health status among their family members, including children. The superior health status attributed to family members of light and moderate drinkers is highly likely to be spurious and due to residual confounding rather than physiologically protective effects of alcohol. Unaccounted for confounding is likely to underpin apparent 'protective effects' due to moderate drinking commonly reported from observational studies of all-cause mortality, heart disease, stroke and other chronic diseases. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'.

  7. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent years

  8. Workplace Factors Associated with Family Dinner Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between workplace factors and family dinners. We examined two aspects of the family dinner, the frequency that the entire family typically has dinner together each week and the frequency that children eat fast food for dinner. Participants were 220 parents who worked at least 20 h a week and had at least one…

  9. COMBINING WORK WITH CARING FOR ELDERLY FAMILY MEMBER IN POLAND (CHOSEN ISSUES

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    Lukasz Jurek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of combining work with caring for elderly family members is becoming an increasingly important matter due to demographic (population ageing and social (increasing economic activity of women changes that are currently in progress. The aim of the article is to present selected issues related to the professional situation of people taking care for their elderly family members. The primary focus of the study is reasons for not working of non-working caregivers, and professional problems of working caregivers

  10. Cres2 and Cres3: new members of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic subgroup of family 2 cystatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Nelson; Cornwall, Gail A

    2003-03-01

    The cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (CRES) and recently identified testatin and cystatin T proteins define a new subgroup within the family 2 cystatins of cysteine protease inhibitors. Members of the CRES subgroup are predominantly expressed in reproductive tissues and lack critical cystatin active-site sequences implying divergent functions. To determine whether there are additional members of the subgroup, we searched nucleotide databases and identified two novel genes that we designated Cres2 and Cres3. These genes, like other subgroup members, encode proteins with four conserved cysteine residues and predicted molecular weights characteristic of family 2 cystatins but have divergent cystatin inhibitory sequences. Furthermore, the genes exhibited reproductive-specific expression with Cres2 exclusively expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal and midcaput epididymal regions and Cres3 expressed in the proximal caput epididymal epithelium, Sertoli cells of the testis, and early follicles and corpora lutea in the ovary. Additional studies showed that, like Cres, both Cres2 and Cres3 genes are dependent on testicular factors for epididymal expression. Taken together, CRES2 and CRES3 represent new members of a subgroup of cystatin family 2 proteins that likely carry out tissue-specific functions distinct from that of typical cystatins.

  11. Opposing functions of classic and novel IL-1 family members in gut health and disease

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    Loris R. Lopetuso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their well-established role(s in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC, emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1 cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to downregulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC.

  12. Being cared by a family member: the existential feelings of cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wakiuchi; Anna Maria de Oliveira Salimena; Catarina Aparecida Sales

    2015-01-01

    The present article aimed to understand the daily life of cancer patients under palliative care while experiencing home care provided by family members. This was a Heideggerian phenomenological study with 20 patients being treated at the primary health care service of Northeast Paraná, Brazil, between November 2012 and February 2013. Data collection was based on the following research guiding question: What has been your experience of being cared for by your family? Phenomenological analysis ...

  13. Informed Family Member Involvement to Improve the Quality of Dementia Care in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjia, Jennifer; Lemay, Celeste A; Bonner, Alice; Compher, Christina; Paice, Kelli; Field, Terry; Mazor, Kathleen; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L; Gurwitz, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    To describe the extent to which nursing homes engaged families in antipsychotic initiation decisions in the year before surveyor guidance revisions were implemented. Mixed-methods study based on semistructured interviews. U.S. nursing homes (N = 20) from five CMS regions (III, IV, VI, VIII, IX). Family members of nursing home residents (N = 41). Family member responses to closed- and open-ended questions regarding involvement in resident care and antipsychotic initiation. Two researchers used a content analytical approach to code open responses to themes of family involvement in behavior management, decision-making, knowledge of risks and benefits, and informed consent. Fifty-four percent of family members felt highly involved in decisions about behavior management. Forty-two percent recalled being asked how to manage resident behavior without medication, and 17% recalled receipt of information about antipsychotic risks and benefits. Sixty-six percent felt highly involved in the process of initiating antipsychotic medication; 24% reported being asked for input into the antipsychotic initiation decision and knowing before the antipsychotic was started. Under existing federal regulations but before guidance revisions were implemented in 2013, more than 40% of families reported being involved in nonpharmacological behavior management of family members, but fewer than one in four reported being involved throughout the entire antipsychotic prescribing process. Interventions that standardize family engagement and promote adherence to existing federal regulations are needed. This discussion builds on these findings to weigh the policy options of greater enforcement of existing regulations versus enactment of new legislation to address this challenging issue. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. An uncharacterized member of the ribokinase family in Thermococcus kodakarensis exhibits myo-inositol kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-07-19

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate.

  15. Social worker involvement in identifying problems and needs of families with mentally ill members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčíková N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of schizophrenia on the life of the patient and his family, in particular, which problems people with schizophrenia and their families face. We applied a qualitative research strategy and method of semi-structured interview. Qualitative analysis of the data demonstrated barriers in the working and financial areas of life of people with schizophrenia. In addition, schizophrenia negatively affects social interactions of patients which lead to their social isolation which is also derived from barriers at work. Families with this kind of patient suffer mainly in the economic sphere of life with the necessity to leave the job and take care of an ill member. These families also suffer from isolation, restriction of social contacts, reduction of free-time activities, and many other problems included within the barriers in social interactions. Family members suffer psychological stress and they badly cope with the situation if the ill member is hospitalized. In addition, the family meets with the structural discrimination in the form of lack of information about the disease, lack of day care centres network and similar barriers in communication with physicians and the other professionals.

  16. Low-income families' perceptions on the use of drugs by one of their members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mayra; Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Families who are socially excluded are vulnerable to problems related to the use of psychoactive substances. This study aimed to identify the perception regarding drugs use among families that lived in extreme poverty and participated in a social-educational group in the suburbs of a city in the interior of São Paulo State. A survey-like quantitative study was conducted involving 70 members of families who participated in the social-educational groups of the Program for Integral Assistance to the Family. Results indicated that 67 (95.7%) of the subjects were married, at an average age of 37, most of them had not completed grade school, and were unemployed. Fifty five (78.6%) had a family member who used alcohol, fifty two (74,3%) smoked, and twenty three (32.9%) used some kind of illicit drug. The results also showed that living with a relative who was a drug user was perceived as problem that elicited feelings resentment, but also conformism on the part of other family members.

  17. The meaning of family members' presence during intensive care stay: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kristin Dahle; Dysvik, Elin; Hansen, Britt Saetre

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate what the presence of family members meant to patients in intensive care units. The study employed a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis. Eleven intensive care patients were interviewed at a university hospital in Norway. The results of the study indicated that the patients desired some limitation of visitors' presence and preferred visits only from those who were closest in daily life. Visits had a variety of functions for intensive care patients, including promoting support for patients and families. However, visits also caused stress for patients and worries about creating stress for family members. The patients' requirements for information differed. The findings suggest that information to the families is important for the patients need for reality orientation. Visits in intensive care units and information to the families have mutual importance for the patients and their families. The study supports prior claims that flexible visiting routines are challenging for ICU nurses. A dialogue with the families is recommended in order to find a balance between the social support and the stress caused by visits. This puts the families in a better position to give support to the patients during recovery.

  18. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  19. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  20. 影响癌症患者家属选择癌症告知策略的因素调查分析%Investigation and analysis on requirements of truth-telling strategy for the family members of patients with cancer and the influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾铁英; 刘勇; 王颖; 方鹏骞

    2008-01-01

    0bjective To know the influential factors towards the truth.telling strategy for the family members of patients with cancer.providing theoretical basis for scientific disclosure of cancer diagnosis. Methods 305 family members were investigated by a self-designed questionnaire.Results The result of Logistic analysis showed that gender,residence,occupation,history of caring critical patient,the time after being informed,experience of attending funeral and bereavement.religious belief and attitude about discuss death wel-e predictors of the family members'aRitudes toward the cancer.informing strategy.Conclusions In order to build up the harmonious relationship and get out of the dilemma of truth.telling.it's the best ways for the medical staffs to respect to the families'choice,consult about their strategy and conduct their opinion, obtaining the largest balance between"truth-telling"and"avioding injury".%目的 了解癌症患者家属对癌症告知策略选择的影响因素,为科学告知癌症提供理论依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对305名癌症患者家属进行调查.结果 Logistic回归分析显示,性别、住地、职业、重病接触史、知情时间、丧亲经历、丧礼经历、宗教信仰以及谈论死亡的态度等因素对家属选择癌症告知策略具有一定影响.结论 构建和谐的医疗关系,医护人员应充分尊重癌症患者家属的选择差异,与他们或协商合作、或教育引导,才能在"告诉事实"和"避免伤害"的冲突中取得最大的平衡.

  1. Do Attitudinal and Behavioral Ratings of Family Members Vary across Familial Configurations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Thomas S.; Necessary, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Compared 212 high school students from different family structures regarding their descriptions of themselves and their parents. Found that fathers' ratings or evaluations, but not mothers' ratings or students' self-ratings, suffered in wake of divorce. Regarding perceived "loving" actions by parents, students from intact families had advantage…

  2. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  3. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  4. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  5. Study of topical corticosteroid response in glaucoma suspects and family members of established glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilani F

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the topical steroid response in glaucoma suspects and family members of established glaucoma patients and its hereditary pattern The cases understudy were divided into three groups, namely normal (25 cases, suspected open angle glaucoma cases (20 and family members of established open angle glaucoma cases (33. After preliminary examination each patient was advised to put dexamethasone drop 1 % in one eye and a placebo in other eye. The IOP was noted after three weeks It was found that 80% of all eyes under study showed a rise in IOP after use of topical dexamethasone. The highest mean IOP was found in primary open angle glaucoma suspects, and the highest mean post-corticosteroid rise in IOP of 8.91 mm Hg was found among family members of established open angle glaucoma patients. The lOP response to topical corticosteroids was found to be of three phenotypical types viz., poor responders (nn, moderate responders (ng and high responders (gg. Normal subjects were generally poor responders. Suspected open angle glaucoma cases were generally high responders. However, family members of established open angle glaucoma cases showed the highest percentage of presence of responder gene.

  6. Resident and Family Member Perceptions of Cultural Diversity in Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2016-08-03

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home.

  7. The anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are attractive tumor-associated antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per thor; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2010-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-2) are pivotal regulators of apoptotic cell death. They are all highly overexpressed in cancers of different origin in which they enhance the survival of the cancer cells. Consequently, they represent prime candidates for anti-ca...

  8. 77 FR 54783 - Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... strategies to support collaborative research to address suicide prevention. (c) The Departments of Defense..., Veterans Affairs, and Homeland Security to expand suicide prevention strategies and take steps to meet the... members, and their families. Sec. 2. Suicide Prevention. (a) By December 31, 2012, the Department of...

  9. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  10. 5 CFR 3201.106 - Employment of family members outside the Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by: (1) An FDIC-insured depository institution or its affiliate; (2) A firm or business with which... relationship; or (3) A firm or business which, to the employee's knowledge, is seeking a business or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of family members outside...

  11. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides excluding the 3’-polyadenylated tail. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyviruses including a s...

  12. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  13. Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waern, Margda

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

  14. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  15. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  16. Chipmunk parvovirus is distinct from members in the genus Erythrovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    Full Text Available The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV, a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.

  17. Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferreira-Umpiérrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals.METHOD: qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution.RESULTS: the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life.CONCLUSIONS: knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses.

  18. Improving medical student intensive care unit communication skills: a novel educational initiative using standardized family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Scott; Rho, Lisa; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Nierman, David M

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether intensive care unit (ICU) communication skills of fourth-year medical students could be improved by an educational intervention using a standardized family member. Prospective study conducted from August 2003 to May 2004. Tertiary care university teaching hospital. All fourth-year students were eligible to participate during their mandatory four-week critical care medicine clerkship. The educational intervention focused on the initial meeting with the family member of an ICU patient and included formal teaching of a communication framework followed by a practice session with an actor playing the role of a standardized family member of a fictional patient. At the beginning of the critical care medicine rotation, the intervention group received the educational session, whereas students in the control group did not. At the end of each critical care medicine rotation, all students interacted with a different standardized family member portraying a different fictional scenario. Sessions were videotaped and were scored by an investigator blinded to treatment assignment using a standardized grading tool across four domains: a) introduction; b) gathering information; c) imparting information; and d) setting goals and expectations. A total of 106 (97% of eligible) medical students agreed to participate in the study. The total mean score as well as the scores for the gathering information, imparting information, setting goals, and expectations domains for the intervention group were significantly higher than for the control group (p communication skills of fourth-year medical students can be improved by teaching and then practicing a framework for an initial ICU communication episode with a standardized family member.

  19. Establishing the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria: the importance of examining the urine sediment of family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, S.S.; Fritsche, C.; Lemann, J. Jr

    1988-04-15

    Patients with microscopic hematuria are generally referred for urologic investigation. The authors describe 30 patients with normal renal function referred to our clinic during the years 1970 through 1987 for evaluation of hematuria, usually microscopic, in whom prior urologic and radiological studies had failed to determine the cause of bleeding. Urinary sediment from the patients and first-degree relatives revealed hemoglobin and red blood cell casts; the inheritance pattern was consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. During follow-up for up to 18 years, renal function remained normal, thus confirming the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Alport's syndrome were less common than benign familial hematuria and could be differentiated from it by history, physical examination, and routine laboratory testing. Since benign familial hematuria is a common disorder in adults with hematuria and normal renal function, urinary sediment from patients and family members should be examined before extensive urologic and radiological procedures are performed.

  20. The Effect of Family Sculpting on Perceptual Agreement Among Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    intellectualization, defensiveness, and projection of blame. Families are deprived of their familiar verbal cues and are compelled to communicate with one...not known by the entire family prior to the sculpting experience. The second dealt with the awareness of an alternative non verbal form of...drawings on the formation of the child’s self-concept. Archivido di Psicologia , Neurologia e Psichiatria, 1973, 34 (1), 182-197. Cornelison, F.S. and

  1. Molecular evolution and selection pressure in alpha-class carbonic anhydrase family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Meghan E; Lambert, Lisa A

    2011-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are ubiquitous, and their involvement in diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and glaucoma is well known. Most members of this family of metalloenzymes convert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate with the help of a Zn(2+) cofactor. While the expression patterns and kinetic activities of many of these isozymes have been studied, little is known about the differences in the conservation patterns of individual residues. To better understand the molecular evolution of the CA gene family, we created multiple sequence alignments and analyzed the selection pressure (dN/dS ratios) on surface and active site residues in 248 mammalian sequences of the 14 known family members. Using the values found for amino acids of known functional importance (i.e. the three histidines that bind the zinc cofactor) as our baseline, we were able to identify other regions of possible structural and functional importance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-concept and depression among children who experienced the death of a family member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong T; Scott, Amy N

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept moderated the relationship between death of a family member and depression. However, an unexpected relationship indicated that having higher math self-concept increased the probability of developing symptoms of depression. Interventions that target children's self-concept, especially physical self-concept, after a death in the family may result in fewer depression symptoms later in life.

  3. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Joseph J E; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts.

  4. Expression patterns of members of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene family in murine inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-R; Kim, K-H; Lee, S; Oh, S-K; Park, J-W; Lee, K-Y; Baek, J-I; Kim, U-K

    2017-09-19

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is characterized by an age-dependent decline of auditory function characterized by with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis (SV) cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Aging and age-related diseases result from accumulated oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family includes three enzymes in human cells: IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3. Although all three enzymes catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, that is, oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to produce α-ketoglutarate, each IDH enzyme has unique features. We identified and characterized IDH expression in the cochlea and vestibule of the murine inner ear. We examined the mRNA expression levels of Idh family members in the cochlea and vestibule using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and detected expression of IDH family members in both tissues. We also used immunohistochemistry to localize IDH family members within the cochlea and vestibule of the adult mouse inner ear. IDH1 was detected throughout the cochlea. IDH2 was expressed specifically in the hair cells, spiral ganglion, and stria vascularis. IDH3α was found in the cell bodies of neurons of the spiral ganglion, the stria vascularis, and in types II, IV, and V cells of the spiral ligament in a pattern that resembled the location of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion channel. We postulate that the IDH family participates in transporting K(+) ions in the cochlea. In the vestibule, all IDH family members were detected in both hair cells and the vestibular ganglion. We hypothesize that IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3 function to protect proteins in the inner ear from oxidative stress during K(+) recycling.

  5. Attitudes and experiences of family involvement in cancer consultations: a qualitative exploration of patient and family member perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; Butow, Phyllis; Bu, Stella; Fisher, Alana; Juraskova, Ilona

    2016-10-01

    Family members (FMs) often provide support to patients, regularly attend cancer consultations and are often involved in medical decision-making. Limited research has been conducted to date to understand patients' and FMs' perceptions about family involvement in cancer consultations. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore the attitudes and experiences of Australian cancer patients and FMs regarding (1) family attendance at consultations, (2) family roles in consultations and (3) the challenges of family involvement. Thirty patients and 33 FMs, recruited through either a tertiary metropolitan oncology clinic or national cancer patient advocacy group, participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and qualitatively analysed using Framework analysis methods. Four relevant themes were identified: (1) negotiating family involvement, (2) attitudes towards the roles FMs assume, (3) challenges of family involvement and (4) family-clinician interactions. Overall, patients appreciated family involvement and valued FMs' provision of emotional and informational support, and FMs also found benefit from participating in consultations. Some patients appreciated their FM assuming the role of 'messenger' between the consultation and extended family. However, a number of challenges were also reported by patients (e.g. maintaining privacy, mismatched patient-family information needs) and FMs (e.g. emotional toll of supportive roles, negative behaviours of clinicians towards FMs). FMs appear to make valuable contributions to cancer consultations, and their presence can benefit both the patient and the FM themselves in many ways. However, for some FMs, attending consultations can be challenging. Study findings point to the need for psychosocial support addressing FMs' needs and the development of communication strategies for oncology clinicians to positively engage with FMs. Further research is needed in these areas.

  6. The dysregulation of the monocyte/macrophage effector function induced by isopropanol is mediated by the defective activation of distinct members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Damien; Désy, Olivier; de Campos-Lima, Pedro O

    2012-01-01

    Isopropanol is the second most common cause of short-chain alcohol acute intoxication. Nonethanolic short-chain alcohols mediate their immunomodulatory effect by interfering with nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation with or without additional activator protein-1 (AP-1) involvement. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulation induced by isopropanol in conditions that are not reliant on NFAT: the inflammatory cytokine response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. Our hypothesis was that isopropanol acute exposure would have an attenuated effect or no consequence in this setting. To our surprise, the impairment of AP-1 activation was sufficient to mediate a severe and dose-dependent phenotype in human monocytes in vitro at alcohol concentrations as low as 0.16% (or 26 mM). There were three outcomes: interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-8 were unaltered; IL-6 was upregulated; and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/CCL2 were downregulated. The effector function of human monocyte-derived macrophages was also compromised. Our results showed that Toll-like receptor 4 early signaling was preserved, as isopropanol did not change the kinase activity of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 in LPS-stimulated cells. The nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade and the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase modules of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were alcohol insensitive. Conversely, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and, ultimately, of c-Fos and JunB were impaired. The alcohol-induced cytokine dysregulation was confirmed in a mouse model of isopropanol intoxication in which the production of TNF-α in response to LPS challenge was virtually abolished. The magnitude of this alcohol effect was sufficiently high to rescue animals from LPS-induced toxic shock. Our data contribute to the dismal body of information on the immunotoxicology of isopropanol, one of the most ubiquitous chemicals to which the general population

  7. Exposure of family members to antineoplastic drugs via excreta of treated cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Michiko; Sekine, Satoko; Takase, Kanae; Ishida, Takashi; Sessink, Paul J M

    2013-09-01

    (a) To measure the urinary excretion of antineoplastic drugs of three patients during 48 h after the administration of cyclophosphamide (two patients) and 5-fluorouracil (one patient). (b) To evaluate environmental contamination with antineoplastic drugs via excreta of patients in the home setting. (c) To evaluate exposure of family members to antineoplastic drugs by measuring the drugs in their urine during the 48 h after completion of the chemotherapy by the patients. Two patients were administered cyclophosphamide by i.v. bolus injection. One patient was administered 5-fluorouracil by i.v. bolus injection and thereafter immediately administered the same drug by continuous infusion for 46 h. Urine samples from the patients administered cyclophosphamide and their family members, and wipe samples from their home environment, were analysed for the unchanged form of cyclophosphamide. For 5-fluorouracil, the urine samples from the patient and the family member were analysed for the 5-fluorouracil metabolite α-fluoro-β-alanine. Wipe samples were analysed for 5-fluorouracil. Drugs were detected and quantified with gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy or by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-light detection. A total of 35 and 16 urine samples were collected from the three patients and their family members, respectively. The drugs were detected in all samples. Cyclophosphamide was detected at levels of 0.03-7.34 ng/cm(2) in 8 of the 12 wipe samples obtained from the homes of the patients administered cyclophosphamide. For the patient administered 5-fluorouracil, drug levels in his home environment were below the limit of detection. We demonstrated contamination of the home setting and exposure of family members to cyclophosphamide via the excreta of outpatient receiving chemotherapy. Exposure of the family member of the patient administered 5-fluorouracil was also demonstrated. These findings indicate the

  8. Familial multiple exostosis arising from bones of enchondral as well as membranous (in a family affecting seven members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial multiple exostosis in a family of seven members who are affected found that exostosis was arising both from bones of enchondral as well as membranous ossification, which was sessile as well as pedunculated and was larger in size at the growing ends of the bones. The lesions occur only in bones that develop from cartilage (endochondral ossification. In our study, we have noticed lesions occurring in both endochondral as well as membranous bone. Till now, no article has mentioned about membranous origin (clavicle.

  9. The avidin protein family : properties of family members and engineering of novel biotin-binding protein tools

    OpenAIRE

    Hytönen, Vesa

    2005-01-01

    Chicken avidin family consists of several proteins which bind a small vitamin, D-biotin. One of these proteins, avidin, is a widely used biological tool in the life sciences. The other members of the family are avidin-related proteins (AVRs). Avidin is thought to be an antimicrobial protein whereas the biological role of AVRs is not known. AVRs have been characterised only as recombinant proteins.The aim of this study was to characterise the structural and functional features of AVRs, especia...

  10. NG2, a member of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family mediates the inflammatory response of activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Lu, J; Huo, Y; Baby, N; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2010-01-20

    Activation of microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS causes neurotoxicity through the release of a wide array of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the expression of NG2 (also known as CSPG4), one of the members of transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family, in microglial cells and its role on inflammatory reaction of microglia by analyzing the expression of the proinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), chemokines (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NG2 expression was not detectable in microglial cells expressing OX-42 in the brains of 1-day old postnatal rat pups and adult rats; it was, however, induced in activated microglial cells in pups and adult rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro analysis further confirmed that LPS induced the expression of NG2 in primary microglial cells and this was inhibited by dexamethasone. It has been well demonstrated that LPS induces the expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. However in this study, LPS did not induce the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines including IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells transfected with CSPG4 siRNA. On the contrary, mRNA expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) was significantly increased in LPS-activated microglial cells after CSPG4 siRNA transfection in comparison with the control. The above results indicate that NG2 mediates the induction of iNOS and inflammatory cytokine expression, but not the chemokine expression in activated microglia.

  11. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  12. Umbilical cord blood regulatory T-cell expansion and functional effects of tumor necrosis factor receptor family members OX40 and 4-1BB expressed on artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, Keli L; Harker-Murray, Paul; Porter, Stephen B; Merkel, Sarah C; Londer, Aryel; Taylor, Dawn K; Bina, Megan; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Rubinstein, Pablo; Van Rooijen, Nico; Golovina, Tatiana N; Suhoski, Megan M; Miller, Jeffrey S; Wagner, John E; June, Carl H; Riley, James L; Blazar, Bruce R

    2008-10-01

    Previously, we showed that human umbilical cord blood (UCB) regulatory T cells (Tregs) could be expanded approximately 100-fold using anti-CD3/28 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-coated beads to provide T-cell receptor and costimulatory signals. Because Treg numbers from a single UCB unit are limited, we explored the use of cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) preloaded with anti-CD3/28 mAbs to achieve higher levels of Treg expansion. Compared with beads, aAPCs had similar expansion properties while significantly increasing transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) secretion and the potency of Treg suppressor function. aAPCs modified to coexpress OX40L or 4-1BBL expanded UCB Tregs to a significantly greater extent than bead- or nonmodified aAPC cultures, reaching mean expansion levels exceeding 1250-fold. Despite the high expansion and in contrast to studies using other Treg sources, neither OX40 nor 4-1BB signaling of UCB Tregs reduced in vitro suppression. UCB Tregs expanded with 4-1BBL expressing aAPCs had decreased levels of proapoptotic bim. UCB Tregs expanded with nonmodified or modified aAPCs versus beads resulted in higher survival associated with increased Treg persistence in a xeno-geneic graft-versus-host disease lethality model. These data offer a novel approach for UCB Treg expansion using aAPCs, including those coexpressing OX40L or 4-1BBL.

  13. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

    2014-03-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins.

  14. Mutations and polymorphic BRCA variants transmission in breast cancer familial members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; Martinucci, Marianna; Danza, Katia; Pinto, Rosamaria; Petriella, Daniela; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Bruno, Michele; Lambo, Rossana; D'Amico, Cosimo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2011-02-01

    We previously showed that about 80% of breast cancer patients at high risk to carry mutation in BRCA genes presented at least one polymorphism in these genes which resulted potentially harmful by in silico analysis. In the present paper, the genealogic transmission of those polymorphic coding and noncoding variants of BRCA genes in family's members has been investigated. Thirty families, enrolled within the Genetic Counselling Program of our Institute, with probands and at least one-first degree relative (n = 67 family members) available, have been studied for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathological mutation and polymorphic variants' transmission. Ten and 6 probands carried Mendelian transmitted mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Polymorphic coding and noncoding variants were transmitted in each family's relatives with a frequency ranging from 42 to 100%, with similar rate for each SNP in mutated and nonmutated families with the only exception of BRCA1 K1183R significantly more frequent in mutated families (P = 0.004); conversely, this SNP and BRCA2 N372H, were more frequently present in breast cancer relatives belonging to families in which pathological BRCA mutations were not present. Furthermore, specific haplotypes were transmitted in all relatives as BRCA1 871Leu-1038Gly, present in both BRCA mutated and nonmutated families, while BRCA2 289His-991Asp-IVS14+53 C>T present only in BRCAX families suggesting the harmful role of these SNPs. In conclusion, analysis of SNPs maps and modality of their transmission could identify further susceptibility markers and provide a basis for a better DNA-based cancer classification.

  15. An empirical study of adopting mobile healthcare service: the family's perspective on the healthcare needs of their elderly members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Wen-Yuan; Hung, Ming-Chien

    2010-01-01

    In an aging society, the issue of increased medical costs troubles both government agencies and families with aging parents. Many elderly people require long-term care, and the medical and financial problems associated with long-term care worry their entire family. Mobile healthcare service (MHS) has been widely applied by medical practitioners and researchers for years. Unfortunately, the elderly often fear both the technology and the cost its use incurs; hence, they seldom actively adopt MHS without the prompting and support of other family members. This study highlights this issue of long-term healthcare for the elderly and extracts the factors affecting their family's intentions in adopting MHS. Based on the integration of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Technology Acceptance Model, the factors associated with the family's intention of the aging people toward MHS are explored. Data were collected from 200 students in the "Job Master" track in a local "Executive Master of Business Administration" program. Half of them had at least one immediate family member who was older than 65 years of age. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis shows that "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHS, and "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease-of-use" had an indirect effect via "attitude." The PLS model explains the variance in intention (64.1%), attitude (58.1%), and perceived usefulness (33.8%). Overall, this study shows that attitude was an important determinant of MHS adoption. Gender also significantly affected the relationship between attitude and behavioral intention to adopt MHS.

  16. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells express elevated levels of multiple pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Madden

    Full Text Available Two of the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine today remain (1 the ability to culture human embryonic stem cells (hESCs at a scale sufficient to satisfy clinical demand and (2 the ability to eliminate teratoma-forming cells from preparations of cells with clinically desirable phenotypes. Understanding the pathways governing apoptosis in hESCs may provide a means to address these issues. Limiting apoptosis could aid scaling efforts, whereas triggering selective apoptosis in hESCs could eliminate unwanted teratoma-forming cells. We focus here on the BCL-2 family of proteins, which regulate mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. We used quantitative PCR to compare the steady-state expression profile of all human BCL-2 family members in hESCs with that of human primary cells from various origins and two cancer lines. Our findings indicate that hESCs express elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family members NOXA, BIK, BIM, BMF and PUMA when compared with differentiated cells and cancer cells. However, compensatory expression of pro-survival BCL-2 family members in hESCs was not observed, suggesting a possible explanation for the elevated rates of apoptosis observed in proliferating hESC cultures, as well as a mechanism that could be exploited to limit hESC-derived neoplasms.

  18. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  19. 人口学因素对因癌症丧亲者哀伤反应的影响%The influence of demographic factors on grief response to family members died from cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the predictive role of demographic factors in cancer bereaved grief reaction.Meth-ods One-hundred and thirty five bereaved persons whose relatives died of Cancer were recruited by visiting and internet in the current study.These subjects were asked to complete Prolonged Grief-13 (PG-13)and the demographic information.Results Investigation shows that,PG-13 score of female (20.98 ±8.07)is higher than male (17.88 ±6.23);people who live in larger cities (19.77 ±7.33)is higher than people live in countyside (19.29 ±9.38)and rural area (18.95 ±7.08);people that just finish their primary or middle school gain the highest score (24.80 ±8.48);rather than married (19.23 ±7.06)and single (16.74 ±5.75 ),scores of people lost their spouse (24.50 ±10.06),in cohabitation (24.50 ±7.24)and divorced/separated (24.00 ±7.07)were higher.The differences are statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion The gender, education level,marital status can predict grief reaction of cancer bereaved individuals,We should carry out these works from different aspects in order to effectively help these people recover from the pain of lossing relatives.%目的:了解人口学因素对癌症丧亲者哀伤反应的影响。方法通过寻访和网络招募的方式寻得因癌症死亡而丧失亲属的调查对象135人,并进行问卷调查。结果调查显示,PG-13得分女性[(20.98±8.07)分]高于男性[17.88±6.23)分];居住地中,大中型城市[(19.77±7.33)分]高于县城[(19.29±9.38)分]和农村[(18.95±7.08)分];文化程度中小学及以下得分最高[(24.80±8.48)分];婚姻状况中丧偶[(24.50±10.06)分]、同居[(24.50±7.24)分]和离婚/分居[(24.00±7.07)分]得分均高于已婚[(19.23±7.06)分]和未婚[(16.74±5.75)分],差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论性别、文化程度、婚姻状况是影响癌症丧亲者

  20. Psychological state and needs of family member caregivers for victims of traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The more severe pathogenic condition of the patient, the heavier the psychological pressure is on their family member caregivers. Medical staff should therefore pay close attention to the psychological health of family caregivers of TBI patients, especially family caregivers of critical cases. Interventions should be accordingly designed and conducted to meet the needs of family caregivers.

  1. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU.

  2. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Strategies for encouraging patient/family member partnerships with the health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth; Dokken, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference of the Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care (IPFCC), held in Washington, DC, from June 4-6, 2012, offered an opportunity for almost 1,000 conference participants to share and learn about exciting new patient- and family-centered initiatives occurring across the U.S. and in many other countries. One focus addressed by keynote and plenary speakers, as well as numerous conference sessions and poster presentations, was how nurses and other health care professionals can encourage patients and family members to become partners with their health care teams. Various presenters shared strategies ranging from initial approaches to acknowledging family members as part of the team and offering simple, non-threatening roles in care provision, to policies and approaches inviting increased participation in health care encounters, to higher level involvement in the care planning process, and to partnership roles extending beyond care of the individual child and family. A wealth of ideas can be implemented at various levels by individual nurses, units, and health care institutions.

  4. Few opportunities to influence decisions regarding the care and treatment of an older hospitalized family member: a qualitative study among family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, Ingrid; Danbolt, Lars Johan; Kirkevold, Marit

    2017-08-31

    The drive towards patient involvement in health services has been increasingly promoted. The World Health Organisation emphasizes the family's perspective in comprehensive care. Internationally there is an increased emphasis on what patients and their family tell about the hospital experiences. However, current literature does not adequately address the question of participation experiences among relatives of older hospitalized family members. There is a paucity of research with a generational perspective on relatives' opportunities to exert influence. The aim of the study was to explore relatives' experiences of opportunities to participate in decisions about the care and treatment of older hospitalized family members and whether there are different experiences of influence to the relatives' age. This was an explorative study applying individual qualitative interviews. The interviews were analysed following hermeneutic methodological principles. Two Norwegian geriatric wards participated: one at a university hospital and one at a local hospital. Twelve participants, six women and six men, were purposively selected. The relatives were aged from 36 to 88 (mean age 62) and were spouses, children and/or children-in-law of patients. The relatives' experienced opportunities to exert influence were distributed along a continuum ranging from older relatives being reactive waiting for an initiative from health professionals, to younger adults being proactive securing influence. Older "invisible" carers appeared to go unnoticed by the health professionals, establishing few opportunities to influence decisions. The middle-aged relatives also experienced limited influence, but participated when the hospital needed it. However, limited participation seemed to have less impact on their lives than in the older relatives. Middle-aged relatives and younger adults identified strategies in which visibility was the key to increasing the odds of gaining participation. The exceptional

  5. Three family members with elevated plasma cobalamin, transcobalamin and soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Lücke, Elke; Arendt, Johan F B; Nissen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma cobalamin is requested in order to diagnose cobalamin deficiency and low levels confirm a deficient state. Here, we present three family members with unexpected high levels of cobalamin. METHODS: We included a patient referred for cobalamin measurement due to neurological...... transcobalamin and part of sCD320. CONCLUSIONS: The high cobalamin levels were mainly explained by high levels of holoTC, possibly caused by complex formation with its soluble receptor, sCD320. The family occurrence points to a genetic explanation....

  6. The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project.

  7. Morphological manifestations of the Dandy-Walker syndrom in female members of a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlić, Marina; Alfirević, Stanko; Kolić, Krešimir; Soldo, Anamarija; Tripalol, Ana Batoš

    2015-03-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a hereditary disorder, appearing somewhat more frequently in women. The most important characteristics of the DWS are the lack of the cerebellar vermis, varying from a partial lack to a complete agenesis, and enlargement of the cerebrospinal spaces, especially in the fourth ventricle. The above mentioned morphological changes clinically manifest in ataxia, increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. Here is presented a family with DWS, where the disease is contracted only by female members, in two generations, whereas no signs of DWS have been noticed in male family members. DWS is clinically manifested from early childhood to middle age, with the morphological changes varying from hypoplastic cerebellar vermis to widening of the brain ventricles and hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst in the occipital part.

  8. Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Day

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.

  9. Folie a Famille: Delusional parasitosis affecting all the members of a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis (Ekbom syndrome is an uncommon psychiatric disorder that presents with a delusion of being infested with parasites. Treatment of this condition is difficult as patients with this paranoid disorder reject psychiatric diagnosis and treatment and often consult a dermatologist. Sharing the delusional beliefs of the paranoid patient by other people living in close emotional bonding with him/her could occur. We report here the clinically interesting phenomenon of delusion of parasitosis occurring simultaneously in all the members of a family. There was a pathological bonding between the members of the family who all presented to the dermatologist and rejected treatment. Dermatologists need to be aware of this uncommon clinical picture.

  10. Roles of amyloid precursor protein family members in neuroprotection, stress signaling and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögel, Donat; Deller, Thomas; Behl, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) family members in normal brain function are poorly understood. Under physiological conditions the majority of APP appears to be processed along the non-amyloidogenic pathway leading to the formation of the secreted N-terminal APP fragment sAPPα. This cleavage product of APP has been implicated in several physiological processes such as neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis. In this review we focus on the role of APP family members in neuroprotection and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanisms which are believed to mediate this effect. We propose that a reduction of APP processing along the non-amyloidogenic pathway during brain aging could result in an enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress and could contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase gene family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉新; 余龙; 张琪; 江萤; 戴方彦; 陈驰原; 屠强; 毕安定; 许月芳; 赵寿元

    1999-01-01

    By using the EST strategy for identifying novel members belonging to homologous gene families, a novel full-length cDNA encoding a protein significantly homologous to UDP-Gal: N-acetylglucosamine β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase (GAlT) was isolated from a human testis cDNA library. A nucleotide sequence of 2 173 bp long was determined to contain an open reading frame of 1032 nucleotides (344 amino acids). In view of the homology to members of the galactosyltransferase gene family and especially the closest relationship to Gallus gallus GalT type I (CK I), the predicted product of the novel cDNA was designated as human β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase homolog I (HumGT-H1). Its mRNA is present in different degrees in 16 tissues examined. Southern analysis of human genomic DNA revealed its locus on chromosome 3.

  12. The role of interleukin-1 family members in the host defence against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Mark S; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    The interleukin (IL)-1 family consists of 11 members, which all play significant roles in regulating inflammatory responses in the host. IL-1α and IL-1β exert potent pro-inflammatory effects and are key players in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of inflammation. Protective anti-Aspergillus host responses during the early stages of invasive aspergillosis are critically dependent on neutrophil recruitment, and several lines of evidence support that there is an important role for IL-1 in this process. However, IL-1-mediated inflammation needs to be tightly regulated, since uncontrolled inflammation can result in inflammatory pathology and thereby be detrimental for the host. Aspergillus-induced IL-1-mediated inflammation could therefore be amendable for IL-1 blockade under specific circumstances. This review describes the current understanding of the role of IL-1 family members in the host response against Aspergillus fumigatus and highlights the importance of balanced IL-1 responses in aspergillosis.

  13. Compassion fatigue: an application of the concept to informal caregivers of family members with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.

  14. Two suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by cereal-infecting members of the family Luteoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhai, Hao; Zhao, Kun; Wu, Beilei; Wang, Xifeng

    2012-08-01

    Several members of the family Luteoviridae are important pathogens of cultivated plant species of the family Gramineae. In this study, we explored RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs) encoded by two cereal-infecting luteoviruses: barley yellow dwarf virus and wheat yellow dwarf virus (BYDV and WYDV, respectively). The P0 protein of WYDV-GPV (P0(GPV)) and the P6 protein of BYDV-GAV (P6(GAV)) displayed RSS activities when expressed in agro-infiltrated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, by their local ability to inhibit post-transcriptional gene silencing of GFP. Analysis of GFP, mRNA and GFP-specific small interfering RNA indicated that both P0(GPV) and P6(GAV) are suppressors of silencing that can restrain not only local but also systemic gene silencing. This is the first report of RSS activity of the P6 protein in a member of the genus Luteovirus.

  15. Health status assessment tool for the family member caregiver of patients with bipolar disorder: development and psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Kermanshahi, Sima Mohamad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Cheragi, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    The caregivers' health assessment requires the application of a valid instrument that provided based on their experiences about the health concept. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the health assessment tool for family member caregivers' of patients with bipolar disorder. This study utilized mixed research. The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory factor analysis revealed ten factors: safe life with peace, maintaining physical health, painful emotions, psychological tolerance, maintaining physical-psychological potency, families and relatives support, health care system support, moral-financial support, maintaining social relationships, and worry over the label. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 95. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire with interval time of two weeks was 0.93 (p Family caregivers' health assessment questionnaire with 75 items helped to determine family caregivers' health in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-06-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

  17. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J. S.; Prytula, A

    1985-01-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Sh...

  18. Awareness among Family Members of Children with Intellectual Disability on Relevant Legislations in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Nair N; Jayanthi Narayan N; Bala Baskar Kuppusamy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess the level of awareness on legislations relating to intellectual disability among family members in India.Method: A sample of 103 respondents attending home based training services for their wards at National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped (NIMH), India, were administered a thirty item questionnaire, classified into awareness of legislations, awareness of rights, concessions and benefits and life cycle needs.Results: There is a modera...

  19. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  1. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sales of any enterprise for the purpose of section 3(s). The term “other member of the immediate family... or members of his immediate family. 779.234 Section 779.234 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other...

  2. The quality of nursing home care : do the opinions of family members change after implementation of emotion-oriented care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnema, E; de Lange, J; Droes, RM; Ribbe, M; van Tilburg, W

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The present study focuses on opinions on the quality of nursing home care of family members of nursing home residents with dementia. Furthermore, we examined whether family members' appreciation of the care increased as a result of the implementation of emotion-oriented care. Design. Rand

  3. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  4. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn SJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical

  5. Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xianglei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of patients with end stage renal disease were reported to have an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, studies differentiated genetic and non-genetic family members are limited. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China. Methods Seventeen dialysis facilities from 4 cities of China including 1062 first-degree relatives and 450 spouses of dialysis patients were enrolled. Sex- and age- matched controls were randomly selected from a representative sample of general population in Beijing. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular (eGFR 2 or albuminuria. Results The prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis spouses were compared with their counterpart controls, which was 3.8% vs. 7.8% (P 2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis relatives were also compared with their counterpart controls, which was 1.5% vs. 2.4% (P = 0.12, 14.4% vs. 8.4% (P  Conclusions The association between being family members of dialysis patients and presence of CKD is different between first-degree relatives and spouses. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation.

  6. Regulation of p53 by ING family members in suppression of tumor initiation and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Li, Gang

    2012-06-01

    The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family is an evolutionarily conserved set of proteins, implicated in suppression of initiation and progression of cancers in various tissues. They promote cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, participate in stress responses, regulate DNA replication and DNA damage responses, and inhibit cancer cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of the tumors. At the molecular level, ING proteins are believed to participate in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of their target genes. However, the best known function of ING proteins is their cooperation with p53 tumor suppressor protein in tumor suppression. All major isoforms of ING family members can promote the transactivition of p53 and the majority of them are shown to directly interact with p53. In addition, ING proteins are thought to interact with and modulate the function of auxiliary members of p53 pathway, such as MDM2, ARF , p300, and p21, indicating their widespread involvement in the regulation and function of this prominent tumor suppressor pathway. It seems that p53 pathway is the main mechanism by which ING proteins exert their functions. Nevertheless, regulation of other pathways which are not relevant to p53, yet important for tumorigenesis such as TGF-β and NF-κB, by ING proteins is also observed. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mutual interactions and cooperation between different members of ING family with p53 pathway and implications of this cooperation in the suppression of cancer initiation and progression.

  7. Assessment of satisfaction with care among family members of survivors in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David Y; Yagoda, Daniel; Perrey, Hilary M; Tehan, Tara M; Guanci, Mary; Ananian, Lillian; Currier, Paul F; Cobb, J Perren; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Many prior nursing studies regarding family members specifically of neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) patients have focused on identifying their primary needs. A concept related to identifying these needs and assessing whether they have been met is determining whether families explicitly report satisfaction with the care that both they and their loved ones have received. The objective of this study was to explore family satisfaction with care in an academic neuro-ICU and compare results with concurrent data from the same hospital's medical ICU (MICU). Over 38 days, we administered the Family Satisfaction-ICU instrument to neuro-ICU and MICU patients' families at the time of ICU discharge. Those whose loved ones passed away during ICU admission were excluded. When asked about the respect and compassion that they received from staff, 76.3% (95% CI [66.5, 86.1]) of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied, as opposed to 92.7% in the MICU (95% CI [84.4, 101.0], p = .04). Respondents were less likely to be completely satisfied with the courtesy of staff if they reported participation in zero formal family meeting. Less than 60% of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied by (1) frequency of physician communication, (2) inclusion and (3) support during decision making, and (4) control over the care of their loved ones. Parents of patients were more likely than other relatives to feel very included and supported in the decision-making process. Future studies may focus on evaluating strategies for neuro-ICU nurses and physicians to provide better decision-making support and to implement more frequent family meetings even for those patients who may not seem medically or socially complicated to the team. Determining satisfaction with care for those families whose loved ones passed away during their neuro-ICU admission is another potential avenue for future investigation.

  8. What's at stake? Genetic information from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

    2011-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed "personal theories of inheritance" that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of "what epilepsy is." Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to

  9. Hospice family members' perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George

    2014-10-01

    Even though more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had 2 research questions; (1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared with family members of community dwelling hospice patients? (2) What are family members' perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family members of hospice patients residing in the community. Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n = 176) with family members of community-dwelling hospice patients (n = 267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life; however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents, concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for residents. This study suggests that nursing

  10. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  11. Molecular identification and expression analysis of filaggrin-2, a member of the S100 fused-type protein family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Wu

    Full Text Available Genes of the S100 fused-type protein (SFTP family are clustered within the epidermal differentiation complex and encode essential components that maintain epithelial homeostasis and barrier functions. Recent genetic studies have shown that mutations within the gene encoding the SFTP filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris and are major predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis. As a vital component of healthy skin, filaggrin is also a precursor of natural moisturizing factors. Here we present the discovery of a member of this family, designated as filaggrin-2 (FLG2 that is expressed in human skin. The FLG2 gene encodes a histidine- and glutamine-rich protein of approximately 248 kDa, which shares common structural features with other SFTP members, in particular filaggrin. We found that FLG2 transcripts are present in skin, thymus, tonsils, stomach, testis and placenta. In cultured primary keratinocytes, FLG2 mRNA expression displayed almost the same kinetics as that of filaggrin following Ca(2+ stimulation, suggesting an important role in molecular regulation of epidermal terminal differentiation. We provide evidences that like filaggrin, FLG2 is initially expressed by upper granular cells, proteolytically processed and deposited in the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum (SC layers of normal epidermis. Thus, FLG2 and filaggrin may have overlapping and perhaps synergistic roles in the formation of the epidermal barrier, protecting the skin from environmental insults and the escape of moisture by offering precursors of natural moisturizing factors.

  12. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  13. [Conditioning of community nurse duties towards the patient treated by family doctor--the opinion of family doctor staff members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala-Pawelczyk, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The team of family doctor is the main link in the basic health care. It consists of community nurses who work according to the plan specifying the health needs of patients. Community nurses fulfil the needs of patients of various age and health conditions. The paper presents a part of studies on the area and activities of community nurses working in the team of family doctor. An attempt was made to answer the following questions: what are the duties of community nurse, what factors make it easy to fulfil the duties and what factors make the work more difficult? The study comprised a few dozen of community nurses and family doctors all over the country. It was carried out from January to April 2001. Two questionnaires were used for community nurses and for family doctors. Medical documentation was also analysed. It gave answers to problem questions: duties of community nurses include: co-operation in diagnosing and treatment, health promotion and education, fulfilment of therapeutic and nursing programme, factors which help to realise the programme include: qualifications, clearly stated duties, equipment, factors which make the work difficult comprise: lack of staff, poor salary, legislation problems, difficulties in self-development, lack of co-operation from patients and their families. No differences in the opinion of both groups on the duties of community nurses were noticed.

  14. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Shinya; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3-3.7], 4.6 [3.6-5.8], and 5.8 [4.4-7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7-4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6-2.6], 4.0 [3.1-5.1], 4.1 [3.0-5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents.

  15. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  16. Caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS: experiences of Vietnamese family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Doan, Thoa Thi Kim; Dinh, Thu Thi Xuan; Oach, Nhung Kim; Le, Phong Hoang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the experiences of caregiving among Vietnamese family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS increases, the need of family caregivers who can take responsibility for the home care of these persons increases. Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used. A purposive sample of 104 family caregivers, both male and female, participated voluntarily by answering a questionnaire of caregiver burden, and 20 of them participated in in-depth interview. Female caregivers were mainly mothers and wives while male caregivers were mainly husbands, fathers and siblings. The largest group of family caregivers reported moderate to severe burden. There was no difference between genders in total caregiver burden, but there were several differences between older and younger caregivers in some items of caregiver burden. Five categories of experiences emerged: Different types of caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS, cultural and religious issues associated with caregiving, keeping secret to avoid stigma and discrimination, lack of knowledge about disease and provision of care, and fear, anxiety and frustration. Stigma and discrimination should be decreased by providing knowledge to the general public about HIV/AIDS, in particular about ways of transmission and protection. Special knowledge should be given to family caregivers to enable them to give care to persons living with HIV/AIDS at home. This could be done through culturally appropriate training/intervention programmes in which coping methods should be included. Support group interventions should also be carried through. The results obtained can be used as baseline information. Health care providers should consider gender, age and culture of family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, provision of care at home and in hospital, and

  17. ACAM, a novel member of the neural IgCAM family, mediates anterior neural tube closure in a primitive chordate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Diaz, Heidi; Mejares, Emil; Newman-Smith, Erin; Smith, William C

    2016-01-01

    The neural IgCAM family of cell adhesion molecules, which includes NCAM and related molecules, has evolved via gene duplication and alternative splicing to allow for a wide range of isoforms with distinct functions and homophilic binding properties. A search for neural IgCAMs in ascidians (Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi, and Phallusia mammillata) has identified a novel set of truncated family members that, unlike the known members, lack fibronectin III domains and consist of only repeated Ig domains. Within the tunicates this form appears to be unique to the ascidians, and it was designated ACAM, for Ascidian Cell Adhesion Molecule. In C. intestinalis ACAM is expressed in the developing neural plate and neural tube, with strongest expression in the anterior sensory vesicle precursor. Unlike the two other conventional neural IgCAMs in C. intestinalis, which are expressed maternally and throughout the morula and blastula stages, ACAM expression initiates at the gastrula stage. Moreover, C. intestinalis ACAM is a target of the homeodomain transcription factor OTX, which plays an essential role in the development of the anterior central nervous system. Morpholino (MO) knockdown shows that ACAM is required for neural tube closure. In MO-injected embryos neural tube closure was normal caudally, but the anterior neuropore remained open. A similar phenotype was seen with overexpression of a secreted version of ACAM. The presence of ACAM in ascidians highlights the diversity of this gene family in morphogenesis and neurodevelopment.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Colombo, Aurelio; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Camacho-Hernández, José R; Vázquez-Cruz, Eduardo; Morales-Hernández, Eduardo R; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 180 million persons (~2.8%) globally are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence in Mexico has been estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.4%. The aim of present work was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico. Patients and their accompanying family members in two clinics were invited to participate in this study between May and September 2010. A total of 10,214 persons were included in the study; 120 (1.17%) persons were anti-HCV reactive. Of the reactive subjects, detection of viral RNA was determined in 114 subjects and 36 were positive (31%). The more frequent risk factors were having a family history of cirrhosis (33.1%) and having a blood transfusion prior to 1995 (29%). After a multiple logistic regression analysis only transfusion prior to 1995 resulted significant to HCV transmission (p = 0.004). The overall detected HCV genotypes were as follows: 1a (29%), 1b (48.5%), 2/2b (12.8%), and 3a (6.5%). The HCV prevalence in this population is in agreement with previous studies in other regions of Mexico.

  19. Influence of Anxiety and Depression Status of Family Members on the General 
Psychological Status of Perioperative Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianning WU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Facing the double pressures caused by cancer and surgery, many patients will appear series psychological problems like nervous, fear, pessimism, anxiety and so on. The aim of this study is to explone the anxiety, depression status of family members, the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer and the influence of the former on the latter. Methods Total 97 patients and 97 patient family members from the thoracic department of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled as the study subjects. The general information, the anxiety and depression status of the family members, and the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer were investigated using self-made general information questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, self-rating depression scale (SDS and symptom check-list 90 (SCL-90. Results The scores of seven factors, including total scores (153.28±41.98, somatization (1.78±0.42, compulsion (1.96±0.52, depression (1.77±0.67, anxiety (1.82±0.56, hostility (1.68±0.87, panic (1.44±0.75 and psychosis (1.56±0.51 in SCL-90 were remarkerbly higher than those in domestic norm (P<0.05. The standard score in SAS of the family members was positively correlated with the compulsion, anxiety and bigoted factors of SCL-90 in the patients (P<0.05. The depression severity of the family members was negatively correlated with the compulsion and psychosis factors of SCL-90 in the patients (P<0.05. Conclusion Family members have different degrees of anxiety and depression, which have certain effects on the general psychological status of perioperative patients with lung cancer.

  20. Turnover of amyloid precursor protein family members determines their nuclear signaling capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbacher, Manuel T; Goodger, Zoë V; Trutzel, Annette; Bundschuh, Diana; Nitsch, Roger M; Konietzko, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as its homologues, APP-like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2), are cleaved by α-, β-, and γ-secretases, resulting in the release of their intracellular domains (ICDs). We have shown that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is transported to the nucleus by Fe65 where they jointly bind the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and localize to spherical nuclear complexes (AFT complexes), which are thought to be sites of transcription. We have now analyzed the subcellular localization and turnover of the APP family members. Similarly to AICD, the ICD of APLP2 localizes to spherical nuclear complexes together with Fe65 and Tip60. In contrast, the ICD of APLP1, despite binding to Fe65, does not translocate to the nucleus. In addition, APLP1 predominantly localizes to the plasma membrane, whereas APP and APLP2 are detected in vesicular structures. APLP1 also demonstrates a much slower turnover of the full-length protein compared to APP and APLP2. We further show that the ICDs of all APP family members are degraded by the proteasome and that the N-terminal amino acids of ICDs determine ICD degradation rate. Together, our results suggest that different nuclear signaling capabilities of APP family members are due to different rates of full-length protein processing and ICD proteasomal degradation. Our results provide evidence in support of a common nuclear signaling function for APP and APLP2 that is absent in APLP1, but suggest that APLP1 has a regulatory role in the nuclear translocation of APP family ICDs due to the sequestration of Fe65.

  1. Quotidian of accompanying family members in an environment of care: the emergence of hospital tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Silvia da Silva Santos; Pereira, Álvaro; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Compreender o relacionamento no quotidiano dos familiares acompanhantes nos cenários de cuidado que se aproximam da metáfora da tribo no ambiente hospitalar. Estudo qualitativo com dados coletados a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas e observação com 16 familiares acompanhantes de pessoas hospitalizadas com dependência para o autocuidado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática e analisados através da metáfora da tribo proposta pela sociologia compreensiva. Os familiares formam um agrupamento social em torno do cuidado onde encontramos as características das tribos: a ambiência emocional; a solidariedade baseada nos vínculos de simpatia e ajuda mútua; a nebulosa afetual no processo interacional; a lógica da fusão nas relações tácteis e a comunhão/religiosidade no processo de ligação numa identidade coletiva. Os familiares na presença do trágico criam agrupamentos sociais que se assemelham a tribos cujo totem é o cuidado. Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.

  2. Magnitude of the smoking problem, knowledge, attitude and practice, among family members of primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: smoking is a very important public health problem, urgently requiring immediate and effective measures due to its harmful effect on health. The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about the magnitude of smoking problem, knowledge, attitude, and practice among family members of primary school students in the northwest region of Iran.Methods: of 55 680 primary school students (the 3th, 4th and 5th grades, 7.1% (n=3 954 were selected using randomized multi-stage cluster sampling. Data collection was conducted in April, May, and June 2011, by means of a self-administered two-page questionnaire.Results: a total of 3 954 students (57.6% boys and 42.3% girls with the mean age of 10.46±1.09 years were evaluated. According to our data, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among fathers was more than other family members (27.1% versus 17.8% whereas the prevalence of water pipe smoking among fathers and other family members was almost similar (9.2% and 9.7% respectively. None of the smoking type was prevalent among mothers (cigarette: 1% and water pipe: 1.1%. Considerable numbers of all students under study had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home (cigarette: 19.8% and water pipe: 7.7%.Conclusions: considering our findings, two procedures recommended to prevail the problem are to provide greater education about hazards of tobacco consumption among students and their family; and to legislate new laws by officials to ban tobacco use at home.

  3. The ties that bind - A case report about restraining a mentally unwell family member at home for over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jing Ling; Chan, Christopher Yi Wen; Ho, Zhen Chong; Lal, Manu

    2017-04-01

    This is a case report describing a patient, with schizophrenia, who was physically chained by her mother in their house for more a decade. Illness factors, family dynamics, stigma, lack of mental health literacy and cultural roles contributed to her chaining. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that examines the prolonged use of physical restraints by family members on a patient in a developed urban setting and that explores the cultural and ethical issues surrounding this phenomenon. We have concluded that there remains a need for a national level approach to increase mental health literacy, reduce stigma and promote existing psychiatric community health services in a culturally sensitive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among rural young Chinese: the effect of suicide death by a family member or friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li

    2011-10-01

    Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts have been found to be predictors of suicide. This study aims to estimate the suicidal behaviors in rural China. We studied 784 respondents as informants of suicide and 1,247 respondents as informants of community living controls, with the NCS-R measures on suicidal behaviors. The lifetime prevalence of ideation, plans, and attempts among the informants of suicide was 18.1, 4.1, and 1.7%, and the 12-month prevalence was 12.1, 2.2, and 0.4%, respectively. The prevalence scores were higher for the family members than for friends of suicide. The risk factors for suicidal behaviors include being parents or spouse of the suicide, female gender, low education level, and being never married. As suicidal behaviors are more observed among those who have a suicide death in the family or among close friends, suicide screening and intervention efforts should be focused on this type of population.

  5. E2F-4, a new member of the E2F gene family, has oncogenic activity and associates with p107 in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, R.L.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Zhu, L.; Carlée, L.; Voorhoeve, P.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors controls the expression of genes that are involved in cell cycle regulation. E2F DNA-binding activity is found in complex with the retinoblastoma protein, pRb, and with the pRb-related p107 and p130. To date, cDNAs for three members of the E2F gene family have

  6. Intra-familial prevalence of hepatitis B virologic markers in HBsAg positive family members in Nahavand, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh; Mitra Ranjbar; Shahin Ansari; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Hamid Mohaghegh Shalmani; Leila Hekmat; Mohammad Reza Zali

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B in Nahavand and evaluate the HBsAg positive prevalence in families with a member who was confirmed to have HBV infection.METHODS: This study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, 1 824 subjects in Nahavand city were selected. The interviewers visited the houses of chosen families to fill the questionnaire and take the blood samples.All subjects signed an informed consent before interviews and blood sampling. The samples were evaluated for HBV virologic markers. In the second phase, 115 HBsAg-positive cases were enrolled and evaluated for HBV virologic markers.RESULTS: The prevalence of positive HBsAg in Nahavand was 2.3%. The most frequent relatives of index cases were sons and daughters (32.2% and 23.5% respectively).Twelve (11%) of all family members were HBsAg positive.Fifty (56.2%) were isolated HBsAb positive and only one person (2.5%) was isolated HBcAb positive. The higher rates of HBsAg marker were detected in the brothers (1-25%) and fathers (1-12.5%). The infection rate in husbands and wives of index cases was 10%. Only two (16.7%) of all HBsAg-positive participants reported previous HBV vaccination.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of intra-familial HBV infection is lower in Nahavand of Iran compared to other studies.More attention should be paid to HBV vaccination and risk-lowering activities.

  7. Nonredundant and locus-specific gene repression functions of PRC1 paralog family members in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Vincent; Rozenveld-Geugien, Marjan; Bonardi, Francesco; Malanga, Donatella; van Gosliga, Djoke; Heyink, Anne Margriet; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Morrone, Giovanni; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is a key factor in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic stem cell self-renewal and functions in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). In humans, each of the 5 subunits of PRC1 has paralog family members of which many reside in

  8. Characterization of obstructive airway disease in family members of probands with Asthma - An algorithm for the diagnosis of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuysen, CIM; Bleecker, ER; Koeter, GH; Meyers, DA; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the genetic susceptibility to asthma, we developed an algorithm to classify the phenotype of each family member enrolled in a family study on the genetics of asthma. This algorithm was applied to 92 two-and three-generation families, identified through a subject (proband) with asthma

  9. Comprehensive overview of the vertebrate p24 family: identification of a novel tissue-specifically expressed member

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, J.; Bakel, van N.H.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Martens, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The members of the p24 protein family have an important but unclear role in transport processes in the early secretory pathway. The p24 family consists of four subfamilies (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), whereby the exact composition of the family varies among species. Despite more than 15 years of

  10. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. "The stress will kill you": prisoner reentry as experienced by family members and the urgent need for support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Suzanne M; Crawford, Amelia; Fields, Julie; Smith, Horace; Harris, Richard; Matson, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    The role of incarceration and community reentry after incarceration has been studied extensively for individual and community health; however, little attention has been given to the experiences of individuals who provide support to those in reentry. Through a community-academic partnership, seven focus groups were conducted with 39 individuals supporting a family member in reentry in the summer of 2012. The primary objectives of the focus groups were to explore community experiences and perspectives regarding providing support during a family member's reentry from a period of incarceration and any desired support for themselves during this time. Five themes emerged under a metatheme of stress, indicating that family members experience acute stress as a result of family reentry that adds to the chronic stress they already endure. Programs that acknowledge the difficult role of family members as supporters during an individual's reentry and provide support to them are desperately needed.

  12. Family members and health professionals' perspectives on future life planning of ageing people with Down syndrome: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelli, Venusia; Raggi, Alberto; Paganelli, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-08-08

    To address the way in which primary caregivers of people over 45 with Down syndrome describe daily life activities and context and foresee their future. Thirteen family members and 15 health professionals participated to four focus groups. Meaningful concepts were identified and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health using established linking rules. A total of 258 relevant concepts were identified and linked to 75 categories of the classification: 38 were from activity and participation and 17 from environmental factors domains. The most commonly reported issues were mental functions (b117-intellectual functions and b152-emotional functions), community life activities (d910-community life and d920-recreation and leisure) and environmental factors (e310-support of immediate family, e355-support from health professionals and e555-associations and organizational services). Information on the daily life and health of ageing people with Down syndrome is important to plan social and health care interventions tailored to deal with problems that they may encounter in older age. Considering the interaction between health and environment and maintaining a continuity of daily routines were reported as the most relevant topics for managing daily lives of persons with Down syndrome in older ages. Implications for rehabilitation Pay more attention to the interaction between environmental factors and health condition in ageing people with Down syndrome. Information about the life contest are important in order to plan present and future social-health care interventions. Future planning for people with Down syndrome is a great concern for family members.

  13. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  14. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  15. Maximal sequence length of exact match between members from a gene family during early evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao; GUO Xing-yi; FAN Long-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Mutation (substitution, deletion, insertion, etc.) in nucleotide acid causes the maximal sequence lengths of exact match (MALE) between paralogous members from a duplicate event to become shorter during evolution. In this work, MALE changes between members of 26 gene families from four representative species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens) were investigated. Comparative study ofparalogous' MALE and amino acid substitution rate (dA<0.5)indicated that a close relationship existed between them. The results suggested that MALE could be a sound evolutionary scale for the divergent time for paralogous genes during their early evolution. A reference table between MALE and divergent time for the four species was set up, which would be useful widely, for large-scale genome alignment and comparison. As an example, detection of large-scale duplication events of rice genome based on the table was illustrated.

  16. Multiple UBXN family members inhibit retrovirus and lentivirus production and canonical NFκΒ signaling by stabilizing IκBα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yani; O’Boyle, Kaitlin; Auer, Jim; You, Fuping; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    UBXN proteins likely participate in the global regulation of protein turnover, and we have shown that UBXN1 interferes with RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling by interacting with MAVS and impeding its downstream effector functions. Here we demonstrate that over-expression of multiple UBXN family members decreased lentivirus and retrovirus production by several orders-of-magnitude in single cycle assays, at the level of long terminal repeat-driven transcription, and three family members, UBXN1, N9, and N11 blocked the canonical NFκB pathway by binding to Cullin1 (Cul1), inhibiting IκBα degradation. Multiple regions of UBXN1, including its UBA domain, were critical for its activity. Elimination of UBXN1 resulted in early murine embryonic lethality. shRNA-mediated knockdown of UBXN1 enhanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) production up to 10-fold in single cycle assays. In primary human fibroblasts, knockdown of UBXN1 caused prolonged degradation of IκBα and enhanced NFκB signaling, which was also observed after CRISPR-mediated knockout of UBXN1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts. Knockout of UBXN1 significantly up- and down-regulated hundreds of genes, notably those of several cell adhesion and immune signaling pathways. Reduction in UBXN1 gene expression in Jurkat T cells latently infected with HIV resulted in enhanced HIV gene expression, consistent with the role of UBXN1 in modulating the NFκB pathway. Based upon co-immunoprecipitation studies with host factors known to bind Cul1, models are presented as to how UBXN1 could be inhibiting Cul1 activity. The ability of UBXN1 and other family members to negatively regulate the NFκB pathway may be important for dampening the host immune response in disease processes and also re-activating quiescent HIV from latent viral reservoirs in chronically infected individuals. PMID:28152074

  17. Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment.

  18. Resilience and spirituality in patients with depression and their family members: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Chisa; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mizuno, Yuya; Tarumi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Kazunari; Fujii, Kazuhito; Hirano, Jinichi; Tani, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Ellen B; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    The degree and quality of resilience in patients with depression have never been investigated in the context of remission status, spirituality/religiosity, and family members' resilience levels, which was addressed in this study. This cross-sectional study recruited Japanese outpatients with depressive disorder according to ICD-10 and cohabitant family members who were free from psychiatric diagnoses. Resilience was assessed using the 25-item Resilience Scale (RS). Other assessments included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT) and Kasen et al.'s (2012) scale for spirituality/religiosity; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). One hundred outpatients with depression (mean±SD age, 50.8±14.5years; 44 men; MADRS total score 9.8±9.0) and 36 healthy family members (mean±SD age, 56.5±15.0years; 18 men) were included. Symptom severity, attendance at religious/spiritual services, and self-esteem were significantly associated with RS scores in the patient group. RS total scores were significantly higher in remitted patients compared to non-remitted patients (mean±SD, 112.3±17.1 vs. 84.8±27.7, pself-esteem or spirituality/religiosity may represent reinforcing elements. While caution is necessary in extrapolating these findings to other patient populations, our results suggest that resilience may be considered a state marker in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential interaction of GRK2 with members of the G alpha q family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter W; Carman, Christopher V; Sterne-Marr, Rachel; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Wedegaertner, Philip B

    2003-08-05

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins bind to active G alpha subunits and accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or block interaction with effector molecules, thereby decreasing signal duration and strength. RGS proteins are defined by the presence of a conserved 120-residue region termed the RGS domain. Recently, it was shown that the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) contains an RGS domain that binds to the active form of G alpha(q). Here, the ability of GRK2 to interact with other members of the G alpha(q) family, G alpha(11), G alpha(14), and G alpha(16), was tested. The signaling of all members of the G alpha(q) family, with the exception of G alpha(16), was inhibited by GRK2. Immunoprecipitation of full-length GRK2 or pull down of GST-GRK2-(45-178) resulted in the detection of G alpha(q), but not G alpha(16), in an activation-dependent manner. Moreover, activated G alpha(16) failed to promote plasma membrane (PM) recruitment of a GRK2-(45-178)-GFP fusion protein. Assays with chimeric G alpha(q)(-)(16) subunits indicated that the C-terminus of G alpha(q) mediates binding to GRK2. Despite showing no interaction with GRK2, G alpha(16) does interact with RGS2, in both inositol phosphate and PM recruitment assays. Thus, GRK2 is the first identified RGS protein that discriminates between members of the G alpha(q) family, while another RGS protein, RGS2, binds to both G alpha(q) and G alpha(16).

  20. Subcellular localization of the five members of the human steroid 5α-reductase family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Scaglione

    2017-06-01

    We report the cloning and transient expression in HeLa cells of the five members of the human steroid 5α-reductase family as both N- and C-terminus green fluorescent protein tagged protein constructs. Following the intrinsic fluorescence of the tag, we have determined that the subcellular localization of these enzymes is in the endoplasmic reticulum, upon expression in HeLa cells. The presence of the tag at either end of the polypeptide chain can affect protein expression and, in the case of trans enoyl-CoA reductase, it induces the formation of protein aggregates.

  1. The Human Laminin Receptor is a Member of the Integrin Family of Cell Adhesion Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, Kurt R.; Dillner, Lena; Engvall, Eva; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    1988-09-01

    A receptor for the adhesive basement membrane protein, laminin, was isolated from human glioblastoma cells by affinity chromatography on laminin. This receptor has a heterodimeric structure similar to that of receptors for other extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin. Incorporation of the laminin receptor into liposomal membranes makes it possible for liposomes to attach to surfaces coated with laminin. The receptor liposomes also attached to some extent to surfaces coated with fibronectin, but not with other matrix proteins. These properties identify the laminin receptor as a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors.

  2. Evidence of abnormality of lymphocyte uroporphyrinogen synthase in family members of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, M; Epstein, O; Schoenfeld, N; Nemesh, L; Shaklai, M; Atsmon, A

    1985-01-01

    Patients with active lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) were shown to have high activity of lymphocyte uroporphyrinogen synthase (L-UROS), the enzyme which converts porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen. The mean L-UROS activity of 64 first-degree relatives of patients with LPD was significantly higher than that of a control group and 45% of these relatives had pathological values of L-UROS. L-UROS activity was also determined in the spouses of 2 patients and was pathologically elevated in both. The pattern of pathological values among family members may indicate the presence of a communicable agent.

  3. Posttraumatic symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members with special regard to suicide and homicide cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n = 42), and others (n = 35). With regard to the 3 main PTSD-related criteria, (a) re-experiencing symptoms were not dependent on the manner of death or the relationship to the deceased; (b) avoidance behaviors were more highly related to homicide than natural death for relatives other than parent-child and conjugal relationships; and (c) hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms were more serious for conjugal loss. These findings suggest that avoidance behaviors in homicidal cases are more closely associated with a distant family relationship, whereas conjugal loss is traumatic, irrespective of the manner of death, often causing hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms.

  4. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  5. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  6. Importance of Group Therapeutic Support for Family Members of Children with Alopecia Areata: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; McFarland, Sarah L; Hordinsky, Maria K; Lindgren, Bruce R; Farah, Ronda S

    2017-07-01

    The psychological effect of alopecia areata (AA) is well documented, but group interaction may help lessen this burden. We aimed to determine factors that draw patients with AA and their families to group events. Surveys were administered at the annual alopecia areata bowling social in 2015 and 2016. This event is a unique opportunity for children with AA and their families to meet others with the disease and connect with local support group resources from the Minnesota branch of the National Alopecia Areata Foundation. Data from 2015 and 2016 were combined. Comparisons of subgroups were performed using Fisher exact tests for response frequencies and percentages and two-sample t tests for mean values. An equal number of men and women participated in the study (n = 13 each). The average age was 41.1 years. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in survey responses based on respondent age or sex. Twenty-three (88.5%) attendees sought to connect with others with AA and met three or more people during the event. Seventeen (65.4%) also attended other support group events. Twelve respondents (46.2%) came to support a friend or family member. One hundred percent of attendees identified socializing with others with AA as important. Group interaction is an important source of therapeutic support for people with AA and their families. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Perception of quality of care: comparison of the views of patients' with lung cancer and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Lövgren, Malin; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Tishelman, Carol

    2012-02-01

    To explore potential differences within dyads of patients' with lung cancer and family members' judgment of different aspects of quality of care and relationships between quality of care and personal and health-related characteristics. High quality of care is important for acceptable quality of life in patients in palliative care. If patients are unable to participate in quality of care assessments or decision-making, family members might often act as proxies, despite the complicated nature of their own situation. Cross-sectional survey design. A patient and family member version of the abbreviated questionnaire Quality from Patients' Perspective, with additional items about perceived health and opinions about care, was mailed to members of the Swedish lung cancer Patient Organisation. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to identify potential differences within 51 patient-family member dyads' quality of care ratings. Relationships between Quality from Patients' Perspective dimensions and demographic and health-related variables were examined with Spearman's correlations. Patient-family member dyads had high levels of agreement in ratings of perceived reality of quality of care. Family members generally rated the subjective importance of individual items higher than did the patient in the dyad, with significant difference in the dimension 'socio-cultural approach'. Older patients were found to rate the physical-technical conditions higher than younger patients, in relation to perceived reality but not subjective importance. Women family members were found to rate the subjective importance of medical-technical competence, identity-oriented approach and socio-cultural approach significantly higher than men did. Patients with lung cancer and their family members agree in ratings of the perceived reality, but they differ more in ratings of the subjective importance of quality of care. When patients are unable to communicate their preferences, family members' opinions

  8. Evolutionary aspects of functional and pseudogene members of the phytochrome gene family in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Maria Rosario

    2008-08-01

    According to the neutral theory of evolution, mutation and genetic drift are the only forces that shape unconstrained, neutral, gene evolution. Thus, pseudogenes (which often evolve neutrally) provide opportunities to obtain direct estimates of mutation rates that are not biased by selection, and gene families comprising functional and pseudogene members provide useful material for both estimating neutral mutation rates and identifying sites that appear to be under positive or negative selection pressures. Conifers could be very useful for such analyses since they have large and complex genomes. There is evidence that pseudogenes make significant contributions to the size and complexity of gene families in pines, although few studies have examined the composition and evolution of gene families in conifers. In this work, I examine the complexity and rates of mutation of the phytochrome gene family in Pinus sylvestris and show that it includes not only functional genes but also pseudogenes. As expected, the functional PHYO does not appear to have evolved neutrally, while phytochrome pseudogenes show signs of unconstrained evolution.

  9. Lesch-Nyhan variant syndrome: variable presentation in 3 affected family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Grosse-Redlinger, Krista; Boys, Christopher J; Charnas, Laurence; Otten, Noelle; Broock, Robyn; Nyhan, William L

    2010-06-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is an inborn error of purine metabolism that results from deficiency of the activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). The heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes seen in HPRT deficiency corresponds to an inverse relationship between HPRT enzyme activity and clinical severity. With rare exception, each mutation produces a stereotypical pattern of clinical disease; onset of neurologic symptoms occurs during infancy and is thought to be nonprogressive. To document a family in which a single HPRT gene mutation has led to 3 different clinical and enzymatic phenotypes. Case report. Settings A university-based outpatient metabolic clinic and a biochemical genetics laboratory. Patients Three males (2 infants and their grandfather) from the same family with Lesch-Nyhan variant, including one of the oldest patients with Lesch-Nyhan variant at diagnosis (65 years). Clinical and biochemical observations. Sequencing of 5 family members revealed a novel mutation c.550G>T in exon 7 of the HPRT gene. The considerably variable clinical phenotype corresponded with the variable enzymatic activity in the 3 males, with the grandfather being the most severely affected. The different phenotypes encountered in the enzymatic analysis of cultured fibroblasts from a single mutation in the same family is unprecedented. The significant decrease in the grandfather's HPRT enzymatic activity compared with that of his grandchildren could be a function of the Hayflick Limit Theory of cell senescence.

  10. Embracing the family member the person in psychic suffering in nursing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiene Barbosa Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evidence knowledge published in the field of nursing care on the embracement to family members of people in psychic suffering in health services. Methods: Integrative review, accomplished in June and July 2012, in LILACS, BDENF, IBECS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, using the keywords: “mental health”, “user embracement” and “family”. The inclusion criteria were met by 14 texts, written by professionals and nursing students, in Portuguese language, published between 2007 and 2011. The data was resumed in four tables and a figure, and analyzed under the framework of the user embracement by the National Humanization Policy. Results: No trends related to studies on user embracement can be stated. Most publications adopt a qualitative approach and content analysis, with evidence being type III. There is a predominance of research having health professionals as subjects. However, the family and other actors are starting to get involved. Taking similar care of the family and the person in suffering is highlighted in all of the studies analyzed. It was evidenced need for interaction between the health services and the specialized mental health network and for training the team in order to minimize to the difficulties faced by the family. Conclusion: Family embracement was often pointed as a device that facilitates the rehabilitation. There is much to be done toward its embracement in health services, so that the family is allowed to realize that their living is not necessarily the continuity of the trouble faced by the other person. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p571

  11. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Prateek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86 becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3% do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors

  12. Functional and transcriptome analysis reveals an acclimatization strategy for abiotic stress tolerance mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA family members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms...

  13. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  14. Structures and functions of protein disulfide isomerase family members involved in proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment in which an enormous number of secretory and cell surface membrane proteins are synthesized and subjected to cotranslational or posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and disulfide bond formation. Proper maintenance of ER protein homeostasis (sometimes termed proteostasis) is essential to avoid cellular stresses and diseases caused by abnormal proteins. Accumulating knowledge of cysteine-based redox reactions catalyzed by members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family has revealed that these enzymes play pivotal roles in productive protein folding accompanied by disulfide formation, as well as efficient ER-associated degradation accompanied by disulfide reduction. Each of PDI family members forms a protein-protein interaction with a preferential partner to fulfill a distinct function. Multiple redox pathways that utilize PDIs appear to function synergistically to attain the highest quality and productivity of the ER, even under various stress conditions. This review describes the structures, physiological functions, and cooperative actions of several essential PDIs, and provides important insights into the elaborate proteostatic mechanisms that have evolved in the extremely active and stress-sensitive ER. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. p53 family members - important messengers in cell death signaling in photodynamic therapy of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Pilar; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    TP53 is one of the genes most frequently inactivated in cancers. Mutations in TP53 gene are linked to worse prognosis and shorter overall survival of cancer patients. TP53 encodes a critical tumor suppressor, which dictates cell fate decisions upon stress stimuli. As a sensor of cellular stress, p53 is a relevant messenger of cell death signaling in ROS-driven photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The significant role of p53 in response to PDT has been reported for several clinically approved photosensitizers. Multiple reports described that wild-type p53 contributes to cell killing upon photodynamic therapy with clinically approved photosensitizers but the mechanism is still not fully understood. This work outlines the diverse functions of p53 family members in cancer cells' susceptibility and resistance to PDT. In summary p53 and p53 family members are emerging as important mediators of cell death signaling in photodynamic therapy of cancer, however the mechanism of cell death provoked during PDT might differ depending on the tissue type and the photosensitizer applied.

  16. Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle

    2011-12-01

    Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home An increased number of chronically ill adults perform self-care while using different sorts of advanced medical technology at home. This hermeneutical study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home. Eleven next of kin to adults performing self-care at home, either using long-term oxygen from a cylinder or ventilator, or performing peritoneal or haemodialysis, were interviewed. The qualitative interviews were analysed using a Gadamerian methodology. The main interpretation explained the meaning as rhythmical patterns of connectedness versus separation, and of sorrow versus reconciliation. Dependence on others was shown in the need for support from healthcare professionals and significant others. In conclusion, next of kin took considerable responsibility for dependent-care. All next of kin were positive to the idea of bringing the technology home, even though their own needs receded into the background, while focusing on the best for the patient. The results were discussed in relation to dependent-care and transition, which may have an influence on the self-care of next of kin and patients. The study revealed a need for further nursing attention to next of kin in this context.

  17. Mn2+ modulates the kinetic properties of an archaeal member of the PLL family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzio, Elena; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Palma, Achille; Manco, Giuseppe

    2013-03-25

    Recently we reported on the characterization of an archaeal member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, namely Sulfolobus acidocaldarius lactonase, showing low but significant and extremely thermostable paraoxonase activity. This enzyme, that we have named SacPox, is a member of the new described family of phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs). In this family the binuclear metal centre, which is involved in the catalytic machinery, has been poorly studied up to now. In this work we describe the expression of the protein in presence of different metals showing Mn(2+) to support the higher activity. The enzyme has been over-expressed, purified and characterized as a Mn(2+)-containing enzyme by inductive plasma coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), showing also surprising kinetic differences in comparison with the cadmium-containing enzyme. The Mn(2+) containing enzyme was about 30-fold more efficient with paraoxon as substrate and more stable than the Cd(2+) counterpart, even though the Mn(2+) affinity for the binuclear metal centre is apparently lower. These results increase our knowledge of the biochemical characteristics of SacPox mainly with regard to the metal-ions modulation of function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

    2013-12-01

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the Δumv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with Δumv1 dikaryons revealed that the Δumv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The Δumv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The Δumv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the Δumv1 and Δumv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings.

  19. Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Human Erythrocytes Involves PATMK, a Member of the Transmembrane Kinase Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettner, Douglas R; Huston, Christopher D; Linford, Alicia S; Buss, Sarah N; Houpt, Eric; Sherman, Nicholas E; Petri, William A

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK), was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i) incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii) PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii) expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMKΔ932). Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMKΔ932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection. PMID:18208324

  20. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Boettner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK, was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932. Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection.

  1. Differential spatial expression and subcellular localization of CtBP family members in rodent brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hübler

    Full Text Available C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons.

  2. Differential spatial expression and subcellular localization of CtBP family members in rodent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübler, Diana; Rankovic, Marija; Richter, Karin; Lazarevic, Vesna; Altrock, Wilko D; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Fejtova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons.

  3. Bcl-2 family members inhibit oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Rong; Dunigan, David D; Dickman, Martin B

    2003-05-15

    Selected antiapoptotic genes were expressed in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to evaluate cytoprotective effects during oxidative stress. When exposed to treatments resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H(2)O(2), menadione, or heat shock, wild-type yeast died and exhibited apoptotic-like characteristics, consistent with previous studies. Yeast strains were generated expressing nematode ced-9, human bcl-2, or chicken bcl-xl genes. These transformants tolerated a range of oxidative stresses, did not display features associated with apoptosis, and remained viable under conditions that were lethal to wild-type yeast. Yeast strains expressing a mutant antiapoptotic gene (bcl-2 deltaalpha 5-6), known to be nonfunctional in mammalian cells, were unable to tolerate any of the ROS-generating insults. These data are the first report showing CED-9 has cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, and add CED-9 to the list of Bcl-2 protein family members that modulate ROS-mediated programmed cell death. In addition, these data indicate that Bcl-2 family members protect wild-type yeast from physiological stresses. Taken together, these data support the concept of the broad evolutionary conservation and functional similarity of the apoptotic processes in eukaryotic organisms.

  4. Characterization of Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus: a new member of the family Caulimoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavolone, Livia; Ragozzino, Antonio; Hohn, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) has been characterized as the aetiological agent of the Cestrum parqui mosaic disease. The virus genome was cloned and the clone was proven to be infectious to C. parqui. The presence of typical viroplasms in virus-infected plant tissue and the information obtained from the complete genomic sequence confirmed CmYLCV as a member of the Caulimoviridae family. All characteristic domains conserved in plant pararetroviruses were found in CmYLCV. Its genome is 8253 bp long and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships with other members of the Caulimoviridae revealed that CmYLCV is closely related to the Soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SbCMV)-like genus and particularly to SbCMV. However, in contrast to the other members of this genus, the primer-binding site is located in the intercistronic region following ORF Ib rather than within this ORF, and an ORF corresponding to ORF VII is missing.

  5. Strategies for coping with family members of patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá; Carvalho, Arélica de; Olive, Aline Morgado; Souza, Maria da Graça Girade; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2016-09-09

    to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. the coping strategies most often used by family members were social support and problem solving. Mothers and fathers used more functional strategies (self-control p=0.037, positive reappraisal p=0.037, and social support p=0,021). We found no significant differences between the strategies and other variables examined. despite the suffering resulting from the illness of a dear one, family members make more use of functional strategies, allowing them to cope with adversities in a more well-adjusted way. identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento de familiares de pacientes com transtornos mentais e relacioná-las com as variáveis sociodemográficas do familiar e clínicas do paciente. estudo descritivo, desenvolvido em hospital psiquiátrico do interior do estado de São Paulo, com 40 familiares de pacientes internados, maiores de 18 anos e que acompanhavam o paciente antes e durante a internação. Foram utilizados instrumentos para caracterização dos sujeitos e o Inventário de Estratégias de Enfrentamento de Folkman e Lazarus. as estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas pelos familiares foram suporte social e resolução de problemas. Pais e mães utilizaram mais estratégias funcionais (autocontrole p=0,037; reavaliação positiva p=0,037; suporte social p=0,021). Não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas entre as estratégias e as demais variáveis estudadas. apesar do sofrimento causado pelo impacto do adoecimento do seu

  6. Assessment of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia in a selected Medical College Hospital, Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Kunjalata Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental disorder which is chronic and disabling in nature. Family members of schizophrenia patients often show negative attitude with higher range of expressed emotion (EE) towards their relative as they experience significant stress in coping with caring such patients. Material and methods: The present study was conducted to assess EE of family members of patients with schizophrenia. The study setting was outpatient department and psychiatric ...

  7. Activating chronic kidney disease patients and family members through the Internet to promote integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trisolini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the potential role of the Internet as a vehicle for improving integration of care through activating chronic kidney disease patients and their family members. Also, to describe how that potential is being developed through a website sponsored by the Medicare program in the United States. Background: The Internet is expanding at a rapid rate, and health-related websites are one of its most popular features. Efforts to promote integration of care have focused mainly on providers up to now, and more emphasis is needed on the potential roles of patients. Chronically ill patients have particular needs for improved education about their conditions and enhanced involvement in care planning and treatment decisions. Medicare developed the Dialysis Facility Compare website to serve those goals for people with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We conducted qualitative research with 140 chronic kidney disease patients and family members, and 130 renal care professionals to evaluate and improve the Dialysis Facility Compare website. A series of 19 focus groups, 13 triads (small focus groups, and 56 individual interviews were conducted in four regions of the United States and by telephone. Results: We found that the Dialysis Facility Compare website has the potential to improve integration of care for people with chronic kidney disease in at least three ways. First: by expanding the roles of patients as members of the multi-disciplinary team of caregivers treating their disease. Second: through better integration of the informal care provided in the home and community with the formal care provided by health professionals. Third: by improving coordination of between care provided in the pre-dialysis and dialysis phases of the disease. Discussion: We developed recommendations for revising and enhancing the Dialysis Facility Compare website in a number of ways to better promote patient activation and integration of care. The unique features

  8. Familial and social factors of involving teenagers into alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.

  9. Perceptions of problem-drinker patients' family members about their own hazardous-drinking behaviours in Chinese general hospitals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Kao, Jung-Ta; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2017-05-18

    Excessive alcohol use has been associated with health, social and legal problems. Alcohol-related problems have been studied primarily in problem-drinker patients, with few studies on their family members, particularly about their own hazardous or harmful alcohol-drinking behaviours. In this qualitative descriptive study, participants were recruited from three hospitals randomly selected from northern and central Taiwan (2:1). Hazardous-drinker patients and their family members were screened using the Chinese version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (scores ≥8 indicate harmful or hazardous drinkers). Data were collected in individual, audiotaped, in-depth interviews using an interview guide. Verbatim interview transcripts were analysed using ATLAS.ti, version WIN 7.0. The sample of 35 family members with hazardous or harmful drinking behaviours perceived that their own alcohol-drinking behaviours were related to six major patterns: family habits, leisure activities with friends, work pressures, personal taste, a way to forget one's problems and to express happiness. We recommend that programmes targeting harmful or hazardous drinking among problem-drinker patients' family members should educate participants about the standard amounts of alcohol in alcoholic beverages, recommended amounts of alcohol consumption for males and females, the long-term effects of excessive alcohol consumption; address sources of risk factors at work; offer strategies to resist social pressures to drink; and build positive strategies for coping with stress.

  10. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  11. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  12. Comparison of Consensus on Life-sustaining Treatment of the Elderly in Care Facilities and Family Member Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sunmi; Hong, Seong Ae; Lee, Hyun Sook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the agreement in opinion between the elderly in care facilities and their family members regarding the life-sustaining treatment at the deathbed and to find out if the intentions of the elderly are being properly reflected in their deathbed treatment. Data were collected from 85 elderly individuals at five care facilities in Chunkcheongnam-do and 85 family members. The data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire from July 22, 2013 to August 15, 2014. A total of 170 cases were analyzed using SPSS version 21. First, the family members' preference for life-sustaining treatment was higher than the patients' preference. The preference between the elderly and their family members regarding life-sustaining treatment was statistically significant with regards to oral nutrition, pain control through oral and anal administration, pain control through intravenous administration, transfusion, and admission to an intensive care unit. Second, looking at the agreement between elderly and guardians regarding life-sustaining treatment, there was significant concordance about general testing, oral nutrition, intravenous hydration, intravenous nutrition, antibiotic treatment for severe infection with low resiliency, admission to an intensive care unit, blood pressure increase medication use, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and tracheotomy. It is essential for the medical staff to confirm agreement between the elderly and their family members regarding life-sustaining treatment, and if such a prior agreement is not feasible, the patient's intention should be considered more actionable than their family members.

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training of family members before hospital discharge using video self-instruction: a feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewer, Audrey L; Leary, Marion; Decker, Christopher S; Andersen, James C; Fredericks, Amanda C; Bobrow, Bentley J; Abella, Benjamin S

    2011-09-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained. To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA. Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Inpatient wards at 3 hospitals. Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses. Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills and participant perspectives regarding their training experience were assessed. Surveys were conducted one month postdischarge to measure the rate of "secondary training" of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the 3 study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78 of 136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90 ± 26/minute, mean depth 37 ± 12 mm). At 1 month, 57 of 122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed. The hospital setting offers a unique "point of capture" to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Family members' obstructive behaviors appear to be more harmful among adults with type 2 diabetes and limited health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2014-01-01

    Family members' diabetes-specific obstructive behaviors (e.g., nagging/arguing or getting in the way of patients' self-care) are associated with adults having worse glycemic control (HbA1C), with diabetes-specific supportive family behaviors protecting against this detrimental effect. Given the role of family members in helping patients with limited health literacy, patients' health literacy status may moderate these relations. The authors tested this hypothesis with 192 adults with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six percent had limited health literacy, and limited health literacy was associated with more supportive family behaviors (pliteracy and low supportive family behaviors than for participants with adequate health literacy and low supportive family behaviors (adjusted simple slopes β=0.70, p=.05 vs. β=0.36, p=.009). However, there was no association between obstructive family behaviors and HbA1C in the context of high supportive family behaviors, regardless of health literacy status. Involving family members in adults' self-care without teaching them to avoid obstructive behaviors may be particularly harmful for patients with limited health literacy. Future research should identify intervention content to reduce obstructive family behaviors and identify which supportive family behaviors may be protective.

  15. [The Effect of Family Member Reminders on Reducing Anxiety and Unplanned Extubation in ICU Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ching; Chao, Yann-Fen C; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2017-10-01

    Patients with endotracheal intubation often experience anxiety because they are unable to express their needs freely. However, the family members of these patients are able to provide encouragement, comfort, and substantive support. The aims of the present study were: (1) to compare the anxiety scores, vital signs, and incidence of unplanned extubation (UE) between the two comparison groups; (2) to compare the differences in vital signs before and after the intervention in the experimental group; and (3) to explore the satisfaction of patients in the experimental group with the intervention. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was carried out. A convenience sampling was adopted to recruit patients with endotracheal intubation in intensive care units (ICUs). The experimental group listened to the UE-prevention reminders of their family members for three times a day for 4 days. The control group was provided with usual care. (1) No significant difference was observed in the anxiety scores between the two groups (t = -1.282, p = .205). (2) A repeated-measures analysis found no significant difference in vital signs, taken nightly at 10 p.m., between the experimental and control groups (p > .05). (3) The experimental group registered significantly lower heart rates, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure after the conclusion of the intervention (p family reminders encouraging and reminding patients about intubation safety, achieved a very high level of patient satisfaction and reduced their anxiety-related vital signs. The results may serve as a reference for providing intervention treatment to patients with endotracheal intubation in ICUs.

  16. Expression of Bcl-2 Family Member Bid in Normal and Malignant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Krajewska

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bid is the only known Bcl-2 family member that can function as an agonist of proapoptotic Bcl-2-related proteins such as Bax and Bak. Expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bid was assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods in normal murine and human tissues, and in several types of human cancers and tumor cell lines. Bid expression in normal tissues varied widely, with prominent Bid immunostaining occurring in several types of short-lived cells (e.g., germinal center B cells, peripheral blood granulocytes, differentiated keratinocytes and in apoptosissensitive cells (e.g., adult neurons. Analysis of Bid expression by immunostaining of 100 colon, 95 ovarian, and 254 prostate cancers, as well as 59 brain tumors and 50 lymphomas, revealed evidence of altered Bid regulation in sometypes of cancers. Correlations with clinical outcome data revealed association of higher levels of Bid with longer recurrence-free survival in men with locally advanced (T3 stage prostate cancer (P=0.04. Immunoblot analysis of Bid protein levels in the NCI's panel of 60 human tumor cell lines revealed a correlation between higher levels of Bid and sensitivity to ribonucleotide reductase (RR-inhibiting drugs (P<0.0005. Overexpression of Bid in a model tumor cell line by gene transfection resulted in increased sensitivity to apoptosis induction by a RR inhibitor. Taken together, these observations suggest a potential role for Bid in tumor responses to specific chemotherapeutic drugs, and lay a foundation for future investigations of this member of the Bcl-2 family in healthy and diseased tissues.

  17. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS(2) spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  18. Attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members and the general population in a large city in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stigma towards people with mental illness is believed to be widespread in low and middle income countries. Methods This study assessed the attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members of patients in a psychiatric facility and the general public using a standard 43-item survey (N = 535). Exploratory factor analysis identified four distinctive attitudes which were then compared using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) among the four groups, all with ties to the largest psychiatric facility in Guangzhou, China, adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Results Four uncorrelated factors expressed preferences for 1) community-based treatment, social integration and a biopsychosocial model of causation, 2) direct personal relationships with people with mental illness, 3) a lack of fear and positive views of personal interactions with people with mental illness, 4) disbelief in superstitious explanations of mental illness. Statistically significant differences favored community-based treatment and biopsychosocial causation (factor 1) among professional groups (psychiatrists and nurses) as compared with family members and the general public (p < 0.001); while family members, unexpectedly, showed far weaker personal preferences for direct personal relationships with people with mental illness than all three other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion Both psychiatrists and nurses showed greater support for social integration and biopsychosocial understandings of mental illness than the lay public, most likely because of their training and experience, while family members showed the least positive attitudes towards direct personal relationships with people with mental illness. These findings suggest support for a more extensive, formal system of care that gives family members some distance from the problems of their relatives and support in their care. PMID:25053975

  19. [Family members' experiences of caring for persons with dementia and outreach counseling--an interpretative phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Samuel; Frei, Irena Anna; Spichiger, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of the 110,000 people living with dementia in Switzerland receive home care from family members. Outreach counselling can reduce the burden for family caregivers and delay nursing home placement. However, little is known of how this works and how caregivers experience the counselling. The Canton of Aargau Alzheimer's Association has been conducting a pilot project to demonstrate the necessity, effectiveness and practicability of outreach counselling in (their canton). As a part of the evaluation of the project this study explored how family members experience the process of caring for a relative with dementia and outreach counselling. Interpretive phenomenology–a qualitative approach–was used to analyse data from interviews with twelve family caregivers. Most family members felt supported in caregiving by outreach counselling. Three aspects of the counselling were especially important to the participants: being understood and taken seriously by the counsellor; receiving answers to their most pressing questions concerning the illness and being supported when difficult decision had to be taken; regaining personal time and learning how to better interact with the person with dementia. Two participants would have wished for more help by the counsellor. To meet the needs of the family members, consultants should have sufficient experience in dementia patient care and should be strongly networked across the local health and welfare system. This study shows that family members can experience outreach counselling as a great support in their caregiving roles.

  20. Consumption and sources of dietary salt in family members in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-04-10

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.

  1. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2 g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old, 15.2 (9.1 g for adults (18 to 59 years old, and 10.2 (4.8 g for senior citizens (60 years old and over, respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking, while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.

  2. Dock-family exchange factors in cell migration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Gilles; Blangy, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Dock family proteins are evolutionary conserved exchange factors for the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42. There are 11 Dock proteins in mammals, named Dock1 (or Dock180) to Dock11 that play different cellular functions. In particular, Dock proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and migration. Not surprisingly, members of the Dock family have been involved in various pathologies, including cancer and defects in the central nervous and immune systems. This review proposes an update of the recent findings regarding the function of Dock proteins, focusing on their role in the control of cell migration and invasion and the consequences in human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression analysis of TALE family transcription factors during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Sarah E; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2010-04-01

    The TALE family of homeodomain containing transcription factors consists of the Meis, Prep and Tgif, and the Pbx subfamily of proteins. Several TALE orthologues have been identified in amniotes, but no comprehensive analysis of their expression pattern during embryogenesis has been performed. Here, we report on TALE gene expression in the avian embryo. During embryonic development, Pbx genes are predominantly expressed in the neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm, although Pbx3 is restricted to the intermediate and lateral mesoderm, and anterior central nervous system. Members of the Meis, Prep, and Tgif subfamilies are expressed at high levels in the paraxial mesoderm, and display differential expression along the anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes of the developing neural tube. Overall the expression patterns reported in this study are consistent with the known function of the TALE gene family in controlling early patterning of limb, neural tube and paraxial mesoderm tissues during embryogenesis.

  4. Characterization of the split ends-like gene spenito reveals functional antagonism between SPOC family members during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2006-05-01

    The novel family of SPOC domain proteins is composed of broadly conserved nuclear factors that fall into two subclasses, termed large and small, based on protein size. Members of the large subgroup, which includes Drosophila SPEN and human SHARP, have been characterized as transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of a variety of essential cell signaling pathways, while those of the small subclass have remained largely unstudied. Since SPEN has been implicated in Drosophila eye development, and the small SPOC protein NITO is also expressed in the developing eye, we have used this context to perform a structure-function analysis of NITO and to examine the relationship between the two SPOC family subclasses. Our results demonstrate that the phenotypes obtained from overexpressing NITO share striking similarity to those associated with loss of spen. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions further support a model of functional antagonism between NITO and SPEN during Drosophila eye development. These results suggest that large and small SPOC family proteins may have opposing functions in certain developmental contexts.

  5. Accommodation and resistance to the dominant cultural discourse on psychiatric mental health: oral history accounts of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2007-12-01

    Oral history makes a critical contribution in articulating the perspectives of people often overlooked in histories written from the standpoint of dominating class, gender, ethnic or professional groups. Using three interrelated approaches - life stories, oral history, and narrative analysis - this paper analyzes family responses to psychiatric care and mental illness in oral history interviews with family members who experienced mental illness themselves or within their family between 1930 and 1975. Interviews with three family members in Alberta, Canada are the primary focus. These stories provide an important avenue to understand the meaning and transformations of mental health-care from the point of view of families. Family members' stories reveal contradictory responses to the dominant cultural discourse. Using a performative framework of interpretation, the narratives reveal a complex interplay between medical, social and cultural conceptions of mental illness, deepening our understanding of its meaning. The history of mental health-care can be substantially enriched by the analysis of family members' stories, not only revealing the constructed nature of mental illness, but also illustrating the family as a mediating context in which the meaning of mental illness is negotiated.

  6. Dominant mutations in KBTBD13, a member of the BTB/Kelch family, cause nemaline myopathy with cores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambuughin, N.; Yau, K.S.; Olive, M.; Duff, R.M.; Bayarsaikhan, M.; Lu, S.; Gonzalez-Mera, L.; Sivadorai, P.; Nowak, K.J.; Ravenscroft, G.; Mastaglia, F.L.; North, K.N.; Ilkovski, B.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Fabian, V.; Lamont, P.; Davis, M.R.; Laing, N.G.; Goldfarb, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a member of the BTB/Kelch protein family that is mutated in nemaline myopathy type 6 (NEM6), an autosomal-dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by the presence of nemaline rods and core lesions in the skeletal myofibers. Analysis of affected families allowed narrowing of the

  7. Comparing quality of dying and death perceived by family members and nurses for patients dying in US and Dutch ICUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty; Hofhuis, José G M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) questionnaire is used as a self-reported measure to allow families and clinicians to assess patients' quality of dying and death. We evaluated end-of-life (EOL) experiences as measured by the QODD completed by families and nurses in the United...... States (US) and the Netherlands (NL) to explore similarities and differences in these experiences and identify opportunities for improving EOL care. METHODS: Questionnaire data were gathered from family members of patients dying in the ICU and nurses caring for these patients. In NL, data were gathered.......0025). The family-assessed overall QODD score (medians [IQR]) was the same in both countries: NL 9 [8-10], US 8[5-10]. US family members rated the quality of two items higher than NL families: "time spent with loved ones" and "time spent alone". Nurse-assessed QODD ratings varied: the single-item QODD summary score...

  8. Forgiveness, depressive symptoms, and communication at the end of life: a study with family members of hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, Julie J; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Root, Briana L; Peereboom, Karen S; Worthington, Everett L

    2012-10-01

    Forgiveness has begun to receive empirical attention in end-of-life contexts, but primarily among patients. This study examined forgiveness issues and communication priorities among family members of hospice patients. Surveys were distributed to family members of home-care patients in a large not-for-profit hospice in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Family members wrote what they would like to say to patients before they died. They also rated the importance of several expressions (love, gratitude, giving and seeking forgiveness, saying farewell) and the extent to which they had already expressed these messages. Participants rated their depressive symptoms and the quantity of unresolved offenses committed by themselves and the patient. Of 147 surveys returned by participants, 142 were usable. In comparison with forgiveness-related communications, expressions of love, gratitude, and farewell were more consistently rated important; yet many participants rated forgiveness (giving and seeking) as extremely important. If forgiveness was rated important but had not been fully expressed, participants reported more depressive symptoms (plove and gratitude, forgiveness-related communications are seen as extremely important by many family members of hospice patients. If family members see forgiveness (granting or seeking) as important but have not completed the process, these unresolved issues are associated with depressive symptoms. This study suggests that unresolved offenses and forgiveness issues warrant assessment and clinical attention within families receiving hospice care.

  9. A novel member of a zinc transporter family is defective in acrodermatitis enteropathica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Bing; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Zemansky, Jason; Gitschier, Jane

    2002-07-01

    The rare inherited condition acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) results from a defect in the absorption of dietary zinc. Recently, we used homozygosity mapping in consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds to localize the AE gene to an approximately 3.5-cM region on 8q24. In this article, we identify a gene, SLC39A4, located in the candidate region and, in patients with AE, document mutations that likely lead to the disease. The gene encodes a histidine-rich protein, which we refer to as "hZIP4," which is a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, some of which are known to serve as zinc-uptake proteins. We show that Slc39A4 is abundantly expressed in mouse enterocytes and that the protein resides in the apical membrane of these cells. These findings suggest that the hZIP4 transporter is responsible for intestinal absorption of zinc.

  10. Anisotropic Mo2-phthalocyanine sheet: a new member of the organometallic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Kan, Min; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru

    2014-01-09

    Metal-organic porous sheets, due to their unique atomic configurations and properties, represent a class of materials beyond graphene and BN monolayers. The Mo2-phthalocyanine-based sheet (Mo2Pc) is a new member of this porous organometallic family. Using density functional theory with hybrid functional for exchange-correlation potential, we show that this dimer-based material, unlike conventional organic monolayers that contain isolated metal atoms, possesses unique mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and optical properties due to inherent anisotropy in the structure. Furthermore, it is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.93 eV and is antiferromagnetic with each Mo site carrying a magnetic moment of 0.88 μB. The strong anisotropy in elasticity and infrared light absorption is likely to open new doors for potential applications.

  11. Snakebites of fingers or toes by viperidae family members: an orthopaedic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykissas, Marios G; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Milionis, Haralampos J; Mavrodontidis, Alexandros N

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review current principles of therapy for affected patients and determine whether an emergent surgical approach or expectant management should be selected in cases of snakebites of fingers or toes by Viperidae family members. Over the past five years (January 2004 to December 2009), 12 patients bitten by Vipera ammodytes were admitted in our department. We retrospectively reviewed their demographic and epidemiological characteristics as well as their symptoms, laboratory findings, and complications. All snake bites occurred at the extremities (fingers and toes). The main complications were oedema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and decrease in haematocrit. None of the patients developed compartment syndrome or required surgical debridement. The majority of the patients with snakebites of fingers or toes by Vipera ammodytes can be treated conservatively. Surgery is indicated only in case of compartment syndrome, where fasciotomies should be performed without delay after diagnosis.

  12. Alternative polyadenylation and miR-34 family members regulate tau expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, John R; Kruse, Carla; Montagna, Daniel R;

    2013-01-01

    identified as candidates that might bind the long, but not short, tau 3'-UTR isoform. A hit from a screen of candidates, miR-34a, was subsequently shown to repress the expression of endogenous tau protein in M17D cells. Conversely, inhibition of endogenously expressed miR-34 family members leads to increased......Tau pathologically aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, and evidence suggests that reducing tau expression may be safe and beneficial for the prevention or treatment of this disease. We sought to examine the role of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of human tau mRNA in regulating tau expression....... Tau expresses two 3'-UTR isoforms, long and short, as a result of alternative polyadenylation. Using luciferase reporter constructs, we found that expression from these isoforms is differentially controlled in human neuroblastoma cell lines M17D and SH-SY5Y. Several microRNAs were computationally...

  13. De novo peroxisome biogenesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is not dependent on the Pex11 family members or Pex16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Opaliński

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the role of the three members of the Pex11 protein family in peroxisome formation in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Two of these, Pex11 and Pex11C, are components of the peroxisomal membrane, while Pex11B is present at the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that Pex11 is a major factor involved in peroxisome proliferation. We also demonstrate that P. chrysogenum cells deleted for known peroxisome fission factors (all Pex11 family proteins and Vps1 still contain peroxisomes. Interestingly, we find that, unlike in mammals, Pex16 is not essential for peroxisome biogenesis in P. chrysogenum, as partially functional peroxisomes are present in a pex16 deletion strain. We also show that Pex16 is not involved in de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes, as peroxisomes were still present in quadruple Δpex11 Δpex11B Δpex11C Δpex16 mutant cells. By contrast, pex3 deletion in P. chrysogenum led to cells devoid of peroxisomes, suggesting that Pex3 may function independently of Pex16. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of intact peroxisomes is important for the efficiency of ß-lactam antibiotics production by P. chrysogenum. Remarkably, distinct from earlier results with low penicillin producing laboratory strains, upregulation of peroxisome numbers in a high producing P. chrysogenum strain had no significant effect on penicillin production.

  14. De novo peroxisome biogenesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is not dependent on the Pex11 family members or Pex16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaliński, Łukasz; Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Fekken, Susan; Liu, Haiyin; de Boer, Rinse; van der Klei, Ida; Veenhuis, Marten; Kiel, Jan A K W

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the role of the three members of the Pex11 protein family in peroxisome formation in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Two of these, Pex11 and Pex11C, are components of the peroxisomal membrane, while Pex11B is present at the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that Pex11 is a major factor involved in peroxisome proliferation. We also demonstrate that P. chrysogenum cells deleted for known peroxisome fission factors (all Pex11 family proteins and Vps1) still contain peroxisomes. Interestingly, we find that, unlike in mammals, Pex16 is not essential for peroxisome biogenesis in P. chrysogenum, as partially functional peroxisomes are present in a pex16 deletion strain. We also show that Pex16 is not involved in de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes, as peroxisomes were still present in quadruple Δpex11 Δpex11B Δpex11C Δpex16 mutant cells. By contrast, pex3 deletion in P. chrysogenum led to cells devoid of peroxisomes, suggesting that Pex3 may function independently of Pex16. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of intact peroxisomes is important for the efficiency of ß-lactam antibiotics production by P. chrysogenum. Remarkably, distinct from earlier results with low penicillin producing laboratory strains, upregulation of peroxisome numbers in a high producing P. chrysogenum strain had no significant effect on penicillin production.

  15. Functional conservation among members of the Salmonella typhimurium InvA family of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, C C; Galán, J E

    1995-02-01

    InvA, which is essential for Salmonella spp. to enter cultured epithelial cells, is a member of a family of proteins involved in either flagellar biosynthesis or the secretion of virulence determinants by a number of plant and mammalian pathogens. The predicted overall secondary structures of these proteins show significant similarities and indicate a modular construction with a hydrophobic amino-terminal half, consisting of six to eight potential transmembrane domains, and a hydrophilic carboxy terminus which is predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. These proteins can be aligned over the entire length of their polypeptide sequences, with the highest degree of homology found in the amino terminus and clusters of conserved residues in the carboxy terminus. We examined the functional conservation among members of this protein family by assessing the ability of MxiA of Shigella flexneri and LcrD of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to restore invasiveness to an invA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. We found that MxiA was able to complement the entry defect of the invA mutant strain of S. typhimurium. In contrast, LcrD failed to complement the same strain. However, a plasmid carrying a gene encoding a chimeric protein consisting of the amino terminus of LcrD and the carboxy terminus of InvA complemented the defect of the Salmonella invA mutant. These results indicate that the secretory systems in which these proteins participate are functionally similar and that the Salmonella and Shigella systems are very closely related. These data also suggest that determinants of specificity may be located at the carboxy termini of these proteins.

  16. Oncogenic intra-p53 family member interactions in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eFerraiuolo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The p53 gene family members p53, p73 and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologues but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73 and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic gain of function (GOF activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53 with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor (VDR, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response (DDR, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs response, enhanced invasion and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild type p53 (wt-p53 protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73 and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers.

  17. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  18. Identification of a new member of Pleurotus ostreatus laccase family from mature fruiting body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettera, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Leo, Gabriella; Birolo, Leila; Pezzella, Cinzia; Sannia, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2) are blue multicopper oxidases, catalyzing the oxidation of an array of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Most of the known laccases have fungal or plant origins, although few laccases have been also identified in bacteria and insects. Most of the fungal laccases reported thus far are extra-cellular enzymes, whereas only few enzymes from fruiting bodies have been described so far. Multiple isoforms of laccases are usually secreted by each fungus depending on species and environmental conditions. As a fact, a laccase gene family has been demonstrated in the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. This work allowed identification and characterization of the first laccase isoenzyme from the fruiting body of P. ostreatus. Discovery through mass spectrometry of LACC12 proves the expression of a functional protein by the related deduced encoding transcript. The topology of phylogenetic tree of fungal laccases proves that LACC12 falls in cluster with the members of P. ostreatus LACC10 (=POXC) subfamily, although lacc12 deduced intron-exon structure differs from that of the subfamily members and the related locus is located in a different chromosome. Results show that the evolutionary pattern of lacc12 and that of the other laccase isozyme genes may have evolved independently, possibly through duplication-divergence events. The reported data add a new piece to the knowledge about P. ostreatus laccase multigene family and shed light on the role(s) played by individual laccase isoforms in P. ostreatus. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphic light eruption and IL-1 family members: any difference with allergic contact dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, S; Caiazzo, G; Balato, N; Monfrecola, G; Patra, V; Wolf, P; Balato, A

    2017-09-13

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is described as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) toward a de novo light-induced antigen, yet to be identified. In effect, the inflammatory pathways of PLE and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) share common patterns in terms of the mediators involved from the innate and adaptive immune system participating in the DTHR. As we have previously highlighted the role of interleukin (IL)-1 family members in ACD, we hypothesised that the same mediators could have similar functions in PLE. Our research aimed to assess the expression of certain IL-1family members in PLE patients vs. controls, and to compare it with ACD. The study population comprised 17 patients with PLE, 5 affected by ACD and 10 healthy controls in the same age range. Lesional and healthy skin samples were collected respectively from patients and donors. IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ, IL-36 receptor antagonist (Ra), IL-1β, IL-33 gene and protein expressions were evaluated through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Circulating proteins in the PLE patients were analysed by using western blot. The IL-36γ gene expression was significantly increased in PLE lesions compared to that in healthy controls and ACD lesions (***p PLE lesions compared to those of the healthy samples (***p PLE patients vs. controls (*p PLE with distinct differences from those in ACD, in particular with regard to IL-36γ mRNA regulation. Their role as activators of the local, and perhaps systemic, immune response, or as inhibitors of the immune tolerance machinery, needs further investigation.

  20. Emotional resistance building: how family members of loved ones undergoing chemotherapy treatment process their fear of emotional collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bridie; Andrews, Tom; Hegarty, Josephine

    2015-04-01

    To explore family members' experiences when their loved one is undergoing chemotherapy treatment as an outpatient for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and to develop an explanatory theory of how they process their main concern. Most individuals with cancer are now treated as outpatients and cared for by family members. International research highlights the many side effects of chemotherapy, which in the absence of specific information and/or experience can be difficult for family members to deal with. Unmet needs can have an impact on the health of both patients and family members. Classic grounded theory methodology was used for this study. Using classic grounded theory methodology, family members (n = 35) of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer were interviewed (June 2010-July 2011). Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The main concern that emerged for participants was fear of emotional collapse. This fear was dealt with through a process conceptualized as 'Emotional Resistance Building'. This is a basic social process with three phases: 'Figuring out', 'Getting on with it' and 'Uncertainty adjustment'. The phases are not linear, but interrelated as participants can be in any one or more of the phases at any one time. This theory has the potential to be used by healthcare professionals working in oncology to support family members of patients undergoing chemotherapy. New ways of supporting family members through this most difficult and challenging period are articulated within this theory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pediatric Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Enhanced by Family Member Positive Airway Pressure Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Pooja; Ross, Kristie R; Mehra, Reena; Spilsbury, James C; Li, Hong; Levers-Landis, Carolyn E; Rosen, Carol L

    2016-07-15

    Adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains a challenge in children. We hypothesized that the presence of another family member on PAP therapy (parent, sibling, other family member) would be associated with better adherence in the child. We conducted a retrospective chart review to identify children family member on PAP therapy, patient demographics, and clinical characteristics. Group differences between children with and without a family member on PAP therapy were determined using χ(2) test and Wilcoxon two-sample test. PAP adherence measures at each time point and patterns of change across time between the two groups were examined using mixed-effects models. The final analytic sample included 56 children: age 13.2 ± 3.7 years, 60% male, 67% African American, 65% obese, and 32% with developmental disabilities. The mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 25.2 ± 28.7, and 19 (33%) had a family member on PAP therapy. Overall PAP adherence was 2.8 ± 2.4 h/night at 3 months. At month 3, the group with a family member on PAP therapy had significantly greater average nightly PAP use on all nights (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.39) and on nights used (4.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.40); (p value = 0.04). Overall PAP adherence was low, but having a family member on PAP therapy as a "role model" was associated with better adherence. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 941. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. Effect of cooking classes for housewives on salt reduction in family members: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, T; Imamoto, M; Fukuma, S; Yamamoto, Y; Sasaki, S; Uchida, M; Miura, Y; Shimizu, S; Nihata, K; Fukuhara, S

    2016-11-01

    Sodium reduction is very important in preventing cardiovascular diseases, especially in regions with high salt intake such as Japan. One strategy for salt reduction is to raise consumer awareness of the need to reduce daily salt intake. We investigated whether cooking classes given to housewives focussing on salt reduction would influence not only their own consumption behaviour but also that of their family members. Single-blinded, cluster randomized trial. We randomly assigned housewives to participate in cooking classes focussing on salt reduction (intervention group) or lectures about a healthy lifestyle (control group). The main outcome measure was the difference in estimated daily salt intake by spot urine sampling of housewives and their family members 2 months after intervention between the groups. A total of 35 housewives and 33 family members were randomized. The mean daily salt intake was 10.00 (standard deviation [SD] 1.75) g/day in the control group (17 housewives and 15 family members) and 9.57 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group (18 housewives and 18 family members) at baseline. Two months after the intervention, the mean salt intake was 10.30 (SD 1.78) g/day in the control group and 8.95 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group. The mean difference was -1.19 g/day (95% confidence interval -2.29, -0.09; P = 0.034). A similar tendency was observed in the subgroups of housewives and family members. Our trial suggested that the effects of cooking classes focussing on salt reduction for housewives could be transferred to family members (UMIN-CTR: 000018870). Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low densit...... to receptor-covered sensor chips. Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-27......Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited...

  4. Choosing the right antibody for resistin-like molecule (RELM/FIZZ) family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunling; Johns, Brian A; Su, Qingning; Kolosova, Irina A; Johns, Roger A

    2013-04-01

    The family of resistin-like molecules (RELM), also known as found in inflammatory zone (FIZZ), consists of four members in mouse (RELMα/FIZZ1/HIMF, RELMβ/FIZZ2, Resistin/FIZZ3, and RELMγ/FIZZ4) and two members in human (resistin and RELMβ). The importance of these proteins in many aspects of physiology and pathophysiology, especially inflammatory processes, is rapidly evolving in the literature, and many investigators are beginning to work in this field. Most published studies focus on only one isoform, do not evaluate other isoforms that might be present, and have not tested for the specificity of the antibody used. Because RELM isoforms have high sequence and structural similarity and both distinct and overlapping functions, it is important to use a specific antibody to distinguish each isoform in the study. We constructed and established HEK 293 cell lines that constitutively express each isoform. Using these cell lines, we determined the specificity of antibodies (both commercially available and laboratory-made) to each isoform by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Some of the antibodies showed specificity in Western blotting but were not applicable in immunofluorescence. Others showed cross reactivity in Western blot assays. Our results indicate that RELM antibody specificity should be taken into account when using them in research and interpreting data obtained with them.

  5. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  6. Happiness among Adolescent Students in Thailand: Family and Non-Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…

  7. Happiness among Adolescent Students in Thailand: Family and Non-Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…

  8. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  9. Screening families of patients with premature coronary heart disease to identify avoidable cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study of family members and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen J; Pell, Alastair Ch; Anderson, Judith; Chow, Clara K; Pell, Jill P

    2010-05-11

    Primary prevention should be targeted at individuals with high global cardiovascular risk, but research is lacking on how best to identify such individuals in the general population. Family history is a good proxy measure of global risk and may provide an efficient mechanism for identifying high risk individuals. The aim was to test the feasibility of using patients with premature cardiovascular disease to recruit family members as a means of identifying and screening high-risk individuals. We recruited family members of 50 patients attending a cardiology clinic for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We compared their cardiovascular risk with a general population control group, and determined their perception of their risk and current level of screening. 103 (36%) family members attended screening (27 siblings, 48 adult offspring and 28 partners). Five (5%) had prevalent CHD. A significantly higher percentage had an ASSIGN risk score >20% compared with the general population (13% versus 2%, p family members were aware they were at increased risk and only 50% had had their blood pressure and serum cholesterol level checked in the previous three years. Patients attending hospital for premature CHD provide a mechanism to contact family members and this can identify individuals with a high global risk who are not currently screened.

  10. A study on Factors Affecting Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by Faculty Members of

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Biglari; Hossein Agahi

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors affecting on ICT application by faculty members of University of Razi. A descriptive-correlative research survey method was used. The statistical population of this research consist of faculty members of University of Kermanshah (N=271). Sampling method was stratified randomization (n=116). Questionnaire was used for data collection, the validity of which was confirmed by the opinions of some of professionals and faculty members of Agricultu...

  11. Effect of an intervention to improve the cardiovascular health of family members of patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert D; McDonnell, Lisa A; Riley, Dana L; Mark, Amy E; Mosca, Lori; Beaton, Louise; Papadakis, Sophia; Blanchard, Chris M; Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; O'Farrell, Patricia; Wells, George A; Slovinec D'Angelo, Monika E; Pipe, Andrew L

    2014-01-07

    Family members of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have higher risk of vascular events. We conducted a trial to determine if a family heart-health intervention could reduce their risk of CAD. We assessed coronary risk factors and randomized 426 family members of patients with CAD to a family heart-health intervention (n = 211) or control (n = 215). The intervention included feedback about risk factors, assistance with goal setting and counselling from health educators for 12 months. Reports were sent to the primary care physicians of patients whose lipid levels and blood pressure exceeded threshold values. All participants received printed materials about smoking cessation, healthy eating, weight management and physical activity; the control group received only these materials. The main outcomes (ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol; physical activity; fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed at 3 and 12 months. We examined group and time effects using mixed models analyses with the baseline values as covariates. The secondary outcomes were plasma lipid levels (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides); glucose level; blood pressure; smoking status; waist circumference; body mass index; and the use of blood pressure, lipid-lowering and smoking cessation medications. We found no effect of the intervention on the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. However, participants in the intervention group reported consuming more fruit and vegetables (1.2 servings per day more after 3 mo and 0.8 servings at 12 mo; p family members of patients with CAD. Hospitalization of a spouse, sibling or parent is an opportunity to improve cardiovascular health among other family members. clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT00552591.

  12. Family Connections versus optimised treatment-as-usual for family members of individuals with borderline personality disorder: non-randomised controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging for family members who are often required to fulfil multiple roles such as those of advocate, caregiver, coach and guardian. To date, two uncontrolled studies by the treatment developers suggest that Family Connections (FC) is an effective programme to support, educate and teach skills to family members of individuals with BPD. However, such studies have been limited by lack of comparison to other treatment approaches. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of FC with an optimised treatment-as-usual (OTAU) programme for family members of individuals with BPD. A secondary aim was to introduce a long term follow-up to investigate if positive gains from the intervention would be maintained following programme completion.

  13. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm.

  14. Synergistic cooperation of PDI family members in peroxiredoxin 4-driven oxidative protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Kojima, Rieko; Okumura, Masaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Masui, Shoji; Maegawa, Ken-ichi; Saiki, Masatoshi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inaba, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) harbors disulfide bond-generating enzymes, including Ero1α and peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), and nearly 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs), which together constitute a suitable environment for oxidative protein folding. Here, we clarified the Prx4 preferential recognition of two PDI family proteins, P5 and ERp46, and the mode of interaction between Prx4 and P5 thioredoxin domain. Detailed analyses of oxidative folding catalyzed by the reconstituted Prx4-PDIs pathways demonstrated that, while P5 and ERp46 are dedicated to rapid, but promiscuous, disulfide introduction, PDI is an efficient proofreader of non-native disulfides. Remarkably, the Prx4-dependent formation of native disulfide bonds was accelerated when PDI was combined with ERp46 or P5, suggesting that PDIs work synergistically to increase the rate and fidelity of oxidative protein folding. Thus, the mammalian ER seems to contain highly systematized oxidative networks for the efficient production of large quantities of secretory proteins.

  15. Cloning and characterization of DcLEA1, a new member of carrot LEA gene family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yiming; DIAO Fengqiu; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Meijuan; WU Naihu

    2005-01-01

    Using a modified cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) method, a LEA gene fragment was isolated from the regulated carrot somatic embryo, which was used as the probe to screen the cDNA library of the regulated carrot somatic embryo and the genomic library constructed by the method of altering osmotic pressure. Sequence analysis showed that it is homologous to LEA gene family and designated as DcLEA1 (GenBank number: AF308739), a new member of the carrot LEA gene family. Its transcription region contains 5′ UTR, two exons, one intron and 3′ UTR region; its coding region is 480 bp long, coding for 159 amino acids and one stop codon. Northern hybridization indicated that DcLEA1 gene was not expressed in the adult carrot but expressed at high levels in the regulated carrot somatic embryo. In carrot somatic embryo which had been deregulated for 12 hours, the expression levels dropped rapidly; with the prolongation of deregulation, the radicle of carrot somatic embryo began to stretch, and the expression level of DcLEA1 gene increased. This phenomenon is similar to the expression pattern of LEA gene in the course of dormancy and germination of the seed; thus suggesting that the sucrose regulation-deregulation system of the carrot somatic embryo can be used to mimic plant seed dormancy and germination and can also be used to study the molecular mechanisms of these two biological processes.

  16. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben V. Horn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  17. Pushing or pulling of the business by family members: A study of family businesses in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruppuge, Ravindra Hewa; Gregar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    A number of family business researches affirm benefits of family involvement to the business while some of other studies assure only detriments of family involvement. When comparative studies of family businesses begin to surface on the family involvement in business, there is that irritating question on what effect is brought about by family involvement to the business. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore business advantages and disadvantages generated by family involvement in...

  18. Intentions of nurses and nursing students to tell the whole truth to patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Nili; Itzhaki, Michal; Sharon, Dganit; Barnoy, Sivia

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the intentions of nurses and nursing students to telling the truth to patients and families, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior which examines intention to perform behaviours. In recent decades, the perception that patients have a moral and legal right to truthful and reliable information has become dominant. However, the study of telling the truth to non-oncology patients has received scant attention and little is known about the intention of nurses and nursing students to tell the truth. A cross-sectional design. We used a scenario-based questionnaire, illustrating eight different situations in which nurses/nursing students are asked to tell the truth to a patient or family member regarding a devastating disease with which the patient is afflicted. Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and ridge regression. The sample included 150 participants, 110 registered nurses and 40 third year nursing students, with a response rate of 87%. The results show that nurses and nursing students intend to tell the whole truth even if this is not easy for them. Nurses more than students think that it is important to tell the whole truth and intend to do so. Head nurses tend to tell the truth more than staff nurses. For nurses, the components of the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted intention to tell the truth, whereas among students subjective norms were the only predictor of intention. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is a powerful predictor of nurse intention to tell the whole truth to patients and their families. Students perceive social pressure as the most important incentive of their intention to tell the truth. Nurses and nursing students should receive additional training in dealing with various situations involving truth telling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Postdeployment Parenting Intervention for Service Members and Their Families With Very Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R; Paris, Ruth; Emmert-Aronson, Ben; Ross, Abigail; Acker, Michelle

    2016-10-06

    Objective: Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Method: Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period. Using a home-based modality, service members, at-home parents, and their young child were assessed at baseline, 3 months posttreatment/wait period, and 6 months from baseline. Results: Service member parents in Strong Families evidenced greater reductions in parenting stress and mental health distress relative to those in the waitlist comparison group. Service members with more posttraumatic stress symptoms reported higher levels of perceived parental efficacy in the intervention group than service members in the comparison group. Intervention also resulted in enhanced parental reflective capacity, including increased curiosity and interest in the young child among those in the intervention group relative to comparison. Conclusion: Service member parents and their spouses demonstrated high interest in participating in a postdeployment parenting program targeting families with very young children. Findings point to the feasibility, appeal, and efficacy of Strong Families in this initial trial and suggest promise for implementation in broader military and community service systems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Changing to primary nursing in a nursing home in Finland: experiences of residents, their family members and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, S; Routasalo, P

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the study was to find out how nursing home residents, their families and nurses experienced the change to primary nursing in the nursing home. This study was carried out in a nursing home in Finland. Following years of functional nursing, the change to primary nursing had started 18 months prior to data collection. The transition was preceded by staff training, planning for the change to primary nursing and discussions with staff members. Meetings were also arranged with family members to inform them of what was happening and why. Staff implemented the changeover independently with the support of the institution's management. The data were gathered in focused interviews. There were five interview themes: change in the nursing home, the position of the resident in the nursing home, the relationship between the resident and nurse, the relationship between family member and nurse, and the role of the nurse as provider of nursing care. Residents reported no major changes in nursing care or in their relationship with nurses. However, family members had noticed changes in the behaviour of the nursing staff. Staff members had become friendlier, spent more time with the residents and showed a strong job motivation. Cooperation between nurses and family members had changed very little. Some nurses in the early stages of the change tended to show signs of resistance. Others said that there had been many changes during the past year, that they acted more independently and could use their own decision-making authority more freely than before. They treated residents as individuals and gave them a greater say in decision-making. They felt responsible for the development of the workplace as a collectivity. Primary nursing is one way in which nurses and family members can work more closely in the best interests of older residents. The findings of this study speak in favour of making the change from functional to primary nursing and at the same time highlight certain

  1. Targeting GSK-3 family members in the heart: a very sharp double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Woodgett, James; Maamari, Mia; Force, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The GSK-3 family of serine/threonine kinases, which is comprised of two isoforms (α and β), was initially identified as a negative regulator of glycogen synthase, the rate limiting enzyme of glycogen synthesis [1,2]. In the 30 years since its initial discovery, the family has been reported to regulate a host of additional cellular processes and, consequently, disease states such as bipolar disorders, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease [3,4]. As a result, there has been intense interest on the part of the pharmaceutical industry in developing small molecule antagonists of GSK-3. Herein, we will review the roles played by GSK-3s in the heart, focusing primarily on recent studies that have employed global and tissue-specific gene deletion. We will highlight roles in various pathologic processes, including pressure overload and ischemic injury, focusing on some striking isoform-specific effects of the family. Due to space limitations and/or the relatively limited data in gene-targeted mice, we will not be addressing the family's roles in ischemic pre-conditioning or its many interactions with various pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure." Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

    2015-05-01

    This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature.

  3. Nursing in the home palliative care: the view of a family member of a patient with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lima Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the concepts of family members of patients with cancer, who were inserted and guided by the actions of an extension project aimed at patients with cancer and their families, about the home care given to them, during the treatment phase and progression of the disease. This is an evaluative qualitative research conducted with six family members from June to October, 2013, through semi-structured interviews, analyzed by the method of content analysis. Three categories emerged: the support of nurses in coping with the disease, creating a bond with the patients and their families and nursing as a link to social support networks. It was understood that the health monitoring in the home context gave to the families and patients support and safety to handle concerns that cancer brought into their lives.

  4. Cadherin-related family member 3, a childhood asthma susceptibility gene product, mediates rhinovirus C binding and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Yury A; Watters, Kelly; Ashraf, Shamaila; Griggs, Theodor F; Devries, Mark K; Jackson, Daniel J; Palmenberg, Ann C; Gern, James E

    2015-04-28

    Members of rhinovirus C (RV-C) species are more likely to cause wheezing illnesses and asthma exacerbations compared with other rhinoviruses. The cellular receptor for these viruses was heretofore unknown. We report here that expression of human cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) enables the cells normally unsusceptible to RV-C infection to support both virus binding and replication. A coding single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6967330, C529Y) was previously linked to greater cell-surface expression of CDHR3 protein, and an increased risk of wheezing illnesses and hospitalizations for childhood asthma. Compared with wild-type CDHR3, cells transfected with the CDHR3-Y529 variant had about 10-fold increases in RV-C binding and progeny yields. We developed a transduced HeLa cell line (HeLa-E8) stably expressing CDHR3-Y529 that supports RV-C propagation in vitro. Modeling of CDHR3 structure identified potential binding sites that could impact the virus surface in regions that are highly conserved among all RV-C types. Our findings identify that the asthma susceptibility gene product CDHR3 mediates RV-C entry into host cells, and suggest that rs6967330 mutation could be a risk factor for RV-C wheezing illnesses.

  5. Analysis on Family Factor in Construction of New Socialist Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the family factor in the construction of new socialist countryside. It is believed that the family plays both the positive role and negative role in new socialist countryside construction. Based on this analysis,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures,including bringing into play the effect of family in promoting production and carrying forward excellent factors of family culture.

  6. Expectations and needs of persons with family members in an intensive care unit as opposed to a general ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, K R; Tenholder, M F

    1993-04-01

    The positive effect of family support on the outcome from serious illness that requires intensive care has been recognized by clinicians for decades. We have all seen that family visitation and an intensive care environment more similar to that of a general ward (sunlight, radio, television) can benefit patients with psychosis related to intensive care. The severity of illness of the individual patient exerts a powerful stress on the family unit, but it has been difficult to measure this effect. We used a 40-question family needs survey with a degree of importance scale to compare the intensive care unit (ICU) with the general ward in terms of impact on the family. Five needs were found to discriminate these two environments. The family members of patients in an ICU considered it very important (1) for staff to give directions on what to do at the bedside, (2) to receive more support from their own family unit, (3) to have a place to be alone as a family unit in the hospital, (4) to be informed in advance of any transfer plan, and (5) to have flexibility in the time allowed for visitation. Family members are willing to accept decreased visitation time if the physicians and nurses can equate this decrease with the complexity of care in the ICU. The results of this survey have helped us modify and individualize our approach based on family expectations especially when patients are transferred from the general ward to the ICU or from the ICU to the ward.

  7. Long-term follow-up of blood pressure in family members of soldiers killed during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santić, Zarko; Lukić, Anita; Sesar, Damir; Milicević, Srećko; Ilakovac, Vesna

    2006-06-01

    To asses prevalence of essential arterial hypertension in family members of soldiers killed in 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study enrolled 1144 subjects who lost a family member in the war and 582 of their close neighbors who experienced no such loss. Data on their medical history and habits were collected, and their blood pressure was recorded in 1996 and 2003. Arterial hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg (> or =130 mm Hg in patients with diabetes mellitus), or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg (> or =80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes mellitus), or taking antihypertensive therapy. Additional laboratory and clinical tests were performed in subjects with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension at both time points was higher in the group with a killed family member than in the group without the loss (55.1% vs 42.1%, Pfamily member, but not cholesterol and triglyceride blood concentrations. In both groups, hypertension was more prevalent in subjects with PTSD and smoking or drinking habit. Proportion of subjects with hypertension who smoked and used alcohol was similar in both groups. Proportion of subjects with hypertension who did not smoke or drink was higher in the group with the loss (51.1% vs 36.7%, Pfamily members of killed soldiers, regardless of the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Only the stress of mourning was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. Over time, proportion of hypertensive subjects with the loss decreased in the group with a killed family member, further suggesting that at least a part of their hypertension might have been of psychological origin.

  8. Caring for family members with chronic physical illness: A critical review of caregiver literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebrack Brad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews 19 studies (1987–2004 on quality of life for family caregivers helping those with chronic physical illness. Here we explore the concepts of and instruments used to measure caregivers' quality of life. We were particularly interested in understanding stress-related variables and documenting factors influencing quality of life based on family stress theory. Findings show that various positive and negative terms equated with quality of life were used to measure them. Results indicate that stress-related variables as possible predictors influencing caregivers' quality of life include: patient and caregiver characteristics, stressors, stress appraisal, stress coping methods, and social support. Our recommendations touch upon applying theory for intervention, developing measurement, making operable the concepts for measuring, and the need for longitudinal and comprehensive study.

  9. Effectiveness of Satir-Informed Family-Therapy on the Codependency of Drug Dependents' Family Members in Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Abadi, Fatemeh Karimi; Maarefvand, Masoomeh; Aghaei, Hakimeh; Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Abbasi, Mahboubeh; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2017-01-01

    Social workers in substance abuse treatment settings are responsible for involving families in treatment program to improve family functioning. The effectiveness of available interventions in treating codependency of family members of drug users in Iran is not well explored. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Satir communication family therapy (CFT) in healing codependency of drug dependents' family members in Tehran, Iran. The intervention group participants (n = 27) received a seven-session social work intervention with CFT approach and the control group (n = 26) received treatment as usual. We used the Holyoake Codependency Index to measure participants' codependency at baselines, end of intervention, and 90 days post intervention. Codependents enrolled in the intervention had a significantly lower codependency score than controls at the end of intervention and 90 days post intervention. CFT is an effective strategy to reduce codependency in Iranian population and can be explored as a population-based strategy.

  10. Functional and transcriptome analysis reveals an acclimatization strategy for abiotic stress tolerance mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric complex formed by NF-YA/NF-YB/NF-YC subunits that binds to the CCAAT-box in eukaryotic promoters. In contrast to other organisms, in which a single gene encodes each subunit, in plants gene families of over 10 members encode each of the subunits. Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms. Overexpression of NF-YA2, 7 and 10 resulted in dwarf late-senescent plants with enhanced tolerance to several types of abiotic stress. These phenotypes are related to alterations in sucrose/starch balance and cell elongation observed in NF-YA overexpressing plants. The use of transcriptomic analysis of transgenic plants that express miR169-resistant versions of NF-YA2, 3, 7, and 10 under an estradiol inducible system, as well as a dominant-repressor version of NF-YA2 revealed a set of genes, whose promoters are enriched in NF-Y binding sites (CCAAT-box) and that may be directly regulated by the NF-Y complex. This analysis also suggests that NF-YAs could participate in modulating gene regulation through positive and negative mechanisms. We propose a model in which the increase in NF-YA transcript levels in response to abiotic stress is part of an adaptive response to adverse environmental conditions in which a reduction in plant growth rate plays a key role.

  11. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to

  12. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate Roberta L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1 parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2 the good/bad parent; 3 distancing family relationships; and 4 the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages

  13. Family members' experiences of "wait and see" as a communication strategy in end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Ranveig; Lorem, Geir F; Nortvedt, Per; Hevrøy, Olav

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine family members' experiences of end-of-life decision-making processes in Norwegian intensive care units (ICUs) to ascertain the degree to which they felt included in the decision-making process and whether they received necessary information. Were they asked about the patient's preferences, and how did they view their role as family members in the decision-making process? A constructivist interpretive approach to the grounded theory method of qualitative research was employed with interviews of 27 bereaved family members of former ICU patients 3-12 months after the patient's death. The core finding is that relatives want a more active role in end-of-life decision-making in order to communicate the patient's wishes. However, many consider their role to be unclear, and few study participants experienced shared decision-making. The clinician's expression "wait and see" hides and delays the communication of honest and clear information. When physicians finally address their decision, there is no time for family participation. Our results also indicate that nurses should be more involved in family-physician communication. Families are uncertain whether or how they can participate in the decision-making process. They need unambiguous communication and honest information to be able to take part in the decision-making process. We suggest that clinicians in Norwegian ICUs need more training in the knowledge and skills of effective communication with families of dying patients.

  14. [Impact of family members and health care providers on the use of folic acid in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Bai, Ya'na; Hu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rongqiang; Du, Wenqi; Li, Liansheng; Li, Jingyu; Cheng, Ning

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the impact of family members and health care providers on the use of folic acid supplements in pregnant women, and to provide basic data for improving the effectiveness of folic acid intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitals and households from June to September in 2009. Face-to-face anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 2094 women, who were pregnant at least three months or postpartum in one year, in two counties of Gansu Province. The awareness rate of folic acid was in 62.2% of 2094 pregnant women, and 25.4% of them have taken folic acid. Higher knowledge about folic acid of family members (OR = 0.268, 95% CI 0.208 - 0.346), agreed with taking folic acid by family members (OR = 0.103, 95% CI 0.031 -0.338), and urging pregnant women to take folic acid by family members (OR = 0.147, 95% CI 0.115 - 0.190) were significant predictors for having folic acid taken by pregnant women. Propagating knowledge related to folic acid (OR = 0.252, 95% CI 0.197 - 0.323) and directing pregnant women to use folic acid (OR = 0.168, 95% CI 0.096 - 0.296) by health care providers were also the important predictors for folic acid intake. Family members and health care providers play an important role in affecting the use of folic acid among pregnant women. In order to improve the effectiveness of intervention with folic acid, family members of pregnant women and health care providers should be included into the target population to receive an intensive propaganda campaign on folic acid education to improve the use of folic acid in pregnant women extensively.

  15. Factors Associated With the Perception of Family Nursing Practice Among Mental Health Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced the perceptions of mental health nurses about involving families in their nursing practice. A sample of 175 Taiwanese mental health nurses who are employed in both inpatient and community settings completed structured questionnaires designed to measure empathy, attitudes about involving families in care, and perceptions of family nursing practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way ANOVA, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Positive perceptions of family nursing practice were correlated with more years of clinical experience in mental health, empathy, supportive attitudes toward the importance of family nursing care, and personal experiences with family members with serious illness in need of professional care. These findings may assist in the development of effective educational programs designed to help nurses integrate family nursing knowledge and skills in the care of patients and families experiencing mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  17. Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodothermaceae isolated from deep seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghwa; Song, Jaeho; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale-red-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T), were isolated from seawater (3000 m depth) from the Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates could be affiliated with the family Rhodothermaceae of the class Cytophagia. Strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) shared 99.7% pairwise sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 92.6% similarity with other cultivated members of the class Cytophagia. The strains were found to be non-motile, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and able to hydrolyse gelatin and aesculin. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 64.8-65.8 mol% and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. Summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and iso-C15:0 were found to be the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, it was concluded that strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodothermaceae, for which the name Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species of is SAORIC-28(T) (=KCTC 23867(T)=NBRC 108816(T)). An additional strain of the species is SAORIC-26.

  18. Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis: treatment and follow-up of four affected family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, J; Goodfield, M J; Evans, E G

    2000-01-01

    We report a Caucasian family of two veterinary practitioners and their two children, ages 2 years and 6 months, simultaneously infected with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis in the children and tinea corporis in the parents. The parents and older child were successfully treated with oral terbinafine. The infant clinically responded to treatment with topical terbinafine and ketoconazole shampoo but presented with recurrent tinea capitis 12 months later, from which T. tonsurans was cultured. At this time, scalpbrush samples from the other family members failed to culture any fungi, and neither were fungi isolated from the family hairbrushes. The infant then received oral terbinafine, resulting in clinical and mycologic cure. After a further 12 months follow-up, there has been no mycologic evidence of recurrence in any family member.

  19. Conceptions and practices of embracement to the family members in psychosocial attention in alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Leite Pacheco Lisbôa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative research made from March 2012 to February 2014 to identify and to analyze conceptions and practices of embracement to the family members of the people who use drugs, from the family’s and the professionals’ perspective in a Psychosocial Attention Center specialized in Alcohol and Other Drugs in Maceió, AL, Brazil. Data collection was made by semi-structured interviews with the use of previously elaborated script. Bardin's thematic analysis and discussion approved by Merhy revealed it as an act of receiving. For professionals, it is an administrative reception, triage, and transfer of information. For the family members, it is always to be welcome. The practice, present in relations in which there is the encounter professional-user, materialized in family groups and listening. In the working process, embracement to the families expresses the need of qualified listening, constitution of bond and their co-responsibilities.

  20. Review on Hypothetical Implementing TGF-β Family Members in Glaucoma Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Ivan; Culina, Kata; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    For quite some time, glaucoma has been regarded as more than just intraocular pressure [IOP] elevation. Significant contribution to this conceptual improvement has risen from a better understanding of ocular blood flow, vessel wall integrity and certain advanced ideas in neuroophthalmology, for example neuroprotection. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) molecule, its inhibitors and antagonists have been increasingly researched as possible new anti-glaucoma drugs for its many, pleiotropic, effects. Among those effects, enhancing fibrosis is one of the most apparent, but certain members of this cytokine's superfamily act as anti-fibrotics. Recent scientific efforts strongly support pushing back the frontier of conventional medical treatment. Current medical approaches already use effects on blood flow and neuronal quiescence, with significant systemic side-effects. Endeavours on the ophthalmologic exploitation of selected, favourable effects of pleiotropic TGF-βs could promote TGF-β, its inhibitors or specific antibodies as new, ideal drugs in glaucoma therapy.

  1. HVEM: An unusual TNF receptor family member important for mucosal innate immune responses to microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jr-Wen; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM or CD270) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), and therefore it is also known as TNFRSF14. We have recently provided evidence showing a novel signaling pathway downstream of HVEM leading to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in epithelial cells. As STAT3 regulates the expression of genes important for host defense in epithelial cells, as well as the differentiation of retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt+ Th17 and innate lymphoid cells (ILC), our finding that HVEM activates STAT3 has revealed fresh insights into the potential regulatory function of HVEM in different cellular contexts. Therefore, although further investigations will be required, HVEM is emerging as a major player in mucosal host defense, capable of regulating several cellular responses.

  2. Mice lacking the SLAM family member CD84 display unaltered platelet function in hemostasis and thrombosis.

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    Sebastian Hofmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity by forming thrombi at sites of vascular injury. Although the early events of thrombus formation--platelet adhesion and aggregation--have been intensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms and receptors that stabilize platelet-platelet interactions once a thrombus has formed. One receptor that has been implicated in this process is the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family member CD84, which can undergo homophilic interactions and becomes phosphorylated upon platelet aggregation. OBJECTIVE: The role of CD84 in platelet physiology and thrombus formation was investigated in CD84-deficient mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated CD84-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Cd84(-/- platelets exhibited normal activation and aggregation responses to classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, CD84 deficiency did not affect integrin-mediated clot retraction and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. Notably, also the formation of stable three-dimensional thrombi on collagen-coated surfaces under flow ex vivo was unaltered in the blood of Cd84(-/- mice. In vivo, Cd84(-/- mice exhibited unaltered hemostatic function and arterial thrombus formation. CONCLUSION: These results show that CD84 is dispensable for thrombus formation and stabilization, indicating that its deficiency may be functionally compensated by other receptors or that it may be important for platelet functions different from platelet-platelet interactions.

  3. Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

    2014-10-09

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available.

  4. Kalilo plasmids are a family of four distinct members with individual global distributions across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C; Nastasja de Groot; Bok, J W; Griffiths, A J

    2000-01-01

    Kalilo is a linear 9-kb plasmid, isolated originally from Hawaiian strains of the heterothallic fungus Neurospora intermedia. Its properties include terminal inverted repeats, two ORFs coding for a presumptive DNA and an RNA polymerase, and the ability to cause senescence in its original host and in the closely related species Neurospora crassa. We have examined natural isolates alleged to contain plasmids homologous to kalilo. Most of these isolates do in fact contain plasmids with so close an identity to kalilo as to be certain relatives. We found a new case of kalilo in Neurospora tetrasperma from Moorea-Tahiti, and a new case of LA-kalilo (previously found only in N. tetrasperma) in N. crassa from Haiti. A previously unreported, substantially shorter, kalilo variant has been found in three geographically separate isolates of the heterothallic species Neurospora discreta. Therefore, if the previously reported kalilo variant from the genus Gelasinospora is included, in all there are four members of the kalilo plasmid family. The main differences between these plasmids are in the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). The phylogeny of the TIR sequences is largely congruent with that of nuclear DNA in the species in which they are found, suggesting that the plasmids are related by vertical descent throughout the evolution of these species. However, there are two cases of a plasmid found in a heterothallic and a pseudohomothallic species in the same global area; these cases might have arisen from more recent horizontal transmission or introgression.

  5. Do Family Members of Dialysis Patients Have a Positive Attitude Toward Organ Donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Zakaria, Roza Hazli; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Ng, Kok Peng; Lim, Soo Kun

    2015-12-22

    Malaysia, which currently uses the informed consent system (ICS), is suffering from a severe shortage of organs for transplantation. Family members of dialysis patients (FMDPs) are expected to have a positive attitude toward deceased organ donation (DOD) because they have a close relative in need of a kidney donation. This study explores FMDPs' attitude toward DOD under the ICS and the presumed consent system (PCS). The attitude of 350 FMDPs toward DOD under the ICS and PCS were sought between June and October 2013 in 3 dialysis institutions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the ICS, 6.6% of respondents were registered donors, 6.6% were ready to register at the time of the survey, 38.6% were willing to donate but not ready to register at the time of the survey, and 48.2% were unwilling to donate organs upon death. If the PCS were implemented, 57.7% of respondents (28.7% of the willing donors and 88.7% of the unwilling respondents) stated that they would officially object to organ donation. FMDPs' attitude toward DOD is not more positive or significantly better than that of the general public (based on earlier studies). The PCS may increase the number of donors, but it may also worsen the attitude of FMDPs toward DOD. Strategies aiming to promote DOD in Malaysia should be revised, and should perhaps be focused on enhancing trust of the medical system.

  6. (Handicapped) caregiver: the social representations of family members about the caregiving process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Gisele Regina; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze what looking after physically disabled persons with spinal cord injury by trauma means to their caregivers and family members. The analysis of the testimony of eight caregivers, obtained in open interviews, which was methodologically based on the Social Representations Theory (SR), pointed out two main routes: coping with the suffering process in care practice and the troubled waters that permeate this suffering process. These two routes, characterized as SR Central Core and Peripheral System, respectively, consisted of themes like the way of looking at impairment, affectivity, religiosity, social-economical changes and (lack of) technical and institutional support. The results show a handicapped caregiver dedicated to look after someone who is physically disabled, considered incapacitated, and who leads his or her chores with distress and privations, based on guilt and religiosity, supported by ambiguous affection and affected by deteriorating social-economical changes and (lack of) technical and institutional support to practice an activity that implies so many peculiarities. The transformation alternatives of these caregivers' daily life principally lead to a symbiosis of disability with the patient - to live for the physically disabled - or yet, for a few, a sketch to restart personal life projects - to live with the physically disabled.

  7. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

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    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M. [Paediatric Research Unit, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  8. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR.

  9. Dendritic cells produce macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma, a new member of the CC chemokine family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadzadeh, M; Poltorak, A N; Bergstressor, P R; Beutler, B; Takashima, A

    1996-05-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are skin-specific members of the dendritic cell (DC) family. DC are unique among APC for their capacity to activate immunologically naive T cells, but little is known about their chemotactic recruitment of T cells. We now report that LC produce macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma (MIP-1 gamma), a newly identified CC chemokine. MIP-1 gamma mRNA was detected in epidermal cells freshly procured from BALB/c mice, and depletion of I-A+ epidermal cells (i.e., LC) abrogated that expression. MIP-1 gamma mRNA was detected in the XS52 LC-like DC line as well as by 4F7+ splenic DC and granulocyte-macrophage CSF-propagated bone marrow DC. XS52 DC culture supernatants contained 9 and 10.5 kDa immunoreactivities with anti-MIP-1 gamma Abs. We observed in Boyden chamber assays that 1) XS52 DC supernatant (added to the lower chambers) induced significant migration by splenic T cells; 2) this migration was blocked by the addition of anti-MIP-1 gamma in the lower chambers or by rMIP-1 gamma in the upper chambers; and 3) comparable migration occurred in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and in both activated and nonactivated T cells. We conclude that mouse DC (including LC) have the capacity to elaborate the novel CC chemokine MIP-1 gamma, suggesting the active participation of DC in recruiting T cells before activation.

  10. Nurses versus physicians' knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the fa