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Sample records for factor analytic techniques

  1. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2014-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis.

  2. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  3. Are factor analytical techniques used appropriately in the validation of health status questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Henrica C W; Adér, Herman J; Terwee, Caroline B

    2005-01-01

    Factor analysis is widely used to evaluate whether questionnaire items can be grouped into clusters representing different dimensions of the construct under study. This review focuses on the appropriate use of factor analysis. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) is used as an example....... Articles were systematically searched and assessed according to a number of criteria for appropriate use and reporting. Twenty-eight studies were identified: exploratory factor analysis was performed in 22 studies, confirmatory factor analysis was performed in five studies and in one study both were...... of methods is crucial for correct interpretation of the results and verification of the conclusions. Our list of criteria may be useful for journal editors, reviewers and researchers who have to assess publications in which factor analysis is applied....

  4. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  5. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1991-04-01

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) {chi}(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered {chi}(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental {chi}(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) and ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degree}S/Ni(111). For p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 {Angstrom}, with the S adatom 1.31 {Angstrom} above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 {Angstrom} above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 {Angstrom}, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3)R30{degree}S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed.

  6. Study of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model and prioritizing them using analytic hierarchy process technique, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improving productivity is one of the most important strategies for social-economic development. Human resources are known as the most important resources in the organizations′ survival and success. Aims: To determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity using the ACHIEVEa model from the nurses′ perspective and then prioritize them from the perspective of head nurses using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. Settings and Design: Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was an applied, cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study conducted in two phases. In the first phase, to determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity from nurses′ perspective, 110 nurses were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Required data were collected using the Persian version of Hersey and Goldsmith′s Human Resource Productivity Questionnaire. In the second phase, in order to prioritize the factors affecting human resource productivity based on the ACHIEVE model using AHP technique, pairwise comparisons matrices were given to the 19 randomly selected head nurses to express their opinions about those factors relative priorities or importance. Statistical Analysis Used: Collected data and matrices in two mentioned phases were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and some statistical tests including Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation coefficient, as well as, Super Decisions software (Latest Beta. Results: The human resource productivity had significant relationships with nurses′ sex (P = 0.008, marital status (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001, and all questionnaire factors (P < 0.05. Nurses′ productivity from their perspective was below average (44.97 ΁ 7.43. Also, the priorities of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model from the head nurses′ perspective using AHP technique, from the

  7. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  8. Analytical techniques for characterizing enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlenbrock, Michael J; Arechederra, Robert L; Sjöholm, Kyle H; Minteer, Shelley D

    2009-12-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells, which replace expensive metal catalysts with enzymes, are still in an early stage of development. This article details the analytical techniques that are often employed for evaluating and characterizing enzymatic biofuel cells and their corresponding bioanodes and biocathodes. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  9. Analytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoom Raza Siddiqui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the pharmaceuticals brought a revolution in human health. These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered in an appropriate amount. To make drugs serve their purpose various chemical and instrumental methods were developed at regular intervals which are involved in the estimation of drugs. These pharmaceuticals may develop impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage which makes the pharmaceutical risky to be administered thus they must be detected and quantitated. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play an important role. This review highlights the role of the analytical instrumentation and the analytical methods in assessing the quality of the drugs. The review highlights a variety of analytical techniques such as titrimetric, chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrophoretic, and electrochemical and their corresponding methods that have been applied in the analysis of pharmaceuticals.

  10. New analytical techniques in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, E; Cifuentes, A

    2001-09-01

    In this review, some of the latest analytical techniques that are being used for the study and characterization of food are examined. This work intends to provide an updated overview (including works published up to June 1999) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in food analysis. Some future developments of these systems and their foreseeable application in food characterization are also discussed. The reviewed techniques are those based on spectroscopic, biological, separation, and electrochemical procedures. Moreover, some relevant facts on new systems for sample preparation and on-line couplings are also given.

  11. Intersubjectivity, therapeutic action, and analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renik, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The author defines the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis as the patient's increased capacity to make changes in his/ her attitudes or behaviors in order to achieve greater wellbeing and satisfaction in life. Although most analytic theories generally agree about this, the author notes, they diverge in their specifications of the principles of analytic technique that will best accomplish this aim. The patient's experience of benefit is the most accurate criterion for evaluating the success of the analysis and thus of the resultant therapeutic action, in the author's belief An extended clinical vignette is presented in which he illustrates how his technical decisions are guided by these principles.

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques in environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, R E

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques are particularly suitable for measuring trace components in a wide variety of environmental samples, and for that reason, the techniques have made a significant contribution to environmental research. Presently, at a time when biosphere contamination and threats of global change in the atmosphere are of widespread concern, there exist an impressive array of specialized instrumental methods available to life scientists engaged in environmental studies; however, the nuclear techniques will probably continue to play a useful role in the future, notwithstanding the decreasing availability of necessary facilities, such as research reactors and accelerators. Reasons for the particular suitability of radionanalytical techniques are reviewed and illustrated by examples of recent applications to solid wastes, biomonitoring, and urban aerosol source identification in this laboratory.

  13. Analytical decoupling techniques for fully implicit reservoir simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Changhe; Wu, Shuhong; Xu, Jinchao; Zhang, Chen-Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines linear algebraic solvers for a given general purpose compositional simulator. In particular, the decoupling stage of the constraint pressure residual (CPR) preconditioner for linear systems arising from the fully implicit scheme is evaluated. An asymptotic analysis of the convergence behavior is given when Δt approaches zero. Based on this analysis, we propose an analytical decoupling technique, from which the pressure equation is directly related to an elliptic equation and can be solved efficiently. We show that this method ensures good convergence behavior of the algebraic solvers in a two-stage CPR-type preconditioner. We also propose a semi-analytical decoupling strategy that combines the analytical method and alternate block factorization method. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the analytical and semi-analytical decoupling methods compared to existing methods.

  14. Analytical Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurs, Ulrike; Mistarz, Ulrik Hvid; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) offers the capability to identify, characterize and quantify a target molecule in a complex sample matrix and has developed into a premier analytical tool in drug development science. Through specific MS-based workflows including customized sample preparation, coupling...... as fragmentation techniques and coupling of MS to chroma-tographic separation. As the structural integrity of protein drugs during purification, formulation and delivery is of critical importance to ensure drug efficacy and safety, an overview over current approaches for primary and higher-order structure analysis...

  15. Are factor analytical techniques used appropriately in the validation of health status questionnaires? A systematic review on the quality of factor analysis of the SF-36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de H.C.W.; Adèr, H.J.; Terwee, C.B.; Pouwer, F.

    2005-01-01

    Factor analysis is widely used to evaluate whether questionnaire items can be grouped into clusters representing different dimensions of the construct under study. This review focuses on the appropriate use of factor analysis. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) is used as an example. A

  16. 40 CFR 141.27 - Alternate analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate analytical techniques. 141... § 141.27 Alternate analytical techniques. (a) With the written permission of the State, concurred in by the Administrator of the U.S. EPA, an alternate analytical technique may be employed. An alternate...

  17. Counterfeit drugs: analytical techniques for their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, R; Malet-Martino, M; Gilard, V; Balayssac, S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, the number of counterfeit drugs has increased dramatically, including not only "lifestyle" products but also vital medicines. Besides the threat to public health, the financial and reputational damage to pharmaceutical companies is substantial. The lack of robust information on the prevalence of fake drugs is an obstacle in the fight against drug counterfeiting. It is generally accepted that approximately 10% of drugs worldwide could be counterfeit, but it is also well known that this number covers very different situations depending on the country, the places where the drugs are purchased, and the definition of what constitutes a counterfeit drug. The chemical analysis of drugs suspected to be fake is a crucial step as counterfeiters are becoming increasingly sophisticated, rendering visual inspection insufficient to distinguish the genuine products from the counterfeit ones. This article critically reviews the recent analytical methods employed to control the quality of drug formulations, using as an example artemisinin derivatives, medicines particularly targeted by counterfeiters. Indeed, a broad panel of techniques have been reported for their analysis, ranging from simple and cheap in-field ones (colorimetry and thin-layer chromatography) to more advanced laboratory methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and vibrational spectroscopies) through chromatographic methods, which remain the most widely used. The conclusion section of the article highlights the questions to be posed before selecting the most appropriate analytical approach.

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  19. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  20. Analytic factorization of Lie group representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimperlein, Heiko; Krötz, Bernhard; Lienau, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E......¿=¿(A(G))E¿E¿=¿(A(G))E¿. As a corollary we obtain that E¿E¿ coincides with the space of analytic vectors for the Laplace–Beltrami operator on G.......For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E...

  1. The pion form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan; Irinel Caprini; I Sentitemsu Imsong

    2012-11-01

    Analyticity and unitarity techniques are employed to estimate Taylor coefficients of the pion electromagnetic form factor at = 0 by exploiting the recently evaluated two-pion contribution to the muon ( − 2) and the phase of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the elastic region, known from scattering by Fermi–Watson theorem and the values of the form factor at several points in the space-like region. Regions in the complex -plane are isolated where the form factor cannot have zeros.

  2. Analytical techniques for steroid estrogens in water samples - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting Yien; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; deBurbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed; Rasdi, Irniza

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, environmental concerns over ultra-trace levels of steroid estrogens concentrations in water samples have increased because of their adverse effects on human and animal life. Special attention to the analytical techniques used to quantify steroid estrogens in water samples is therefore increasingly important. The objective of this review was to present an overview of both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques available for the determination of steroid estrogens in water samples, evidencing their respective potential advantages and limitations using the Need, Approach, Benefit, and Competition (NABC) approach. The analytical techniques highlighted in this review were instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques namely gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), radio immuno assay (RIA), yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, and human breast cancer cell line proliferation (E-screen) assay. The complexity of water samples and their low estrogenic concentrations necessitates the use of highly sensitive instrumental analytical techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS) and non-instrumental analytical techniques (ELISA, RIA, YES assay and E-screen assay) to quantify steroid estrogens. Both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques have their own advantages and limitations. However, the non-instrumental ELISA analytical techniques, thanks to its lower detection limit and simplicity, its rapidity and cost-effectiveness, currently appears to be the most reliable for determining steroid estrogens in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroextraction and electromembrane extraction : Advances in hyphenation to analytical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedit, A.; Ramautar, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Lindenburg, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Electroextraction (EE) and electromembrane extraction (EME) are sample preparation techniques that both require an electric field that is applied over a liquid-liquid system, which enables the migration of charged analytes. Furthermore, both techniques are often used to pre-concentrate analytes prio

  4. Semi-analytic techniques for calculating bubble wall profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Akula, Sujeet; White, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    We present semi-analytic techniques for finding bubble wall profiles during first order phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. Our method involves reducing the problem to an equation with a single field, finding an analytic solution and perturbing around it. The perturbations can be written in a semi-analytic form. We argue that our technique lacks convergence problems and demonstrate the speed of convergence on an example potential.

  5. Pictorial Narrative Mapping as a Qualitative Analytic Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Lapum; Linda Liu; Sarah Hume; Siyuan Wang; Megan Nguyen; Bailey Harding; Kathryn Church; Gideon Cohen; Yau, Terrence M

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative analysis is often a textual undertaking. However, it can be helpful to think about and represent study phenomena or narrative accounts in nontextual ways. In this article, we share our unique and artistic process in developing and employing pictorial narrative mapping as a qualitative analytic technique. We recast a nontextual, artistic–analytic technique by combining elements related to narrative mapping and narrative art. This technique involves aesthetic attunement to data and ...

  6. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Fang, Qun, E-mail: fangqun@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  7. Internet promotion tools and techniques: analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis and systematization of modern communication Internet marketing tools, development of recommendations for their management to promote products in a virtual environment and maintaining the highest level of communication with their economic partners and contact groups. The results of the analysis. The systematic analysis and systematization of the known Internet marketing tools were made. Authors divide them into 8 categories of the use functionality: Search Engine Marketing, Internet advertising, Social Relationship Marketing, Viral Marketing, Video Marketing, E-mail Marketing, Innovative Marketing and Analytical Marketing. The recommendations for this tools use by various size companies were proposed and the most popular Internet-instruments for products promotion were noted. By the results of analysis, the communication instruments of Internet-marketing are divided into 4 groups, which are closely interrelated. Their complex use leads to synergistic effect that appears at profit growth, consumer interest and creating of company’s positive image. Today the forgotten method of communication – E-mail Marketing, interactive infographics, communications in the form of stories, Marketing in social networks and Analytical Marketing have acquired unexpected development. These instruments satisfy needs of companies (the possibility of solid presentation, active communication link and its precise measurements and consumers (interesting content, supported by visual image and information on request. Conclusions and directions for future research. The results can be used as methodological assistance in choosing rational sets of Internet marketing instruments that would take into account the specificity of a production company (seller and its products, market, target audience. The future research must be directed to detection of inexpensive but effective Internet-communication tools, detection

  8. Review of analytical techniques for arson residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, Alastair D; Baron, Mark G; Birkett, Jason W

    2006-09-01

    Arson is a serious crime that affects society through cost, property damage, and loss of life. It is important that the methods and technologies applied by fire investigators in detection of evidence and subsequent analyses have a high degree of reliability, sensitivity, and be subject to rigorous quality control and assurance. There have been considerable advances in the field of arson investigation since the 1950s. Classification of ignitable liquids has been updated to include many new categories due to developments in the petroleum industry. Techniques such as steam or vacuum distillation and gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection that may have been considered acceptable--even a benchmark--40 years ago, are nowadays generally disfavored, to the extent that their implementation may almost be considered as ignorance in the field. The advent of readily available mass spectrometric techniques has revolutionized the field of fire debris analysis, increasing the degree of sensitivity and discrimination possible considerably. Multi-dimensional GC--particularly GC x GC--while not yet widely applied, is rapidly gaining recognition as an important technique. This comprehensive review focuses on techniques and practices used in fire investigation, from scene investigation to analysis.

  9. Pictorial Narrative Mapping as a Qualitative Analytic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lapum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis is often a textual undertaking. However, it can be helpful to think about and represent study phenomena or narrative accounts in nontextual ways. In this article, we share our unique and artistic process in developing and employing pictorial narrative mapping as a qualitative analytic technique. We recast a nontextual, artistic–analytic technique by combining elements related to narrative mapping and narrative art. This technique involves aesthetic attunement to data and visual representation through pictorial design. We advanced this technique in the context of a narrative study about how arts-informed dissemination methods influence health-care practitioners’ delivery of care. We found that the Pictorial Narrative Mapping process prompted an aesthetic and imaginative experience in the analytic process of qualitative inquiry. As an analytic technique, Pictorial Narrative Mapping extends the inquiry process and enhances rigor through artistic means as well as iterative and critical dialogue. Additionally, pictorial narrative maps can provide a holistic account of the phenomenon under study and assist researchers to make meaning of nuances within complex narratives. As researchers consider employing Pictorial Narrative Mapping, we recommend that they draw upon this technique as a malleable script yielding to an organic process that emerges from both their own data and analytic discussions. We are further curious about its imaginative capacities in social and health science literature, its possibilities in other disciplinary contexts, and the prospects of what Maxine Greene refers to as becoming more wide awake—in our case, in future research analytic endeavors.

  10. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  11. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Tools/Techniques Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics tools/techniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics tools/techniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  12. Analytic technique measures aromatics in soil and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, K.A.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on a technique for detecting aromatic compounds in soil and water. The technique traces its roots to a chemical reaction discovered in 1877. The reaction is an organic synthesis process that has been harnessed for the production of high-octane gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics and synthetic detergents. More than a century later the same chemistry is used as the basis for an analytical technique that quantifies contamination caused by products.

  13. Membrane-based microextraction techniques in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasek, Eduardo; Merib, Josias

    2015-06-23

    The use of membrane-based sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry has gained growing attention from the scientific community since the development of miniaturized sample preparation procedures in the 1990s. The use of membranes makes the microextraction procedures more stable, allowing the determination of analytes in complex and "dirty" samples. This review describes some characteristics of classical membrane-based microextraction techniques (membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and hollow-fiber renewal liquid membrane) as well as some alternative configurations (thin film and electromembrane extraction) used successfully for the determination of different analytes in a large variety of matrices, some critical points regarding each technique are highlighted.

  14. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2013-07-17

    In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  15. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  16. Comparison of commercial analytical techniques for measuring chlorine dioxide in urban desalinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, T A; Abid, K Y; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z

    2015-12-01

    Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated within the industry. This research endeavored to objectively compare the performance of commercially available analytical techniques used for chlorine dioxide measurements (namely, chronoamperometry, DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), Lissamine Green B (LGB WET) and amperometric titration), to determine the superior technique. The commonly available commercial analytical techniques were evaluated over a wide range of chlorine dioxide concentrations. In reference to pre-defined criteria, the superior analytical technique was determined. To discern the effectiveness of such superior technique, various factors, such as sample temperature, high ionic strength, and other interferences that might influence the performance were examined. Among the four techniques, chronoamperometry technique indicates a significant level of accuracy and precision. Furthermore, the various influencing factors studied did not diminish the technique's performance where it was fairly adequate in all matrices. This study is a step towards proper disinfection monitoring and it confidently assists engineers with chlorine dioxide disinfection system planning and management.

  17. Characterizing nonconstant instrumental variance in emerging miniaturized analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Scott D; Berg, Kathleen E; Cate, David M; Henry, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    Measurement variance is a crucial aspect of quantitative chemical analysis. Variance directly affects important analytical figures of merit, including detection limit, quantitation limit, and confidence intervals. Most reported analyses for emerging analytical techniques implicitly assume constant variance (homoskedasticity) by using unweighted regression calibrations. Despite the assumption of constant variance, it is known that most instruments exhibit heteroskedasticity, where variance changes with signal intensity. Ignoring nonconstant variance results in suboptimal calibrations, invalid uncertainty estimates, and incorrect detection limits. Three techniques where homoskedasticity is often assumed were covered in this work to evaluate if heteroskedasticity had a significant quantitative impact-naked-eye, distance-based detection using paper-based analytical devices (PADs), cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) with disposable carbon-ink electrode devices, and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with conductivity detection. Despite these techniques representing a wide range of chemistries and precision, heteroskedastic behavior was confirmed for each. The general variance forms were analyzed, and recommendations for accounting for nonconstant variance discussed. Monte Carlo simulations of instrument responses were performed to quantify the benefits of weighted regression, and the sensitivity to uncertainty in the variance function was tested. Results show that heteroskedasticity should be considered during development of new techniques; even moderate uncertainty (30%) in the variance function still results in weighted regression outperforming unweighted regressions. We recommend utilizing the power model of variance because it is easy to apply, requires little additional experimentation, and produces higher-precision results and more reliable uncertainty estimates than assuming homoskedasticity.

  18. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  20. Electrochemical techniques in analytical, preparatory and industrial chemistry of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyakov, Valentin N.; Yakovlev, Nikolay G. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    A new electrochemical technique for studying and performing redox reactions of uranium and transuranium elements as well as for their determination in flow-through conditions is described. The technique is based on the application of flow through electrolyzer with space porous working electrode made from carbon fiber material. The following aspects of the application of the electrochemical techniques were investigated and discussed: derivative coulography for analytical purposes and for determination of parameters of electrochemical processes, coulometric determination of U and Pu in nitric acid solutions in flow through conditions, electrochemical stabilization of oxidation states of U, Np and Pu in flow through conditions both in water solutions and in extraction chromatography separating systems, chemically modified column electrode and electrodeposition of insoluble compounds. The techniques are applicable in industrial scales as well. (author)

  1. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several μm, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences

  2. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  3. Analytic standard errors for exploratory process factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W; Ong, Anthony D; Chow, Sy Miin

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory process factor analysis (EPFA) is a data-driven latent variable model for multivariate time series. This article presents analytic standard errors for EPFA. Unlike standard errors for exploratory factor analysis with independent data, the analytic standard errors for EPFA take into account the time dependency in time series data. In addition, factor rotation is treated as the imposition of equality constraints on model parameters. Properties of the analytic standard errors are demonstrated using empirical and simulated data.

  4. Critical Factors in Data Governance for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouazizi, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the main challenges of data governance modelling in the context of learning analytics for higher education institutions, and discusses the critical factors for designing data governance models for learning analytics. It identifies three fundamental common challenges that cut across any learning analytics data…

  5. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: application to Rayleigh scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Safari, L; Amaro, P; Jänkälä, K; Fratini, F

    2014-01-01

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wavefunctions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  6. Development of Impurity Profiling Methods Using Modern Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Bondigalla

    2017-01-02

    This review gives a brief introduction about the process- and product-related impurities and emphasizes on the development of novel analytical methods for their determination. It describes the application of modern analytical techniques, particularly the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). In addition to that, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was also discussed for the characterization of impurities and degradation products. The significance of the quality, efficacy and safety of drug substances/products, including the source of impurities, kinds of impurities, adverse effects by the presence of impurities, quality control of impurities, necessity for the development of impurity profiling methods, identification of impurities and regulatory aspects has been discussed. Other important aspects that have been discussed are forced degradation studies and the development of stability indicating assay methods.

  7. Critical Factors In Data Governance For Learning Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Elouazizi, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

     This paper identifies some of the main challenges of data governance modeling in the context of learning analytics for higher education institutions, and discusses the critical factors for designing data governance models for learning analytics. It identifies three fundamental common challenges that cut across any learning analytics data governance model, viz., the ownership of the learning analytics data sets, its interpretation and the enacting of decision-making on the basis of this learn...

  8. De Factorisatione Numerorum I : An Analytic Approach to Subexponential Factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Sica, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel glance at factoring. In this work, we are chiefly concerned with the asymptotic aspect of the method, as we will show that this approach \\emph{almost} allows to deterministically factor a RSA modulus $N=pq$ in $O\\bigl(\\exp({\\log^\\epsilon N})\\bigr)$ bit operations for any $\\epsilon>0$. An important feature of this approach is that any bound is absolutely proven and does not rely on any assumption. The technique broached here departs from any know (at least to the author) factoring method. It is based on the study of carefully selected multiplicative functions in order to approximate them at $N$. Using their generating functions, expressed in terms of the Riemann zeta function, together with their functional equations, we derive an analytic identity which involves the computation of a family of series, which we call the \\emph{singular series} (as they embody an arithmetic information in analytic disguise), depending "minimally" on $N$. We finally show how the approximate computation of a ma...

  9. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  10. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  11. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  12. Analytical Study of Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the quality of service (QOS and controlling the network congestion are quite complicated tasks. They cause degrading the performance of the network, and disturbing the continuous communication process. To overcome these issues, one step towards this dilemma has been taken in form of Pre-congestion notification (PCN technique. PCN uses a packet marking technique within a PCN domain over IP networks. It is notified by egress node that works as guard at entry point of network. Egress node gives feedback to communicating servers whether rate on the link is exceeded than configured admissible threshold or within the limit. Based on this feedback, admission decisions are taken to determine whether to allow/block new coming flows or terminate already accepted. The actual question is about selection of right algorithm for PCN domain. In this paper, we investigate the analytical behavior of some known PCN algorithms. We make slide modifications in originality of PCN algorithms without disquieting working process in order to employ those within similar types of scenarios. Our goal is to simulate them either in highly congested or less congested realistic scenarios. On the basis of simulation done in ns2, we are able to recommend each PCN algorithm for specific conditions. Finally, we develop a benchmark that helps researchers and scientific communities to pick the right algorithm. Furthermore, the benchmark is designed to achieve specific objectives according to the users’ requirements without congesting the network.

  13. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  14. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  15. Enhancing simulation of efficiency with analytical tools. [combining computer simulation and analytical techniques for cost reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some means of combining both computer simulation and anlytical techniques are indicated in order to mutually enhance their efficiency as design tools and to motivate those involved in engineering design to consider using such combinations. While the idea is not new, heavy reliance on computers often seems to overshadow the potential utility of analytical tools. Although the example used is drawn from the area of dynamics and control, the principles espoused are applicable to other fields. In the example the parameter plane stability analysis technique is described briefly and extended beyond that reported in the literature to increase its utility (through a simple set of recursive formulas) and its applicability (through the portrayal of the effect of varying the sampling period of the computer). The numerical values that were rapidly selected by analysis were found to be correct for the hybrid computer simulation for which they were needed. This obviated the need for cut-and-try methods to choose the numerical values, thereby saving both time and computer utilization.

  16. A Novel Visualization Technique for Electric Power Grid Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Guttromson, Ross T.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-05-01

    The application of information visualization holds tremendous promise for the electric power industry, and yet its potential has not been sufficiently exploited by the visualization community. Prior work on visualizing electric power systems has been limited to depicting raw or processed information on top of a geographic layout. Little effort has been devoted to maximize the analytical strengths naturally gained by the visualization itself. This paper introduces a visualization system prototype, known as GreenGrid, that explores the planning and monitoring of the North American Electricity Infrastructure. For the purposes of visualization, the power infrastructure can be described as a network of nodes and links. The nodes represent the electrical buses where generators and loads are connected, while the links represent the transmission lines that interconnect the buses. This paper focuses mainly on a customized technique within GreenGrid that is designed to visually identify abnormal characteristics of the electricity infrastructure. In particular, we examine an extreme event that occurred within the Western United States power grid on August 10, 1996. We compare our study results with the conclusion of the post-disturbance analysis and find that many of the disturbance characteristics can be readily identified with the proper form of visualization. The paper includes a lessons learned discussion to evaluate the visualization application.

  17. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau...

  18. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  19. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  20. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  1. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed.

  2. Analytical Electrochemistry: Theory and Instrumentation of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes trends in the development of six topics concerning analytical electrochemistry, including books and reviews (34 references cited), mass transfer (59), charge transfer (25), surface effects (33), homogeneous reactions (21), and instrumentation (31). (CS)

  3. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  4. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  5. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation of solid propellant exhaust plume flow fields is addressed. Two major areas covered are: (1) the applicability of empirical data currently available to define particle drag coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, mean particle size and particle size distributions, and (2) thermochemical modeling of the gaseous phase of the flow field. Comparisons of experimentally measured and analytically predicted data are made. The experimental data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with aluminum loadings of 2, 10 and 15%. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase numerical solution. Data comparisons will be presented for radial distributions at plume axial stations of 5, 12, 16 and 20 diameters.

  6. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  7. Social Data Analytics Using Tensors and Sparse Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The development of internet and mobile technologies is driving an earthshaking social media revolution. They bring the internet world a huge amount of social media content, such as images, videos, comments, etc. Those massive media content and complicate social structures require the analytic expertise to transform those flood of information into…

  8. Challenges of Using Learning Analytics Techniques to Support Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Marco; Fulantelli, Giovanni; Taibi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of Mobile Learning remains an open research issue, especially as regards the activities that take place outside the classroom. In this context, Learning Analytics can provide answers, and offer the appropriate tools to enhance Mobile Learning experiences. In this poster we introduce a task-interaction framework, using learning analytics…

  9. Comparing factor analytic models of the DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Schmitt, Thomas A; Richard, David C S; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    There is little agreement about the latent factor structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) personality disorders (PDs). Factor analytic studies over the past 2 decades have yielded different results, in part reflecting differences in factor analytic technique, the measure used to assess the PDs, and the changing DSM criteria. In this study, we explore the latent factor structure of the DSM (4th ed.; IV) PDs in a sample of 1200 psychiatric outpatients evaluated with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV PDs (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997). We first evaluated 2 a priori models of the PDs with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reflecting their inherent organization in the DSM-IV: a 3-factor model and a 10-factor model. Fit statistics did not suggest that these models yielded an adequate fit. We then evaluated the latent structure with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Multiple solutions produced more statistically and theoretically reasonable results, as well as providing clinically useful findings. On the basis of fit statistics and theory, 3 models were evaluated further--the 4-, 5-, and 10-factor models. The 10-factor model, which did not resemble the 10-factor model of the CFA, was determined to be the strongest of all 3 models. Future research should use contemporary methods of evaluating factor analytic results in order to more thoroughly compare various factor solutions.

  10. Predictive Analytics in Healthcare System Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Boukenze

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The health sector has witnessed a great evolution f ollowing the development of new computer technologies, and that pushed this area to produce more medical data, which gave birth to multiple fields of research. Many efforts are done to cope with the explosion of medical data on one hand, and to obtain useful knowledge from it on the other hand. This prompted researchers to apply all the technical innovations like big dat a analytics, predictive analytics, machine learning and learning algorithms in order to extrac t useful knowledge and help in making decisions. With the promises of predictive analytic s in big data, and the use of machine learning algorithms, predicting future is no longer a diffic ult task, especially for medicine because predicting diseases and anticipating the cure becam e possible. In this paper we will present an overview on the evolution of big data in healthcare system, and we will apply a learning algorithm on a set of medical data. The objective i s to predict chronic kidney diseases by using Decision Tree (C4.5 algorithm.

  11. Process Mapping: Tools, Techniques, & Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains process mapping as an analytical tool and a process intervention that performance technologists can use to improve human performance by reducing error variance. Highlights include benefits of process mapping; and critical success factors, including organizational readiness, time commitment by participants, and the availability of a…

  12. Analytic Syntax: A Technique for Advanced Level Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ruth

    1975-01-01

    The technique explained here can increase a foreign student's awareness of English grammatical and rhetorical structures. Structural paraphrase is a syntactic reformulation of difficult phrases with minimal vocabulary changes. The technique is illustrated and suggestions are given for class presentation. (CHK)

  13. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  14. Analytical Study of Feature Extraction Techniques in Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although opinion mining is in a nascent stage of de velopment but still the ground is set for dense growth of researches in the field. One of the important activities of opinion mining is to extract opinions of people based on characteristics of the object under study. Feature extraction in opinion mining can be done by various ways like that of clustering, support vector machines etc. This paper is an attempt to appraise the vario us techniques of feature extraction. The first part discusses various techniques and second part m akes a detailed appraisal of the major techniques used for feature extraction.

  15. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  16. Analytic mind use and interpsychic communication: driving force in analytic technique, pathway to unconscious mental life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Developed from established psychoanalytic knowledge among different psychoanalytic cultures concerning unconscious interpsychic communication, analysts' use of their receptive mental experience--their analytic mind use, including the somatic, unconscious, and less accessible derivatives--represents a significant investigative road to patients' unconscious mental life, particularly with poorly symbolized mental states. The author expands upon this tradition, exploring what happens when patients unconsciously experience and identify with the analyst's psychic functioning. The technical implications of the analyst's "instrument" are described, including the analyst's ego regression, creation of inner space, taking mind as object, bearing uncertainty and intense affect, and self-analysis. Brief case vignettes illustrate the structure and obstacles to this work.

  17. Analytic phase-factor equations for Talbot array illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Stankovic, S; Tschudi, T

    1999-01-10

    Under specific circumstances the fractional Talbot effect can be described by simplified equations. We have obtained simplified analytic phase-factor equations to describe the relation between the pure-phase factors and their fractional Talbot distances behind a binary amplitude grating with an opening ratio of (1/M). We explain how these simple equations are obtained from the regularly rearranged neighboring phase differences. We point out that any intensity distribution with an irreducible opening ratio (M(N)/M) (M(N) illumination in this case. Experimental verification of our theoretical results is given.

  18. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  19. Web Usage Statistics: Measurement Issues and Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Moen, William E.; Rubin, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    One means of Web use evaluation is through analysis of server-generated log files. Various log file analysis techniques and issues are presented that are related to the interpretation of log file data. Study findings indicate a number of problems; recommendations and areas needing further research are outlined. (AEF)

  20. Factor analytic study of the personality of female methadone outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, R B

    1980-10-01

    Several researchers have examined the personality of chemical abusers by employing a multivariate clustering strategy. All of these studies focused on hospitalized inpatient addicts. Only one included females in the study. The purpose of this study is to examine the transposed data factor analytically derived profiles of female methadone maintained outpatients. All clients were given the Mini-Mult short form version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Seventy profiles were randomly selected from 130 female profiles. Program Factor of the Analyses of Behavioral Sciences Data program series was employed in statistically processing this data. Descriptions of the five factors are provided. Most of the profile types seem to fall into the normal or personality disordered categories. Forth-two percent of the profiles were normal, 24% were Personality Disorders, 6% were Neurotic, and 28% were unclassified using five factors.

  1. Facilitating the analysis of immunological data with visual analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, David C; Ho, Kevin C; Melnick, Kyle M; Rensink, Ronald A; Kollmann, Tobias R; Fortuno, Edgardo S

    2011-01-02

    Visual analytics (VA) has emerged as a new way to analyze large dataset through interactive visual display. We demonstrated the utility and the flexibility of a VA approach in the analysis of biological datasets. Examples of these datasets in immunology include flow cytometry, Luminex data, and genotyping (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Contrary to the traditional information visualization approach, VA restores the analysis power in the hands of analyst by allowing the analyst to engage in real-time data exploration process. We selected the VA software called Tableau after evaluating several VA tools. Two types of analysis tasks analysis within and between datasets were demonstrated in the video presentation using an approach called paired analysis. Paired analysis, as defined in VA, is an analysis approach in which a VA tool expert works side-by-side with a domain expert during the analysis. The domain expert is the one who understands the significance of the data, and asks the questions that the collected data might address. The tool expert then creates visualizations to help find patterns in the data that might answer these questions. The short lag-time between the hypothesis generation and the rapid visual display of the data is the main advantage of a VA approach.

  2. Analytical techniques for mechanistic characterization of EUV photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, Steven; Narasimhan, Amrit; Murphy, Michael; Ackerman, Christian; Kaminsky, Jake; Brainard, Robert L.; Denbeaux, Greg

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) lithography is the prospective technology for high volume manufacturing by the microelectronics industry. Significant strides towards achieving adequate EUV source power and availability have been made recently, but a limited rate of improvement in photoresist performance still delays the implementation of EUV. Many fundamental questions remain to be answered about the exposure mechanisms of even the relatively well understood chemically amplified EUV photoresists. Moreover, several groups around the world are developing revolutionary metal-based resists whose EUV exposure mechanisms are even less understood. Here, we describe several evaluation techniques to help elucidate mechanistic details of EUV exposure mechanisms of chemically amplified and metal-based resists. EUV absorption coefficients are determined experimentally by measuring the transmission through a resist coated on a silicon nitride membrane. Photochemistry can be evaluated by monitoring small outgassing reaction products to provide insight into photoacid generator or metal-based resist reactivity. Spectroscopic techniques such as thin-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can measure the chemical state of a photoresist system pre- and post-EUV exposure. Additionally, electrolysis can be used to study the interaction between photoresist components and low energy electrons. Collectively, these techniques improve our current understanding of photomechanisms for several EUV photoresist systems, which is needed to develop new, better performing materials needed for high volume manufacturing.

  3. Chemometric classification techniques as a tool for solving problems in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Nescatelli, Riccardo; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Andrea D; Magrì, Antonio L; Marini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Supervised pattern recognition (classification) techniques, i.e., the family of chemometric methods whose aim is the prediction of a qualitative response on a set of samples, represent a very important assortment of tools for solving problems in several areas of applied analytical chemistry. This paper describes the theory behind the chemometric classification techniques most frequently used in analytical chemistry together with some examples of their application to real-world problems.

  4. Some novel applications of instrumental analytical techniques to the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Modem instrumental analytical techniques play an important role in the brewing industry today. They are extensively used for both a quality control/quality assurance function and for research purposes. At all stages of the production process, from the assessment of raw materials, through the brewing process, fermentation, maturation, blending of finished beer, packaging and shelf life studies instrumental analytical techniques provide critical data which allow the brewer to understand and kee...

  5. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  6. Team mental models: techniques, methods, and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, J; Code, S; Langfield-Smith, K

    2000-01-01

    Effective team functioning requires the existence of a shared or team mental model among members of a team. However, the best method for measuring team mental models is unclear. Methods reported vary in terms of how mental model content is elicited and analyzed or represented. We review the strengths and weaknesses of vatrious methods that have been used to elicit, represent, and analyze individual and team mental models and provide recommendations for method selection and development. We describe the nature of mental models and review techniques that have been used to elicit and represent them. We focus on a case study on selecting a method to examine team mental models in industry. The processes involved in the selection and development of an appropriate method for eliciting, representing, and analyzing team mental models are described. The criteria for method selection were (a) applicability to the problem under investigation; (b) practical considerations - suitability for collecting data from the targeted research sample; and (c) theoretical rationale - the assumption that associative networks in memory are a basis for the development of mental models. We provide an evaluation of the method matched to the research problem and make recommendations for future research. The practical applications of this research include the provision of a technique for analyzing team mental models in organizations, the development of methods and processes for eliciting a mental model from research participants in their normal work environment, and a survey of available methodologies for mental model research.

  7. Real-time analytics techniques to analyze and visualize streaming data

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Byron

    2014-01-01

    Construct a robust end-to-end solution for analyzing and visualizing streaming data Real-time analytics is the hottest topic in data analytics today. In Real-Time Analytics: Techniques to Analyze and Visualize Streaming Data, expert Byron Ellis teaches data analysts technologies to build an effective real-time analytics platform. This platform can then be used to make sense of the constantly changing data that is beginning to outpace traditional batch-based analysis platforms. The author is among a very few leading experts in the field. He has a prestigious background in research, development,

  8. Methods for estimating uncertainty in factor analytic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paatero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available EPA PMF version 5.0 and the underlying multilinear engine executable ME-2 contain three methods for estimating uncertainty in factor analytic models: classical bootstrap (BS, displacement of factor elements (DISP, and bootstrap enhanced by displacement of factor elements (BS-DISP. The goal of these methods is to capture the uncertainty of PMF analyses due to random errors and rotational ambiguity. It is shown that the three methods complement each other: depending on characteristics of the data set, one method may provide better results than the other two. Results are presented using synthetic data sets, including interpretation of diagnostics, and recommendations are given for parameters to report when documenting uncertainty estimates from EPA PMF or ME-2 applications.

  9. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eFernandez-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors (WCBs have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC and LysR, metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur and NikR or antibiotics (TetR and MarR. Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain (EBD. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task.

  10. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    -numerical techniques suitable for Markov response problems such as moments equation, Petrov-Galerkin and cell-to-cell mapping techniques are briefly discussed. Usefulness of these techniques is limited by the fact that effectiveness of each of them depends on the mean rate of impulses. Another limitation is the size...... of the problem, i.e. the number of state variables of the dynamical systems. In contrast, the application of the simulation techniques is not limited to Markov problems, nor is it dependent on the mean rate of impulses. Moreover their use is straightforward for a large class of point processes, at least......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

  11. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  12. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  13. Applying Analytical Derivative and Sparse Matrix Techniques to Large-Scale Process Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The performance of analytical derivative and sparse matrix techniques applied to a traditional densesequential quadratic programming(SQP) is studied, and the strategy utilizing those techniques is also presented. Computational results on two typicalchemical optimization problems demonstrate significant enhancement in efficiency, which shows this strategy ispromising and suitable for large-scale process optimization problems.

  14. An Example of a Hakomi Technique Adapted for Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a model of therapy that lends itself to integration with other therapy models. This paper aims to provide an example to assist others in assimilating techniques from other forms of therapy into FAP. A technique from the Hakomi Method is outlined and modified for FAP. As, on the whole, psychotherapy…

  15. Application of metabonomic analytical techniques in the modernization and toxicology research of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yong-Min; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yan, Lu

    2009-08-01

    In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic analytical techniques are widely used in the modern research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At the same time, the international community has attached increasing importance to TCM toxicity problems. Thus, many studies have been implemented to investigate the toxicity mechanisms of TCM. Among these studies, many metabonomic-based methods have been implemented to facilitate TCM toxicity investigation. At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM toxicity research are mainly single analysis techniques using only one analytical means. These techniques include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), etc.; with these techniques, some favourable outcomes have been gained in the toxic reaction studies of TCM, such as the action target organs assay, the establishment of action pattern, the elucidation of action mechanism and the exploration of action material foundation. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, no existing analytical technique can be versatile. Multi-analysed techniques can partially overcome the shortcomings of single-analysed techniques. Combination of GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling approaches has unravelled the pathological outcomes of aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity, which can not be achieved by single-analysed techniques. It is believed that with the further development of metabonomic analytical techniques, especially multi-analysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM toxicity research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM in terms of extending the application of modern means in the TCM safety assessment, assisting the formulation of TCM safety norms and establishing the international standards indicators.

  16. A Novel Analytic Technique for the Service Station Reliability in a Discrete-Time Repairable Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decomposition technique for the service station reliability in a discrete-time repairable GeomX/G/1 queueing system, in which the server takes exhaustive service and multiple adaptive delayed vacation discipline. Using such a novel analytic technique, some important reliability indices and reliability relation equations of the service station are derived. Furthermore, the structures of the service station indices are also found. Finally, special cases and numerical examples validate the derived results and show that our analytic technique is applicable to reliability analysis of some complex discrete-time repairable bulk arrival queueing systems.

  17. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees.

  18. Analytic two-loop form factors in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Yang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We derive a compact expression for the three-point MHV form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4super Yang-Mills at two loops. The main tools of our calculation are generalised unitarity applied at the form factor level, and the compact expressions for supersymmetric tree-level form factors and amplitudes entering the cuts. We confirm that infrared divergences exponentiate as expected, and that collinear factorisation is entirely captured by an ABDK/BDS ansatz. Next, we construct the two-loop remainder function obtained by subtracting this ansatz from the full two-loop form factor and compute it numerically. Using symbology, combined with various physical constraints and symmetries, we find a unique solution for its symbol. With this input we construct a remarkably compact analytic expression for the remainder function, which contains only classical polylogarithms, and compare it to our numerical results. Furthermore, we make the surprising observation that our remainder is equal to the maximally transcendent...

  19. Toward greener analytical techniques for the absolute quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Mangelings, Debby

    2015-09-10

    Peptide-based biopharmaceuticals represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drug molecules. New reaction types included in the synthesis strategies to reduce the rapid metabolism of peptides, along with the availability of new formulation and delivery technologies, resulted in an increased marketing of peptide drug products. In this regard, the development of analytical methods for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples is of utmost importance. From the sample preparation step to their analysis by means of chromatographic or electrophoretic methods, many difficulties should be tackled to analyze them. Recent developments in analytical techniques emphasize more and more on the use of green analytical techniques. This review will discuss the progresses in and challenges observed during green analytical method development for the quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

  20. Clarivate Analytics: Continued Omnia vanitas Impact Factor Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain

    2017-02-23

    This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.

  1. A review of analytical techniques for determination of oxicams, nimesulide and nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, Małgorzata; Krzek, Jan

    2009-01-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the group most often used in human health care, since they are available without prescription for treatment of fever and minor pain. The present review submitted the use of various analytical techniques for the determination of oxicams, nimesulide and nabumetone. This review covers the time period from 1990 to 2008 during which over 200 analytical methods including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric and voltammetric techniques were reported. Presented application concerns analysis of chosen NSAIDs from pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.

  2. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  3. Analytic variance estimates of Swank and Fano factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin; Badano, Aldo; Samuelson, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Variance estimates for detector energy resolution metrics can be used as stopping criteria in Monte Carlo simulations for the purpose of ensuring a small uncertainty of those metrics and for the design of variance reduction techniques. The authors derive an estimate for the variance of two energy resolution metrics, the Swank factor and the Fano factor, in terms of statistical moments that can be accumulated without significant computational overhead. The authors examine the accuracy of these two estimators and demonstrate how the estimates of the coefficient of variation of the Swank and Fano factors behave with data from a Monte Carlo simulation of an indirect x-ray imaging detector. The authors' analyses suggest that the accuracy of their variance estimators is appropriate for estimating the actual variances of the Swank and Fano factors for a variety of distributions of detector outputs. The variance estimators derived in this work provide a computationally convenient way to estimate the error or coefficient of variation of the Swank and Fano factors during Monte Carlo simulations of radiation imaging systems.

  4. Analytic variance estimates of Swank and Fano factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin; Badano, Aldo; Samuelson, Frank, E-mail: frank.samuelson@fda.hhs.gov [US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Variance estimates for detector energy resolution metrics can be used as stopping criteria in Monte Carlo simulations for the purpose of ensuring a small uncertainty of those metrics and for the design of variance reduction techniques. Methods: The authors derive an estimate for the variance of two energy resolution metrics, the Swank factor and the Fano factor, in terms of statistical moments that can be accumulated without significant computational overhead. The authors examine the accuracy of these two estimators and demonstrate how the estimates of the coefficient of variation of the Swank and Fano factors behave with data from a Monte Carlo simulation of an indirect x-ray imaging detector. Results: The authors' analyses suggest that the accuracy of their variance estimators is appropriate for estimating the actual variances of the Swank and Fano factors for a variety of distributions of detector outputs. Conclusions: The variance estimators derived in this work provide a computationally convenient way to estimate the error or coefficient of variation of the Swank and Fano factors during Monte Carlo simulations of radiation imaging systems.

  5. Critical review of analytical techniques for safeguarding the thorium-uranium fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1978-10-01

    Conventional analytical methods applicable to the determination of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in feed, product, and waste streams from reprocessing thorium-based nuclear reactor fuels are reviewed. Separations methods of interest for these analyses are discussed. Recommendations concerning the applicability of various techniques to reprocessing samples are included. 15 tables, 218 references.

  6. Analytical and numerical techniques for predicting the interfacial stresses of wavy carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Salehi, M.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a new simplified 3D representative volume element for wavy carbon nanotubes, an analytical model is developed to study the stress transfer in single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. Based on the pull-out modeling technique, the effects of waviness, aspect ratio,

  7. Inline monitoring of CO2 absorption processes using simple analytical techniques and multivariate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.V. van der; Bakker, D.E.; Geers, L.F.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent and the dissolved CO2 concentrations are two essential properties of CO2 absorption processes. Currently, they are typically monitored using time-consuming offline analytical techniques. Initial development efforts aiming at a cost-effective and reliable inline monitoring system are desc

  8. Analytical and numerical techniques for predicting the interfacial stresses of wavy carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Salehi, M.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a new simplified 3D representative volume element for wavy carbon nanotubes, an analytical model is developed to study the stress transfer in single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. Based on the pull-out modeling technique, the effects of waviness, aspect ratio, a

  9. Analytical Study of High Pitch Delay Resolution Technique for Tonal Speech Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In tonal-language speech, since tone plays important role not only on the naturalness and also the intelligibility of the speech, it must be treated appropriately in a speech coder algorithm. Approach: This study proposes an analytical study of the technique of High Pitch Delay Resolutions (HPDR applied to the adaptive codebook of core coder of Multi-Pulse based Code Excited Linear Predictive (MP-CELP coder. Results: The experimental results show that the speech quality of the MP-CELP speech coder with HPDR technique is improved above the speech quality of the conventional coder. An optimum resolution of pitch delay is also presented. Conclusion: From the analytical study, it has been found that the proposed technique can improve the speech coding quality.

  10. Homotopy Analysis Method:A new Analytical Technique for Non—linear Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShijunLIAO

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,the basic ideas of a new kind of analytical technique,namely the Homotopy Analysis Method(HAM),are briefly described.Different from perturbation techniques,the HAM does not depend on whether or not there exist small parameters in non-linear equations under consideration.Therefore,it provides us with a powerful tool to analyse strongly nonlinear problems.A simple but typical example is used to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the HAM.Moreover,a pure mathematical theorem,namely the General Taylor Theorem,is given in appendix,which provides us with some rational knowldge for the validity of this new analytical technique.

  11. The analytical investigations of ancient pottery from Kaveripakkam, Vellore dist, Tamilnadu by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Naseerutheen, A.; Raja Annamalai, G.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Kanagasabapathy, K. V.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Satpathy, K. K.

    2014-03-01

    Analytical investigations using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) were carried out on ancient pottery fragments from Kaveripakkam, in order to outline manufacturing skills, technology information, firing condition and temperature of potteries. The whole set of data showed the firing temperature in the range of 800-900 °C. The analytical characterization of the potsherds, by different complimentary techniques has allowed to identifying the raw materials and technology applied by the ancient artisans.

  12. Principal component and factor analytic models in international sire evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Jette

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interbull is a non-profit organization that provides internationally comparable breeding values for globalized dairy cattle breeding programmes. Due to different trait definitions and models for genetic evaluation between countries, each biological trait is treated as a different trait in each of the participating countries. This yields a genetic covariance matrix of dimension equal to the number of countries which typically involves high genetic correlations between countries. This gives rise to several problems such as over-parameterized models and increased sampling variances, if genetic (covariance matrices are considered to be unstructured. Methods Principal component (PC and factor analytic (FA models allow highly parsimonious representations of the (covariance matrix compared to the standard multi-trait model and have, therefore, attracted considerable interest for their potential to ease the burden of the estimation process for multiple-trait across country evaluation (MACE. This study evaluated the utility of PC and FA models to estimate variance components and to predict breeding values for MACE for protein yield. This was tested using a dataset comprising Holstein bull evaluations obtained in 2007 from 25 countries. Results In total, 19 principal components or nine factors were needed to explain the genetic variation in the test dataset. Estimates of the genetic parameters under the optimal fit were almost identical for the two approaches. Furthermore, the results were in a good agreement with those obtained from the full rank model and with those provided by Interbull. The estimation time was shortest for models fitting the optimal number of parameters and prolonged when under- or over-parameterized models were applied. Correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV from the PC19 and PC25 were unity. With few exceptions, correlations between EBV obtained using FA and PC approaches under the optimal fit were

  13. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  14. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  15. Recent developments in analytical techniques for characterization of ultra pure materials—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaram

    2005-07-01

    With continual decrease of geometries used in modern IC devices, the trace metal impurities of process materials and chemicals used in their manufacture are moving to increasingly lower levels, i.e. ng/g and pg/g levels. An attempt is made to give a brief overview of the use of different analytical techniques in the analysis of trace metal impurities in ultrapure materials, such as, high-purity tellurium (7N), high purity quartz, high-purity copper (6N), and high purity water and mineral acids. In recent times mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP–MS, GD–MS and HR–ICP–MS with their characteristic high sensitivity and less interference effects were proved to be extremely useful in this field. A few examples of such application studies using these techniques are outlined. The usefulness of other analytical techniques such as F–AAS, GF–AAS, XRF, ICP–AES and INAA was also described. Specific advantages of ICP–MS and HR–ICP–MS such as high sensitivity, limited interference effects, element coverage and speed would make them powerful analytical tools for the characterization of ultrapure materials in future.

  16. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  17. An analytical approximate technique for solving cubic–quintic Duffing oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdur Razzak

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical approximate technique combined of homotopy perturbation method and variational formulation is presented to obtain the approximate frequency and the corresponding periodic solution of strongly nonlinear oscillator named as cubic–quintic Duffing oscillator. The first-order approximation is mainly considered in this paper. The solutions (first-order approximation) are valid for both small and large amplitudes of oscillation. The main advantage of the present method i...

  18. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes and plume impingement environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of experimental nozzle, exhaust plume, and exhaust plume impingement data is presented. The data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with propellant Al loadings of 2, 10 and 15% exhausting to simulated altitudes of 50,000, 100,000 and 112,000 ft. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase method of characteristics numerical solution and a technique for defining thermal and pressure environments experienced by bodies immersed in two-phase exhaust plumes.

  19. Studies of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography as an Analytical Technique in Pharmaceutical Analysis - an Industrial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stubberud, Karin

    2002-01-01

    Studies have been performed to evaluate the use of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), one mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), as an analytical technique in industrial pharmaceutical analysis. The potential for using chemometrics for the optimisation of MEKC methods has also been studied as well as the possibilities of coupling MEKC with mass spectrometry (MS). Two methods were developed, one for the determination of ibuprofen and codeine and another for pilocarpine, together ...

  20. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  1. Combination of electrochemical, spectrometric and other analytical techniques for high throughput screening of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Sibel; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-08-01

    Recently, use of electrochemistry and combination of this method with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques are getting one of the important approaches in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, determination of physiological activity, measurement of neurotransmitters. Many fundamental physiological processes are depending on oxido-reduction reactions in the body. Therefore, it may be possible to find connections between electrochemical and biochemical reactions concerning electron transfer pathways. Applications of electrochemical techniques to redox-active drug development and studies are one of the recent interests in drug discovery. In this review, the latest developments related to the use of electrochemical techniques in drug research in order to evaluate possible combination spectrometric methods with electrochemical techniques.

  2. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  3. Process Analytical Techniques Based on In-Line Vibrational Spectroscopy and their Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jednačak, T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Process analytical techniques (PAT involve the monitoring and control of physical and chemical processes as well as the identification of important process parameters in order to obtain the products with desired properties. PAT have been applied in various industrial process phases to ensure better process understanding, quality by optimal design and determination of process disturbances in time. In-line vibrational spectroscopic techniques are one of the major process analytical techniques used today. The most frequently used in-line vibrational spectroscopic techniques are near infrared spectroscopy (NIR, attenuated total reflectance middle infrared spectroscopy (ATR-MIR and Raman spectroscopy (Table 1, Figs. 1 and 2. They provide in situ real-time monitoring of the production processes by using different types of in-line probes (Figs. 3–5 which reduce exposure to hazardous materials and contamination, sample degradation or equilibrium perturbations in the reaction system. Due to the aforementioned advantages, in-line vibrational spectroscopic techniques have been successfully applied for different industrial pur- poses. The analysis of characteristic vibrational bands in in-line infrared and Raman spectra enable the monitoring of different processes such as crystallization, dissolution, polimorphic transitions and chemical reactions (Scheme 1, Figs. 6 and 7. The obtained data are, due to their complexity, very often further processed by multivariate data analysis methods (Fig. 9, such as principal components analysis (PCA and partial least squares (PLS. The basic principles of PCA and PLS are shown in Fig. 8. A number of different in-line vibrational spectroscopic techniques as well as multivariate data analysis methods have been developed recently, but in this article only the most important and most frequently used techniques are described.   KUI – 7/2013 Received April 10, 2012 Accepted July 18, 2012

  4. A novel analytical approximation technique for highly nonlinear oscillators based on the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, Md. Alal; Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Ismail, Ahmad Faris

    In the present paper, a novel analytical approximation technique has been proposed based on the energy balance method (EBM) to obtain approximate periodic solutions for the focus generalized highly nonlinear oscillators. The expressions of the natural frequency-amplitude relationship are obtained using a novel analytical way. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated on three benchmark oscillatory problems, namely, the simple relativistic oscillator, the stretched elastic wire oscillator (with a mass attached to its midpoint) and the Duffing-relativistic oscillator. For an initial oscillation amplitude A0 = 100, the maximal relative errors of natural frequency found in three oscillators are 2.1637%, 0.0001% and 1.201%, respectively, which are much lower than the errors found using the existing methods. It is highly remarkable that an excellent accuracy of the approximate natural frequency has been found which is valid for the whole range of large values of oscillation amplitude as compared with the exact ones. Very simple solution procedure and high accuracy that is found in three benchmark problems reveal the novelty, reliability and wider applicability of the proposed analytical approximation technique.

  5. Sky-View Factor as a Relief Visualization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kokalj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has become the most important data source for the digital elevation model (DEM generation. DEM analyses can be applied in various fields and many of them require appropriate DEM visualization support. Analytical hill-shading is the most frequently used relief visualization technique. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This paper proposes a new relief visualization technique based on diffuse, rather than direct, illumination. It utilizes the sky-view factor—a parameter corresponding to the portion of visible sky limited by relief. Sky-view factor can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology as it improves the recognition of small scale features from high resolution DEMs.

  6. Attitude Exploration Using Factor Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raghuvanshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attitude is a psychological variable that contains positive or negative evaluation about people or an environment. The growing generation possesses learning skills, so if positive attitude is inculcated at the right age, it might therefore become habitual. Students in the age group 14-20 years from the city of Bikaner, India, are the target population for this study. An inventory of 30Likert-type scale statements was prepared in order to measure attitude towards the environment and matters related to conservation. The primary data is collected though a structured questionnaire, using cluster sampling technique and analyzed using the IBM SPSS 23 statistical tool. Factor analysis is used to reduce 30 variables to a smaller number of more identifiable groups of variables. Results show that students “need more regulation and voluntary participation to protect the environment”, “need conservation of water and electricity”, “are concerned for undue wastage of water”, “need visible actions to protect the environment”, “need strengthening of the public transport system”, “are a little bit ignorant about the consequences of global warming”, “want prevention of water pollution by industries”, “need changing of personal habits to protect the environment”, and “don’t have firsthand experience of global warming”. Analysis revealed that nine factors obtained could explain about 58.5% variance in the attitude of secondary school students towards the environment in the city of Bikaner, India. The remaining 39.6% variance is attributed to other elements not explained by this analysis. A global campaign for improvement in attitude about environmental issues and its utility in daily lives may boost positive youth attitudes, potentially impacting worldwide. A cross-disciplinary approach may be developed by teaching along with other related disciplines such as science, economics, and social studies etc.

  7. Comparison of analytical techniques for purity evaluation of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis, Mikhail E; Perea, Daniel E; Jung, Richard; Niyogi, Sandip; Haddon, Robert C

    2005-03-16

    We compare popular analytical techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, for the evaluation of the purity of bulk quantities of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Despite their importance as imaging techniques, SEM and TEM are not capable of quantitatively evaluating the purity of typical inhomogeneous bulk SWNT samples because the image frame visualizes less than 1 pg of SWNT material; furthermore, there is no published algorithm to convert such images into numerical data. The TGA technique is capable of measuring the amount of metal catalyst in an SWNT sample, but does not provide an unambiguous separation between the content of SWNTs and carbonaceous impurities. We discuss the utilization of solution-phase near-infrared spectroscopy and solution-phase Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively compare arbitrary samples of bulk SWNT materials of different purities. The primary goal of this paper is to provide the chemical community with a realistic evaluation of current analytical tools for the purity evaluation of a bulk sample of SWNTs. The secondary goal is to draw attention to the growing crisis in the SWNT industry as a result of the lack of quality control and the misleading advertising by suppliers of this material.

  8. Technique and Understanding: Paul Ricoeur on Freud and the Analytic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Carney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For Ricœur any study of Freud, or of psychoanalysis more generally, needs to take into account the crucial dimension of the analytic experience itself. Psychoanalysis, as a “mixed discourse,” aims to anticipate questions of meaning and explication alongside technical questions of energies, repression, displacement, and so on. The analytic experience is one which is practical and intersubjective, but which is also guided by various techniques or methods. These techniques, I will argue, should be understood as a type of techne, one which is less concerned with hermeneutic questions of meaning than with quasi-scientific questions of force, feedback, struggle, and process. The practice of psychoanalysis, on the other hand, deals with the ways in which these forces or drives become meaningful for a particular subject, and within a singular context or history. This article will aim to draw out both the interrelationship between techniques and practical understanding, and also the productive incommensurability between the two.

  9. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  10. A Factor Analytic Approach to Symptom Patterns in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gustafson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, and vascular dementia (VaD validated against neuropathological (NP diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n=74, VaD (n=33, mixed AD/VaD (n=31, or FTD (n=52. The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.

  11. High-performance thin layer chromatography: A powerful analytical technique in pharmaceutical drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attimarad, Mahesh; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen; Aldhubaib, Bandar E.; Harsha, Sree

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of pharmaceutical and natural compounds and newer drugs is commonly used in all the stages of drug discovery and development process. High-performance thin layer chromatography is one of the sophisticated instrumental techniques based on the full capabilities of thin layer chromatography. The advantages of automation, scanning, full optimization, selective detection principle, minimum sample preparation, hyphenation, and so on enable it to be a powerful analytical tool for chromatographic information of complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals, natural products, clinical samples, food stuffs, and so on. PMID:23781433

  12. Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards the Use of CRM’s Analytical Tools in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebjan Urban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Information solutions for analytical customer relationship management CRM (aCRM IS that include the use of analytical tools are becoming increasingly important, due organizations’ need for knowledge of their customers and the ability to manage big data. The objective of the research is, therefore, to determine how the organizations’ orientations (process, innovation, and technology as critical organizational factors affect the attitude towards the use of the analytical tools of aCRM IS.

  13. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  14. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  15. Analytical Investigation on the Power Factor of a Flux-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinglin;

    2015-01-01

    Flux-modulated permanent-magnet synchronous machine (FM-PMSM) is characterized as a high-torque direct-drive electrical machine, but may suffer from the low power factor. This paper aims to investigate the issue of the low power factor in theory and explore the possibilities for improvement....... An analytical model for the FM-PMSM is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution, and its accuracy is verified by the finite-element method. On the basis of the developed analytical model, a fast approach is developed to predict the power factor of the FM-PMSM. The analytical results indicate...

  16. Long-term density evolution through semi-analytical and differential algebra techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander; Colombo, Camilla; Armellin, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    This paper introduces and combines for the first time two techniques to allow long-term density propagation in astrodynamics. First, we introduce an efficient method for the propagation of phase space densities based on differential algebra (DA) techniques. Second, this DA density propagator is used in combination with a DA implementation of the averaged orbital dynamics through semi-analytical methods. This approach combines the power of orbit averaging with the efficiency of DA techniques. While the DA-based method for the propagation of densities introduced in this paper is independent of the dynamical system under consideration, the particular combination of DA techniques with averaged equations of motion yields a fast and accurate technique to propagate large clouds of initial conditions and their associated probability density functions very efficiently for long time. This enables the study of the long-term behavior of particles subjected to the given dynamics. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the evolution of a cloud of high area-to-mass objects in Medium Earth Orbit is reproduced considering the effects of solar radiation pressure, the Earth's oblateness and luni-solar perturbations. The method can propagate 10,000 random fragments and their density for 1 year within a few seconds on a common desktop PC.

  17. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy. An analytical technique for 14C analysis with subattomole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnick, Daniel E; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2008-07-01

    We show a new ultrasensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy, allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of (14)C-labeled carbon dioxide. Capable of replacing large accelerator mass spectrometers, the technique quantifies attomoles of (14)C in submicrogram samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10(-15) (14)C/(12)C ratios are obtained. Using a 15-W (14)CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 10(-15) to >1.5 x 10(-12) in (14)C/(12)C ratios, as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, is demonstrated. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized subtherapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities.

  18. Recent trends in analytical methods and separation techniques for drugs of abuse in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, T; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C; Calull, M

    2015-01-26

    Hair analysis of drugs of abuse has been a subject of growing interest from a clinical, social and forensic perspective for years because of the broad time detection window after intake in comparison to urine and blood analysis. Over the last few years, hair analysis has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of drug abuse in a wide variety of contexts, shown by the large number of applications developed. This review aims to provide an overview of the state of the art and the latest trends used in the literature from 2005 to the present in the analysis of drugs of abuse in hair, with a special focus on separation analytical techniques and their hyphenation with mass spectrometry detection. The most recently introduced sample preparation techniques are also addressed in this paper. The main strengths and weaknesses of all of these approaches are critically discussed by means of relevant applications.

  19. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  20. Analytical characterization of cyclodextrins: History, official methods and recommended new techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szente, Lajos; Szemán, Julianna; Sohajda, Tamás

    2016-10-25

    The main goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the methods used for analysis of cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD-derivatives. The paper intends to act as a guide for the readers in looking around the classical and modern instrumental analytical methods suitable for identification, characterization and determination of CDs themselves, CDs in finished products or even in biological samples. At present, in the European and United States Pharmacopoeias, the three parent CDs and two synthetic derivatives, namely the (2-hydroxypropyl)-beta-CD and sulfobutylether-beta-CD Na salt are official. Besides these modified CDs, two other derivatives are approved as excipients in human pharmaceutical products: the (2-hydroxypropyl)-gamma-CD and the randomly methylated-beta-CD. Although most of the official analysis methods in the pharmacopoeias have been well used for decades, new aspects of the functional excipient CD characterization suggest a need to revisit compendial methods. Comparison of strengths and weaknesses of current official methods with new improved techniques intends to help analysts to decide on changing traditional analytical methods with improved new ones. This review also deals with the analytical aspects of the first single isomer CD derivative approved as a drug active (Sugammadex/Bridion(®)) as well as analytical considerations of using CDs themselves as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Stability-indicating instrumental methods suitable to adequately follow chemical- and enzymatic degradation of CDs will also be discussed. Challenges in the determination of CDs in different biological matrices will be illustrated on real pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies of CD-enabled drug formulations.

  1. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  2. New analytical expressions of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect adapted to different observation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, G.; Montalto, M.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    The Rossiter-McLaughlin (hereafter RM) effect is a key tool for measuring the projected spin-orbit angle between stellar spin axes and orbits of transiting planets. However, the measured radial velocity (RV) anomalies produced by this effect are not intrinsic and depend on both instrumental resolution and data reduction routines. Using inappropriate formulas to model the RM effect introduces biases, at least in the projected velocity Vsini⋆ compared to the spectroscopic value. Currently, only the iodine cell technique has been modeled, which corresponds to observations done by, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph of the Keck telescope. In this paper, we provide a simple expression of the RM effect specially designed to model observations done by the Gaussian fit of a cross-correlation function (CCF) as in the routines performed by the HARPS team. We derived a new analytical formulation of the RV anomaly associated to the iodine cell technique. For both formulas, we modeled the subplanet mean velocity vp and dispersion βp accurately taking the rotational broadening on the subplanet profile into account. We compare our formulas adapted to the CCF technique with simulated data generated with the numerical software SOAP-T and find good agreement up to Vsini⋆ ≲ 20 km s-1. In contrast, the analytical models simulating the two different observation techniques can disagree by about 10σ in Vsini⋆ for large spin-orbit misalignments. It is thus important to apply the adapted model when fitting data. A public code implementing the expressions derived in this paper is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/arome. A copy of the code is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/550/A53

  3. Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: promising trends in analytical chemistry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2014-03-03

    Sample preparation is an important issue in analytical chemistry, and is often a bottleneck in chemical analysis. So, the major incentive for the recent research has been to attain faster, simpler, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly sample preparation methods. The use of auxiliary energies, such as heat, ultrasound, and microwave, is one of the strategies that have been employed in sample preparation to reach the above purposes. Application of electrical driving force is the current state-of-the-art, which presents new possibilities for simplifying and shortening the sample preparation process as well as enhancing its selectivity. The electrical driving force has scarcely been utilized in comparison with other auxiliary energies. In this review, the different roles of electrical driving force (as a powerful auxiliary energy) in various extraction techniques, including liquid-, solid-, and membrane-based methods, have been taken into consideration. Also, the references have been made available, relevant to the developments in separation techniques and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) systems. All aspects of electrical driving force in extraction and separation methods are too specific to be treated in this contribution. However, the main aim of this review is to provide a brief knowledge about the different fields of analytical chemistry, with an emphasis on the latest efforts put into the electrically assisted membrane-based sample preparation systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches as well as the new achievements in these areas have been discussed, which might be helpful for further progress in the future.

  4. Analytical model for Transient Current Technique (TCT) signal prediction and analysis for thin interface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronuzzi, J.; Mapelli, A.; Sallese, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A silicon wafer bonding technique has been recently proposed for the fabrication of monolithic silicon radiation detectors. This new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer. Therefore, monolithic silicon detectors could be fabricated in this way which would allow the free choice of electronic chips and high resistive silicon bulk, even from different providers. Moreover, a monolithic detector with a high resistive bulk would also be available. Electrical properties of the bonded interface are then critical for this application. Indeed, mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface to be collected by the read-out electronics. In order to characterize this interface, the concept of Transient Current Technique (TCT) has been explored by means of numerical simulations combined with a physics based analytical model. In this work, the analytical model giving insight into the physics behind the TCT dependence upon interface traps is validated using both TCAD simulations and experimental measurements.

  5. Differential linear scan voltammetry: analytical performance in comparison with pulsed voltammetry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Disha B; Gratzl, Miklós

    2013-06-01

    We report here on differential linear scan voltammetry, DLSV, that combines the working principles of linear scan voltammetry, LSV, and the numerous existing pulsed voltammetry techniques. DLSV preserves the information from continuous interrogation in voltage and high accuracy that LSV provides about electrochemical processes, and the much better sensitivity of differential pulsed techniques. DLSV also minimizes the background current compared to both LSV and pulsed voltammetry. An early version of DLSV, derivative stationary electrode polarography, DSEP, had been proposed in the 1960s but soon abandoned in favor of the emerging differential pulsed techniques. Relative to DSEP, DLSV takes advantage of the flexibility of discrete smoothing differentiation that was not available to early investigators. Also, DSEP had been explored in pure solutions and with reversible electrochemical reactions. DLSV is tested in this work in more challenging experimental contexts: the measurement of oxygen with a carbon fiber microelectrode in buffer, and with a gold microdisc electrode exposed to a live biological preparation. This work compares the analytical performance of DLSV and square wave voltammetry, the most popular pulsed voltammetry technique.

  6. Factor- Analytic Study of Performance on the Bender-Gestalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jack R.

    1970-01-01

    College students were given the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Guilford Zimmerman Spatial Orientation and Spatial Visualization Tests, and the Bender Gestalt. Analyses revealed that personality characteristics were related to Bender performance and that the Bender was not measuring a unitary dimension of behavior. (Author)

  7. A Factor Analytic Study of the Teaching Events Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Livingston; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine if definitive factors emerge from the responses of teachers to the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI). In a series of three studies during the years 1980 to 1982, data were collected to assess the levels and sources of stress experienced by 660 teachers in central and western Kentucky. The subjects…

  8. A Factor Analytic Study of Inductive Reasoning Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, G. Robert

    A set of eight widely used inductive reasoning tests were investigated to determine whether or not they have different factorial structures. The eight inductive tests and three deductive tests, taken from the French Kit of Reference Tests for Cognitive Factors and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, were administered to 157 high school…

  9. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  10. Comparison of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques for evaluating groundwater prospect of hard-rock aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer, M. Annie; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is a treasured underground resource, which plays a central role in sustainable water management. However, it being hidden and dynamic in nature, its sustainable development and management calls for precise quantification of this precious resource at an appropriate scale. This study demonstrates the efficacy of three GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques, viz., Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Catastrophe and Entropy in evaluating groundwater potential through a case study in hard-rock aquifer systems. Using satellite imagery and relevant field data, eight thematic layers (rainfall, land slope, drainage density, soil, lineament density, geology, proximity to surface water bodies and elevation) of the factors having significant influence on groundwater occurrence were prepared. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights based on the conceptual frameworks of AHP, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques and then they were integrated in the GIS environment to generate an integrated raster layer depicting groundwater potential index of the study area. The three groundwater prospect maps thus yielded by these MCDA techniques were verified using a novel approach (concept of 'Dynamic Groundwater Potential'). The validation results revealed that the groundwater potential predicted by the AHP technique has a pronounced accuracy of 87% compared to the Catastrophe (46% accuracy) and Entropy techniques (51% accuracy). It is concluded that the AHP technique is the most reliable for the assessment of groundwater resources followed by the Entropy method. The developed groundwater potential maps can serve as a scientific guideline for the cost-effective siting of wells and the effective planning of groundwater development at a catchment or basin scale.

  11. Bayesian Constrained-Model Selection for Factor Analytic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Carel F.W.

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation revolves around Bayesian approaches towards constrained statistical inference in the factor analysis (FA) model. Two interconnected types of restricted-model selection are considered. These types have a natural connection to selection problems in the exploratory FA (EFA) and confirmatory FA (CFA) model and are termed Type I and Type II model selection. Type I constrained-model selection is taken to mean the determination of the appropriate dimensionality of a model. This type ...

  12. Analytical impact time and angle guidance via time-varying sliding mode technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Sheng, Yongzhi; Liu, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    To concretely provide a feasible solution for homing missiles with the precise impact time and angle, this paper develops a novel guidance law, based on the nonlinear engagement dynamics. The guidance law is firstly designed with the prior assumption of a stationary target, followed by the practical extension to a moving target scenario. The time-varying sliding mode (TVSM) technique is applied to fulfill the terminal constraints, in which a specific TVSM surface is constructed with two unknown coefficients. One is tuned to meet the impact time requirement and the other one is targeted with a global sliding mode, so that the impact angle constraint as well as the zero miss distance can be satisfied. Because the proposed law possesses three guidance gain as design parameters, the intercept trajectory can be shaped according to the operational conditions and missile׳s capability. To improve the tolerance of initial heading errors and broaden the application, a new frame of reference is also introduced. Furthermore, the analytical solutions of the flight trajectory, heading angle and acceleration command can be totally expressed for the prediction and offline parameter selection by solving a first-order linear differential equation. Numerical simulation results for various scenarios validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law and demonstrate the accuracy of the analytic solutions.

  13. Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting using GIS Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeair Abessi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of large amount of generated hazardous waste in power plants, has always received communities' and authori¬ties attentions. In this paper using site screening method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP a sophisticated approach for siting hazardous waste landfill in large areas is presented. This approach demonstrates how the evaluation criteria such as physical, socio-economical, technical, environmental and their regulatory sub criteria can be introduced into an over layer technique to screen some limited appropriate zones in the area. Then, in order to find the optimal site amongst the primary screened site utilizing a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method for hierarchy computations of the process is recommended. Using the introduced method an accurate siting procedure for environmental planning of the landfills in an area would be enabled. In the study this approach was utilized for disposal of hazardous wastes of Shahid Rajaee thermal power plant located in Qazvin province west central part of Iran. As a result of this study 10 suitable zones were screened in the area at first, then using analytical hierarchy process a site near the power plant were chosen as the optimal site for landfilling of the hazardous wastes in Qazvin province.

  14. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe

    1999-11-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at arcride.edu.ar

  15. An analytical approximate technique for solving cubic–quintic Duffing oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdur Razzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical approximate technique combined of homotopy perturbation method and variational formulation is presented to obtain the approximate frequency and the corresponding periodic solution of strongly nonlinear oscillator named as cubic–quintic Duffing oscillator. The first-order approximation is mainly considered in this paper. The solutions (first-order approximation are valid for both small and large amplitudes of oscillation. The main advantage of the present method is that its simplicity and straightforward. Moreover, the first-order approximate solution gives better result than other existing second, third and fourth-order approximations for all values of amplitude. The present method is more suitable for solving cubic–quintic Duffing oscillator than other existing methods.

  16. Analytical approximate technique for strongly nonlinear oscillators problem arising in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method called generalized of the variational iteration method is presented to obtain an approximate analytical solution for strong nonlinear oscillators problem associated in engineering phenomena. This approach resulted in the frequency of the motion as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. It is determined that the method works very well for the whole range of parameters and an excellent agreement is demonstrated and discussed between the approximate frequencies and the exact one. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and excellent accuracy for the whole range of oscillation amplitude values. Also, the results reveal that this technique is very effective and convenient for solving conservative oscillatory systems with complex nonlinearities. Results obtained by the proposed method are compared with Energy Balance Method (EBM and exact solution showed that, contrary to EBM, simply one or two iterations are enough for obtaining highly accurate results.

  17. Analytical techniques and computer algorithms combined for the rapid characterization of structural peptide and protein features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, C

    1998-11-01

    The most recent algorithms based on the use of modern analytical techniques for the assessment of structural peptide and protein features have been reviewed. No algorithm devoted to the realization of predictive models or statistical analysis has been discussed, but only methods furnishing information on the real structure of the molecules. In particular, the procedures designed for handling sequence and mass spectrometric data obtained from the analysis of unfractionated digestion mixtures allow the user to get rapid information on the structure of the target polypeptide. Two classes of methods are illustrated: the first regards the determination of the amino acid sequence, whereas the second used its knowledge to supply data on the localization, function and three-dimensional structure of disulphides.

  18. Screening of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants: analytical techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai; Li, Lin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to the increase in prevalence of illicit sexual performance enhancement products. PDE-5 inhibitors, namely sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and their unapproved designer analogues are being increasingly used as adulterants in the herbal products and health supplements marketed for sexual performance enhancement. To date, more than 50 unapproved analogues of prescription PDE-5 inhibitors were found as adulterants in the literature. To avoid detection of such adulteration by standard screening protocols, the perpetrators of such illegal products are investing time and resources to synthesize exotic analogues and devise novel means for adulteration. A comprehensive review of conventional and advance analytical techniques to detect and characterize the adulterants is presented. The rapid identification and structural elucidation of unknown analogues as adulterants is greatly enhanced by the wide myriad of analytical techniques employed, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FT-ICR-MS), liquid chromatograph-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with information dependent acquisition, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS), ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and immunoassay methods. The many challenges in detecting and characterizing such adulterants, and the need for concerted effort to curb adulteration in order to safe guard public safety and interest are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement and correlates of internalized homophobia: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Rosser, B R

    1996-01-01

    We developed a scale to measure internalized homophobia in men who have sex with men, which is comprised of items derived from theoretical and clinical reports of internalized homophobia. Two hundred two men who have sex with men and who attend "Man to Man" sexual health seminars in a midwestern U.S. city completed the scale at baseline. Orthogonal factor analysis revealed four dimensions of internalized homophobia: public identification as gay, perception of stigma associated with being homosexual, social comfort with gay men, and the moral and religious acceptability of being gay. Factor scoring of these dimensions indicated that they were associated significantly with relationship satisfaction, duration of longest relationship, extent of attraction to men and women, proportion of social time with gay people, membership of gay/bisexual groups, HIV serostatus, and disclosure of sexual orientation. Internalized homophobia is measurable and consists of four dimensions that are associated significantly with low disclosure, shorter length of and satisfaction with relationships, lower degree of sexual attraction to men and higher degree of attraction to women, and lower social time with gay people.

  20. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  1. New analytical expressions of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect adapted to different observation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Boué, Gwenaël; Boisse, Isabelle; Oshagh, Mahmoudreza; Santos, Nuno C

    2012-01-01

    The Rossiter-McLaughlin (hereafter RM) effect is a key tool for measuring the projected spin-orbit angle between stellar spin axes and orbits of transiting planets. However, the measured radial velocity (RV) anomalies produced by this effect are not intrinsic and depend on both instrumental resolution and data reduction routines. Using inappropriate formulas to model the RM effect introduces biases, at least in the projected velocity Vsin(i) compared to the spectroscopic value. Currently, only the iodine cell technique has been modeled, which corresponds to observations done by, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph of the Keck telescope. In this paper, we provide a simple expression of the RM effect specially designed to model observations done by the Gaussian fit of a cross-correlation function (CCF) as in the routines performed by the HARPS team. We derived also a new analytical formulation of the RV anomaly associated to the iodine cell technique. For both formulas, we modeled the subplanet mean velocity v_p and d...

  2. Flight test results for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft control sensor analytic redundancy management technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of twelve duplex control sensor signals being monitored. The technique uses like-signal differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm uses sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a highly erratic sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy. This study represents a proof of concept demonstration of a methodology that can be applied to duplex or higher flight control sensor configurations and, in addition, can monitor the health of one simplex signal per analytic redundancy relationship.

  3. Evaluation of coupled transport across a liquid membrane as an analytical preconcentration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J A; Bhatnagar, A; Francis, R W

    1986-09-01

    When two aqueous solutions are separated by a liquid membrane that contains a complexing agent which is a conjugate base of a weak acid, a metal ion can be transported from the solution of the higher pH against its concentration gradient into the more acidic solution. With Cu(II) as the analyte and a liquid membrane consisting of a mixture of oximes dissolved in kerosene, enrichment factors for a prescribed dialysis time in a simple experimental apparatus were nearly independent of Cu(II) concentration over the range 10(-4)-10(-7)M. With 0.1M hydrochloric acid as the receiver, the enrichment factor was independent of ionic strength and of sample pH in the range 4-9. The effect of sample pH on the interference of Fe(III) was examined. With a pH-2.5 formate buffer, the enrichment factor for Cu(II) decreased as the Fe(III) concentration increased, but in a pH-9.3 ammonium buffer, 0.14 mM Fe(III) did not interfere with the transport of Cu(II) from a 16muM copper sample.

  4. Employing socially driven techniques for framing, contextualization, and collaboration in complex analytical threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur; Danczyk, Jennifer; Farry, Michael; Jenkins, Michael; Voshell, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The proliferation of sensor technologies continues to impact Intelligence Analysis (IA) work domains. Historical procurement focus on sensor platform development and acquisition has resulted in increasingly advanced collection systems; however, such systems often demonstrate classic data overload conditions by placing increased burdens on already overtaxed human operators and analysts. Support technologies and improved interfaces have begun to emerge to ease that burden, but these often focus on single modalities or sensor platforms rather than underlying operator and analyst support needs, resulting in systems that do not adequately leverage their natural human attentional competencies, unique skills, and training. One particular reason why emerging support tools often fail is due to the gap between military applications and their functions, and the functions and capabilities afforded by cutting edge technology employed daily by modern knowledge workers who are increasingly "digitally native." With the entry of Generation Y into these workplaces, "net generation" analysts, who are familiar with socially driven platforms that excel at giving users insight into large data sets while keeping cognitive burdens at a minimum, are creating opportunities for enhanced workflows. By using these ubiquitous platforms, net generation analysts have trained skills in discovering new information socially, tracking trends among affinity groups, and disseminating information. However, these functions are currently under-supported by existing tools. In this paper, we describe how socially driven techniques can be contextualized to frame complex analytical threads throughout the IA process. This paper focuses specifically on collaborative support technology development efforts for a team of operators and analysts. Our work focuses on under-supported functions in current working environments, and identifies opportunities to improve a team's ability to discover new information and

  5. Analytical techniques for sesquiterpene emission rate studies in vegetation enclosure experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Bocquet, Florence; Pollmann, Jan; Revermann, Tobias

    Sesquiterpene (SQT) compounds (C 15H 24) and their oxygenated alcohol and ketone derivatives are biogenic volatile organic compounds that have been identified in emissions from vegetation. SQT emission rates and landscape flux estimates are highly uncertain. Reliable ambient flux measurements have not been possible because of low-ambient concentrations, rapid atmospheric reactions (prohibiting ambient tower flux measurements), and analytical challenges and uncertainties that stem from the low volatility of SQT. Standards from an in situ capillary diffusion system with 18 SQT compounds and four other organic compounds (geranylacetone, 1,3,5-tri-isopropylbenzene, diphenylmethane, nonylbenzene) were used to thoroughly investigate experimental procedures for SQT emission rate studies by vegetation enclosure techniques. Recovery rates in tubing materials, sampling bags, leaf cuvettes, on six solid adsorbent materials (Tenax TA, Tenax GR, Carbotrap, Carbotrap C, Unibeads, Glass Beads) for gas chromatography analysis, and gas chromatography retention indices and mass spectral fragmentation patterns were determined. SQT compounds were found to exhibit a high degree of stickiness to all materials tested. However, the non-oxygenated SQT can be recovered in enclosure experiments for quantitative emission rate determination after careful consideration of the analytical conditions. It is utmost important to allow sufficient purging and equilibration times for all materials in contact with the sample air. In contrast oxygenated SQT were irreversibly lost in enclosure experiments which made their quantitative measurement prohibitive. Results for the other organic compounds were similar and indicate that these data mostly stem from the volatility of these compounds. Consequently, the findings of this study provide guidelines for the analysis of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in the ˜C13-C17 volatility range.

  6. Pathophysiological domains underlying the metabolic syndrome: an alternative factor analytic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Carel F W; Dziura, James; van Wesel, Floryt

    2014-10-01

    Factor analysis (FA) has become part and parcel in metabolic syndrome (MBS) research. Both exploration- and confirmation-driven factor analyzes are rampant. However, factor analytic results on MBS differ widely. A situation that is at least in part attributable to misapplication of FA. Here, our purpose was (i) to review factor analytic efforts in the study of MBS with emphasis on misusage of the FA model and (ii) to propose an alternative factor analytic strategy. The proposed factor analytic strategy consists of four steps and confronts weaknesses in application of the FA model. At its heart lies the explicit separation of dimensionality and pattern selection and the direct evaluation of competing inequality-constrained loading patterns. A high-profile MBS data set with anthropometric measurements on overweight children and adolescents is reanalyzed using this strategy. The reanalysis implied a more parsimonious constellation of pathophysiological domains underlying phenotypic expressions of MBS than the original analysis (and many other analyses). The results emphasize correlated factors of impaired glucose metabolism and impaired lipid metabolism. Pathophysiological domains underlying phenotypic expressions of MBS included in the analysis are driven by multiple interrelated metabolic impairments. These findings indirectly point to the possible existence of a multifactorial etiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Internet-induced marketing techniques: Critical factors of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Woerndl, M; Papagiannidis, S; Bourlakis, M. A.; Li, F.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are t...

  9. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  10. Electromagnetic environment around a high-speed railway using analytical technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jian ZHI; Bin ZHANG; Kai LI; Xiao-yan HUANG; You-tong FANG; Wen-ping CAO

    2011-01-01

    A switched-mode unit used in electric locomotive generates a strong high frequency conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI),which radiates electromagnetic energy through railway lines.Evaluation of magnetic field using analytical technique based on contour integral is presented,in order to assess the electromagnetic environment around a high-speed railway.Actual railway multiconductor finitely long overhead lines are represented by an infinitely long single line above two-layered earth,whose characteristic is different from homogeneous earth.Owing to the constraint of the GB/T 24338-2009 and the high frequency investigated (a few MHz),only the magnetic fields are examined.The magnetic fields consist of four components: the direct wave,the ideal reflected wave or image wave,the trapped surface wave,and the lateral wave.The calculation results proved that due to the presence of the trapped surface wave,the magnetic field of the observer point on the interface is strongly influenced,when the line is on or closed to the interface.

  11. Heat and mass transfer in combustion - Fundamental concepts and analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental combustion phenomena and the associated flame structures in laminar gaseous flows are discussed on physical bases within the framework of the three nondimensional parameters of interest to heat and mass transfer in chemically-reacting flows, namely the Damkoehler number, the Lewis number, and the Arrhenius number which is the ratio of the reaction activation energy to the characteristic thermal energy. The model problems selected for illustration are droplet combustion, boundary layer combustion, and the propagation, flammability, and stability of premixed flames. Fundamental concepts discussed include the flame structures for large activation energy reactions, S-curve interpretation of the ignition and extinctin states, reaction-induced local-similarity and non-similarity in boundary layer flows, the origin and removal of the cold boundary difficulty in modeling flame propagation, and effects of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on flame extinction and stability. Analytical techniques introduced include the Shvab-Zeldovich formulation, the local Shvab-Zeldovich formulation, flame-sheet approximation and the associated jump formulation, and large activation energy matched asymptotic analysis. Potentially promising research areas are suggested.

  12. Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine-Boymann, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kleine-boymann@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Rohnke, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.rohnke@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Henss, Anja, E-mail: anja.henss@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Peppler, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.peppler@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Sann, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.sann@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Janek, Juergen, E-mail: juergen.janek@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de

    2014-08-01

    The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

  13. Surface reactivity of minerals illustrated by observations from surface analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipp, S.L.S. [Copenhagen Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Interface Geochemistry, Geological Institute

    2000-07-01

    Over the decades that geochemists have been studying solution/solid interactions, the traditional geochemical and mineralogical methods have taught everyone a great deal about reactions that take place at mineral surfaces. Whether Earth Scientists are interested in the accumulation of precious elements to form an ore deposit or a hydrocarbon reservoir, or in the wide dispersal of contaminants throughout environmental systems, the chemical processes that control uptake and release of trace components during fluid transport are the same. Data describing bulk solid and solution composition have allowed to make conceptual models of molecular processes and to produce computer models where behaviour in reactive systems can be simulated. However, with traditional techniques alone, it can be difficult to unambiguously select a single model to fit a set of data because several individual processes may be masked by the averaging that is inherent in the macroscopic approach. The traditional bulk analytical methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Microprobe, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), potentiometry, chromatography and other wet chemistry methods give information about the identity and structure of minerals and the composition of solutions.

  14. Improved analytical techniques of sulfur isotopic composition in nanomole quantities by MC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsai-Luen; Wang, Bo-Shian; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Pei-Ling; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Burr, George S; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2017-10-02

    We propose an improved method for precise sulfur isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in conjunction with a membrane desolvation nebulization system. The problems of sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus are carefully quantified and resolved. The method overcomes low intrinsic sulfur transmission through the instrument, which was initially 1% when operating at a desolvation temperature of 160 °C. Sulfur loss through the membrane desolvation apparatus was resolved by doping with sodium. A Na/S ratio of 2 mol mol(-1) produced sulfur transmissions with 98% recovery. Samples of 3 nmol (100 ng) sulfur achieved an external precision of ±0.18‰ (2 SD) for δ(34)S and ±0.10‰ (2 SD) for Δ(33)S (uppercase delta expresses the extent of mass-independent isotopic fractionation). Measurements made on certified reference materials and in-house standards demonstrate analytical accuracy and reproducibility. We applied the method to examine microbial-induced sulfur transformation in marine sediment pore waters from the sulfate-methane transition zone. The technique is quite versatile, and can be applied to a range of materials, including natural waters and minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  16. Prioritizing the client trust factors in electronic banking using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein vazifedust

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper prioritizes the trust factors among electronic banking clients of an Iranian bank named Parsian Bank. The study first analyzes and reviews the literature and interviews with experts of electronic banking and academicians and determines client trust as the most important factor for development of electronic banking. The study also determines different factors associated with trust, which includes individual factors, banking factors and infrastructural factors. The sample populations consist of 25 experts who are academicians, managers and bank officers, clients of electronic banking. The necessary data was collected through conducting interviews and questionnaires and they are analyzed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The research findings indicate that the attitudinal factors, telecommunication infrastructure and cultural factors were the most influential factors accordingly and the customer orientation and ease of access were the least influential factors.

  17. A confirmatory factor analytic study of a self-leadership measure in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Self-leadership is considered to be essential for effective individual functioning in occupational and academic contexts. The revised self-leadership questionnaire (RSLQ is widely utilised for measuring self-leadership, but its psychometric properties have not been established on a South African sample. By implication, important questions also exist about the theoretical structure of self-leadership in the South African context. Research purpose: The research aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and factorial validity of the revised self-leadership questionnaire on a South African sample. In doing so, the results of the research would also provide valuable insights into the latent factor structure of the self-leadership construct. Motivation for the study: On a practical level, the research sought internal validity evidence for the use of the RSLQ in the South African context. On a theoretical level, questions remain about the best conceptual representation of self-leadership as a construct. Research design, approach and method: The revised self-leadership questionnaire was administered to a non-probability sample of 375 South African young adults. The first and second-order factor structure underlying contemporary models of self-leadership using confirmatory factor analytic techniques was tested. Main findings: Results showed that the RSLQ measured self-leadership with suitable reliability and internal validity. All eight subscales had high internal consistency coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA of the first and second-order models conclusively demonstrated good factorial validity. Practical/managerial implications: The study found that the RSLQ has good measurement properties for a South African context. Academics, practitioners and managers are urged to use the measure in its present form for applications such as leadership development and promoting self-management. Contribution/value-addition: The

  18. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors (ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors (ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  19. An overview of analytical techniques and methods for the study and preservation of artistic and archaeological bronzes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Rocco; Prati, Silvia; Quaranta, Marta; Sciutto, Giorgia

    The present review intends to give an overview on the type of information that is possible to gather from the application of different non-invasive and micro-destructive analytical techniques. Typically, methods that require the withdrawal of a sample, such as metallography, SEM-EDS, AAS, FTIR and Py-GC-MS are employed. Through their use, it is possible to identify the material constitution, to evaluate the degradation behavior and the state of conservation of excavated bronze artefacts. It is also underlined how a non-invasive approach might be used whenever no sampling is allowed, though some limitation should be considered. Furthermore, analytical techniques play an important role in the characterisation and evaluation of the effectiveness of protective coatings and corrosion inhibitors before and after restoration procedures. An interesting aspect is the implication of science for the recognition of forgeries, when analytical studies provide evidences able to prove or deny objects' authenticity.

  20. An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluids. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry-related journals has been compiled in its review. A synopsis of reported spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for individual drug is integrated. This appraisal illustrates that majority of the HPLC methods reviewed are based on the quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and they are appropriate for therapeutic drug monitoring purpose.

  1. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N. Q.; Sanusi, S. A. M.; Hussin, W. M. W.; Samat, N.; Mohammed, K. S.

    2014-06-01

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well.

  2. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  3. A General Factor-Analytic Procedure for Assessing Response Bias in Questionnaire Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…

  4. Psychometric Structure of a Comprehensive Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkan, Kevin; Simon, Steven R.; Baker, Harley; Todres, I. David

    2004-01-01

    Problem Statement and Background: While the psychometric properties of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been studied, their latent structures have not been well characterized. This study examines a factor analytic model of a comprehensive OSCE and addresses implications for measurement of clinical performance. Methods: An…

  5. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  6. Blind source separation of fMRI data by means of factor analytic transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the application of factor analytic (FA) rotation methods in the context of neuroimaging data analysis was explored. Three FA algorithms (ProMax, QuartiMax, and VariMax) were employed to carry out blind source separation in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that

  7. Beyond Engagement Analytics: Which Online Mixed-Data Factors Predict Student Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-method study focuses on online learning analytics, a research area of importance. Several important student attributes and their online activities are examined to identify what seems to work best to predict higher grades. The purpose is to explore the relationships between student grade and key learning engagement factors using a large…

  8. Blind source separation of fMRI data by means of factor analytic transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the application of factor analytic (FA) rotation methods in the context of neuroimaging data analysis was explored. Three FA algorithms (ProMax, QuartiMax, and VariMax) were employed to carry out blind source separation in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that

  9. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  10. Performance Marketing with Google Analytics Strategies and Techniques for Maximizing Online ROI

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    An unparalleled author trio shares valuable advice for using Google Analytics to achieve your business goals. Google Analytics is a free tool used by millions of Web site owners across the globe to track how visitors interact with their Web sites, where they arrive from, and which visitors drive the most revenue and sales leads. This book offers clear explanations of practical applications drawn from the real world. The author trio of Google Analytics veterans starts with a broad explanation of performance marketing and gets progressively more specific, closing with step-by-step analysis and a

  11. A review on analytical techniques for natural convection investigation in a heated closed enclosure: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Alina Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical analysis of a few convection problems. The investigations were started from the geometry of a classic muffle manufactured furnace. During this analytical study, different methodologies have been carefully chosen in order to compare and evaluate the effects of applying different analytical methods of the convection heat transfer processes. In conclusion, even if there are available a lot of analytical methods, natural convection in enclosed enclosures can be studied correctly only with numerical analysis. Also, in this article is presented a case study on natural convection application in a closed heated enclosure.

  12. A pirólise como técnica analítica Pyrolysis as an analytical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano Oliveira Silvério

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper historical aspects of analytical pyrolysis, the equipment used, the fundamentals and the mechanisms of pyrolysis of different polymeric materials are discussed. The latest work on analytical pyrolysis applied to various types of synthetic and natural samples is reviewed. Current applications of this technique that are discussed include identification of microorganisms, analysis of trace compounds by forensic laboratories, investigation of food and agricultural products, study of the chemical composition of wood, authentication and conservation of artworks, and the study of environmental and geochemical samples.

  13. Assessing the Value of Structured Analytic Techniques in the U.S. Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    December 2013. 14 Manosevitz, 2013; Gary H. McClelland , “Use of Signal Detec- tion Theory as a Tool for Enhancing Performance and Evaluating Tradecraft in...sets, possible disadvantages of SATs, best practices in their use, and the need for additional analytic methodologies. The report also proposes...unchallenged in unstructured and intuitive analysis. According to an unclassified U.S. government guide to analytic tradecraft,1 SATs fall into three

  14. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  15. Factor Analysis of People Rather than Variables: Q and Other Two-Mode Factor Analytic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Brigitte N.

    Factor analysis attempts to study how different objects group together to form factors with the purposes of: (1) reducing the number of factorable entities (e.g., variables) with which the researcher needs to deal; (2) searching data for qualitative and quantitative differences; and (3) testing hypotheses (R. Gorsuch, 1983). While most factor…

  16. A UNIVERSAL ANALYTIC POTENTIAL-ENERGY FUNCTION BASED ON A PHASE FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F. Yu; K. Yan; D.Z. Liu

    2006-01-01

    Using a field equation with a phase factor, a universal analytic potential-energy function applied to the interactions between diatoms or molecules is derived, and five kinds of potential curves of common shapes are obtained adjusting the phase factors. The linear thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of eleven kinds of fuce-centered cubic (fcc) metals - Al, Cu, Ag, etc. Are calculated using the potential-energy function; the computational results are quite consistent with experimental values. Moreover, an analytic relation between the linear thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of fcc metals is given using the potential-energy function. Finally, the force constants of fifty-five kinds of diatomic moleculars with low excitation state are computed using this theory, and they are quite consistent with RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) experimental values.

  17. Quantification of process induced disorder in milled samples using different analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; McGoverin, Cushla M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods......-induced crystalline disorder/ amorphousness under different process conditions. In the DSC measurements the change in heat capacity at the glass transition was used for quantification. Differently prepared amorphous indomethacin standards (prepared by either melt quench cooling or cryo milling) were compared...... to crystalline disorder for milled drugs depends on the analytical method used and the calibration standard chosen as well as on the drug itself. From the data presented here, it appears that XRPD tends to give a higher percentage of crystalline disorder than Raman spectroscopy and DSC for the same samples...

  18. Analytic results for planar three-loop integrals for massive form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2016-12-01

    We use the method of differential equations to analytically evaluate all planar three-loop Feynman integrals relevant for form factor calculations involving massive particles. Our results for ninety master integrals at general q 2 are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms, and results for fiftyone master integrals at the threshold q 2 = 4 m 2 are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms of argument one, with indices equal to zero or to a sixth root of unity.

  19. Analytic results for planar three-loop integrals for massive form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M; Smirnov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    We use the method of differential equations to analytically evaluate all planar three-loop Feynman integrals relevant for form factor calculations involving massive particles. Our results for ninety master integrals at general $q^2$ are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms, and results for fiftyone master integrals at the threshold $q^2=4m^2$ are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms of argument one, with indices equal to zero or to a sixth root of unity.

  20. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  1. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  2. On the relevance of assumptions associated with classical factor analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniel; Unlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person's cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this "implicit" assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person's factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the presentation.

  3. Analytical techniques for the study of some parameters of multispectral scanner systems for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswell, E. R.; Cooper, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The concept of average mutual information in the received spectral random process about the spectral scene was developed. Techniques amenable to implementation on a digital computer were also developed to make the required average mutual information calculations. These techniques required identification of models for the spectral response process of scenes. Stochastic modeling techniques were adapted for use. These techniques were demonstrated on empirical data from wheat and vegetation scenes.

  4. Analytical derivative techniques for TDDFT excited-state properties:Theory and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN DanPing; LIU Jie; MA HuiLi; ZENG Qiao; LIANG WanZhen

    2014-01-01

    We review our recent work on the methodology development of the excited-state properties for the molecules in vacuum and liquid solution.The general algorithms of analytical energy derivatives for the specific properties such as the first and second geometrical derivatives and IR/Raman intensities are demonstrated in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory(TDDFT).The performance of the analytical approaches on the calculation of excited-state energy Hessian has also been shown.It is found that the analytical approaches are superior to the finite-difference method on the computational accuracy and efficiency.The computational cost for a TDDFT excited-state Hessian calculation is only 2–3 times as that for the DFT ground-state Hessian calculation.With the low computational complexity of the developed analytical approaches,it becomes feasible to realize the large-scale numerical calculations on the excited-state vibrational frequencies,vibrational spectroscopies and the electronic-structure parameters which enter the spectrum calculations of electronic absorption and emission,and resonance Raman spectroscopies for medium-to large-sized systems.

  5. The earrings of Pancas treasure: Analytical study by X-ray based techniques – A first approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, I., E-mail: isabel.tissot@archeofactu.pt [Archeofactu – Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras, No. 14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal); Tissot, M., E-mail: matthias.tissot@archeofactu.pt [Archeofactu – Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras, No. 14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal); Museu Nacional de Arqueologia – Praça do Império, 1400-206 Lisboa (Portugal); Manso, M., E-mail: marta974@gmail.com [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [IST/ITN, Univ. Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, UFA-LFI, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Marcelo, T., E-mail: teresa.marcelo@lneg.pt [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Univ. Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, UFA-LFI, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guerra, M.F., E-mail: maria.guerra@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France and UMR8220 CNRS - 14, quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The development of new metallurgical technologies in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age is well represented by the 10 gold earrings from the treasure of Pancas. This work presents a first approach to the analytical study of these earrings and contributes to the construction of a typological evolution of the Iberian earrings. The manufacture techniques and the alloys composition were studied with three complementary X-ray spectroscopy techniques: portable EDXRF, μ-PIXE and SEM–EDS. The results were compared with earrings from the same and previous periods.

  6. Terracotta polychrome sculptures examined before and after their conservation work: contributions from non-invasive in situ analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, C; Bevilacqua, F; Brambilla, L; Conti, C; Realini, M; Striova, J; Zerbi, G

    2011-08-01

    The potential of non-invasive in situ analytical techniques such as portable Raman, portable X-ray fluorescence, portable optical microscope and fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy has been shown studying painted layers of Renaissance terracotta polychrome sculptures belonging to the statuary of Santo Sepolcro Church in Milan. The results obtained allowed pointing out the contribution of these techniques to the compositional diagnostic, providing complete information, in some cases, better than micro-destructive techniques, on the kind of pigments used on the external painted layers. Moreover, a comparison with the results obtained before the last conservation work (2009) with micro-destructive techniques allowed ascertaining the removal of the external painted layers during the conservation operations.

  7. Constraints on the $\\omega\\pi$ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B; Kubis, B

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic $\\omega\\pi$ form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit the unitarity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor, as well as narrow isoscalar vector meson states. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around 0.6 GeV.

  8. Ranking factors affecting the quality of banking services using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Pourmohammad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the priority of factors affecting the quality of banking services in Bank Saderat Iran for better allocation of resources to enhance the quality of its banking services. The study develops a fuzzy method to handle uncertainty associated with the data and using analytical network process (ANP ranks different factors influencing on service quality. The results have indicated that the quality of e-services (ESQ is the most important factor followed by the quality of banking services agility (ASQ, the service system quality (SSQ, and the behavioral service qualities (BSQ. Moreover, the employees’ competence and skills, the reliability of the electronic system and the reliability of the service system, an impeccability banking system integrity and accountability instruments are among other effective factors influencing on the quality of banking services.

  9. Tracer Elements analysis of Aerosols in the Atmosphere of Lahore using Radio analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The perturbations of atmospheric processes by anthropogenic activities of man have been of great concern these days. The deposition of trace and major elements from the atmosphere to the ground is an important factor for animal and plant health, and it is of major consideration in studies on the cycling of elements that may function in the atmosphere as nutrients or potentially toxic pollutants. When assessing the input of materials in natural waters and land, the sources and composition of atmosphere need to be determined. Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Lahore. Various sorts of experiments were performed for studying total suspended particulate matter (TSPs using gravimetric techniques. The average value of TSPs was found 450 ug/m2 in working days and 240 ug/m2 in holidays. Their size distribution and trace elemental composition and their wet removal through precipitation in the atmosphere of Lahore was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA respectively. Eighteen elements were analyzed. Geological nature of the land was attributed the presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf s in the aerosol particulates. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd could be linked to anthropogenic activities. Their amount was two times higher than the limits reccomended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the urban environment, mostly during working days and at various day and night time.

  10. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  11. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  12. General technique for analytical derivatives of post-projected Hartree-Fock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-02-01

    In electronic structure theory, the availability of an analytical derivative is one of the desired features for a method to be useful in practical applications, as it allows for geometry optimization as well as computation of molecular properties. With the recent advances in the development of symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) methods, we here aim at further extensions by devising the analytic gradients of post-PHF approaches with a special focus on spin-extended (spin-projected) configuration interaction with single and double substitutions (ECISD). Just like standard single-reference methods, the mean-field PHF part does not require the corresponding coupled-perturbed equation to be solved, while the correlation energy term needs the orbital relaxation effect to be accounted for, unless the underlying molecular orbitals are variationally optimized in the presence of the correlation energy. We present a general strategy for post-PHF analytical gradients, which closely parallels that for single-reference methods, yet addressing the major difference between them. The similarity between ECISD and multi-reference CI not only in the energy but also in the optimized geometry is clearly demonstrated by the numerical examples of ozone and cyclobutadiene.

  13. Prediction of Torque Pulsations in Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors Using Improved Analytical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoumarsi, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Torque pulsations have prominent effects on the performance of brushless permanent- magnet (PM) machines. There are different sources of torque ripples in PM motors. These torque pulsations depend on the shape of the flux density distribution in the airgap region. For predicting the open-circuit airgap field distribution in brushless PM motors, a two dimensional (2-D) analytical method, in which the direction of magnetization, either radial or parallel and the effect of the stator slot-openings are taken into account, is used. The method uses an improved 2-D permeance model. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a 2-D time-stepping FEM coupled with the two motion equations is used. A 3-phase, 36-slot, 4-pole, 5 HP, brushless PM motor is modeled by two methods. In this analysis both, the radial and parallel magnetization of the brushless motor are considered. The results obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained by FE analysis that shows the valuable accuracy of the analytical method for performance calculations in design and optimization processes.

  14. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques – a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Znaleziona, Joanna; Ginterová, Pavlína; Petr, Jan [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ondra, Peter; Válka, Ivo [Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Law Faculty Hospital, Hněvotínská 3, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ševčík, Juraj [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Chrastina, Jan [Institute of Special Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Palacký University, Žižkovo náměsti 5, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Maier, Vítězslav, E-mail: vitezslav.maier@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids from analytical point of view. • Determination and identification methods of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices. • Analytical techniques used from thin layer chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry. • Detailed survey of gas and liquid chromatography methods for synthetic cannabinoids analysis. - Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry.

  15. Some methodological and analytical considerations regarding application of the gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro gas production technique is used widely in animal nutrition for feed evaluation and to study the kinetics of microbial fermentation processes in the digestive tract. This technique is based on the assumption that gas produced in batch cultures inoculated with mixed microorganisms from r

  16. A combined analytical-experimental tensile test technique for brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M. L.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    A semiconventional tensile test technique is developed for impact ices and other brittle materials. Accurate results have been obtained on ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity in a refrigerated ice test. It is noted that the technique can be used to determine the physical properties of impact ices accreted inside icing wind tunnels or other brittle materials.

  17. Some methodological and analytical considerations regarding application of the gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro gas production technique is used widely in animal nutrition for feed evaluation and to study the kinetics of microbial fermentation processes in the digestive tract. This technique is based on the assumption that gas produced in batch cultures inoculated with mixed microorganisms from

  18. Some methodological and analytical considerations regarding application of the gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro gas production technique is used widely in animal nutrition for feed evaluation and to study the kinetics of microbial fermentation processes in the digestive tract. This technique is based on the assumption that gas produced in batch cultures inoculated with mixed microorganisms from r

  19. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  20. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti; Nogueira, Paula Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions. Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university. The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC) and non-stuttering children (NSC), with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering. There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses. The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  1. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  2. The structure of temperament in preschoolers: a two-stage factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Margaret W; Olino, Thomas M; Durbin, C Emily; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-02-01

    The structure of temperament traits in young children has been the subject of extensive debate, with separate models proposing different trait dimensions. This research has relied almost exclusively on parent-report measures. The present study used an alternative approach, a laboratory observational measure, to explore the structure of temperament in preschoolers. A 2-stage factor analytic approach, exploratory factor analyses (n = 274) followed by confirmatory factor analyses (n = 276), was used. We retrieved an adequately fitting model that consisted of 5 dimensions: Sociability, Positive Affect/Interest, Dysphoria, Fear/Inhibition, and Constraint versus Impulsivity. This solution overlaps with, but is also distinct from, the major models derived from parent-report measures.

  3. Analytical techniques for addressing forward and inverse problems of light scattering by irregularly shaped particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Chen, Zhigang; Gong, Jianmin; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2004-06-01

    Understanding light scattering by nonspherical particles is crucial in modeling the transport of light in realistic structures such as biological tissues. We report the application of novel analytical approaches based on modified Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and equiphase-sphere methods that facilitate accurate characterization of light scattering by a wide range of irregularly shaped dielectric particles. We also demonstrate that these approaches have the potential to address the inverse-scattering problem by means of a spectral analysis of the total scattering cross section of arbitrarily shaped particles.

  4. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has not been validated in a clinical sample of older adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Tripartite model using scale-level data from the MASQ and correlational and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. Methods 137 young people (M = 17.78, SD = 2.63 referred to a specialist mental health service for adolescents and young adults completed the MASQ and diagnostic interview. Results All MASQ scales were highly inter-correlated, with the lowest correlation between the depression- and anxiety-specific scales (r = .59. This pattern of correlations was observed for all participants rating for an Axis-I disorder but not for participants without a current disorder (r = .18. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the model fit of a number of solutions. The predicted Tripartite structure was not supported. A 2-factor model demonstrated superior model fit and parsimony compared to 1- or 3-factor models. These broad factors represented Depression and Anxiety and were highly correlated (r = .88. Conclusion The present data lend support to the notion that the Tripartite model does not adequately explain the relationship between anxiety and depression in all clinical populations. Indeed, in the present study this model was found to be inappropriate for a help-seeking community sample of older adolescents and young adults.

  5. Continuation of Development and Application of Data Processing Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud Physics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-30

    aircraft is fully explained. Practical applications of various mathematical techniques (such as: Newton’s forward formula, least square curve fitting, Pappus-Guldinus Theorem etc) are fully delineated. (Author)

  6. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  7. Multidimensional metrics of niche space for use with diverse analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Rachel E.; Thorp, James H.; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Multidimensional data are integral to many community-ecological studies and come in various forms, such as stable isotopes, compound specific analyses (e.g., amino acids and fatty acids), and both biodiversity and life history traits. Scientists employing such data often lack standardized metrics to evaluate communities in niche space where more than 2 dimensions are involved. To alleviate this problem, we developed a graphing and analytical approach for use with more than two variables, based on previously established stable isotope bi-plot metrics. We introduce here our community metrics as R scripts. By extending the original metrics to multiple dimensions, we created n-dimensional plots and metrics to characterize any set of quantitative measurements of a community. We demonstrate the utility of these metrics using stable isotope data; however, the approaches are applicable to many types of data. The resulting metrics provide more and better information compared to traditional analytic frameworks. The approach can be applied in many branches of community ecology, and it offers accessible metrics to quantitatively analyze the structure of communities across ecosystems and through time. PMID:28145524

  8. Analytical solution of the diffusive equations from the general perturbation theory in seven-layered slab using using Laplace transform technique; Solucao analitica das equacoes difusivas da teoria geral de perturbacao em uma placa plana heterogenea com sete regioes utilizando a transformada de Laplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Rosandra S. Mottola; Vilhena, Marco Tullio M. Barreto de; Wortmann, Sergio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional]. E-mail: rosandrasml@pop.com.br; Silva, Fernando C. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we present numerical simulations to the analytical solutions found to the neutron and adjoint neutron fluxes as well as to the effective multiplication factor, in a seven-layered slab by the Laplace Transform Technique. (author)

  9. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  10. Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drion Iefke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 μmol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization; area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 μmol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading

  11. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  12. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  13. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts....... The introduction of a potential associated with one of the conservation laws and its use as a new independent coordinate reduces the number of equations by one. The (n)x(n) conservation law model for two-phase n-component EOR flows in new coordinates is transformed into a reduced (n-1)x(n-1) auxiliary system...... containing just thermodynamical variables (equilibrium fractions of components, sorption isotherms) and one lifting equation containing just hydrodynamical parameters (phase relative permeabilities and viscosities). The algorithm to solve analytically the problem includes solution of the reduced auxiliary...

  14. An analytic technique for statistically modeling random atomic clock errors in estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Minimum variance estimation requires that the statistics of random observation errors be modeled properly. If measurements are derived through the use of atomic frequency standards, then one source of error affecting the observable is random fluctuation in frequency. This is the case, for example, with range and integrated Doppler measurements from satellites of the Global Positioning and baseline determination for geodynamic applications. An analytic method is presented which approximates the statistics of this random process. The procedure starts with a model of the Allan variance for a particular oscillator and develops the statistics of range and integrated Doppler measurements. A series of five first order Markov processes is used to approximate the power spectral density obtained from the Allan variance.

  15. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia.

  16. An analytical formalism to calculate phantom scatter factors for flattening filter free (FFF) mode photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heeteak; Prado, Karl L; Yi, Byong Yong

    2014-02-21

    Phantom Scatter Factors, Sp in the Khan formalism (Khan et al 1980 J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 6 745-51) describe medium-induced changes in photon-beam intensity as a function of size of the beam. According to the British Journal of Radiology, Supplement 25, megavoltage phantom scatter factors are invariant as a function of photon-beam energy. However, during the commissioning of an accelerator with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams (Varian TrueBeam(TM) 6-MV FFF and 10-MV FFF), differences were noted in phantom scatter between the filtered beams and FFF-mode beams. The purpose of this work was to evaluate this difference and provide an analytical formalism to explain the phantom scatter differences between FFF-mode and the filtered mode. An analytical formalism was devised to demonstrate the source of phantom scatter differences between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams. The reason for the differences in the phantom scatter factors between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams is hypothesized to be the non-uniform beam profiles of the FFF-mode beams. The analytical formalism proposed here is based on this idea, taking the product of the filtered phantom scatter factors and the ratio of the off-axis ratio between the FFF-mode and the filtered beams. All measurements were performed using a Varian TrueBeam(TM) linear accelerator with photon energies of 6-MV and 10-MV in both filtered and FFF-modes. For all measurements, a PTW Farmer type chamber and a Scanditronix CC04 cylindrical ionization were used. The in-water measurements were made at depth dose maximum and 100 cm source-to-axis distance. The in-air measurements were done at 100 cm source-to-axis distance with appropriate build-up cap. From these measurements, the phantom scatter factors were derived for the filtered beams and the FFF-mode beams for both energies to be evaluated against the phantoms scatter factors calculated using the proposed algorithm. For 6-MV, the difference between the measured

  17. Judgments in the selection of path generation techniques: a meta-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    objective judgments for effective route choice set generation. Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, “true model estimates” and “postulated predicted routes” are assumed from the simulation...... synthesizing the effect of judgments on the implementation of path generation techniques, since a large number of models generate a large amount of results that are otherwise difficult to summarize and to process. Meta-analysis estimates suggest that modelers should apply stochastic approaches...

  18. Analytical and experimental evaluation of techniques for the fabrication of thermoplastic hologram storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on recording information on thermoplastic are given. A description was given of a typical fabrication configuration, the recording sequence, and the samples which were examined. There are basically three configurations which can be used for the recording of information on thermoplastic. The most popular technique uses corona which furnishes free charge. The necessary energy for deformation is derived from a charge layer atop the thermoplastic. The other two techniques simply use a dc potential in place of the corona for deformation energy.

  19. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction molecular testing of cytology specimens: Pre-analytic and analytic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of molecular testing into cytopathology laboratory practice has expanded the types of samples considered feasible for identifying genetic alterations that play an essential role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a sensitive and specific technical approach for amplifying a defined segment of RNA after it has been reverse-transcribed into its DNA complement, is commonly used in clinical practice for the identification of recurrent or tumor-specific fusion gene events. Real-time RT-PCR (quantitative RT-PCR), a technical variation, also permits the quantitation of products generated during each cycle of the polymerase chain reaction process. This review addresses qualitative and quantitative pre-analytic and analytic considerations of RT-PCR as they relate to various cytologic specimens. An understanding of these aspects of genetic testing is central to attaining optimal results in the face of the challenges that cytology specimens may present. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:11-19. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices.

  1. SFC-MS/MS as an orthogonal technique for improved screening of polar analytes in anti-doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Wuest, Bernhard; Naegele, Edgar; Joseph, Jan F; Wenzel, Maxi; Schmidt, Alexander H; Stanic, Mijo; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    HPLC is considered the method of choice for the separation of various classes of drugs. However, some analytes are still challenging as HPLC shows limited resolution capabilities for highly polar analytes as they interact insufficiently on conventional reversed-phase (RP) columns. Especially in combination with mass spectrometric detection, limitations apply for alterations of stationary phases. Some highly polar sympathomimetic drugs and their metabolites showed almost no retention on different RP columns. Their retention remains poor even on phenylhexyl phases that show different selectivity due to π-π interactions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an orthogonal separation technique to HPLC may help to overcome these issues. Selected polar drugs and metabolites were analyzed utilizing SFC separation. All compounds showed sharp peaks and good retention even for the very polar analytes, such as sulfoconjugates. Retention times and elution orders in SFC are different to both RP and HILIC separations as a result of the orthogonality. Short cycle times could be realized. As temperature and pressure strongly influence the polarity of supercritical fluids, precise regulation of temperature and backpressure is required for the stability of the retention times. As CO2 is the main constituent of the mobile phase in SFC, solvent consumption and solvent waste are considerably reduced. Graphical Abstract SFC-MS/MS vs. LC-MS/MS.

  2. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of mineral aggregates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available using a laser-based scanning technique to determine the form of aggregates used in construction of pavements in South Africa. A three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning system was used to scan aggregate materials from different sources, and the data were...

  3. Risk factor detection for heart disease by applying text analytics in electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Fan, Jung-Wei; Yang, Wei-Li; Lee, Theodore; Wiley, Matthew T; Zisook, Daniel S; Huang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, about 600,000 people die of heart disease every year. The annual cost of care services, medications, and lost productivity reportedly exceeds 108.9 billion dollars. Effective disease risk assessment is critical to prevention, care, and treatment planning. Recent advancements in text analytics have opened up new possibilities of using the rich information in electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify relevant risk factors. The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Challenge brought together researchers and practitioners of clinical natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the identification of heart disease risk factors reported in EMRs. We participated in this track and developed an NLP system by leveraging existing tools and resources, both public and proprietary. Our system was a hybrid of several machine-learning and rule-based components. The system achieved an overall F1 score of 0.9185, with a recall of 0.9409 and a precision of 0.8972.

  4. Analytical Solution for Model-Based Dynamic Power Factor Measurement in AC Resistance Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of welding transformer circuit model, a new measuring method was proposed. This method measures the peak angle of the welding current, and then calculates the dynamic power factor in each half-wave.An artificial neural network is trained and used to generate simulation data for the analytical solution, i.e. a highorder binary polynomial, which can be easily adopted to calculate the power factor online. The tailored sensing and computing system ensures that the method possesses a real-time computational capacity and satisfying accuracy. A DSP-based resistance spot welding monitoring system was developed to perform ANN computation. The experimental results suggest that this measuring method is feasible.

  5. Analysis of 10B by PIGE with factor analytical gamma-ray peak identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, S; Räisänen, J; Eteläniemi, V; Abo Ramadan, U A; Kallio, M

    1995-09-01

    Studying the biodistribution of boronated compounds for B neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires the accurate detection of low levels of boron (10B) in biological samples. Proton induced gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE) of 10B was found to be viable in a study of low density lipoprotein (LDL), in tissue and blood samples. However, the method is sensitive to Na present in the samples and can therefore not be used for accurate measurements of 10B concentrations below 5 ppm in samples containing Na. PIGE can be considered to be an appropriate reference method for chemical B analysis. The factor analytical method presented here is the most objective way to separate Na and B peaks from each other, and the factorizing method can be applied in different forms of spectral analysis.

  6. Internet-induced marketing techniques: Critical factors of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerndl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are the overall structure of the campaign, the characteristics of the product or service, the content of the message, the characteristics of the diffusion and, the peer-to-peer information conduit. The paper discusses three examples of viral marketing campaigns and identifies the specific factors in each case that influence its success. The paper concludes with a viral marketing typology differentiating between viral marketing communications, unintended viral marketing and commercial viral marketing. This is still a rapidly evolving area and further research is clearly needed to monitor new developments and make sense of the radical changes these developments bring to the market.

  7. An uncovered XIII century icon: particular use of organic pigments and gilding techniques highlighted by analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Moretti, Patrizia; Grazia, Chiara; Romani, Aldo; Fiorin, Enrico; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Vagnini, Manuela

    2015-01-25

    The restoration of a panel painting depicting a Madonna and Child listed as an unknown Tuscan artist of the nineteenth century, permitted the hidden original version, a XIII century Medieval icon to be uncovered. It is discovery provided the opportunity for an extensive in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations by portable imaging and spectroscopic techniques (infrared, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and emission), followed by aimed micro-destructive investigations (Raman and SEM-EDS). This approach permitted characterization of the original ground and paint layers by complementary techniques. Furthermore, this protocol allowed supplementary particularities of great interest to be highlighted. Namely, numerous original gilding techniques have been accentuated in diverse areas and include the use of surrogate gold (disulphur tin), orpiment as a further false gold and an area with an original silver rich layer. Moreover, pigments including azurite mixed with indigo have been non-invasively identified. Micro-invasive analyses also allowed the diagnosis of organic colorants, namely, an animal anthraquinone lake, kermes and an unusual vegetal chalcone pigment, possibly safflower. The identification of the latter is extremely rare as a painting pigment and has been identified using an innovative adaption to surface enhanced Raman techniques on a cross-section. The resulting data contributes new hypotheses to the historic and artistic knowledge of materials and techniques utilized in XIII century icon paintings and ultimately provides scientific technical support of the recent restoration.

  8. An uncovered XIII century icon: Particular use of organic pigments and gilding techniques highlighted by analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Moretti, Patrizia; Grazia, Chiara; Romani, Aldo; Fiorin, Enrico; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Vagnini, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of a panel painting depicting a Madonna and Child listed as an unknown Tuscan artist of the nineteenth century, permitted the hidden original version, a XIII century Medieval icon to be uncovered. It is discovery provided the opportunity for an extensive in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations by portable imaging and spectroscopic techniques (infrared, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and emission), followed by aimed micro-destructive investigations (Raman and SEM-EDS). This approach permitted characterization of the original ground and paint layers by complementary techniques. Furthermore, this protocol allowed supplementary particularities of great interest to be highlighted. Namely, numerous original gilding techniques have been accentuated in diverse areas and include the use of surrogate gold (disulphur tin), orpiment as a further false gold and an area with an original silver rich layer. Moreover, pigments including azurite mixed with indigo have been non-invasively identified. Micro-invasive analyses also allowed the diagnosis of organic colorants, namely, an animal anthraquinone lake, kermes and an unusual vegetal chalcone pigment, possibly safflower. The identification of the latter is extremely rare as a painting pigment and has been identified using an innovative adaption to surface enhanced Raman techniques on a cross-section. The resulting data contributes new hypotheses to the historic and artistic knowledge of materials and techniques utilized in XIII century icon paintings and ultimately provides scientific technical support of the recent restoration.

  9. Nondestructive atomic compositional analysis of BeMgZnO quaternary alloys using ion beam analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnai, Z., E-mail: zolnai.zsolt@ttk.mta.hu [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Toporkov, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Volk, J. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Demchenko, D.O. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 701W. Grace St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Okur, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Szabó, Z. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Avrutin, V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Kótai, E. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • BeMgZnO thin layers were grown with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). • The Be contents were accurately measured with RBS and proton elastic backscattering. • The Tauc bandgap was measured from optical transmittance experiments. • The bandgap has been varied between 3.26 eV and 4.62 eV via the Be and Mg content. • Experimental and density functional theory calculated bandgaps were in good agreement. - Abstract: The atomic composition with less than 1–2 atom% uncertainty was measured in ternary BeZnO and quaternary BeMgZnO alloys using a combination of nondestructive Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with 1 MeV He{sup +} analyzing ion beam and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering experiments with 2.53 MeV energy protons. An enhancement factor of 60 in the cross-section of Be for protons has been achieved to monitor Be atomic concentrations. Usually the quantitative analysis of BeZnO and BeMgZnO systems is challenging due to difficulties with appropriate experimental tools for the detection of the light Be element with satisfactory accuracy. As it is shown, our applied ion beam technique, supported with the detailed simulation of ion stopping, backscattering, and detection processes allows of quantitative depth profiling and compositional analysis of wurtzite BeZnO/ZnO/sapphire and BeMgZnO/ZnO/sapphire layer structures with low uncertainty for both Be and Mg. In addition, the excitonic bandgaps of the layers were deduced from optical transmittance measurements. To augment the measured compositions and bandgaps of BeO and MgO co-alloyed ZnO layers, hybrid density functional bandgap calculations were performed with varying the Be and Mg contents. The theoretical vs. experimental bandgaps show linear correlation in the entire bandgap range studied from 3.26 eV to 4.62 eV. The analytical method employed should help facilitate bandgap engineering for potential applications, such as solar blind UV photodetectors and

  10. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F. [ENEA, Unita' Rifiuti Radioattivi e Disattivazione Impianti, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several {beta}-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits. [Italian] Questo documento riporta il lavoro realizzato dal Laboratorio Nazionale per la Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi, nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca Europeo sulle tecniche di misura distruttive per rifiuti radioattivi. Il lavoro era finalizzato sia alla valutazione di nuove procedure veloci per la preparazione dei campioni da analizzare sia allo sviluppo di metodi Cromatografici accoppiati alla rivelazione di radionuclidi mediante Conteggio a Scintillazione Liquida. La sperimentazione della Cromatografia Ionica ad

  11. Microextraction techniques at the analytical laboratory: an efficient way for determining low amounts of residual insecticides in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Navarro, Tania; Campillo, Natalia; Fenoll, Jose; Garrido, Isabel; Cava, Juana; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Microextraction techniques allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of instrumentation commonly available at the analytical laboratory. This communication reports our studies focused to the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in polluted soils. These chemicals are synthetic analogues of pyrethrum widely used for pest control in agricultural and household applications. Because of their properties, pyrethroids tend to strongly absorb to soil particles and organic matter. Although they are considered as pesticides with a low toxicity for humans, long times exposure to them may cause damage in immune system and in the neurological system. The procedure here studied is based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and permits the determination of fifteen pyrethroid compounds (allethrin, resmethrin, tetramethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, acrinathrin, permethrin, λ-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, flucythrinate, fenvalerate, esfenvalerate, τ-fluvalinate, and deltamethrin) in soil samples using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytes were first extracted from the soil samples (4 g) by treatment with 2 mL of acetonitrile, 2 mL of water and 0.5 g of NaCl. The enriched organic phase (approximately 0.8 mL) was separated by centrifugation, and this solution used as the dispersant in a DLLME process. The analytes did not need to be derivatized before their injection into the chromatographic system, due to their volatility and thermal stability. The identification of the different pyrethroids was carried out based on their retention times and mass spectra, considering the m/z values of the different fragments and their relative abundances. The detection limits were in the 0.2-23 ng g-1 range, depending on the analyte and the sample under analysis. The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia, Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) and to the Spanish MINECO (Project

  12. Sampling and analytical techniques for an interim survey in the South Carolina lowcountry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Welch; Robert A. Cathey

    1976-01-01

    Remeasurement of 675 permanent sample locations in the South Carolina Lowcountry using modified sampling techniques showed that net growth of pine for the 6 years 1968-1974 was 637.0 million cubic feet while removals were slightly over 390.6 million cubic feet. In 1974, there were 1,533.5 million cubic feet of pine in the area with that portion in sawtimber size...

  13. Elementary mechanics using Matlab a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Matlab, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Matlab is included. A parallel edition using Python instead of Matlab is also available. Last but not...

  14. Elementary mechanics using Python a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Python, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Python is included. A parallel edition using Matlab instead of Python is also available. Last but not...

  15. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF. Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adjusting irradiation data of clear sky by an irradiation attenuation index, combined with a PV power production attenuation index. The MPVF model consists of an artificial neural network based model (selected among a large set of ANN optimized with genetic algorithms, GAs. The two models use forecasts from the same NWP tool as inputs. The APVF and MPVF models have been applied to a real-life case study of a grid-connected PV plant using the same data. Despite the fact that both models are quite different, they achieve very similar results, with forecast horizons covering all the daylight hours of the following day, which give a good perspective of their applicability for PV electric production sale bids to electricity markets.

  16. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  17. A three-dimensional finite-element thermal/mechanical analytical technique for high-performance traveling wave tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Bartos, Karen F.; Fite, E. B.; Sharp, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Current research in high-efficiency, high-performance traveling wave tubes (TWT's) has led to the development of novel thermal/mechanical computer models for use with helical slow-wave structures. A three-dimensional, finite element computer model and analytical technique used to study the structural integrity and thermal operation of a high-efficiency, diamond-rod, K-band TWT designed for use in advanced space communications systems. This analysis focused on the slow-wave circuit in the radiofrequency section of the TWT, where an inherent localized heating problem existed and where failures were observed during earlier cold compression, or 'coining' fabrication technique that shows great potential for future TWT development efforts. For this analysis, a three-dimensional, finite element model was used along with MARC, a commercially available finite element code, to simulate the fabrication of a diamond-rod TWT. This analysis was conducted by using component and material specifications consistent with actual TWT fabrication and was verified against empirical data. The analysis is nonlinear owing to material plasticity introduced by the forming process and also to geometric nonlinearities presented by the component assembly configuration. The computer model was developed by using the high efficiency, K-band TWT design but is general enough to permit similar analyses to be performed on a wide variety of TWT designs and styles. The results of the TWT operating condition and structural failure mode analysis, as well as a comparison of analytical results to test data are presented.

  18. Boron isotope determinations in waters and other geological materials: analytical techniques and inter-calibration of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonarini, Sonia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Gonfiantini, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The (11)B/(10)B ratio exhibits wide variations in nature; thus, boron isotopes have found numerous applications in geochemistry, hydrology, and environmental studies. The main analytical techniques used are as follows: positive thermal ionisation mass spectrometry is the most precise (about 0.2 per thousand of the boron isotope ratio), but requires complex and laborious sample preparation; negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry is less precise (about 0.5 per thousand), but rapid and suitable for water samples, whereas total evaporation-NTIMS allows for identification of the precise boron isotope composition of marine carbonates. It is expected that multi-collection system inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) will eventually combine high precision with simple analytical procedures. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and laser ablation (LA)-MC-ICPMS allow in situ determinations on solid samples, but require the availability of calibration materials which are chemically and mineralogically similar to samples. These features of boron isotope measurement techniques were confirmed by the results of the first inter-laboratory comparison of measurements, organised by the Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse in Pisa. Finally, two examples of boron isotope applications in groundwater investigations are reported.

  19. Metabolomic analysis using porcine skin: a pilot study of analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie; Fiehn, Oliver; Armstrong, April W

    2014-06-15

    Metabolic byproducts serve as indicators of the chemical processes and can provide valuable information on pathogenesis by measuring the amplified output. Standardized techniques for metabolome extraction of skin samples serve as a critical foundation to this field but have not been developed. We sought to determine the optimal cell lysage techniques for skin sample preparation and to compare GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS for metabolomic analysis. Using porcine skin samples, we pulverized the skin via various combinations of mechanical techniques for cell lysage. After extraction, the samples were subjected to GC-TOF-MS and/or UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Signal intensities from GC-TOF-MS analysis showed that ultrasonication (2.7x107) was most effective for cell lysage when compared to mortar-and-pestle (2.6x107), ball mill followed by ultrasonication (1.6x107), mortar-and-pestle followed by ultrasonication (1.4x107), and homogenization (trial 1: 8.4x106; trial 2: 1.6x107). Due to the similar signal intensities, ultrasonication and mortar-and-pestle were applied to additional samples and subjected to GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Ultrasonication yielded greater signal intensities than mortar-and-pestle for 92% of detected metabolites following GC-TOF-MS and for 68% of detected metabolites following UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Overall, ultrasonication is the preferred method for efficient cell lysage of skin tissue for both metabolomic platforms. With standardized sample preparation, metabolomic analysis of skin can serve as a powerful tool in elucidating underlying biological processes in dermatological conditions.

  20. Discrete Analytic Domains: a New Technique for Groundwater Flow Modeling in Layered, Anisotropic, and Heterogeneous Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    A new technique for modeling groundwater flow with analytic solutions is presented. It allows modeling of layered aquifer systems with complex heterogeneity and anisotropy. As with previous AEM techniques, flow in each layer is modeled with two-dimensional analytic solutions, there is high accuracy and resolution, the domain is not discretized into grid blocks or elements, and the modeled area can easily be altered and expanded in the midst of the modeling process. This method differs from previous Analytic Element Method (AEM) techniques by allowing general anisotropy conditions in the aquifer. The flow field is broken into discrete polygonal domains, each with its own definition of isotropic or anisotropic aquifer parameters. An advantage of this approach is that the anisotropy orientation and ratio can differ from one domain to another, a capability not possible with the "infinite domain" of previous AEM formulations. With this approach, the potential and discharge vector functions at a point are the sum of contributions from elements within or on the boundary of the domain containing the point. Unlike previous AEM schemes, elements beyond the domain boundary don't contribute to these functions. Once a solution is in hand, less computation is required to evaluate heads and discharges because fewer elements contribute to the equations. This computational efficiency could prove a significant advantage in large regional models and in solute transport models that use a flow model's velocity field. This technique allows multiple aquifer layers to be stacked vertically, and it has the novel ability to have more layers in the area of interest than in distant areas. This feature can save significant computation and input effort by concentrating layering detail only where it is needed and warranted by data. The boundary conditions at line element boundaries are approximated, including the continuity of flow and head across heterogeneity boundaries. By using high

  1. Instrumental and analytic techniques for separating protons from electrons in the cosmic ray flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, C. J.; Jones, W. V.; Kurz, R. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Viehmann, W.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques are being investigated to aid in distinguishing between electrons and the large background of interacting protons which simulate electron-induced electromagnetic cascades. For cosmic ray primaries, incident on the HECRE ionization spectrometer, statistical criteria are employed to test the cascade curves with the incident energy and starting point as free parameters. The physical significance of the distribution of apparent cascade starting points is being studied using Monte Carlo 100-GeV protons. The proposed use of a CsI detector module (totally-active and high Z) to further discriminate against protons is described.

  2. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaya Maranate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%.

  3. Effective factors on optimizing banks’ balance sheet using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Rezaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every bank seeks methods to optimize its assets and liabilities, thus the main subject is managing assets-liabilities in the balance sheet and the main question is by which factor banks will be enabled to have an optimized combination of assets and liabilities in a common level of risk to get the most return. This case study is dedicated to Refah bank and is an applicable study. The data has collected from the headquarter by a questionnaire and finally effective factors weight on optimizing bank balance sheet determined by using Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. Results showed that revenue has more effect on optimizing for %39.5 and also loan to deposit ratio for %.74, regarding revenue as a symbol of efficiency in banks, it seems to be the most important factor and goal in banking industry. Furthermore banks need to have some liquidity to respond customers demand to cover one of the most important risks of banking. This factor importance determined to be %18 in Refah Bank by using model and experts view.

  4. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Subjects With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular Disease (CVD is developing treacherously along industrialization and development of urbanization Objectives The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus in the Minoodar district of Qazvin. Patients and Methods This analytical study was conducted on 100 subjects with diabetes and 140 subjects without diabetes in Qazvin from September 2010 to April 2011. Standardized measurements were available for waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP, fasting serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, and triglycerides (TGs. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Chi-square test. Results Overall, 12% of subjects with diabetes and 17.9% of subjects without diabetes were smokers (P = 0.277. The WC, TGs, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. The prevalence of high WC, high BP, low HDL, and high TGs were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors were higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. Lifestyle intervention programs should be focused on community education about reduction of CVD risk factors in patients with diabetes.

  5. Studies of ferroelectric heterostructure thin films and interfaces via in situ analytical techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auciello, O.; Dhote, A.; Gao, Y.; Gruen, D. M.; Im, J.; Irene, E. A.; Krauss, A. R.; Mueller, A. H.; Ramesh, R.

    1999-08-30

    The science and technology of ferroelectric thin films has experienced an explosive development during the last ten years. Low-density non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (NVFRAMs) are now incorporated in commercial products such as ''smart cards'', while high permittivity capacitors are incorporated in cellular phones. However, substantial work is still needed to develop materials integration strategies for high-density memories. We have demonstrated that the implementation of complementary in situ characterization techniques is critical to understand film growth and interface processes, which play critical roles in film microstructure and properties. We are using uniquely integrated time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) techniques to perform in situ, real-time studies of film growth processes in the high background gas pressure required to growth ferroelectric thin films. TOF-ISARS provides information on surface processes, while SE permits the investigation of buried interfaces as they are being formed. Recent studies on SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) film growth and interface processes are discussed.

  6. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  7. Comparison of analytical techniques for detection of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Barry; Lloyd, Steven W; Grimm, Casey C

    2009-09-01

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are secondary metabolites expressed by a variety of organisms that are responsible for off-flavors in public water supplies, aquaculture, and a host of other important products. Hence, there is continuing research into the causes for their expression and methods to mitigate it, which require sensitive and accurate detection methods. In recent years, several new techniques for collecting and concentrating volatile and semi-volatile compounds have been automated and commercialized, making them available for use in most laboratories. In this study, we compared solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) for the detection of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in aqueous samples. SPME is the most sensitive of these techniques with a limit of detection of 25 parts-per-trillion for 2-methylisoborneol and 10 parts-per-trillion for geosmin but with a large relative standard deviation. MASE is less sensitive, but provides a greater level of precision, as well as the ability for multiple injections from the same sample.

  8. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  9. Experimental, computational, and analytical techniques for diagnosing breast cancer using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gregory M.

    This dissertation presents the results of an investigation into experimental, computational, and analytical methodologies for diagnosing breast cancer using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. First, the optimal experimental methodology for tissue biopsy studies was determined using an animal study. It was found that the use of freshly excised tissue samples preserved the original spectral line shape and magnitude of the fluorescence and diffuse reflectance. Having established the optimal experimental methodology, a clinical study investigating the use of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer was undertaken. In addition, Monte Carlo-based models of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence were developed and validated to interpret these data. These models enable the extraction of physically meaningful information from the measured spectra, including absorber concentrations, and scattering and intrinsic fluorescence properties. The model was applied to the measured spectra, and using a support vector machine classification algorithm based on physical features extracted from the diffuse reflectance spectra, it was found that breast cancer could be diagnosed with a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92%, respectively, which are substantially better than that obtained using a conventional, empirical algorithm. It was found that malignant tissues had lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation, were more scattering, and had lower beta-carotene concentration, relative to the non-malignant tissues. It was also found that the fluorescence model could successfully extract the intrinsic fluorescence line shape from tissue samples. One limitation of the previous study is that a priori knowledge of the tissue's absorbers and scatterers is required. To address this limitation, and to improve upon the method with which fiber optic probes are designed, an alternate approach was developed. This method used a

  10. An evaluation of analytical methods, air sampling techniques, and airborne occupational exposure of metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Shaw, Don S; Shaw, M Lorraine; Julian, Jim A; McCollin, Shari-Ann; des Tombe, Karen

    2006-02-01

    This article summarizes an assessment of air sampling and analytical methods for both oil and water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Three hundred and seventy-four long-term area and personal airborne samples were collected at four plants using total (closed-face) aerosol samplers and thoracic samplers. A direct-reading device (DustTrak) was also used. The processes sampled include steel tube making, automotive component manufacturing, and small part manufacturing in a machine shop. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method PS42-97 of analysis was evaluated in the laboratory. This evaluation included sample recovery, determination of detection limits, and stability of samples during storage. Results of the laboratory validation showed (a) the sample recovery to be about 87%, (b) the detection limit to be 35 microg, and (c) sample stability during storage at room temperature to decline rapidly within a few days. To minimize sample loss, the samples should be stored in a freezer and analyzed within a week. The ASTM method should be the preferred method for assessing metalworking fluids (MWFs). The ratio of thoracic aerosol to total aerosol ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. A similar relationship was found between the thoracic extractable aerosol and total extractable aerosol. The DustTrak, with 10-microm sampling head, was useful in pinpointing the areas of potential exposure. MWF exposure at the four plants ranged from 0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3 with the geometric mean ranging between 0.22 to 0.59 mg/m3. Based on this data and the assumption of log normality, MWF exposures are expected to exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 as total mass and 0.4 mg/m3 as thoracic mass about 38% of the time. In addition to controlling airborne MWF exposure, full protection of workers would require the institution of programs for fluid management and dermal exposure prevention.

  11. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady

  12. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  13. Human factors/ergonomics implications of big data analytics: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors annual lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in sensor technology, connectedness and computational power have come together to produce huge data-sets. The treatment and analysis of these data-sets is known as big data analytics (BDA), and the somewhat related term data mining. Fields allied to human factors/ergonomics (HFE), e.g. statistics, have developed computational methods to derive meaningful, actionable conclusions from these data bases. This paper examines BDA, often characterised by volume, velocity and variety, giving examples of successful BDA use. This examination provides context by considering examples of using BDA on human data, using BDA in HFE studies, and studies of how people perform BDA. Significant issues for HFE are the reliance of BDA on correlation rather than hypotheses and theory, the ethics of BDA and the use of HFE in data visualisation.

  14. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy) and Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, A.O. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ajayi, E.O.B. [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  15. Analytical techniques for estimation of heavy metals in soil ecosystem: a tabulated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodan, Rajneet Kour; Pakade, Yogesh B; Nagpal, Avinash; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Soil, an important environmental medium, is exposed to a number of pollutants including toxic heavy metals by various natural and anthropogenic activities. Consequently heavy metal contaminated soil has the potential to pose severe health risks and hazards to humans as well as other living creatures of the ecosystem through various routes of exposure such as direct ingestion, contaminated drinking ground water, food crops, contact with contaminated soil and through food chain. Therefore, it is mandatory to explore various techniques that could efficiently determine the occurrence of heavy metals in soil. A number of methods have been developed by several regulatory agencies and private laboratories and are applied routinely for the quantification and monitoring of soil matrices. The present review is an initiative to summarize the work on pollution levels of soil ecosystem and thus pertains to various extraction and quantification procedures used worldwide to analyze heavy metals in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An analytical framework for data stream mining techniques based on challenges and requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of applications that generate massive streams of data need intelligent data processing and online analysis. Real-time surveillance systems, telecommunication systems, sensor networks and other dynamic environments are such examples. The imminent need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge augments the development of systems, algorithms and frameworks that address streaming challenges. The storage, querying and mining of such data sets are highly computationally challenging tasks. Mining data streams is concerned with extracting knowledge structures represented in models and patterns in non stopping streams of information. Generally, two main challenges are designing fast mining methods for data streams and need to promptly detect changing concepts and data distribution because of highly dynamic nature of data streams. The goal of this article is to analyze and classify the application of diverse data mining techniques in different challenges of data stream mining. In this...

  17. Systematic comparison of beta spectra calculations using improved analytical screening correction with experimental shape factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, X

    2016-03-01

    From a review of the available literature, a database of experimental shape factors from measured beta spectra was created in previous work. Classical assumptions applied in beta spectra calculations which avoid the determination of the electron and nuclear wave functions were tested by comparison with each measured spectrum present in the database. From this systematic comparison, it was demonstrated that the typical assumption λk=1 is inappropriate for all forbidden unique transitions. Moreover, the equally common ξ-approximation was also proved to be incorrect for about half of the listed first forbidden non-unique transitions and for all second non-unique ones. In present work, this study has been performed once again using an improved analytical screening correction. General results from previous study still remain the same. Except for allowed transitions, the mean energies in current nuclear databases are expected to be erroneous. Some selected beta spectra are also given to illustrate these results.

  18. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  19. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  20. Zinc phthalocyanine thin film and chemical analyte interaction studies by density functional theory and vibrational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, G S S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Kumar, Ranjan; Sathe, Vasant; Tripathi, S K

    2009-06-03

    Thin films of zinc phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method and characterized by the x-ray diffraction, optical, infrared and Raman techniques. The observed x-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra of as-deposited thin films suggest the presence of an α crystalline phase. Infrared and Raman spectra of thin films after exposure to vapours of ammonia and methanol have also been recorded. Shifts in the position of some IR and Raman bands in the spectra of exposed films have been observed. Some bands also show changes in their intensity on exposure. Increased charge on the phthalocyanine ring and out-of-plane distortion of the core due to interaction between zinc phthalocyanine and vapour molecules involving the fifth coordination site of the central metal ion may be responsible for the band shifts. Changes in the intensity of bands are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D(4h) to C(4v) due to doming of the core. Molecular parameters and Mulliken atomic charges of zinc phthalocyanine and its complexes with methanol and ammonia have been calculated from density functional theory. The binding energy of the complexes have also been calculated. Calculated values of the energy for different complexes suggest that axially coordinated vapour molecules form the most stable complex. Calculated Mulliken atomic charges show net charge transfer from vapour molecules to the phthalocyanine ring for the most stable complex.

  1. Quantification of residual crystallinity in ball milled commercially sourced lactose monohydrate by thermo-analytical techniques and terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff; Hussain, Amjad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Ermolina, Irina

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of crystallinity is necessary in order to be able to control the milling process. The use of thermal analysis for this assessment presents certain challenges, particularly in the case of crystal hydrates. In this study, the residual crystallinity on ball milling of lactose monohydrate (LMH), for periods up to 90min, was evaluated by thermo-analytical techniques (TGA, DSC) and terahertz spectroscopy (THz). In general, the results from one of the DSC analysis and the THz measurements agree showing a monotonous decrease in relative residual crystallinity with milling time (∼80% reduction after 60min milling) and a slight increase at the 90min time point. However, the estimates from TGA and two other methods of analyzing DSC curve do not agree with the former techniques and show variability with significantly higher estimates for crystallinity. It was concluded that, the thermal techniques require more complex treatment of the data in the evaluation of changes in crystallinity of a milled material (in particular to account for the de-vitrification and mutarotation of the material that inevitably occurs during the measurement cycle) while the analysis of THz data is more straightforward, with the measurement having no impact on the native state of the material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  3. Novel Applications of Lanthanoides as Analytical or Diagnostic Tools in the Life Sciences by ICP-MS-based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Larissa; Traub, Heike; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a well-established analytical method for multi-elemental analysis in particular for elements at trace and ultra-trace levels. It has found acceptance in various application areas during the last decade. ICP-MS is also more and more applied for detection in the life sciences. For these applications, ICP-MS excels by a high sensitivity, which is independent of the molecular structure of the analyte, a wide linear dynamic range and by excellent multi-element capabilities. Furthermore, methods based on ICP-MS offer simple quantification concepts, for which usually (liquid) standards are applied, low matrix effects compared to other conventional bioanalytical techniques, and relative limits of detection (LODs) in the low pg g-1 range and absolute LODs down to the attomol range. In this chapter, we focus on new applications where the multi-element capability of ICP-MS is used for detection of lanthanoides or rare earth elements, which are applied as elemental stains or tags of biomolecules and in particular of antibodies.

  4. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  5. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Technique to Access the Information beyond the Molecular Weight of the Analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibdas Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electrospray Ionization (ESI is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research.

  7. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  8. Painted Fiberglass-Reinforced Contemporary Sculpture: Investigating Composite Materials, Techniques and Conservation Using a Multi-Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Barbara; Cantisani, Emma; Colombini, Maria Perla; Tognon, Cecilia Gaia Rachele

    2016-01-01

    A multi-analytical approach was used to study the constituent materials, manufacturing technique, and state of conservation of a contemporary sculpture. This sculpture, entitled Nuredduna, was created by Aligi Sassu in 1995 and is located in the "Bellariva garden" in Florence (Italy). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), optical and electronic microscopy (OM and SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) highlighted the multi-layered structure of the statue: fiberglass and an overlay of different layers (gel coat) applied with an unsaturated polyester resin added with aggregate materials and bromine compounds. A top-coat in acrylic black varnish, used as a finish, was also found. The combination of these materials with their different compositions, environmental impact, and even vandalism have negatively affected the state of conservation of Nuredduna, causing the loss of strata in its lower parts (legs and feet).

  9. Separation and preconcentration of aluminum in parenteral solutions and bottled mineral water using different analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida F., E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Kumar, Sham [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-12-30

    A new method is reported for the separation of aluminum ions [Al(III)] from interfering elements in parenteral and pharmaceutical solutions (PS) and bottled mineral water (BMW) samples, through solid-phase extraction with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) adsorbed onto activated silica gel. While the enrichment step of separated Al(III) was carried out by cloud point extraction (CPE) using 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing reagent, the resulted complex was entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The enriched Al(III) in sample solutions were determined by spectrofluorometry (SPF) at {lambda}{sub excitation} 370 nm and {lambda}{sub emission} 510 nm, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for comparative purpose. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were studied and optimized. The validity of methodology was checked with certified reference material of water and standard addition method. The enrichment factor and detection limit of Al(III) for the preconcentration of 50 ml of PS and BMW were found to be 100 and 0.25 {mu}g/L, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amount of Al(III) in PS and BMW samples with satisfactory results. In PS the levels of Al(III) are above than permissible limit (25 {mu}g/L).

  10. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  11. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study about pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bernardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flow cytometry (FC is an increasingly required technique on which veterinary oncologists rely to have an accurate, fast, minimally invasive lymphoma or leukemia diagnosis. FC has been studied and applied with great results in canine oncology, whereas in feline oncology the use of this technique is still to be experienced. This is mainly due to a supposed discomfort in sampling, because of the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods 97 consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors’ institution FC database. The referring veterinarians were recalled and interrogated about several different variables, including signalling, features of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of being finally processed for FC. Results None of the investigated variables significantly influenced the quality of the submitted samples, but the needle size, with 21G needles providing the highest cellularity (Table 1. Notably, the samples quality did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Sample cellularity alone influenced the likelihood of being processed. About a half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling. Conclusions FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, even for intra-abdominal lesions. 21G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the bases for the spread of this minimally invasive, fast and cost-effective technique in feline medicine.

  12. Analytic validity of genetic tests to identify factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Ashkan; Crim, Matthew T; Brotman, Daniel J; Necochea, Alejandro J; Samal, Lipika; Wilson, Lisa M; Bass, Eric B; Segal, Jodi B

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically review methods for detecting Factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A. English-language literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo(c), 2000-December 2008. Studies assessed methods for detection of these mutations in at least 10 human blood samples and reported concordance, discordance, or reproducibility. Two investigators abstracted data on the sample selection criteria, test operators, DNA extraction, experimental test, reference standard, commercial instruments, concordance rates, explanation of any discordance, and whether discordance resolved after repetition. We assessed strength of the evidence using the GRADE criteria. We reviewed 7,777 titles and included 66 articles. The majority of the reviewed studies used PCR-RFLP or AS-PCR as the reference standard. The studies demonstrated that commercially available and precommercial tests have high analytic validity with all having greater than 99% concordance with the reference standard. With a few exceptions, discordance resolved with repetition of the test, suggesting operator or administrative errors were responsible for the discordant results. In the quality assurance studies, greater than 98% of laboratories demonstrated high, even perfect, accuracy when asked to diagnose a sample with a known mutation. The majority of errors came from a limited number of laboratories. Although not all methods may be accurate, there is high-grade evidence that genetic tests for the detection of FVL and prothrombin G20210A have excellent analytic validity. There is high-grade evidence that most, but not all, clinical laboratories test for FVL and prothrombin G20210A accurately.

  13. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M; Cotton Sue M; Buckby Joe A; Killackey Eoin J; Yung Alison R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has n...

  14. Impact of social factors on health practices of the elderly: an analytical study in rural Surendranagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat Nagar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased attention to health promotion and disease prevention are important for the appropriate care of the elderly. With the increasing life expectancy, a focus on preventive measures to decrease morbidity and improve quality of life in old age has also developed. To that end, health behavior and lifestyle have become important areas of concern over the last 20 years. Social factors lay a significant impact on the health practices. This study was therefore taken up to study the above factor and draw conclusions. Aims and objectives: 1. To study the various health practices of the elderly. 2. To find out association between the socio demographic features and the prevailing health practices. Methods: A Cross sectional analytical study was carried out. All the subjects were interviewed personally to know the details and were treated with due respect after a consent. Out of all the talukas in rural Surendranagar, Sayla was selected randomly after which Sayla village was selected in a similar manner from all the villages in the talukas. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 68±7.5. Majority of the subjects were unemployed and illiterate (58%. Social factors like Social class, staying with children and staying in joint family were significantly associated with good health practices. Conclusions: The Health practices of the elderly can be improved upon by large scale health education programmes which can be targeted on the age group. Patient compliance improvement can be achieved by explaining them about the disease and treatment protocol in detail at the time of their health visit. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 116-122

  15. Analytic parallel-polarized light imaging technique using various light-emitting diodes: a comparison with skin conductance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Choi, J E; Ryu, H J; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2015-05-01

    The quantitative difference of the light reflected from a skin surface can be analyzed using parallel-polarized light (PPL) photography when combined with an analytic technique similar to colorimetric photography. To improve the PPL photography technique as an assessment tool for the evaluation of skin condition using light-emitting diodes (LED) of different colors. Parallel-polarized light images were taken using white and green LED illuminators. The acquired images were transformed to CIELAB coordinates. An in-house skin conductance meter was constructed to assess skin hydration level. A dermatologist evaluated the clinical grading of dryness and glossiness. These clinical severities were also compared statistically with the CIELAB values. As with the green illuminator, the correlation analysis of whole sites showed that the L* value positively correlated with age (r = 0.18677, P light was applied. In addition, coherent relationships between the grade of dryness and skin conductance values showed that visual assessment could be appropriate for the study as with objective measurement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fabrication techniques for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and their applications for biological testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanyan; Si, Jin; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-03-15

    Paper is increasingly recognized as a user-friendly and ubiquitous substrate for construction of microfluidic devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) provide an alternative technology for development of affordable, portable, disposable and low-cost diagnostic tools for improving point of care testing (POCT) and disease screening in the developing world, especially in those countries with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. We in this review present fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices and their respective applications for biological detection as reported to date. These include: (i) fabrication techniques: examples of devices fabricated by using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) methods; (ii) detection application: biochemical, immunological and molecular detection by incorporating efficient detection methods such as, colorimetric detection, electrochemical detection, fluorescence detection, chemiluminescence (CL) detection, electrochemiluninescence (ECL) detection, photoelectrochemi (PEC) detection and so on. In addition, main advantages, disadvantages and future trends for the devices are also discussed in this review.

  17. Factor Structure of Scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of 45 Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jody A.; Vassar, Matt; Wheeler, Denna L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a summary of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies that examined the internal structure of scores obtained from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). It highlights characteristics of the studies that account for differences in reporting of the MBI factor structure. This approach includes an examination of the…

  18. A factor analytic and psychometric examination of pathology of separation-individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, D K; Aalsma, M C; Varshney, N M

    2001-07-01

    Two studies are described that attempt to determine if standard-scale-reduction techniques could yield a construct-valid diagnostic screen of pathology of separation-individuation for use in nonclinical university settings. In Study 1 (N = 210), a measure of pathology of separation-individuation (PATHSEP) was reduced successfully to a single, internally consistent factor, accounting for 36% of the variance. In Study 2 (N = 304), these items also coalesced around a single factor, accounting for 35% of the variance. Study 2 also showed that PATHSEP is correlated moderately and positively with indices of insecure attachment, with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and with indices of psychiatric symptomatology (Hopkins Symptom Checklist). PATHSEP also was associated with a poorer profile of adjustment to college. Males reported more pathology of separation-individuation than did females. Evidence supports the construct validity of a shortened version of PATHSEP. Directions for future research are noted. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Establishment of a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, imaging and quantification of gold nanoparticles in animals by radiotracer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lin, Fong-Sian; Liao, Wei-Neng; Liang, Sanching L; Chen, Min-Hua; Chen, Yo-Wen; Lin, Wan-Yu; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Wang, Mei-Ya; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Chou, Fong-In; Chen, Ching-Ya; Chen, Sih-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chen, Jen-Kun

    2015-01-06

    This study aims to establish a (198)Au-radiotracer technique for in vivo tracing, rapid quantification, and ex vivo visualization of PEGylated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in animals, organs and tissue dissections. The advantages of GNPs lie in its superior optical property, biocompatibility and versatile conjugation chemistry, which are promising to develop diagnostic probes and drug delivery systems. (198)Au is used as a radiotracer because it simultaneously emits beta and gamma radiations with proper energy and half-life; therefore, (198)Au can be used for bioanalytical purposes. The (198)Au-tagged radioactive gold nanoparticles ((198)Au-GNPs) were prepared simply by irradiating the GNPs in a nuclear reactor through the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction and subsequently the (198)Au-GNPs were subjected to surface modification with polyethylene glycol to form PEGylated (198)Au-GNPs. The (198)Au-GNPs retained physicochemical properties that were the same as those of GNP before neutron irradiation. Pharmacokinetic and biodisposition studies were performed by intravenously injecting three types of (198)Au-GNPs with or without PEGylation into mice; the γ radiation in blood specimens and dissected organs was then measured. The (198)Au-radiotracer technique enables rapid quantification freed from tedious sample preparation and shows more than 95% recovery of injected GNPs. Clinical gamma scintigraphy was proved feasible to explore spatial- and temporal-resolved biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in living animals. Moreover, autoradiography, which recorded beta particles from (198)Au, enabled visualizing the heterogeneous biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in different microenvironments and tissues. In this study, the (198)Au-radiotracer technique facilitated creating a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, quantifying and imaging GNPs in animals.

  20. A smog chamber comparison of a microfluidic derivatisation measurement of gas-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal with other analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair; Rickard, Andrew R.; Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Adams, Thomas J.; Ball, Stephen M.; Goodall, Iain C. A.; Monks, Paul S.; Peppe, Salvatore; Ródenas García, Milagros; Sánchez, Pilar; Muñoz, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatisation technique has been developed to measure part per billion (ppbV) mixing ratios of gaseous glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY), and the method is compared with other techniques in a smog chamber experiment. The method uses o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as a derivatisation reagent and a microfabricated planar glass micro-reactor comprising an inlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a heated capillary reaction microchannel. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the micro-reactor result in a fast and highly efficient derivatisation reaction, generating an effluent stream ready for direct introduction to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). A linear response for GLY was observed over a calibration range 0.7 to 400 ppbV, and for MGLY of 1.2 to 300 ppbV, when derivatised under optimal reaction conditions. The analytical performance shows good accuracy (6.6 % for GLY and 7.5 % for MGLY), suitable precision (< 12.0 %) and method detection limits (MDLs) (75 pptV for GLY and 185 pptV for MGLY) with a time resolution of 30 minutes. These MDLs are below or close to typical concentrations of these compounds observed in ambient air. The microfluidic derivatisation technique would be appropriate for ambient α-dicarbonyl measurements in a range of field environments based on its performance in a large-scale outdoor atmospheric simulation chamber (EUPHORE). The feasibility of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology to quantify of α-dicarbonyls formed during the photo-oxidation of isoprene in the EUPHORE chamber. Good correlations were found between microfluidic measurements and Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR) with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.84, Broad Band Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS) (r2 = 0.75), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) (r2 = 0.89), and a

  1. Modelling and assessment of dependent performance shaping factors through Analytic Network Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ambroggi, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.deambroggi@mail.polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20132 (Italy); Trucco, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20132 (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Despite continuous progresses in research and applications, one of the major weaknesses of current HRA methods dwells in their limited capability of modelling the mutual influences between performance shaping factors (PSFs). Indeed at least two types of dependencies between PSFs can be defined: (i) dependency between the states of the PSFs; (ii) dependency between the influences (impacts) of the PSFs on the human performance. This paper introduces a method, based on Analytic Network Process (ANP), for the quantification of the latter, where the overall contribution of each PSF (weight) to the human error probability (HEP) is eventually returned. The core of the method is the modelling process, articulated into two steps: firstly, a qualitative network of dependencies between PSFs is identified, then, the importance of each PSF is quantitatively assessed using ANP. The model allows to distinguish two components of the PSF influence: direct influence that is the influence that the considered PSF is able to express by itself, notwithstanding the presence of other PSFs and indirect influence that is the incremental influence of the considered PSF through its influence on other PSFs. A case study in Air Traffic Control is presented where the proposed approach is integrated into the cognitive simulator PROCOS. The results demonstrated a significant modification of the influence of PSFs over the operator performance when dependencies are taken into account, underlining the importance of considering not only the possible correlation between the states of PSFs but also their mutual dependency in affecting human performance in complex systems.

  2. Scenes for Social Information Processing in Adolescence: Item and factor analytic procedures for psychometric appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagos, Paula; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about measures used to investigate the validity and applications of social information processing theory. The Scenes for Social Information Processing in Adolescence includes items built using a participatory approach to evaluate the attribution of intent, emotion intensity, response evaluation, and response decision steps of social information processing. We evaluated a sample of 802 Portuguese adolescents (61.5% female; mean age = 16.44 years old) using this instrument. Item analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures were used for psychometric examination. Two measures for attribution of intent were produced, including hostile and neutral; along with 3 emotion measures, focused on negative emotional states; 8 response evaluation measures; and 4 response decision measures, including prosocial and impaired social behavior. All of these measures achieved good internal consistency values and fit indicators. Boys seemed to favor and choose overt and relational aggression behaviors more often; girls conveyed higher levels of neutral attribution, sadness, and assertiveness and passiveness. The Scenes for Social Information Processing in Adolescence achieved adequate psychometric results and seems a valuable alternative for evaluating social information processing, even if it is essential to continue investigation into its internal and external validity.

  3. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  4. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Pipatprapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.

  5. The Structure of Negative Self-Statements in Children and Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniering, Carolyn A.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the nature and organization of a range of negative self-statements in children and adolescents, using a structural equations/confirmatory factor-analytic approach. A community sample of 978 children aged 7-16 years completed a questionnaire about the frequency with which they experienced a broad range of…

  6. Rapid Late Holocene glacier fluctuations reconstructed from South Georgia lake sediments using novel analytical and numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Werner, Johannes; Paasche, Øyvind; Rosqvist, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    The collapse of ice shelves, rapidly retreating glaciers and a dramatic recent temperature increase show that Southern Ocean climate is rapidly shifting. Also, instrumental and modelling data demonstrate transient interactions between oceanic and atmospheric forcings as well as climatic teleconnections with lower-latitude regions. Yet beyond the instrumental period, a lack of proxy climate timeseries impedes our understanding of Southern Ocean climate. Also, available records often lack the resolution and chronological control required to resolve rapid climate shifts like those observed at present. Alpine glaciers are found on most Southern Ocean islands and quickly respond to shifts in climate through changes in mass balance. Attendant changes in glacier size drive variations in the production of rock flour, the suspended product of glacial erosion. This climate response may be captured by downstream distal glacier-fed lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Sediment records from such lakes are considered prime sources for paleoclimate reconstructions. Here, we present the first reconstruction of Late Holocene glacier variability from the island of South Georgia. Using a toolbox of advanced physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies, in combination with state-of-the-art numerical techniques, we fingerprinted a glacier signal from glacier-fed lake sediments. This lacustrine sediment signal was subsequently calibrated against mapped glacier extent with the help of geomorphological moraine evidence and remote sensing techniques. The outlined approach enabled us to robustly resolve variations of a complex glacier at sub-centennial timescales, while constraining the sedimentological imprint of other geomorphic catchment processes. From a paleoclimate perspective, our reconstruction reveals a dynamic Late Holocene climate, modulated by long-term shifts in regional circulation patterns. We also find evidence for rapid medieval glacier retreat as well as a

  7. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds.

  8. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  9. Chemical and process mineralogical characterizations of spent lithium-ion batteries: an approach by multi-analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; He, Yaqun; Wang, Fangfang; Ge, Linhan; Zhu, Xiangnan; Li, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Mineral processing operation is a critical step in any recycling process to realize liberation, separation and concentration of the target parts. Developing effective recycling methods to recover all the valuable parts from spent lithium-ion batteries is in great necessity. The aim of this study is to carefully undertake chemical and process mineralogical characterizations of spent lithium-ion batteries by coupling several analytical techniques to provide basic information for the researches on effective mechanical crushing and separation methods in recycling process. The results show that the grade of Co, Cu and Al is fairly high in spent lithium ion batteries and up to 17.62 wt.%, 7.17 wt.% and 21.60 wt.%. Spent lithium-ion batteries have good selective crushing property, the crushed products could be divided into three parts, they are Al-enriched fraction (+2 mm), Cu and Al-enriched fraction (-2+0.25 mm) and Co and graphite-enriched fraction (-0.25 mm). The mineral phase and chemical state analysis reveal the electrode materials recovered from -0.25 mm size fraction keep the original crystal forms and chemical states in lithium-ion batteries, but the surface of the powders has been coated by a certain kind of hydrocarbon. Based on these results a flowsheet to recycle spent LiBs is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A finite volume approach to the problem of heat transfer in axisymmetric annulus geometry with internal heating element using local analytical solution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, A. [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2014-11-15

    In this paper we implement the local analytical solution technique to the problem of heat transfer in axisymmetric annulus geometry with internal heating element. This method has shown to be very accurate in estimating the temperature field for axisymmetric problems even for coarse mesh. It is shown that this method reduces to the analytical solution for unidirectional heat transfer in the radial direction in homogeneous media. The technique is based on finding an analytical expression for the temperature field in the radial direction within each grid cell. This means that the temperature field in each cell is allowed to change in a nonlinear fashion along the radial direction. We compare this technique with the traditional finite volume technique and show that; with only few cells in the radial direction, this technique arrives at the mesh-independent solution quite accurately whereas it required denser mesh to arrive closer to this solution using traditional techniques. This method is proposed to the 1D codes that are currently being used to simulate thermalhydraulic characteristics of reactor systems. Furthermore, we also implement the experimental temperature field algorithm in which the governing equations are approximated for each cell as it would without extra manipulation to the governing equations. This technique is very simple and separates the physics from the solving part.

  11. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    Full Text Available Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d'Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques.Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-, in the middle (Middle- and immediately after (Post- Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2α and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA; Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit and urine parameters by standard analyses.Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 μmol.min-1, oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2α: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine, inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1 and lactate production (+190%, associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7% and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76% was found.The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and transporting samples for further analysis

  12. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  13. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  14. The Advance of Analytical Techniques for Combinatorial Chemistry%组合化学分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌伟民; 黄明智; 黄可龙; 闵忠诚; 张泉

    2005-01-01

      综述了近几年组合化学分析方法的研究进展。在组合化学中得到广泛应用的分析方法有传统的荧光法、比色法、滴定法、燃烧法、元素分析和分光光度法等及现代的红外光谱(FT-IR)、质谱(MS)和质谱联用,核磁共振和近年发展起来的魔角旋转核磁共振(MAS NMR)以及高通量筛选和分析等技术。这些方法各有特点,广泛使用于组合化学中,使组合化学的监测和分析变得便捷和迅速,大大加快了组合化学的发展。%  The advances in analytical techniques for combinatorial chemistry were reviewed in this paper. The methods included conventional fluorometric assay, colorimetric test, titrimetric, combustion elemental, spectrophotometric analysis and modern FT-IR, MS, mass spectrometric hyphenated, NMR and magic angle spinning NMR as well as high-throughput screening and analysis are widely applied in combinatorial chemistry. These methods which allow the convenient monitoring and fast analysis in combinatorial chemistry will accelerate greatly the development of combinatorial chemistry.

  15. Field-flow fractionation as analytical technique for the characterization of dry yeast: correlation with wine fermentation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ramsés; Galceran, Ma Teresa; Puignou, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Important oenological properties of wine depend on the winemaking yeast used in the fermentation process. There is considerable controversy about the quality of yeast, and a simple and cheap analytical methodology for quality control of yeast is needed. Gravitational field flow fractionation (GFFF) was used to characterize several commercial active dry wine yeasts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and to assess the quality of the raw material before use. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed using two different S. cerevisiae strains as inocula, and GFFF was used to follow the behavior of yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. The viable/nonviable cell ratio was obtained by flow cytometry (FC) using propidium iodide as fluorescent dye. In each experiment, the amount of dry wine yeast to be used was calculated in order to provide the same quantity of viable cells. Kinetic studies of the fermentation process were performed controlling the density of the must, from 1.071 to 0.989 (20/20 density), and the total residual sugars, from 170 to 3 g/L. During the wine fermentation process, differences in the peak profiles obtained by GFFF between the two types of commercial yeasts that can be related with the unlike cell growth were observed. Moreover, the strains showed different fermentation kinetic profiles that could be correlated with the corresponding fractograms monitored by GFFF. These results allow optimism that sedimentation FFF techniques could be successfully used for quality assessment of the raw material and to predict yeast behavior during yeast-based bioprocesses such as wine production.

  16. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  17. Characterization and Source Term Assessments of Radioactive Particles from Marshall Islands Using Non-Destructive Analytical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstrom, J; Eriksson, M; Simon, R; Tamborini, G; Bildstein, O; Carlos-Marquez, R; Kehl, S R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T

    2005-06-11

    A considerable fraction of radioactivity entering the environment from different nuclear events is associated with particles. The impact of these events can only be fully assessed where there is some knowledge about the mobility of particle bound radionuclides entering the environment. The behavior of particulate radionuclides is dependent on several factors, including the physical, chemical and redox state of the environment, the characteristics of the particles (e.g., the chemical composition, crystallinity and particle size) and on the oxidative state of radionuclides contained in the particles. Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized using non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. By determining the activity of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes from their gamma peaks structural information related to Pu matrix was obtained, and the source term was revealed. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}-XRF) spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEMEDX) and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups; particles with plain Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogeneously distributed. All of the particles were identified as fragments of initial weapons material. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, {approx}2-6%, which corresponds to weapons grade plutonium, the source term was identified to be among the safety tests conducted in the history of Runit Island.

  18. Do the Critical Success Factors from Learning Analytics Predict Student Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with a detailed literature review of recent studies that focused on using learning analytics software or learning management system data to determine the nature of any relationships between online student activity and their academic outcomes within university-level business courses. The article then describes how data was…

  19. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  20. Big data analytics from strategic planning to enterprise integration with tools, techniques, NoSQL, and graph

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, David

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics will assist managers in providing an overview of the drivers for introducing big data technology into the organization and for understanding the types of business problems best suited to big data analytics solutions, understanding the value drivers and benefits, strategic planning, developing a pilot, and eventually planning to integrate back into production within the enterprise. Guides the reader in assessing the opportunities and value propositionOverview of big data hardware and software architecturesPresents a variety of te

  1. A Factor Analytic Study of the Beck Depression Inventory for Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedl, John J., Jr.

    Previous factor studies of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) have not analyzed the item data as a function of sex, or reported more than one factor solution. To further study the factor structure of the BDI, items were factor analyzed and multiple solutions were examined for simple structure, parsimony, and psychological meaningfulness. A sample…

  2. Examination of the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as the emerging laser-based analytical tool for analyzing trace elements in coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Mahidin, Hedwig, R.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its superior advantageous over the conventional analytical tools, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique nowadays is becoming an emerging analytical tools and it is expected to be new future super star of analytical tool. This technique is based on the use of optical emission from the laser-induced plasma for analyzing spectrochemically the constituent and content of the sampled object. The capability of this technique is examined on analysis of trace elements in coal sample. Coal is one difficult sample to analyze due to its complex chemical composition and physical properties. It is inherent that coal contains trace element including heavy metal, thus mining, beneficiation and utilization poses hazard to environment and to human beings. The LIBS apparatus used was composed by a laser system (Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and optical detector (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny-Turner) equipped with Andor I*Star intensified CCD 1024×256 pixels. The emitted laser was focused onto coal sample with a focusing lens of +250 mm. The plasma emission was collected by a fiber optics and sent to the the spectrograph. The coal samples were taken from Province of Aceh. As the results, several trace elements including heavy metal (As, Mn, Pb) can surely be observed, implying the eventuality of LIBS technique to analysis the presence of trace element in coal.

  3. The Human Factors of Graphic Interaction: Tasks and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    representation an interaction technique diagram. Our diagrams are not as detailed as the Labanotation [HUTC70], but unlike that notation they represent more...Conference Proceedings on Data Handling Devices (1970), 8. HUTC70 Hutchinson, A., " Labanotation ", Theatre Arts Books, New York (1970). IRVI76 Irving

  4. A technique coupling the analyte electrodeposition followed by in-situ stripping with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis of samples with high NaCl contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čánský, Zdeněk; Rychlovský, Petr; Petrová, Zuzana; Matousek, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    A technique coupling the analyte electrodeposition followed by in-situ stripping with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed for determination of lead and cadmium in samples with high salt contents. To separate the analyte from the sample matrix, the analyte was in-situ quantitatively electrodeposited on a platinum sampling capillary serving as the cathode (sample volume, 20 μL). The spent electrolyte containing the sample matrix was then withdrawn, the capillary with the analyte deposited was washed with deionized water and the analyte was stripped into a chemically simple electrolyte (5 g/L NH 4H 2PO 4) by reversing the polarity of the electrodeposition circuit. Electrothermal atomization using a suitable optimized temperature program followed. A fully automated manifold was designed for this coupled technique and the appropriate control software was developed. The operating conditions for determination of Pb and Cd in samples with high contents of inorganic salts were optimized, the determination was characterized by principal analytical parameters and its applicability was verified on analyses of urine reference samples. The absolute limits of detection for lead and cadmium (3 σ criterion) in a sample containing 30 g/L NaCl were 8.5 pg and 2.3 pg, respectively (peak absorbance) and the RSD values amounted to 1.6% and 1.9% for lead (at the 40 ng mL - 1 level) and cadmium (at the 4.0 ng mL - 1 level), respectively. These values (and also the measuring sensitivity) are superior to the results attained in conventional electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb and Cd in pure solutions (5 g/L NH 4H 2PO 4). The sensitivity of the Pb and Cd determination is not affected by the NaCl concentration up to a value of 100 g/L, demonstrating an efficient matrix removal during the electrodeposition step.

  5. Characterizing Subcore Heterogeneity: A New Analytical Model and Technique to Observe the Spatial Variation of Transverse Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Maartje; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Sam

    2015-04-01

    Transverse dispersion, the lateral spread of chemical components in an aqueous solution caused by small heterogeneities in a rock, plays an important role in spreading, mixing and reaction during flow through porous media. Conventionally, transverse dispersion has been determined with the use of an annular core device and concentration measurements of the effluent (Blackwell, 1962; Hassinger and Von Rosenberg, 1968) or concentration measurements at probe locations along the core (Han et al, 1985; Harleman and Rumer, 1963). Both methods were designed around an analytical model of the transport equations assuming a single constant for the transverse dispersion coefficient, which is used to analyse the experimental data. We have developed a new core flood test with the aim of characterising chemical transport and dispersion directly in three dimensions to (1) produce higher precision observations of transverse dispersion than has been possible before and (2) so that the effects of rock heterogeneity on transport can also be observed and summarised using statistical descriptions allowing for a more nuanced picture of transport than allowed by description with a single transverse dispersion coefficient. The dispersion of a NaI aqueous solution injected into a Berea sandstone rock core was visualised in 3D with the use of a medical x-ray CT scanner. A device consisting out of three annular regions was used for injection. Water was injected into the centre and outer annular region and a NaI aqueous solution was injected in the middle annular region. An analytical solution to the flow and transport equations for this new inlet configuration was derived to design the tests. The Berea sandstone core was 20 cm long and had a diameter of 7.62cm. The core flood experiments were carried out for Peclet nr 0.5 and Peclet nr 2. At steady state, x-ray images were taken every 0.2 cm along the core. This resulted in a high quality 3D digital data set of the concentration distribution

  6. Analytical Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  7. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  8. Online hourly determination of 62 VOCs in ambient air: system evaluation and comparison with another two analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durana, Nieves; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Luclo; García, José A; Ilardia, Juan L; Gómez, M Carmen; Gangoiti, Gotzon

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents results of the processing and validation of data collected by an automatic gas chromatograph (AGC). This system was used to monitor 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air in the Basque Country, Spain. The nonpolar compounds (C2-C10) identified-paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and chlorinated compounds-accounted for 88% of the mass of total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs) in ambient air. The evaluation of linearity, precision, detection limits (DLs), and stability of retention times (RTs) indicates that the equipment is suitable for measuring ambient air automatically for prolonged periods (6 months). The calibration of the equipment using response factors calculated on the basis of the effective carbon number (ECN) showed variations of over 10% for acetylene, isoprene, and n-hexane. The results provided by the automatic chromatograph correlated significantly with simultaneous results from other widely used techniques for determining VOCs in ambient air: (1) portable GC, equipped with photoionization detector (PID), and (2) active adsorption on Tenax-TA followed by thermal desorption and chromatographic analysis.

  9. Learning Analytics and Computational Techniques for Detecting and Evaluating Patterns in Learning: An Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Sherin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The learning sciences community's interest in learning analytics (LA) has been growing steadily over the past several years. Three recent symposia on the theme (at the American Educational Research Association 2011 and 2012 annual conferences, and the International Conference of the Learning Sciences 2012), organized by Paulo Blikstein, led…

  10. Exploring the Efficacy of Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Basic Behavior Analytic Techniques to Oral Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, Maija M.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; DeMattei, Ronda; Baker, Jonathan C.; Scaglia, Fiorella

    2012-01-01

    Performing oral care procedures with children with autism who exhibit noncompliance can be challenging for oral care professionals. Previous research has elucidated a number of effective behavior analytic procedures for increasing compliance, but some procedures are likely to be too time consuming and expensive for community-based oral care…

  11. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Automatic Screening of Amblyogenic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenwyk, Jonathan; Agah, Arvin; Giangiacomo, Joseph; Cibis, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop a low-cost automated video system to effectively screen children aged 6 months to 6 years for amblyogenic factors. Methods In 1994 one of the authors (G.C.) described video vision development assessment, a digitizable analog video-based system combining Brückner pupil red reflex imaging and eccentric photorefraction to screen young children for amblyogenic factors. The images were analyzed manually with this system. We automated the capture of digital video frames and pupil images and applied computer vision and artificial intelligence to analyze and interpret results. The artificial intelligence systems were evaluated by a tenfold testing method. Results The best system was the decision tree learning approach, which had an accuracy of 77%, compared to the “gold standard” specialist examination with a “refer/do not refer” decision. Criteria for referral were strabismus, including microtropia, and refractive errors and anisometropia considered to be amblyogenic. Eighty-two percent of strabismic individuals were correctly identified. High refractive errors were also correctly identified and referred 90% of the time, as well as significant anisometropia. The program was less correct in identifying more moderate refractive errors, below +5 and less than −7. Conclusions Although we are pursuing a variety of avenues to improve the accuracy of the automated analysis, the program in its present form provides acceptable cost benefits for detecting ambylogenic factors in children aged 6 months to 6 years. PMID:19277222

  13. Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chin-Bong; Park, Peom; Kim, Young-Ho; Susan Hallbeck, M; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2009-03-01

    This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

  14. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, organic matter. The presence of molecular formulas which plot in the aromatic and condensed aromatics regions also indicates that this fraction may have contributions from a second, more recalcitrant, organic carbon pool. The appearance of aromatic and condensed aromatic compounds could suggest that, in this fraction the fire induced condensation processes. In the burnt fine fraction, two different SOM sources of alteration could be identified; i) from microbial origin with high relative intensity of lipid-like and protein-like compounds and ii) fire origin with large amounts of condensed aromatic compounds and a high contribution from the carbohydrate-like compounds region. We suggest that these results indicate both, condensation processes yielding black carbon like materials and additions

  15. Ideal, nonideal, and no-marker variables: The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique works when it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry J; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-09-01

    A persistent concern in the management and applied psychology literature is the effect of common method variance on observed relations among variables. Recent work (i.e., Richardson, Simmering, & Sturman, 2009) evaluated 3 analytical approaches to controlling for common method variance, including the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique. Their findings indicated significant problems with this technique, especially with nonideal marker variables (those with theoretical relations with substantive variables). Based on their simulation results, Richardson et al. concluded that not correcting for method variance provides more accurate estimates than using the CFA marker technique. We reexamined the effects of using marker variables in a simulation study and found the degree of error in estimates of a substantive factor correlation was relatively small in most cases, and much smaller than error associated with making no correction. Further, in instances in which the error was large, the correlations between the marker and substantive scales were higher than that found in organizational research with marker variables. We conclude that in most practical settings, the CFA marker technique yields parameter estimates close to their true values, and the criticisms made by Richardson et al. are overstated. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A comparison between active and passive techniques for measurements of radon emanation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Coto, I. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: Israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es; Mas, J.L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada I, E.U.P., University of Seville, Seville (Spain); San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, I.I.T. Kharagpur, West Bengal (India)

    2009-05-15

    Some radon related parameters have been determined through two different techniques (passive and active) in soil and phosphogypsum samples. Emanation factors determined through these techniques show a good agreement for soil samples while for phosphogympsum samples appear large discrepancies. In this paper, these discrepancies are analyzed and explained if non-controlled radon leakages in the passive technique are taken into account.

  17. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  18. Critical Success Factors of Customers Experience in Iranian Banks and their Ranking by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariddeddin Allameh Haery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the importance of experiences is uncovered to any businesses especially in service offering segments. Businesses can insure success by creating optimized experiences for their customer. This article seeks to enrich the understanding of critical success factors of customer experience by providing an overview of existing CFS literature and suggesting and prioritizing the specific elements of critical success factors of customer experience in order to improve bank’s services. For this purpose we conduct a survey by participation of 384 bank’s customers. Analytic hierarchical process has been applied in order to determine and prioritize the critical success factors. Results suggest that from the viewpoint of customers, behavioral aspect possesses the highest priority among all the other factors and cognitive element has the second priority. Also sub-criteria comparison result indicate that sub-factors of employee, service process, speed, physical evidence, marketing mix and convenience are ranked first to sixth between other sub-factors. In addition by calculating inconsistency rate of pair-wise comparison, consistency of these factors is also acceptable.

  19. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Jane; Meares, Kevin; Wilkinson, Andrew; Freeston, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Since its emergence in the early 1990s, a narrow but concentrated body of research has developed examining the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in worry, and yet we still know little about its phenomenology. In an attempt to clarify our understanding of this construct, this paper traces the way in which our understanding and definition of IU have evolved throughout the literature. This paper also aims to further our understanding of IU by exploring the latent variables measures by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas & Ladouceur, 1994). A review of the literature surrounding IU confirmed that the current definitions are categorical and lack specificity. A critical review of existing factor analytic studies was carried out in order to determine the underlying factors measured by the IUS. Systematic searches yielded 9 papers for review. Two factors with 12 consistent items emerged throughout the exploratory studies, and the stability of models containing these two factors was demonstrated in subsequent confirmatory studies. It is proposed that these factors represent (i) desire for predictability and an active engagement in seeking certainty, and (ii) paralysis of cognition and action in the face of uncertainty. It is suggested that these factors may represent approach and avoidance responses to uncertainty. Further research is required to confirm the construct validity of these factors and to determine the stability of this structure within clinical samples.

  20. Analytic system problems and J-lossless coprime factorization for infinite-dimensional linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper extends the coprime factorization approach to the synthesis of internally stabilizing controllers satisfying an H-infinity-norm bound to a class of systems with irrational transfer matrices. Using the coprime factorization description, the H-infinity-control problem can be reduced to two

  1. Analytic system problems and J-lossless coprime factorization for infinite-dimensional linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, R

    This paper extends the coprime factorization approach to the synthesis of internally stabilizing controllers satisfying an H-infinity-norm bound to a class of systems with irrational transfer matrices. Using the coprime factorization description, the H-infinity-control problem can be reduced to two

  2. Existential Measurement: A Factor Analytic Study of Some Current Psychometric Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauberger, Patrick C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Research in existentialism and ontology has given rise to several psychometric instruments. Used both exploratory and confirmatory principal-factor analyses to study relationships among 16 existential scales. Exploratory factor analysis provided some support of the theory that the avoidance of existential confrontation is a central function of…

  3. Factor Analytic Replication and Model Comparison of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splett, Joni Williams; Raborn, Anthony; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Binney, Alexandra J; Chafouleas, Sandra M

    2017-03-06

    We conducted this study to add to literature of previous conflicting factorial examinations of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS), Teacher Form-Child/Adolescent. Data were collected by an urban school district in the southeastern United States including 2,228 students rated by 120 teachers in Fall 2014 and 1,955 students rated by 104 teachers in Spring 2015. In both samples, we replicated and then conceptually and statistically compared factor models to examine the (a) 4-factor structure from which the BESS Teacher Form was developed, and (b) existence of a general factor currently being used. Previous studies examined the 4-factor and bifactor structure of the BESS Teacher Form on separate samples. Our model comparison results support a multidimensional interpretation. We recovered similar fit statistics and standardized factor loadings as previous factor analyses. However, measures of variance accounted for by the general factor were below recommended thresholds of a unidimensional construct. We recommend advancing a factorial model that represents a weighted combination of general and specific factors, but do not support continued use of a unidimensional total T score. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Analytical solutions of the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations based on the Mellin transform technique in NLO approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present a new and efficient analytical solutions for evolving the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in Mellin space and obtain the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in perturbative QCD including the QED corrections. The validity of our analytical solutions, which have done in the next to leading order QCD and the leading order QED approximations, are checked with the initial parton distributions from newly released CT14QED global analysis code (Schmidt et al., 2016 [9]). The evolved parton distribution functions are in good agreement with CT14QED PDFs set and also with those from APFEL (Bertone et al., 2014 [7]) program. Finally, we derived the impact of the NLO QED corrections to the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations.

  5. A Factor Analytic Model of Drug-Related Behavior in Adolescence and Its Impact on Arrests at Multiple Stages of the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Recognizing the inherent variability of drug-related behaviors, this study develops an empirically-driven and holistic model of drug-related behavior during adolescence using factor analysis to simultaneously model multiple drug behaviors. The factor analytic model uncovers latent dimensions of drug-related behaviors, rather than patterns of individuals. These latent dimensions are treated as empirical typologies which are then used to predict an individual's number of arrests accrued at multiple phases of the life course. The data are robust enough to simultaneously capture drug behavior measures typically considered in isolation in the literature, and to allow for behavior to change and evolve over the period of adolescence. Results show that factor analysis is capable of developing highly descriptive patterns of drug offending, and that these patterns have great utility in predicting arrests. Results further demonstrate that while drug behavior patterns are predictive of arrests at the end of adolescence for both males and females, the impacts on arrests are longer lasting for females. The various facets of drug behaviors have been a long-time concern of criminological research. However, the ability to model multiple behaviors simultaneously is often constrained by data that do not measure the constructs fully. Factor analysis is shown to be a useful technique for modeling adolescent drug involvement patterns in a way that accounts for the multitude and variability of possible behaviors, and in predicting future negative life outcomes, such as arrests.

  6. The Impact of Business Analytics on Management Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    The concept of 'analytics' has gained great interest in the academic literature but mostly for practical management since its formal show in the beginning of 2000. Analytics provide an integrated environment for predictive and descriptive modeling, data mining, text analytics, forecasting......, optimization, simulation, and experimental design and several other methodologies and techniques, whereas Analytical Performance Management (APM) means a systematic exploration of quantitative relationships among performance management factors. However, most of the discussion and development so far has been...

  7. The Impact of Business Analytics on Management Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    The concept of 'analytics' has gained great interest in the academic literature but mostly for practical management since its formal show in the beginning of 2000. Analytics provide an integrated environment for predictive and descriptive modeling, data mining, text analytics, forecasting......, optimization, simulation, and experimental design and several other methodologies and techniques, whereas Analytical Performance Management (APM) means a systematic exploration of quantitative relationships among performance management factors. However, most of the discussion and development so far has been...

  8. A Note on Sample Size and Solution Propriety for Confirmatory Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis L.; Voth, Jennifer; Frey, Marc P.

    2013-01-01

    Determining an appropriate sample size for use in latent variable modeling techniques has presented ongoing challenges to researchers. In particular, small sample sizes are known to present concerns over sampling error for the variances and covariances on which model estimation is based, as well as for fit indexes and convergence failures. The…

  9. Internet-Induced Marketing Techniques: Critical Factors in Viral Marketing Campaigns.

    OpenAIRE

    Woerdl, M.; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Bourlakis, Michael A.; Li, Feng

    2008-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are t...

  10. Analytical Assessment of the Q-Factor due to Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan; Pachnicke; Edgar; Voges

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of cross-phase modulation on NRZ modulated WDM systems. The impairments due to XPM will be related to a Q-factor and the effects of dispersion management will be covered.

  11. Application of surface plasmon resonance for the detection of carbohydrates, glycoconjugates, and measurement of the carbohydrate-specific interactions: a comparison with conventional analytical techniques. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Gulnara

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrates (glycans) and their conjugates with proteins and lipids contribute significantly to many biological processes. That makes these compounds important targets to be detected, monitored and identified. The identification of the carbohydrate content in their conjugates with proteins and lipids (glycoforms) is often a challenging task. Most of the conventional instrumental analytical techniques are time-consuming and require tedious sample pretreatment and utilising various labeling agents. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been intensively developed during last two decades and has received the increasing attention for different applications, from the real-time monitoring of affinity bindings to biosensors. SPR does not require any labels and is capable of direct measurement of biospecific interaction occurring on the sensing surface. This review provides a critical comparison of modern analytical instrumental techniques with SPR in terms of their analytical capabilities to detect carbohydrates, their conjugates with proteins and lipids and to study the carbohydrate-specific bindings. A few selected examples of the SPR approaches developed during 2004-2011 for the biosensing of glycoforms and for glycan-protein affinity studies are comprehensively discussed.

  12. [application of the analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques for detection, identification and visualization of localization of nanoparticles of titanium and cerium oxides in mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebanova, A S; Bogdanov, A G; Ismagulova, T T; Feofanov, A V; Semenyuk, P I; Muronets, V I; Erokhina, M V; Onishchenko, G E; Kirpichnikov, M P; Shaitan, K V

    2014-01-01

    This work represents the results of the study on applicability of the modern methods of analytical transmission electron microscopy for detection, identification and visualization of localization of nanoparticles of titanium and cerium oxides in A549 cell, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A comparative analysis of images of the nanoparticles in the cells obtained in the bright field mode of transmission electron microscopy, under dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron was performed. For identification of nanoparticles in the cells the analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, were compared when used in the mode of obtaining energy spectrum from different particles and element mapping. It was shown that the method for electron tomography is applicable to confirm that nanoparticles are localized in the sample but not coated by contamination. The possibilities and fields of utilizing different techniques for analytical transmission electron microscopy for detection, visualization and identification of nanoparticles in the biological samples are discussed.

  13. Constraints on the $K_{l_{3}}$ form factors from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gauhar Abbas; B Ananthanarayan; Irinel Caprini; I Sentitemsu Imsong

    2012-10-01

    The $K $ form factors are investigated at low energies by the method of unitarity bounds adapted so as to include information on the phase and modulus along the elastic region of the unitarity cut. Using as input the values of the form factors at = 0, and at the Callan–Treiman point in the scalar case, stringent constraints are obtained on the slope and curvature parameters of the Taylor expansion at the origin.

  14. Extensions of the Johnson-Neyman Technique to Linear Models with Curvilinear Effects: Derivations and Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason W.; Stromeyer, William R.; Schwieterman, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed renewed interest in the use of the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique for calculating the regions of significance for the simple slope of a focal predictor on an outcome variable across the range of a second, continuous independent variable. Although tools have been developed to apply this technique to probe 2- and 3-way…

  15. A cross-battery, reference variable, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the CHC taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Keith, Timothy Z; Flanagan, Dawn P; Alfonso, Vincent C

    2013-08-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy has been used to classify and describe human cognitive abilities. The ability factors derived from the CHC taxonomy are often assumed to be invariant across multiple populations and intelligence batteries, which is an important assumption for research and assessment. In this study, data from five different test batteries that were collected during separate Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004) concurrent validity studies were factor-analyzed jointly. Because the KABC-II was administered to everyone in the validity studies, it was used as a reference battery to link the separate test batteries in a "cross-battery" confirmatory factor analysis. Some findings from this analysis were that CHC-based test classifications based on theory and prior research were straightforward and accurate, a first-order Fluid/Novel Reasoning (Gf) factor was equivalent to a second-order g factor, and sample heterogeneity related to SES and sex influenced factor loadings. It was also shown that a reference variable approach, used in studies that incorporate planned missingness into data collection, may be used successfully to analyze data from several test batteries and studies. One implication from these findings is that CHC theory should continue to serve as a useful guide that can be used for intelligence research, assessment, and test development.

  16. Factor Analytical Investigation of Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Withdrawal Syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-01-01

    Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an addictive and illicit substance used in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. It has become the most commonly used substance among villagers. The study aimed to explore the factor structure of the krathom withdrawal syndrome based on the findings of an earlier qualitative study. The current study was divided into two stages. Cross-sectional data collections were employed in both phases. The samples comprised, respectively, 196 and 330 krathom users aged over 25 years. The characteristics of krathom withdrawal symptoms and signs were identified and the factor structure examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity and multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors predicting the intensity of krathom withdrawal symptoms. The final scale comprised 20 items with four factors: craving-fatigue syndrome; musculoskeletal system and insomnia; mood symptoms; and autonomic nervous system/physical sickness. Symptoms and signs of krathom withdrawal similar to those of the withdrawal syndrome of opioid substances appear to be present in regular krathom users. The krathom withdrawal intensity is predicted by duration of krathom use, frequency, and daily amount of krathom use.

  17. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Luthra, Rajyalakshmi, E-mail: rluthra@mdanderson.org; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R. [Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  18. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM (Life Technologies, a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  19. Constraints on the ωπ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Kubis, Bastian

    2016-05-01

    Form factors are important low-energy quantities and an accurate knowledge of these sheds light on the strong interactions. A variety of methods based on general principles have been developed to use information known in different energy regimes to constrain them in regions where experimental information needs to be tested precisely. Here we review our recent work on the electromagnetic ωπ form factor in a model-independent framework known as the method of unitarity bounds, partly motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the form factor based on dispersion relations and certain experimental data measured from the decay ω → π0γ∗. We have applied a modified dispersive formalism, which uses as input the discontinuity of the ωπ form factor calculated by unitarity below the ωπ threshold and an integral constraint on the square of its modulus above this threshold. The latter constraint was obtained by exploiting unitarity and the positivity of the spectral function of a QCD correlator, computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD. An alternative constraint is obtained by using data available at higher energies for evaluating an integral of the modulus squared with a suitable weight function. From these conditions we derived upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the region below the ωπ threshold. The results confirm the existence of a disagreement between dispersion theory and experimental data on the ωπ form factor around 0.6 GeV, including those from NA60 published in 2016.

  20. Fluence correction factors for graphite calorimetry in a low-energy clinical proton beam: I. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, H; Al-Sulaiti, L; Andreo, P; Shipley, D; Lühr, A; Bassler, N; Martinkovič, J; Dobrovodský, J; Rossomme, S; Thomas, R A S; Kacperek, A

    2013-05-21

    The conversion of absorbed dose-to-graphite in a graphite phantom to absorbed dose-to-water in a water phantom is performed by water to graphite stopping power ratios. If, however, the charged particle fluence is not equal at equivalent depths in graphite and water, a fluence correction factor, kfl, is required as well. This is particularly relevant to the derivation of absorbed dose-to-water, the quantity of interest in radiotherapy, from a measurement of absorbed dose-to-graphite obtained with a graphite calorimeter. In this work, fluence correction factors for the conversion from dose-to-graphite in a graphite phantom to dose-to-water in a water phantom for 60 MeV mono-energetic protons were calculated using an analytical model and five different Monte Carlo codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNPX, SHIELD-HIT and McPTRAN.MEDIA). In general the fluence correction factors are found to be close to unity and the analytical and Monte Carlo codes give consistent values when considering the differences in secondary particle transport. When considering only protons the fluence correction factors are unity at the surface and increase with depth by 0.5% to 1.5% depending on the code. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factor is about 0.5% lower than unity at shallow depths predominantly due to the contributions from alpha particles and increases to values above unity near the Bragg peak. Fluence correction factors directly derived from the fluence distributions differential in energy at equivalent depths in water and graphite can be described by kfl = 0.9964 + 0.0024·zw-eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.2%. Fluence correction factors derived from a ratio of calculated doses at equivalent depths in water and graphite can be described by kfl = 0.9947 + 0.0024·zw-eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.3%. These results are of direct relevance to graphite calorimetry in low-energy protons but given that the fluence

  1. Introduction to analytical techniques of beam-target interactions and resolutions; Introduction aux techniques d`analyse interactions rayonnement-matiere et resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruste, J.

    1995-08-01

    For several years, new analysis and observation techniques have been developed, which have considerably improved material research. Almost all these techniques are based on the interaction of a beam of `primary particles` (electrons, photons, ions, particles, etc) with target. Correct and appropriate use of these techniques requires a good knowledge of these interactions and their consequences (emissions of `secondary particles`, modifications of the primary beam and target, etc). The first part of this report deals with the radiation/material interactions according to the nature of the radiation and its energy. The nature and consequences of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave, a beam of electrons, ions and neutrons are examined over an extended range of energy from MeV to MeV. Certain notions such as the analysis area, spatial resolutions or limits of detection can also be defined. In the second part, some of the most important and widespread techniques of analysis and observation are compared in terms of properties and performance. In particular, there is a brief principle of the technique, nature of the data obtained, spatial resolution, and the limits of detection with today`s methods permit. (author). 5 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Exploring sex differences in autistic traits: A factor analytic study of adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2016-11-02

    Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype consistently in autistic men and women. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form in a large sample of autistic adults. It also systematically explored specific sex differences at the item level, to determine whether the scale assesses the autism phenotype equivalently across males and females. Factor analyses were conducted among 265 males and 285 females. A two-factor structure consisting of a social behaviour and numbers and patterns factor was consistent across groups, indicating that the latent autism phenotype is similar among both autistic men and women. Subtle differences were observed on two social behaviour item thresholds of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form, with women reporting scores more in line with the scores expected in autism on these items than men. However, these differences were not substantial. This study showed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form detects autistic traits equivalently in males and females and is not biased towards the male autism phenotype.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analytical Study of the Revised Developmental Work Personality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alex W. K.; O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties of the Revised Developmental Work Personality Scale (RDWPS). Results yielded a 14-item three-factor model that aligns with the original DWPS and fits the data very well. RDWPS scores were useful in predicting the resolution of Erikson's fourth stage of development, indicating construct validity.…

  4. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  5. Evaluation and purchase of an analytical flow cytometer: some of the numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Fisher, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    When purchasing a flow cytometer, the decision of which brand, model, specifications, and accessories may be challenging. The decisions should initially be guided by the specific applications intended for the instrument. However, many other factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, quality assurance, support, service, and price and recommendations from colleagues. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process.

  6. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  7. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  8. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  10. The relations between parents' Big Five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Reijntjes, Albert H A; Belsky, Jay

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support-the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across mother and father reports and across assessment methods of parenting (self-report versus observations) but were generally small in magnitude. Higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more warmth and behavioral control, whereas higher levels of Agreeableness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more autonomy support. Several factors moderated the relationship between specific personality dimensions and parenting: child and parental age, reliability of observational assessment of parenting behavior, and study design. Taken together, these results indicate that personality can be seen as an inner resource that affects parenting.

  11. Distinguishing affective and somatic dimensions of pain and depression: a confirmatory factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined the overlap between pain and depression in a sample of 342 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the differentiation of pain and depression measured as latent factors derived from the subscales of the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The affective pain subscale did not load on latent depression and the somatic depression subscale loaded weakly on latent pain. Although pain and depression are linked, we found that affective pain is distinct from depression, and that somatic depression is distinct from pain. This finding justifies further examination of the casual relationship between pain and depression.

  12. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN: ANALYTICAL APPROACHES AND FACTORS TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL QUALITY LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Quality has been identified as an important component for each and every business, irrespective of their size and type, and hence, quality affects each and every activity of an organization crucial for their success. Therefore, since recent times, almost every organization has identified the need of perceiving quality and its management across the supply chain. There are a number of factors affecting the maintenance and management of quality across supply chain. As the topic itself his ...

  13. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1,111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three e...

  14. Nursing students’ attitudes towards information communication technology:An exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.J.; Clarke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences.Background: Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that in...

  15. Visual quantification of Hg on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device using distance-based detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Fang, Yanling; Mo, Yuanhui; Huang, Yongshi; Xu, Chunxiu; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Maoxian

    2017-08-01

    We presented a distance-based detection method for visual quantification of mercury ions on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). Dithizone in NaOH solution was used as chromogenic reagent and deposited onto paper channel delimited by hydrophobic wax barrier. Reactions happened between mercury ions and dithizone to form an insoluble colored complex, producing colored precipitate on the paper channel. The length of colored precipitate could be readily measured using the printed ruler along each device. The length of precipitate increase linearly with the mercury concentrations, mercury in sample solution could be quantified by measuring the length of the colored precipitate. Being free of any electronic instruments, this method has the advantages of portability, ease of use, low cost and disposability. This presented method was used to detect mercury ions in a synthetic sample, demonstrating its potential in on-site and real time analysis.

  16. Analytical Characterization of two new related impurities of Diltiazem by High Resolution Mass spectrometry and NMR techniques096

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh Narkedimilli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diltiazem (DTZ is an optically active calcium channel blocker having a benzodiazepine structure. Two impurities (referred as DTZ-I and DTZ-II were detected with area percentages ranging from 0.1% to 0.15% during the impurity profile study of Diltiazem hydrochloride drug substance. A simple isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS were used for the detection. The impurities were isolated by preparative column chromatography. Analytical information from nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data of the potential impurities revealed their structures as 2-(4-methoxyphenyl-5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]thiazepin-3-yl acetate (DTZ-I and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl-4-oxo-5-vinyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]thiazepin-3-yl acetate (DTZ-II. Impurity identification, isolation and structure elucidation were discussed.

  17. Analytical solutions in rotating linear dilaton black holes: Resonant frequencies, quantization, greybody factor, and Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, I.

    2016-10-01

    Charged massive scalar field perturbations are studied in the gravitational, electromagnetic, dilaton, and axion fields of rotating linear dilaton black holes. In this geometry, we separate the covariant Klein-Gordon equation into radial and angular parts and obtain the exact solutions of both the equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Using the radial solution, we study the problems of resonant frequencies, entropy/area quantization, and greybody factor. We also analyze the behavior of the wave solutions near the event horizon of the rotating linear dilaton black hole and derive its Hawking temperature via the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method.

  18. A pass planning method for multi-hit stretching of heavy forgings by integration of a semi-analytical technique and degrees-reduced finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenshan; Chen, Wen; Sui, Dashan; Liu, Juan

    2013-05-01

    A pass planning method for multi-pass and multi-hit stretching of heavy forgings is proposed, which composes of a semi-analytical procedure and a degrees-reduced finite element code. The semi-analytical procedure is based on a kinematically admissible velocity and Markov variational principle, and can be applied to roughly calculate the deformed shape and working force for stretch forging process for work-piece which has vertical and lateral symmetrical lines in cross-section. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the distributions of metal flow, temperature, strain and stress in detail, a degrees-reduced thermo-mechanical coupled rigid finite element code is developed. In this code, the instantaneous deformation zone is specially extracted from the total domain and simulated for metal flow, while the total domain is used to simulate the evolution of thermal field. Taking the semi-analytical method as a solver, the pass planning procedure for stretch forging is developed, and the degrees-reduced finite element code is used as a supplement to check the rationality of the planed pass schedule. An example is implemented to demonstrate the application of the proposed technique.

  19. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analytic derivative couplings between configuration-interaction-singles states with built-in electron-translation factors for translational invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Shervin; Alguire, Ethan; Shao, Yihan; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2011-12-21

    We present a method for analytically calculating the derivative couplings between a pair of configuration-interaction-singles (CIS) excited states obtained in an atom-centered basis. Our theory is exact and has been derived using two completely independent approaches: one inspired by the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and the other following from direct differentiation. (The former is new, while the latter is in the spirit of existing approaches in the literature.) Our expression for the derivative couplings incorporates all Pulay effects associated with the use of an atom-centered basis, and the computational cost is minimal, roughly comparable to that of a single CIS energy gradient. We have validated our method against CIS finite-difference results and have applied it to the lowest lying excited states of naphthalene; we find that naphthalene derivative couplings include Pulay contributions sufficient to have a qualitative effect. Going beyond standard problems in analytic gradient theory, we have also constructed a correction, based on perturbative electron-translation factors, for including electronic momentum and eliminating spurious components of the derivative couplings that break translational symmetry. This correction is general and can be applied to any level of electronic structure theory.

  1. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to the Geology; Aplicaciones de las tecnicas analiticas nucleares a la Geologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu F, J.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Montero M, E.; Villasenor S, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    It is applied the PIXE technique for to measure the ratio Sr/Ca in different stages of the stalactite growth. As the ratio depends of the temperature, information about the variations of atmospheric temperature along thousand of years is obtained. (Author)

  2. Theory of stochastic differential equations with jumps and applications mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    SITU, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Derivation of Ito's formulas, Girsanov's theorems and martingale representation theorem for stochastic DEs with jumpsApplications to population controlReflecting stochastic DE techniqueApplications to the stock market. (Backward stochastic DE approach)Derivation of Black-Scholes formula for market with and without jumpsNon-linear filtering problems with jumps.

  3. Matrix Factorizations at Scale: a Comparison of Scientific Data Analytics in Spark and C+MPI Using Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittens, Alex; Devarakonda, Aditya; Racah, Evan; Ringenburg, Michael; Gerhardt, Lisa; Kottalam, Jey; Liu, Jialin; Maschhoff, Kristyn; Canon, Shane; Chhugani, Jatin; Sharma, Pramod; Yang, Jiyan; Demmel, James; Harrell, Jim; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Mahoney, Michael; Prabhat, Mr

    2016-05-12

    We explore the trade-offs of performing linear algebra using Apache Spark, compared to traditional C and MPI implementations on HPC platforms. Spark is designed for data analytics on cluster computing platforms with access to local disks and is optimized for data-parallel tasks. We examine three widely-used and important matrix factorizations: NMF (for physical plausibility), PCA (for its ubiquity) and CX (for data interpretability). We apply these methods to 1.6TB particle physics, 2.2TB and 16TB climate modeling and 1.1TB bioimaging data. The data matrices are tall-and-skinny which enable the algorithms to map conveniently into Spark’s data parallel model. We perform scaling experiments on up to 1600 Cray XC40 nodes, describe the sources of slowdowns, and provide tuning guidance to obtain high performance.

  4. Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K

    2008-12-01

    Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions.

  5. Analytical sensitivity of staining and molecular techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts isolated from bovines in water samples: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Díaz-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. is a globally distributed protozoan that causes digestive disease in different animals including humans. Excreted oocysts contaminate water and soil, constituting a public health threat. Sensitive and fast methods to detect oocysts in water samples are necessary due to the small number of oocysts present in the environment and their low infectious dose. This study compared the analytical sensitivity of two staining techniques, modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Auramine versus a nested PCR that amplifies a region of ~520bp from 18S rDNA gene, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. in water samples. Water was inoculated with oocysts using serial dilutions, and then a water filtration method was used to recover the parasite oocysts. The staining techniques had similar analytical sensitivity, detecting 8 oocysts/mL, while the nested PCR detected down to 6 oocysts/mL. In conclusion, all of these methods are effective for Cryptosporidium spp. detection in water samples, contributing to the implementation of standardized diagnostic methods for environmental water infectious agents.

  6. An Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Method to Rank the Critical Success Factors of Implementing a Pharmacy Barcode System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Hana; Sultana, Nahid; Al-Amoudi, Amjaad; Basudan, Afrah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy barcode scanning is used to reduce errors during the medication dispensing process. However, this technology has rarely been used in hospital pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This article describes the barriers to successful implementation of a barcode scanning system in Saudi Arabia. A literature review was conducted to identify the relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for a successful dispensing barcode system implementation. Twenty-eight pharmacists from a local hospital in Saudi Arabia were interviewed to obtain their perception of these CSFs. In this study, planning (process flow issues and training requirements), resistance (fear of change, communication issues, and negative perceptions about technology), and technology (software, hardware, and vendor support) were identified as the main barriers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most widely used tools for decision making in the presence of multiple criteria, was used to compare and rank these identified CSFs. The results of this study suggest that resistance barriers have a greater impact than planning and technology barriers. In particular, fear of change is the most critical factor, and training is the least critical factor.

  7. Analytical Solution for Stress Field and Intensity Factor in CSTBD under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Ali Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that rocks fail faster under tensile stress, rock tensile strength is of greatimportance in applications such as blasting, rock fragmentation, slope stability, hydraulic fracturing,caprock integrity, and geothermal energy extraction. There are two direct and indirect methods tomeasure tensile strength. Since direct methods always encompass difficulties in test setup, indirectmethods, specifically the Brazilian test, have often been employed for tensile strength measurement.Tensile failure is technically attributed to crack propagation in rock. Fracture mechanics hassignificant potential for the determination of crack behaviour as well as propagation pattern. To applyBrazilian tests, cracked disc geometry has been suggested by the International Society for RockMechanics ISRM. Accordingly, a comprehensive study is necessary to evaluate stress field and stressintensity factor (SIF around the crack in the centre of the specimen. In this paper, superpositionprinciple is employed to solve the problem of cracked straight-through Brazilian disc (CSTBD, usingtwo methods of dislocation and complex stress function. Stress field and SIF in the vicinity of thecrack tip are then calculated. With the proposed method, the magnitude of critical load for crackinitiation in structures can be predicted. This method is valid for any crack of any arbitrary length andangle. In addition, numerical modelling has been carried out for the Brazilian disc. Finally, theanalytical solution has been compared with numerical modelling results showing the same outcomefor both methods.

  8. Factors Influencing Risk of Premature Mortality in Community Cases of Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Baxter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depressive disorders are associated with substantial risk of premature mortality. A number of factors may contribute to reported risk estimates, making it difficult to determine actual risk of excess mortality in community cases of depression. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of excess mortality in population-based studies of clinically defined depression. Methods. Population-based studies reporting all-cause mortality associated with a clinically defined depressive disorder were included in the systematic review. Estimates of relative risk for excess mortality in population-representative cases of clinical depressive disorders were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted using Stata to pool estimates of excess mortality and identify sources of heterogeneity within the data. Results. Twenty-one studies reporting risk of excess mortality in clinical depression were identified. A significantly higher risk of mortality was found for major depression (RR 1.92 95% CI 1.65–2.23, but no significant difference was found for dysthymia (RR 1.37 95% CI 0.93–2.00. Relative risk of excess mortality was not significantly different following the adjustment of reported risk estimates. Conclusion. A mortality gradient was identified with increasing severity of clinical depression. Recognition of depressive symptoms in general practice and appropriate referral for evidence-based treatment may help improve outcomes, particularly in patients with comorbid physical disorders.

  9. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males.

  10. A confirmatory factor analytical study of a servant leadership measure in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Servant leadership is a value-based leadership practice that plays a critical role in team effectiveness and organisational success.Research purpose: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire(SLQ, which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample.Motivation for the study: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organisational success. We need to complement these efforts with psychometrically sound measuring instruments.Research design, approach and method: The authors drew a convenience sample of 288 school teachers from schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. They used the SLQ that Barbuto and Wheeler developed to measure servant leadership.Main findings: The authors found high levels of reliability for the sub-scales of the latent variables. They found good fit with the data for the measurement model of the five latent servant leadership dimensions (altruistic calling, persuasive mapping, emotional healing, wisdom and organisational stewardship through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. They obtained reasonable fit for the first- and second-order servant leadership CFA. The authors concluded that the SLQ shows reasonable fit.Practical/managerial implications: The SLQ showed evidence of reliability and construct validity. It can contribute to the scientific selection and development of education leaders in South African schools.Contribution/value add: Servant leadership incorporates a service ethic that fosters participatory management, teacher development and team building. The department of education should increase team effectiveness in schools by selecting and developing servant leadership.

  11. A smog chamber comparison of a microfluidic derivatization measurement of gas-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal with other analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique has been developed to measure part per billion volume (ppbV mixing ratios of gaseous glyoxal (GLY and methylglyoxal (MGLY, and the method compared with other techniques in a smog chamber experiment. The method uses o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA as a derivatization reagent and a microfabricated planar glass micro-reactor comprising an inlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a heated capillary reaction microchannel. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the micro-reactor result in a fast and highly efficient derivatization reaction, generating an effluent stream ready for direct introduction to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. A linear response for GLY was observed over a calibration range 0.7 to 400 ppbV, and for MGLY of 1.2 to 300 ppbV, when derivatized under optimal reaction conditions. The method detection limits (MDLs were 80 pptV and 200 pptV for GLY and MGLY respectively, calculated as 3 times the standard deviation of the S/N of the blank sample chromatograms. These MDLs are below or close to typical concentrations in clean ambient air. The feasibility of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology under controlled conditions to quantify of α-dicarbonyls formed during the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a large scale outdoor atmospheric simulation chamber (EUPHORE. Good general agreement was seen between microfluidic measurements and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Broad Band Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS and a detailed photochemical chamber box modelling calculation for both GLY and MGLY. Less good agreement was found with Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME derivatization methods for MGLY measurement.

  12. A smog chamber comparison of a microfluidic derivatization measurement of gas-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal with other analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, X.; Lewis, A. C.; Richard, A.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Adams, T. J.; Ball, S. M.; Daniels, M. J. S.; Goodall, I. C. A.; Monks, P. S.; Peppe, S.; Ródenas García, M.; Sánchez, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique has been developed to measure part per billion volume (ppbV) mixing ratios of gaseous glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY), and the method compared with other techniques in a smog chamber experiment. The method uses o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as a derivatization reagent and a microfabricated planar glass micro-reactor comprising an inlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a heated capillary reaction microchannel. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the micro-reactor result in a fast and highly efficient derivatization reaction, generating an effluent stream ready for direct introduction to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). A linear response for GLY was observed over a calibration range 0.7 to 400 ppbV, and for MGLY of 1.2 to 300 ppbV, when derivatized under optimal reaction conditions. The method detection limits (MDLs) were 80 pptV and 200 pptV for GLY and MGLY respectively, calculated as 3 times the standard deviation of the S/N of the blank sample chromatograms. These MDLs are below or close to typical concentrations in clean ambient air. The feasibility of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology under controlled conditions to quantify of α-dicarbonyls formed during the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a large scale outdoor atmospheric simulation chamber (EUPHORE). Good general agreement was seen between microfluidic measurements and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Broad Band Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS) and a detailed photochemical chamber box modelling calculation for both GLY and MGLY. Less good agreement was found with Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) derivatization methods for MGLY measurement.

  13. Studies of ferroelectric heterostructure thin films, interfaces, and device-related processes via in situ analytical techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, S.; Auciello, O.; Dhote, A. M.; Gao, Y.; Gruen, D. M.; Im, J.; Irene, E. A.; Krauss, A. R.; Muller, A. H.; Ramesh, R.

    1999-06-29

    The science and technology of ferroelectric thin films has experienced an explosive development during the last ten years. Low-density non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (NVFRAMS) are now incorporated in commercial products such as ''smart cards'', while high permittivity capacitors are incorporated in cellular phones. However, substantial work is still needed to develop materials integration strategies for high-density memories. We have demonstrated that the implementation of complementary in situ characterization techniques is critical to understand film growth and device processes relevant to device development. We are using uniquely integrated time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) techniques to perform in situ, real-time studies of film growth processes in the high background gas pressure required to growth ferroelectric thin films. TOF-ISARS provides information on surface processes, while SE permits the investigation of buried interfaces as they are being formed. Recent studies on SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) film growth and interface processes are discussed. Direct imaging of ferroelectric domains under applied electric fields can provide valuable information to understand domain dynamics in ferroelectric films. We discuss results of piezoresponse scanning force microscopy (SFM) imaging for nanoscale studies of polarization reversal and retention loss in Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1{minus}x})O{sub 3} (PZT)-based capacitors. Another powerful technique suitable for in situ, real-time characterization of film growth processes and ferroelectric film-based device operation is based on synchrotrons X-ray scattering, which is currently being implemented at Argonne National Laboratory.

  14. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy compared with conventional plasma optical emission techniques for the analysis of metals - A review of applications and analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, A.

    2017-08-01

    This review is focused on a comparison of LIBS with the two most common plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) techniques for analysis of metals; spark OES and glow discharge (GD) OES. It is shown that these two techniques have only minor differences in analytical performance. An important part of the paper reviews a direct comparison of the analytical figures of merit for bulk analysis of steels using spark and LIBS sources. The comparison was carried out using one instrument with interchangeable sources, eliminating differences related to the optical system and detectors. It was found that the spark provides slightly better analytical figures of merit. The spark analysis is considerably faster, the simple design of the spark stand has enabled complete automation, both properties of great importance in the metallurgical industry for routine analysis. The analysis of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) with spark and LIBS is presented, in the case of the spark this has become known as Pulse Distribution Analysis (PDA). A very significant difference between the techniques is that the electrical spark typically evaporates 100 times more material than a single laser pulse, resulting in complete evaporation of an NMI present in the evaporated metal. The major advantage of LIBS is that it is localised with very good lateral resolution. The major advantages of spark is that it is much faster (can be done simultaneous with the bulk analysis) and easier to quantify. Compositional Depth Profiling (CDP) is compared for GD-OES and LIBS. It is shown that for applications where GD-OES is well suited, e.g. coated metallic sheet, GD-OES still performs slightly better than LIBS. Similar to the case of NMI analysis, the major advantage of LIBS is the great lateral resolution. This allows elemental surface mapping, as well as CDP of very small areas on μm scale. One further advantage of LIBS is that samples of almost any material, shape and size can be analysed, whereas GD-OES has

  15. Application of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction techniques in analytical toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sharifi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction are reviewed. Applications of these newly emerging developments in extraction and preconcentration of a vast category of compounds including heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and abused drugs in complex matrices (environmental and biological matrices are reviewed and discussed. The new developments in these techniques including the use of solvents lighter than water, ionic liquids and supramolecular solvents are also considered. Applications of these new solvents reduce the use of toxic solvents and eliminate the centrifugation step, which reduces the extraction time.

  16. 砷形态分析技术研究进展%ADVANCES ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE OF ARSENIC SPECIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靖; 陈昌云

    2011-01-01

    The research advance of separation, detection and hyphenated techniques on arsenic speciation analysis in recent years was summarized. The main issues to be concerned about arsenic speciation analysis in future were put forward.%总结了近年来砷形态分析的分离、检测以及联用技术的研究进展,提出了今后在砷形态分析工作中应关注的主要问题.

  17. Clinically relevant analytical techniques, organizational concepts for application and future perspectives of point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppa, Peter B; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Beaudoin, Christopher; Giannetti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Applications of near-patient testing have developed rapidly during the last years. It offers quick test results and minimal preanalytical interference, having the potential to improve patient outcomes, even when still under scrutiny by laboratory and healthcare professionals. Near-patient diagnostics are currently also used increasingly in developing countries, due to the burden of inadequate healthcare services in resource-constrained settings. This review describes the underlying emerging techniques that are based on advanced microfluidics and nanomaterials, device miniaturization, and multiplexing the detection mode. The organizational concepts for reasonable applications, contributing significantly to the future perspectives of this nascent diagnostic modality, are supplementary portrayed.

  18. A Comparative Study of Fouling and Bottom Ash from Woody Biomass Combustion in a Fixed-Bed Small-Scale Boiler and Evaluation of the Analytical Techniques Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Febrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fouling and bottom ash were collected from a low-power boiler after wood pellet combustion and studied using several analytical techniques to characterize and compare samples from different areas and determine the suitability of the analysis techniques employed. TGA results indicated that the fouling contained a high amount of organic matter (70%. The XRF and SEM-EDS measurements revealed that Ca and K are the main inorganic elements and exhibit clear tendency in the content of Cl that is negligible in the bottom ash and increased as it penetrated into the innermost layers of the fouling. Calcite, magnesia and silica appeared as the major crystalline phases in all the samples. However, the bottom ash was primarily comprised of calcium silicates. The KCl behaved identically to the Cl, preferably appeared in the adhered fouling samples. This salt, which has a low melting point, condenses upon contact with the low temperature tube and played a crucial role in the early stages of fouling formation. XRD was the most useful technique applied, which provided a semi-quantitative determination of the crystalline phases. FTIR was proven to be inadequate for this type of sample. The XRF and SEM-EDS, techniques yield similar results despite being entirely different.

  19. Enhancement of the dissolution profile of Tenoxicam by a solid dispersion technique and its analytical evaluation using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, M K; Foad, M M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the dissolution, and therefore the bioavailability, of poorly water-soluble tenoxicam. Solid dispersions consisting of tenoxicam with two different types of polymers were prepared. The first type were PVP(30) and β-cyclodextrin and the second type were two superdisintegrants, explotab and croscarmellose sodium. A solid dispersion with an explotab ratio of 1:1 (F(8)) had the best dissolution profile compared to all of the prepared solid dispersions as well as the pure drug, which was then formulated into tablets (T(2)F(8)). T(2)F(8) had far better dissolution than commercial tablets, releasing only 28.3% of the drug, while T(2)F(8) exhibited 96.5% drug release in 20 min. T(2)F(8) was subjected to analytical validation as well as stability studies. The formulation was found to be stable after storage at 40°C for one month, 40°C and 75% relative humidity (40°C/75% RH) for one month, and 60°C for 15 days; this was confirmed by the absence of degraded product prepared in the laboratory by refluxing the drug with 1 N NaOH for 15 min. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed on T(2)F(8) to identify physicochemical interactions between the drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. A simple and rapid HPLC method was also developed to determine tenoxicam in human plasma and was then used in a pharmacokinetic study. Plasma samples were analyzed on a C(18) column with a mobile phase of 0.02 M sodium acetate:acetonitrile: methanol (7:2.5:0.5, v/v/v) and UV detection at 375 nm. The linear range of the plasma concentration was 1-16 μg/mL with a detection limit of 158 ng/mL. Within-day and between-day precision expressed as the relative standard deviation was less than 2%. The proposed method was successfully used in a bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers and mean pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated.

  20. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, Varsha

    converter. This conceivably aids the sizing and design of output passive filters. An analytical estimation method has been presented to achieve this purpose for am IMC. Knowledge of the fundamental component in output voltage can be utilized to calculate its Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The effectiveness of the proposed SVPWM algorithms and the analytical estimation technique is substantiated by simulations in MATLAB / Simulink and experiments on a laboratory prototype of the IMC. Proper comparison plots have been provided to contrast the performance of the proposed methods with the conventional SVPWM method. The behavior of output voltage distortion and CMV with variation in operating parameters like modulation index and output frequency has also been analyzed.

  1. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumin Zhu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao; Pinjing He

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW).In this study,we investigated fine particles of <2 mm,which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content,using bulk detection techniques.A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction.We also discussed the association,speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals.Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of <10 μm within the fine particles.Zn-Cu,Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution.The overlapped enrichment,spatial association,and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles.The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products.

  2. Development and application of analytical techniques to chemistry of donor solvent liquefaction. Quarterly progress report, April 1980-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, H. C.; Taylor, L. T.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we focus on our continuing efforts to develop new fluorine reagents useful for characterizing heteroatom (e.g., O, N and S) containing organic compounds present in coal and/or other fuel fractions. Although the utility of trifluoroacetyl chloride and trifluorodiazoethane as fluorine tagging reagents for studies of this type have been previously discussed, we describe further techniques utilizing these reagents which are under present study. It should be mentioned that the advantage of the fluorine tagging approach is the high sensitivity of the /sup 19/F nuclide to NMR detection and the high sensitivity of the /sup 19/F chemical shift parameter to subtle changes in molecular structure. Recently, workers at Exxon have reported the use of a silicon tagging reagent utilizing /sup 29/Si NMR to characterize various heteroatom containing organic moieties present in fuel samples. Silicon containing reagents have some of the same advantages as fluorine reagents. Namely the low levels of either fluorine or silicon in most samples of interest avoid obvious spectral background problems associated with hydrogen or carbon tagging reagents. Furthermore, like /sup 19/F, /sup 29/Si chemical shifts would be expected to be sensitive to subtle changes in molecular structure, however /sup 29/Si suffers from low NMR sensitivity.

  3. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  4. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of unusual phenols from Yucca schidigera bark: comparison with other analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds are of interest for both medicinal and food plants. In the present work, the phenolic fraction from Yucca schidigera, a plant bearing the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) label approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, was studied. Crude extracts of Y. schidigera bark were investigated by liquid chromatography/UV spectrophotometry with diode-array detection, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), in order to develop and optimize simple and rapid techniques to determine both stilbenes and yuccaols for the purposes of quality control of collected material. With optimal LC and MS conditions, stilbenes and yuccaols were quantified with all the proposed methods and the results were compared. Sensitivity was evaluated and the results indicated that MS/MS detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode is easily applicable to this plant and allows the rapid and direct identification and quantification of these peculiar compounds in crude plant extracts. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  6. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  7. Evaluating Exploratory Factor Analysis: Which Initial-Extraction Techniques Provide the Best Factor Fidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    States that attacks by communication scholars have cast doubt on the validity of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Tests EFA's ability to produce results that replicate known dimensions in a data set. Concludes that EFA should be viewed with cautious optimism and be evaluated according to the findings of this and similar studies. (PA)

  8. Contribution of analytical techniques coupled to the knowledge of the uranium speciation in natural conditions; Apports des techniques analytiques couplees a la connaissance de la speciation de l'uranium en conditions naturelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand the transport mechanisms and the radionuclides behaviour in the bio-geosphere is necessary to evaluate healthy and environmental risks of nuclear industry. These mechanisms are monitored by radioelements speciation, namely the distribution between their different physico-chemical forms in the environment. From this perspective, this PhD thesis deals with uranium speciation in a natural background. A detailed summary of uranium biogeochemistry has been written, which enables to restrict the PhD issue to uranium complexation with oxalic acid, a hydrophilic organic acid with good binding properties, ubiquitous in soil waters. Analytical conditions have been established by means of speciation diagrams. The speciation diagrams building by means of literature stability constants has allowed to define the analytical conditions of complex formation. The chosen analytical technique is the hyphenation of a separative technique (liquid chromatography LC or capillary electrophoresis CE) with mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The studied complexes presence in the synthetic samples has been confirmed with UV/visible spectrophotometry. LC-ICPMS analyses have proved the lability of the uranyl-organic acid complexes, namely their tendency to dissociate during analysis, which prevents from studying uranium speciation. CE-ICPMS study of labile complexes from a metal-ligand system has been made possible by employing affinity capillary electrophoresis, which enables to determine stability constants and electrophoretic mobilities. This PhD thesis has allowed to compare the different mathematical treatments of binding isotherm and to take into account ionic strength and real ligand concentration. Affinity CE has been applied successfully to lanthanum-oxalate (model system) and uranium-oxalate systems. The obtained results have been applied to a real system (situated in Le Bouchet). This shows the contribution of the developed method to the modelling of uranium speciation. (author)

  9. Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (μg/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-μm pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1μg/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling.

  10. Label-free porous silicon immunosensor for broad detection of opiates in a blind clinical study and results comparison to commercial analytical chemistry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Lisa M; Kwong, Tai C; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n = 50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was <9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng mL(-1). This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semiquantitative demonstration of the technology's successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of label-free PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.

  11. Improved sampling and analytical techniques for characterization of very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, P.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    This paper summarizes the unique sampling methods that were utilized in a recently completed project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform accurate and precise radiological characterizations of several very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations. The waste types characterized during this project included dry active waste (DAW), oil, secondary-side ion exchange resin, and soil. Special precautions were taken to insure representative sampling of the DAW. This involved the initial direct, quantitative gamma spectrometric analyses of bulk quantities (208-liter drums) of DAW utilizing a specially constructed barrel scanner employing a collimated intrinsic germanium detector assembly. Subsamples of the DAW for destructive radiochemical analyses of the difficult-to-measure 10CF61 radionuclides were then selected which had the same isotopic composition (to within {+-}25%) as that measured for the entire drum of DAW. The techniques for accomplishing this sampling are described. Oil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom sections of 208-liter drums for radiochemical analyses. These samples were composited to represent the entire drum of oil. The accuracy of this type of sampling was evaluated by comparisons with direct, quantitative assays of a number of the drums using the barrel scanning gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy of sampling drums of spent secondary-side ion exchange resin was evaluated by comparing the radionuclide contents of grab samples taken from the tops of the drums with direct assays performed with the barrel scanner. The results of these sampling evaluations indicated that the sampling methods used were generally adequate for providing a reasonably representative subsample from bulk quantities of DAW, oil, and resin. The study also identified a number of potential pitfalls, in sampling of these materials.

  12. Improved sampling and analytical techniques for characterization of very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, P.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    This paper summarizes the unique sampling methods that were utilized in a recently completed project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform accurate and precise radiological characterizations of several very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations. The waste types characterized during this project included dry active waste (DAW), oil, secondary-side ion exchange resin, and soil. Special precautions were taken to insure representative sampling of the DAW. This involved the initial direct, quantitative gamma spectrometric analyses of bulk quantities (208-liter drums) of DAW utilizing a specially constructed barrel scanner employing a collimated intrinsic germanium detector assembly. Subsamples of the DAW for destructive radiochemical analyses of the difficult-to-measure 10CF61 radionuclides were then selected which had the same isotopic composition (to within {+-}25%) as that measured for the entire drum of DAW. The techniques for accomplishing this sampling are described. Oil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom sections of 208-liter drums for radiochemical analyses. These samples were composited to represent the entire drum of oil. The accuracy of this type of sampling was evaluated by comparisons with direct, quantitative assays of a number of the drums using the barrel scanning gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy of sampling drums of spent secondary-side ion exchange resin was evaluated by comparing the radionuclide contents of grab samples taken from the tops of the drums with direct assays performed with the barrel scanner. The results of these sampling evaluations indicated that the sampling methods used were generally adequate for providing a reasonably representative subsample from bulk quantities of DAW, oil, and resin. The study also identified a number of potential pitfalls, in sampling of these materials.

  13. Measurements of fluorine depth-profiles on TiAl turbine blades using ion beam analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neve, S. [Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKF), Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Masset, P.J. [Karl-Winnacker-Institute, DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Center for Innovation Competence VIRTUHCON, Freiberg (Germany); Zschau, H.E.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institute, DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Intermetallic TiAl alloys are foreseen to substitute Ni-based alloys in several high-temperature applications such as turbine blades for aeronautics. Because of their low density the mass of these components could be reduced by half. However, a mixed oxide scale of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which provides no oxidation protection is growing at temperatures above 700 C. By means of the halogen-effect the high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys can be improved by orders of magnitude. Therefore fluorine was introduced into turbine blades using two different chemical fluorination methods. The application of a fluorine treatment promotes the growth of a pure and dense alumina scale which prevents the alloy from increased oxidation. In previous work it has been shown that an appropriate fluorine content after oxidation and its location beneath the surface are indicators of a successful fluorine effect. In the present work, the fluorine content was measured before and after oxidation of TNB alloy as a function of depth by using proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) in a specially designed vacuum chamber at the 2.5 MV van-de-Graaff accelerator at the IKF. Additionally, composition and thickness of the oxide scale was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The ion beam techniques are non-destructive and thus offer a method for quality assurance of the halogen treatment. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Contribution of analytical nuclear techniques in the reconstruction of the Brazilian pre-history analysing archaeological ceramics of Tupiguarani tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Laboratorio de Ativacao Neutronica; Sabino, Claudia de V.S. [PUC-Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high importance of the material vestiges for a culture of a nation, the Brazilian Council for Environment determined that the license to establish new enterprises are subjected to a technical report concerning environmental impact, including archaeological sites affected by that enterprise. Therefore, answering the report related to the Program for Prospection and Rescue of the Archaeological Patrimony of the Areas impacted by the installation of the Second Line of Samarco Mining Pipeline, the archaeological interventions were carried out along the coast of Espirito Santo. Tupi-Guarani Tradition vestiges were found there, where the main evidence was a interesting ceramics. Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. In this context, several ceramic fragments found in the archaeological sites - Hiuton and Bota-Fora - were analyzed by neutron activation technique, {sub k}0-standardization method, at CDTN using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in order to characterize their elemental composition. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. Applying R software, a robust multivariate statistical analysis, the results pointed out that the pottery from the sites was made with clay from different sources. The X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out to determine the mineral composition and Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to provide information on both the degree of burning and atmosphere in order to reconstruct the Indian burning strategies temperature used on pottery production. (author)

  15. Human factors multi-technique approach to teenage engagement in digital technologies health research

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Alexandra R; Craven, Michael P; Atkinson, Sarah; Simons, Lucy; Cobb, Sue; Mazzola, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of multi-techniques for teenage HCI health research. Through four case studies we present information about adolescents as users of healthcare services and technologies, adolescent personal development and the human factors approaches through which teenagers have been involved in healthcare research projects. In each case study; comprising of the design or evaluation of a new digital technology for supporting health or well-being, the techniques used by researche...

  16. Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2013-09-26

    In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.

  17. Error reduction technique using covariant approximation and application to nucleon form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Thomas; Shintani, Eigo

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the new class of variance reduction techniques for hadron propagator and nucleon isovector form factor in the realistic lattice of $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion. All-mode averaging (AMA) is one of the powerful tools to reduce the statistical noise effectively for wider varieties of observables compared to existing techniques such as low-mode averaging (LMA). We adopt this technique to hadron two-point functions and three-point functions, and compare with LMA and traditional source-shift method in the same ensembles. We observe AMA is much more cost effective in reducing statistical error for these observables.

  18. The town of Cabar, Croatia, a high risk area for multiple sclerosis--analytic epidemiology of dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perković, Olivio; Jurjević, Ante; Rudez, Josip; Antoncić, Igor; Bralić, Marina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelization disease of central nervous system of unidentified causes. Analytic epidemiological research of 19 patients, clinically approved cases of MS and 25 controls, autochthonic inhabitants of town of Cabar, Croatia, the high-risk zone for the disease, was made. The research plan included case-control investigation--the "door to door" questionnaire--about nutrition habits. An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for all the factors which were more frequently found in the patients than in the controls, and vice versa. The variables that were connected with significant risk for MS in the town of Cabar included: alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), animal fats/dried meat products consumption (p = 0.007), nitrate salting (p = 0.03), strong spices (p = 0.007), mixed bread (p = 0.002), oat and oat products consumption (p = 0.0075). No connection was found with regular consumption of vegetables and fruit (p = 0.009), blue fresh fish (p = 0.028), other fresh fish (p = 0.03), freshwater fish (p = 0.002), canned fish (p = 0.004), dormouse meat (p = 0.007), air-dried meat products (p = 0.004) and using the water from water supply (p = 0.011). In the town of Cabar nutritional customs, primarily food rich in animal fats, alcohol-abuse, and oat consumption could have an influence on MS pathogenesis in genetically inclined individuals.

  19. Decreased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with depression: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Yen; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to promote development, differentiation, and protection of CNS neurons and was thought to play an important role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Several studies have examined the GDNF levels in patients with depression but shown inconsistent results. In this study, we compared blood GDNF levels between depressive patients and control subjects through meta-analytic method. The effect sizes (ESs) from all eligible studies were synthesized by using a random effect model. In this meta-analysis, we included 526 patients and 502 control subjects from 12 original articles. Compared to control subjects, blood GDNF levels are significantly decreased in patients with depression (ES = -0.62, p = 0.0011). However, significant heterogeneity was found among included studies. Through subgroup analysis, we found that GDNF was still decreased in studies with major depressive disorder (ES = -0.73, p = 0.0001); in studies with non-old-age depression (ES = -1.25, p = 0.0001), but not with old-age depression; and in studies using serum samples (ES = -0.86, p GDNF levels as a biomarker of depression as a whole, but the results were modulated by psychiatric diagnosis, age of included subjects, and sampling sources. With these results, future studies are required to examine whether effective antidepressant treatment is associated with an increase in serum GDNF levels.

  20. A meta-analytic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents: factors that predict magnitude of intervention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2009-06-01

    In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The average effect for depressive symptoms from pre-to-posttreatment (r = .15) and pretreatment to-follow-up (r = .11) were small, but 13 (41%) prevention programs produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms and 4 (13%) produced significant reductions in risk for future depressive disorder onset relative to control groups. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting high-risk individuals, samples with more females, samples with older adolescents, programs with a shorter duration and with homework assignments, and programs delivered by professional interventionists. Intervention content (e.g., a focus on problem-solving training or reducing negative cognitions) and design features (e.g., use of random assignment and structured interviews) were unrelated to effect sizes. Results suggest that depression prevention efforts produce a higher yield if they incorporate factors associated with larger intervention effects (e.g., selective programs with a shorter duration that include homework).

  1. Carbon dioxide-water oxygen isotope fractionation factor using chlorine trifluoride and guanidine hydrochloride techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, J.P. Jr.; Borthwick, J.

    1986-12-01

    A new value for the CO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O oxygen isotope fractionation factor of 1.04145 +/- 0.000 15 (2sigma) has been determined. The data have been normalized to the V-SMOW/V-SLAP scale and were obtained by measuring isotopic compositions with the guanidine hydrochloride and chlorine trifluoride techniques.

  2. Data-Mining Techniques in Detecting Factors Linked to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Abad, Fernando; Chaparro Caso López, Alicia A.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the emergence of statistical analysis techniques based on data mining in education sciences, and the potential they offer to detect non-trivial information in large databases, this paper presents a procedure used to detect factors linked to academic achievement in large-scale assessments. The study is based on a non-experimental,…

  3. Data-Mining Techniques in Detecting Factors Linked to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Abad, Fernando; Chaparro Caso López, Alicia A.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the emergence of statistical analysis techniques based on data mining in education sciences, and the potential they offer to detect non-trivial information in large databases, this paper presents a procedure used to detect factors linked to academic achievement in large-scale assessments. The study is based on a non-experimental,…

  4. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  5. Unilateral NMR, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and micro-analytical techniques for studying the materials and state of conservation of an ancient Egyptian wooden sarcophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Noemi; Presciutti, Federica; Di Tullio, Valeria; Doherty, Brenda; Marinelli, Anna Maria; Provinciali, Barbara; Macchioni, Nicola; Capitani, Donatella; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-03-01

    A multi-technique approach was employed to study a decorated Egyptian wooden sarcophagus (XXV-XXVI dynasty, Third Intermediate Period), belonging to the Museo del Vicino Oriente of the Sapienza University of Rome. Portable non-invasive unilateral NMR was applied to evaluate the conservation state of the sarcophagus. Moreover, using unilateral NMR, a non-invasive analytical protocol was established to detect the presence of organic substances on the surface and/or embedded in the wooden matrix. This protocol allowed for an educated sampling campaign aimed at further investigating the state of degradation of the wood and the presence of organic substances by (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectroscopy. The composition of the painted layer was analysed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Raman and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy (SERS/SERRS), infrared and GC-MS techniques, evidencing original components such as clay minerals, Egyptian green, indigo, natural gums, and also highlighting restoration pigments and alteration compounds. The identification of the wood, of great value for the reconstruction of the history of the artwork, was achieved by means of optical microscopy.

  6. Geomechanical Facies Concept In Fractured Resevoirs and the Application of Hybrid Numerical and Analytical Techniques for the Description of Coupled Transport In Fractured Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C. I.; Wenqing, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2009-04-01

    Exploiting and geo-engineering of fractured rocks in the context of reservoir storage and utilisation is important to applications such as hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geothermal energy, nuclear waste storage and CO2-sequestration. Understanding fluid, mass and energy transport in the three dimensional fracture network is critical to the evaluation planned operating efficiency. Hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical coupled processes under the typical reservoir conditions operate at different scales. Depending on whether the process is continuum dominated (e.g. transfer of stress in the rock body) or discontinuity dominated (e.g. hydraulic transport processes) different methods of numerically investigating and quantifying the system can be applied. A geomechanical facies approach provides the basis for large scale numerical analysis of the coupled processes and prediction of system response. It also provides the basis for a three dimensional holistic understanding of the reservoir systems and the appropriate investigation techniques which could be used to evaluate the capacities of the reservoirs to be investigated as well as appropriate development techniques. Concentrating on the numerical modelling there is often a difficult balance between the numerical stability criteria of the different equation systems which need to be solved to describe the interaction of the dominant processes. The introduction of analytical solutions where possible, functional dependencies and multiple meshes provides on the framework of the geo-mechanical facies concept provides an efficient and stable method for the prediction of the effect of the in situ coupling.

  7. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  8. Ancient mercury-based plating methods: combined use of surface analytical techniques for the study of manufacturing process and degradation phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Guida, Giuseppe; Angelini, Emma; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Mezzi, Alessio; Padeletti, Giuseppina

    2013-11-19

    may contribute to cultural heritage preservation, thus extending the applicability of the surface analytical techniques.

  9. Anatomy-based transmission factors for technique optimization in portable chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Christopher L.; Tovey, Deborah; Segars, William P.; Dong, Frank D.; Li, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Portable x-ray examinations often account for a large percentage of all radiographic examinations. Currently, portable examinations do not employ automatic exposure control (AEC). To aid in the design of a size-specific technique chart, acrylic slabs of various thicknesses are often used to estimate x-ray transmission for patients of various body thicknesses. This approach, while simple, does not account for patient anatomy, tissue heterogeneity, and the attenuation properties of the human body. To better account for these factors, in this work, we determined x-ray transmission factors using computational patient models that are anatomically realistic. A Monte Carlo program was developed to model a portable x-ray system. Detailed modeling was done of the x-ray spectrum, detector positioning, collimation, and source-to-detector distance. Simulations were performed using 18 computational patient models from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family (9 males, 9 females; age range: 2-58 years; weight range: 12-117 kg). The ratio of air kerma at the detector with and without a patient model was calculated as the transmission factor. Our study showed that the transmission factor decreased exponentially with increasing patient thickness. For the range of patient thicknesses examined (12-28 cm), the transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 1.9% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented an average over the entire imaging field of view. The transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 3.6% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented the average signals from two discrete AEC cells behind the lung fields. These exponential relationships may be used to optimize imaging techniques for patients of various body thicknesses to aid in the design of clinical technique charts.

  10. Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, R; Gómez-Lus, R; Goñi, P; López, P; Nerín, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is the optimization and application of a group of analytical and microbiological techniques in the study of the activity of essential oils (EOs) incorporated in a new antimicrobial packaging material and the research in depth of the interaction between the microbial cells and the individual compounds present in the active material. For this purpose the antimicrobial activity of the active packaging containing cinnamon or oregano was evaluated against E. coli and S. aureus. The vapour phase activity and the direct contact between the antimicrobial agents themselves, or once incorporated in the packaging material, and the microbial cells have been studied. The direct contact was studied using a broth dilution method. The vapour phase was evaluated by using a new method which involves the use of a filter disk containing the EOs. Furthermore, the kill time assay was used to determine the exposure time for the maximum efficiency in packaging, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the possible mechanism of action against E. coli and S. aureus. Finally, the compounds absorbed by cells were identified. The results showed that the techniques used provide relevant information about the antibacterial activity of cinnamon and oregano in direct contact as well as in the vapour phase. The antimicrobial packaging showed a fast efficiency which supports its likely application as a food packaging material. Bacteria treated with EOs exhibit a wide range of significant abnormalities; these include formation of blebs, coagulation of cytoplasmatic constituents, collapse of the cell structure and lack of cytoplasmatic material. Some of these observations are correlated to the ability of some of these substances to disrupt envelop structure, especially the inner membrane. After an extraction from dead cells, cinnamaldehyde was detected by GC-MS in E. coli exposed to the active packaging containing cinnamon.

  11. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions.

  12. Chemical speciation of arsenic-accumulating mineral in a sedimentary iron deposit by synchrotron radiation multiple X-ray analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Terada, Yasuko; Kato, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Izumi

    2008-10-01

    The comprehensive characterization of As(V)-bearing iron minerals from the Gunma iron deposit, which were probably formed by biomineralization, was carried out by utilizing multiple synchrotron radiation (SR)-based analytical techniques at BL37XU at SPring-8. SR microbeam X-ray fluorescence (SR-mu-XRF) imaging showed a high level of arsenic accumulation in the iron ore as dots of ca. 20 microm. Based on SEM observations and SR X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRD) analysis, it was found that arsenic is selectively accumulated in strengite (FePO4 x 2H2O) with a concentric morphology, which may be produced by a biologically induced process. Furthermore, the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis showed that arsenic in strengite exists in the arsenate (AsO4(3-)) form and is coordinated by four oxygen atoms at 1.68 angstroms. The results suggest that strengite accumulates arsenic by isomorphous substitution of AsO4(3-) for PO4(3-) to form a partial solid-solution of strengite and scorodite (FeAsO4 x 2H2O). The specific correlation between the distribution of As and biominerals indicates that microorganisms seems to play an important role in the mineralization of strengite in combination with an arsenic-accumulating process.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPACT BONE AND MINIATURE SPECIMEN TEST TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Chittibabu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the review concerning mechanical properties of bone and the miniature specimen test techniques. For developing a realistic understanding of how factors such as moisture content, mineralization, age, species, location, gender, rate of deformation etc. affect the mechanical properties of bone, it is critical to understand the role of these factors. A general survey on existing research work is presented on this aspect. The essential features of miniature specimen test techniques are described, along with the application of small punch test method to evaluate the mechanical behavior of materials. The procedure for the determination of tensile and fracture properties, such as: yield strength, ultimate strength, ductility, fracture toughness etc. using small punch test technique have been described. The empirical equations proposed by various investigators for the prediction of tensile and fracture properties are presented and discussed. In some cases, the predictions of material properties have been essentially made through the finite element simulation. The finite element simulation of miniature specimen test technique is also covered in this review. The use of inverse finite element procedure for the prediction of uniaxial tensile constitutive behaviour of materials is also presented

  14. Advanced analytical methodologies for measuring healthy ageing and its determinants, using factor analysis and machine learning techniques: the ATHLOS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Caballero, Francisco; Soulis, George; Engchuan, Worrawat; Sánchez-Niubó, Albert; Arndt, Holger; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2017-01-01

    A most challenging task for scientists that are involved in the study of ageing is the development of a measure to quantify health status across populations and over time. In the present study, a Bayesian multilevel Item Response Theory approach is used to create a health score that can be compared across different waves in a longitudinal study, using anchor items and items that vary across waves. The same approach can be applied to compare health scores across different longitudinal studies, using items that vary across studies. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) are employed. Mixed-effects multilevel regression and Machine Learning methods were used to identify relationships between socio-demographics and the health score created. The metric of health was created for 17,886 subjects (54.6% of women) participating in at least one of the first six ELSA waves and correlated well with already known conditions that affect health. Future efforts will implement this approach in a harmonised data set comprising several longitudinal studies of ageing. This will enable valid comparisons between clinical and community dwelling populations and help to generate norms that could be useful in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:28281663

  15. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  16. Net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) as a novel spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric technique for simultaneous determination, application to assay of melatonin and pyridoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Bastami, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    In this work a new modification of the standard addition method called "net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM)" is presented for the simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed method combines the advantages of standard addition method with those of net analyte signal concept. The method can be applied for the determination of analyte in the presence of known interferents. The accuracy of the predictions against H-point standard addition method is not dependent on the shape of the analyte and interferent spectra. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pyridoxine (PY) and melatonin (MT) in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  17. Minimum SNR and acquisition for bias-free estimation of fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging - a comparison of two analytical techniques and field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngseob; Wang, Zhiyue J; Morriss, Michael C; Rollins, Nancy K

    2012-10-01

    Although it is known that low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can affect tensor metrics, few studies reporting disease or treatment effects on fractional anisotropy (FA) report SNR; the implicit assumption is that SNR is adequate. However, the level at which low SNR causes bias in FA may vary with tissue FA, field strength and analytical methodology. We determined the SNR thresholds at 1.5 T vs. 3 T in regions of white matter (WM) with different FA and compared FA derived using manual region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), an operator-independent whole-brain analysis tool. Using ROI analysis, SNR thresholds on our hardware-software magnetic resonance platforms were 25 at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T in the callosal genu (CG), 40 at 1.5 and 3 T in the anterior corona radiata (ACR), and 50 at 1.5 T and 70 at 3 T in the putamen (PUT). Using TBSS, SNR thresholds were 20 at 1.5 T and 3 T in the CG, and 35 at 1.5 T and 40 at 3 T in the ACR. Below these thresholds, the mean FA increased logarithmically, and the standard deviations widened. Achieving bias-free SNR in the PUT required at least nine acquisitions at 1.5 T and six acquisitions at 3 T. In the CG and ACR, bias-free SNR was achieved with at least three acquisitions at 1.5 T and one acquisition at 3 T. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study regions of low FA, e.g., basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and WM in the abnormal brain, SNR should be documented. SNR thresholds below which FA is biased varied with the analytical technique, inherent tissue FA and field strength. Studies using DTI to study WM injury should document that bias-free SNR has been achieved in the region of the brain being studied as part of quality control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists' review of veterinary fecal flotation methods and factors influencing their accuracy and use--is there really one best technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballweber, L R; Beugnet, F; Marchiondo, A A; Payne, P A

    2014-07-30

    The principle of fecal flotation is based on the ability of a solution to allow less dense material (including parasite elements) to rise to the top. However, there are numerous factors that will influence the accuracy and use of such a theoretically simple technique. Whether or not centrifugation is used appears to have an impact on the ability to detect some parasites, but not others. Using a flotation solution with a relatively high specific gravity favors the simultaneous flotation of the diagnostic stages of many different parasites while, at the same time, making recognition of some more difficult because of distortion as well as the amount of debris in the preparation. Dilution methods tend to be less accurate because they require extrapolation; however, they are quicker to perform, in part, because of the cleaner preparation. Timing is a critical factor in the success of all flotation methods, as is technical ability of the personnel involved. Thus, simplicity, low costs and time savings have generally favored gravitational flotation techniques (including the McMaster technique and its modifications). How accurate the method needs to be is dependent upon the purpose of its use and choice of method requires an understanding of analytical sensitivity and expected levels of egg excretion. In some instances where the difference between, for example, 0 and 50 eggs per gram is insignificant with regards to management decisions, less accurate methods will suffice. In others, where the presence of a parasite means treatment of the animal regardless of the numbers of eggs present, methods with higher analytical sensitivities will be required, particularly for those parasites that pass few eggs. For other uses, such as the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test, accuracy may become critical. Therefore, even though recommendations for standardized fecal flotation procedures have been promoted in the past, it is clear that the factors are too numerous to allow for the

  19. Analysis of wall plasters and natural sediments from the Neolithic town of Çatalhöyük (Turkey) by a range of analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma; Almond, Matthew J.; Matthews, Wendy

    2014-12-01

    Wall plaster sequences from the Neolithic town of Çatalhöyük have been analysed and compared to three types of natural sediment found in the vicinity of the site, using a range of analytical techniques. Block samples containing the plaster sequences were removed from the walls of several different buildings on the East Mound. Sub-samples were examined by IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence to determine the overall mineralogical and elemental composition, whilst thin sections were studied using optical polarising microscopy, IR Microscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of this study have shown that there are two types of wall plaster found in the sequences and that the sediments used to produce these were obtained from at least two distinct sources. In particular, the presence of clay, calcite and magnesian calcite in the foundation plasters suggested that these were prepared predominantly from a marl source. On the other hand, the finishing plasters were found to contain dolomite with a small amount of clay and no calcite, revealing that softlime was used in their preparation. Whilst marl is located directly below and around Çatalhöyük, the nearest source of softlime is 6.5 km away, an indication that the latter was important to the Neolithic people, possibly due to the whiter colour (5Y 8/1) of this sediment. Furthermore, the same two plaster types were found on each wall of Building 49, the main building studied in this research, and in all five buildings investigated, suggesting that the use of these sources was an established practice for the inhabitants of several different households across the site.

  20. Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT Effects on Psychoimmunological Factors of Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Babamahmoodi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT as a new therapeutic technique in energy psychology has positive effects on psychological and physiological symptoms, and quality of life. In this research we studied the effect of this treatment on immunological factors. This study tested whether 8-week group sessions of EFT (compared to a wait-list control group with emphasis on patient's respiratory, psychological and immunological problems in chemically pulmonary injured veterans (N=28 can affect on immunological and psychological factors. Mixed effect linear models indicated that EFT improved mental health (F=79.24, p=0 and health-related quality of life (F=13.89, p=0.001, decreased somatic symptoms (F=5.81, p=0.02, anxiety/insomnia (F=24.03, p<0.001, social dysfunction (F=21.59, p<0.001, frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms (F=20.38, p<0.001, and increased lymphocyte proliferation with nonspecific mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A (F=14.32, p=0.001 and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA (F=12.35, p=0.002, and peripheral blood IL-17 (F=9.11, p=0.006. This study provides an initial indication that EFT may be a new therapeutic approach for improving psychological and immunological factors.

  1. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  2. Multi-factor models and signal processing techniques application to quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Darolles, Serges; Jay, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    With recent outbreaks of multiple large-scale financial crises, amplified by interconnected risk sources, a new paradigm of fund management has emerged. This new paradigm leverages "embedded" quantitative processes and methods to provide more transparent, adaptive, reliable and easily implemented "risk assessment-based" practices.This book surveys the most widely used factor models employed within the field of financial asset pricing. Through the concrete application of evaluating risks in the hedge fund industry, the authors demonstrate that signal processing techniques are an intere

  3. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  4. Elemental compositions of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols of a Nigerian urban city using ion beam analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, G. C.; Obioh, I. B.; Asubiojo, O. I.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Nuviadenu, C. K.

    2014-09-01

    The paucity of data on air quality studies in Nigeria prompted us to commence the sampling of particulate matter (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5) in Mushin Lagos, Nigeria. Both size-segregated fractions were collected using a double staged ‘Gent' stack filter unit sampler. Elemental characterization was carried out by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques using an external ion beam set-up. Twenty-four elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) were detected in both fractions and their concentrations were assessed. A study of their inter-elemental correlations indicated that some elements could have common source origins or similar chemical properties while enrichment factors (EF) displayed that most elements emanated from anthropogenic sources. Source apportionment studies are thus recommended.

  5. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  6. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  7. A Performance Study of Data Mining Techniques: Multiple Linear Regression vs. Factor Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    The growing volume of data usually creates an interesting challenge for the need of data analysis tools that discover regularities in these data. Data mining has emerged as disciplines that contribute tools for data analysis, discovery of hidden knowledge, and autonomous decision making in many application domains. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of two data mining techniques viz., factor analysis and multiple linear regression for different sample sizes on three unique sets of data. The performance of the two data mining techniques is compared on following parameters like mean square error (MSE), R-square, R-Square adjusted, condition number, root mean square error(RMSE), number of variables included in the prediction model, modified coefficient of efficiency, F-value, and test of normality. These parameters have been computed using various data mining tools like SPSS, XLstat, Stata, and MS-Excel. It is seen that for all the given dataset, factor analysis outperform multiple linear re...

  8. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  9. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haghshenas Kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  10. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Haghshenas

    2011-07-01

    One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  11. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L

    2004-03-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18 x 7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186+/-8 mm and 147+/-8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209+/-40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of approximately 60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is approximately 20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors.

  12. Analytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  13. Analytic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer $p$. If $p$ takes its maximum value then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise it is incomplete analytic material of rank $p$. For two-dimensional materials further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a $90^\\circ$ rotation applied to a divergence free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  14. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  15. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV; Estudio de la calidad analitica en las determinaciones de Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb y Hg a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares y convencionales en musgos de la ZMVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  16. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  17. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  18. PTSD symptom structure among West African war trauma survivors living in African refugee camps: a factor-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gregory A; Chang, Zoua

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of measured posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of West African civilian refugees who had fled the civil war in Sierra Leone between 2001 and 2006. Given that such war-affected populations are common but understudied in trauma research, our objective was to examine the similarities and differences in this factor structure compared to prevailing models of PTSD symptom structure. As part of treatment services provided in refugee camps, refugees (2,140 women, 1,662 men, 1 unknown) from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea completed the 17 symptoms portion of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether there was a factor structure unique to this population, and made comparisons with the numbing, dysphoria, and aroused intrusion models. Results from the confirmatory analyses showed that the dysphoria model best fit the data (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .062); however, exploratory analyses revealed that 3 items loaded differently than theoretically expected. Psychological distress cross-loaded on reexperiencing and avoidance factors and physiological reactivity loaded on the avoidance factor instead of the reexperiencing factor. The sleep difficulties item was not well explained, generally; the highest loading (λ = .22) was on the dysphoria factor. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. A Factor Analytic Approach to Distinguish Pure and Co-Occurring Dimensions of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a confirmatory factor model to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression, and examined the relation between parenting variables and these dimensions of aggression in a sample of 100 children (9 to 12 years of age; 69 boys). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported 3 dimensions of…

  20. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  1. Distribution of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in environmental and clinical matrices: Composition, analytical techniques and scientific outlook: Status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, T; Wenclawiak, B; Lustig, S; Schramel, P; Schwarzer, M; Schuster, M; Verstraete, D; Dams, R; Helmers, E

    1998-01-01

    Trace concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE; here: Pt, Pd and Rh) play an important role in environmental analysis and assessment. Their importance is based on 1. their increasing use as active compartments in automobile exhaust catalysts, 2. their use as cancer anti-tumor agents in medicine. Due to their allergenic and cytotoxic potential, it is necessary to improve selectivity and sensitivity during analytical investigation of matrices like soil, grass, urine or blood. This paper summarizes the present knowledge of PGE in the fields of analytical chemistry, automobile emission rates, bioavailability, toxicology and medicine.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of formulation factors for ocular penetration of fluoroquinolones in rabbits using cassette dosing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Biswas, Nihar R; Ojha, Shreesh; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Corneal permeability of drugs is an important factor used to assess the efficacy of topical preparations. Transcorneal penetration of drugs from aqueous formulation is governed by various physiological, physiochemical, and formulation factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of formulation factors like concentration, pH, and volume of instillation across the cornea using cassette dosing technique for ophthalmic fluoroquinolones (FQs). Materials and methods Sterile cocktail formulations were prepared using four congeneric ophthalmic FQs (ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, pefloxacin mesylate, and gatifloxacin) at concentrations of 0.025%, 0.5%, and 0.1%. Each formulation was adjusted to different pH ranges (4.5, 7.0, and 8.0) and assessed for transcorneal penetration in vivo in rabbit’s cornea (n=4 eyes) at three different volumes (12.5, 25, and 50 μL). Aqueous humor was aspirated through paracentesis after applying local anesthesia at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes postdosing. The biosamples collected from a total of 27 groups were analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy to determine transcorneal permeability of all four FQs individually. Results Increase in concentration showed an increase in penetration up to 0.05%; thereafter, the effect of concentration was found to be dependent on volume of instillation as we observed a decrease in transcorneal penetration. The highest transcorneal penetration of all FQs was observed at pH 7.0 at concentration 0.05% followed by 0.025% at pH 4.5. Lastly, increasing the volume of instillation from 12.5 to 50 μL showed a significant fall in transcorneal penetration. Conclusion The study concludes that formulation factors showed discernible effect on transcorneal permeation; therefore, due emphasis should be given on drug development and design of ophthalmic formulation. PMID:26955263

  3. 统计质量保证技术在分析测试实验室内部质量控制中的应用%Application of SQA Techniques to Analytical and Testing Laboratories for Internal Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斗文; 万秉忠

    2001-01-01

    对通过统计质量保证( SQA)技术进行分析测试实验室内部质量控制( IQC)的方法作了初探。研究结果表明,SQA技术的应用能保证实验室始终处于统计受控状态,确保测试数据的有效性,有利于分析测试实验室质量保证活动的开展。%In this paper,a method of internal quality control for analytical and testing laboratories by statistical quality assurance(SQA) techniques is discussed.Application of SQA techniques can be continuously ensure that analytical and testing data of the laboratories are in statistical _ control state,thus guaranteeing the data quality and indicating areas of potential improvement for the laboratories.

  4. Creation of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique to assay platelet-activating factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 曹红翠; 徐哲荣; 陈晓明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new assay for platelet-activating factor (PAF), to compare it with bio-assay; and to discuss its significance in some elderly people diseases such as cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease. Methods: To measure PAF levels in 100 controls, 23 elderly patients with cerebral infarction and 65 cases with coronary heart disease by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique (rHPLC). Results: rHPLC is more convenient, sensitive, specific, and less confusing, compared with bio-assay. The level of plasma PAF in patients with cerebral infarction was higher than that in the controls (P<0.01), and in patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: Detection of PAF with rHPLC is more reliable and more accurate. The new assay has important significance in PAF research.

  5. Creation of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique to assay platelet-activating factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 曹红翠; 徐哲荣; 陈晓明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new assay for platelet-activating factor (PAF), to compare it with bio-assay; and to discuss its significance in some elderly people diseases such as cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease. Methods: To measure PAF levels in 100 controls, 23 elderly patients with cerebral infarction and 65 cases with coronary heart disease by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique (rHPLC). Results:rHPLC is more convenient, sensitive,specific, and less confusing, compared with bio-assay. The level of plasma PAF in patients with cerebral infarction was higher than that in the controls (P<0.01), and in patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: Detection of PAF with rHPLC is more reliable and more accurate. The new assay has important significance in PAF research.

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update of Key Imaging Techniques, Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart, B; Kindem, S; Chust, M

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma, though rare, is one of the most aggressive tumors a dermatologist faces. More than a third of patients with this diagnosis die from the disease. Numerous researchers have attempted to identify clinical and pathologic predictors to guide prognosis, but their studies have produced inconsistent results. Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma is low and it appears in patients of advanced age, prospective studies have not been done and no clear treatment algorithm has been developed. This review aims to provide an exhaustive, up-to-date account of Merkel cell carcinoma for the dermatologist. We describe prognostic factors and the imaging techniques that are most appropriate for evaluating disease spread. We also discuss current debates on treating Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Classification of ECG signals using LDA with factor analysis method as feature reduction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Arora, A S

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of ECG signal, especially the QRS complex as the most characteristic wave in ECG, is a widely accepted approach to study and to classify cardiac dysfunctions. In this paper, first wavelet coefficients calculated for QRS complex are taken as features. Next, factor analysis procedures without rotation and with orthogonal rotation (varimax, equimax and quartimax) are used for feature reduction. The procedure uses the 'Principal Component Method' to estimate component loadings. Further, classification has been done with a LDA classifier. The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is used and five types of beats (normal, PVC, paced, LBBB and RBBB) are considered for analysis. Accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictivity are performance parameters used for comparing performance of feature reduction techniques. Results demonstrate that the equimax rotation method yields maximum average accuracy of 99.056% for unknown data sets among other used methods.

  8. Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the social responsiveness scale-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W; Ratliff, Kristin R; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A; Constantino, John N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large (N = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale, representing a broad diversity of age, severity, and reporter type. A two-factor structure (corresponding to social communication impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior) as elaborated in the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for autism spectrum disorder exhibited acceptable model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was appreciable across age, sex, and reporter (self vs other), but somewhat less apparent between clinical and nonclinical populations in this sample comprised of both familial and sporadic autism spectrum disorders. The statistical power afforded by this large sample allowed relative differentiation of three factors among items encompassing social communication impairment (emotion recognition, social avoidance, and interpersonal relatedness) and two factors among items encompassing restricted, repetitive behavior (insistence on sameness and repetitive mannerisms). Cross-trait correlations remained extremely high, that is, on the order of 0.66-0.92. These data clarify domains of statistically significant factoral separation that may relate to partially-but not completely-overlapping biological mechanisms, contributing to variation in human social competency. Given such robust intercorrelations among symptom domains, understanding their co-emergence remains a high priority in conceptualizing common neural mechanisms underlying autistic syndromes.

  9. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage: assessment of risk factors with special attention to introduction of coblation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christian H; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie; Skov, Peter; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Godballe, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed at Odense University Hospital (OUH) or Svendborg Hospital (SH), Denmark. PTH occurred in 52 patients (12.1%). Of the 180 patients treated with coblation technique, 41 (22.7%) had PTH. There were no fatal bleeding episodes. Multiple regression analysis resulted in three significant covariates: "Coblation as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence of PTH when coblation procedures are performed by non-experienced surgeons. We advise that implementation of coblation tonsillectomy is thoroughly planned with sufficient training of surgeons and continuous surveillance of results. If PTH rates comparable to "cold dissections tonsillectomy" cannot be reached intervention (learning or closing down of coblation tonsillectomy) has to be done.

  10. Application of green analysis and testing technique in food analytical chemistry%绿色分析测试技术在食品检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕兴; 牛华; 张学忠; 杨凡; 彭珍华; 祝红昆; 马雪涛; 李军明

    2012-01-01

    绿色分析技术已成为国际分析化学的前沿科学,是一种新型的分析技术。绿色分析技术要求食品分析和检验者们能够发展绿色的分析方法和技术,从源头上制止污染的产生,减轻食品分析对操作者造成的伤害和对环境造成的污染。无污染或少污染的绿色分析化学技术将是今后食品分析的发展方向。文章重点介绍绿色分析测试技术在食品检验中的应用。%Green analysis and testing technique is a frontier area of analysis science and that is a new analysis technique.Green analysis and testing technique requires developing green analytical methods which eliminate the pollution from headstream and reduce damage and pollution.Free from pollution or little pollution in green analytical chemistry would be the development direction of food analytical chemistry.Its application and research progress in food detection were mainly introduced.

  11. Adverse psychosocial factors predict poorer prognosis in HIV disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Vedhara, Kavita

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing epidemiological literature focusing on the association between psychosocial stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but inconsistent findings have been published. We aimed to quantify the association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. We searched Medline; PsycINFO; Web of Science; PubMed up to 19 January 2009, and included population studies with a prospective design that investigated associations between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression or AIDS. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. The overall meta-analysis examined 36 articles including 100 psychosocial and disease related relationships. It exhibited a small, but robust positive association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV progression (correlation coefficient as combined size effect 0.059, 95% confidence interval 0.043-0.074, pHIV disease progression than stress stimuli per se, and that all of the immunological and clinical outcome indicators (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage, CD4+ T-cell decline, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus disease or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome symptoms) except for viral load exhibited detrimental effects by adverse psychosocial factors. In conclusion, the current review reveals a robust relationship between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Furthermore, there would appear to be some evidence for particular psychosocial factors to be most strongly associated with HIV disease progression.

  12. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  13. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  14. Applications of Radar Interferometric Techniques to Assess Natural Hazards and their Controlling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Gebremichael, E.; Othman, A.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Pankratz, H. G.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    Radar interferometric techniques including Persistent Scatterer (PS), Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), and two and three pass (differential interferometry) methods were applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) datasets. These include the European Space Agency (ESA) ERS-1, ERS-2, Environmental satellite (Envisat), and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to conduct the following: (1) map the spatial distribution of land deformation associated with a wide range of geologic settings, (2) quantify the rates of the observed land deformation, and (3) identify the factors controlling the observed deformation. The research topics/areas include: (1) subsidence associated with sediment compaction in a Delta setting (Nile Delta, Egypt), (2) deformation in a rifting setting (Red Sea rifting along the Red Sea coastal zone and proximal basement outcrops in Egypt and Saudi Arabia), (3) deformation associated with salt dome intrusion and the dissolution of sabkha deposits (Jazan area in Saudi Arabia), (4) mass transport associated with debris flows (Jazan area in Saudi Arabia), and (5) deformation preceding, contemporaneous with, or following large earthquakes (in Nepal; magnitude: 7.8; date: April, 25, 2015) and medium earthquakes (in Harrat Lunayyir volcanic field, central Saudi Arabia; magnitude: 5.7; date: May 19, 2009). The identification of the factor(s) controlling the observed deformation was attained through spatial correlation of extracted radar velocities with relevant temporal and static ground based and remotely sensed geological and cultural data sets (e.g., lithology, structure, precipitation, land use, and earthquake location, magnitude, and focal mechanism) in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment.

  15. The German translation and validation of the scale for the assessment of thought, language and communication: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Arne; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    The Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language and Communication (TLC) represents an instrument for the assessment of formal thought disorder (FTD). The factorial dimensionality of the TLC has yielded ambiguous results for a distinction between positive (e.g. circumstantiality) and negative (e.g. poverty of speech) FTD. The purpose of the current study was to first translate and validate the TLC scale in German. Second, the internal structure was explored in order to identify different FTD dimensions. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients with ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n = 63, schizophrenia n = 63, mania n = 20; 64 healthy subjects) were interviewed and FTD was rated with the TLC. The principal component analysis of the German TLC version revealed a 3-factor solution, reflecting a disorganized factor, an emptiness factor and a linguistic control factor. The current investigation yielded similar results to those originally reported for the TLC. Thus, a distinction between a positive disorganized, a negative and a semantic word level factor can be supported for the German translation.

  16. A meta-analytic review of the relationships between the five-factor model and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: a facet level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2008-12-01

    Theory and research have suggested that the personality disorders contained within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) can be understood as maladaptive variants of the personality traits included within the five-factor model (FFM). The current meta-analysis of FFM personality disorder research both replicated and extended the 2004 work of Saulsman and Page (The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1055-1085) through a facet level analysis that provides a more specific and nuanced description of each DSM-IV-TR personality disorder. The empirical FFM profiles generated for each personality disorder were generally congruent at the facet level with hypothesized FFM translations of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders. However, notable exceptions to the hypotheses did occur and even some findings that were consistent with FFM theory could be said to be instrument specific.

  17. Identification and prioritization of the effective factors on the choice of optimal marketing strategy in recession situations using fuzzy and Group Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kariznoee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that recession situation leads to demands reduction. Therefore, companies encounter challenges and weak businesses are disappeared and resistant and strength companies remain. In this situation considering the marketing department especially marketing strategy play a significant role. There are many marketing strategies. Companies use these strategies based on their needs or formulate new strategy with regard to their internal and external circumstances. This paper identify and prioritize the important factors in determination and selection appropriate marketing strategy through reviewing previous studies related to strategies used in recession condition and interviewing with experts. Thus, fuzzy and group analytic hierarchy process, which is a common and widely used decision making method, have been used in this study also the excel software was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that the major factors influencing the selection of appropriate marketing strategies, in order of preference, are price, product, distribution networks, and staff.

  18. A Novel Technique of Measuring SOA Differential Carrier Lifetime and a -Factor Using SOA Optical Modulation Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hyuk Lee; Woo-Young Choi

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique of measuring differential carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor in a semiconductor optical amplifier. In our method, the optical responses and fiber transfer functions of a self-gain modulated SOA are measured and, from these, values of carrier lifetimes and linewidth enhancement factors are determined for various SOA input optical powers.

  19. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  20. Fluence correction factors for graphite calorimetry in a low-energy clinical proton beam: I. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmans, Hugo; Al-Sulaiti, L; Andreo, P

    2013-01-01

    -eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.3%. These results are of direct relevance to graphite calorimetry in low-energy protons but given that the fluence correction factor is almost solely influenced by non-elastic nuclear interactions the results are also relevant for plastic phantoms that consist of carbon...

  1. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  2. A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in an Elderly Norwegian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnes, Ole; Troland, Kari; Torsheim, Torbjoern

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the factor structure of the translated Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), which is the latest available version in Norway, with the original U.S. version. A sample of 122 healthy, elderly Norwegians (mean age: 74; standard deviation = 8.8) completed the WMS-III. The factor structure of the translated WMS-III was tested, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, with comparison of model fit based on five a priori hypothesized models. Several model fit indices pointed to a three-factor model (working memory, visual memory, and auditory memory) providing the best fit to the data. Our study supports updated findings of the original WMS-III in nonclinical samples and suggests that the translated version is structurally equal to the original. The study supports the cross-cultural validity of the WMS-III. However, based on the present data, one might expect scores on the Family Pictures subtest to fall below scores on other WMS-III subtests in elderly Norwegians.

  3. The Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Parent Version (DBRS-PV): Factor Analytic Structure and Validity among Young Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite recognition that disruptive behavior disorders often begin early in development, existing assessment tools are largely based on research with school-aged children. Further empirical work is needed to evaluate the utility of these tools in younger children. Methods: The present study investigated the factor structure, internal…

  4. Examining Factors Associated with (In)Stability in Social Information Processing among Urban School Children: A Latent Transition Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goodman, Kimberly; Monahan, Kathryn; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for the role of social information processing (SIP) in aggressive behavior. However, less is known about factors that influence stability versus instability in patterns of SIP over time. Latent transition analysis was used to identify SIP patterns over one year and examine how community violence exposure, aggressive…

  5. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  6. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-22

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  7. A Factor Analytic Model of Economic Growth Basing on Domestic and Foreign Resource and a Positive Study of Korean Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍青生; 蔡来兴; 李湛

    2001-01-01

    The most popular and traditional method to analyze the source of economic growth is created by Robert. M.Solow, but it has some localizations and is not very precise in some sense. In this paper, we will classify all sources of economic growth into domestic part and foreign part. Gross domestic products (GDP) growth is decomposed into labor input, domestic capital formation, imported foreign capital formation, and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. TFP growth is again divided into scale economies, capital utilization, human capital, domestic research and development (R&D)effort, and imported foreign technology. In this way,foreign resources include imported foreign capital formation and foreign technology. By model and demonstration, we analyze the impact of foreign resource to an economy, and the contribution of each factor (especially technological progress) to economic growth.

  8. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression among adolescents? an analytical study with interventional component

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi P, Rajamanickam Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self – esteem is an important factor for helping persons deal with life stressors. It is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during an adolescent life stage. Low self-esteem might contribute to depression through both interpersonal and intrapersonal pathways. Many theories of depression postulate that low self esteem is a defining feature of depression. Aims: Self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and ...

  9. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression among adolescents? an analytical study with interventional component

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi P, Rajamanickam Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self – esteem is an important factor for helping persons deal with life stressors. It is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during an adolescent life stage. Low self-esteem might contribute to depression through both interpersonal and intrapersonal pathways. Many theories of depression postulate that low self esteem is a defining feature of depression. Aims: Self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and ...

  10. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression among adolescents? an analytical study with interventional component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi P, Rajamanickam Rajkumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self – esteem is an important factor for helping persons deal with life stressors. It is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during an adolescent life stage. Low self-esteem might contribute to depression through both interpersonal and intrapersonal pathways. Many theories of depression postulate that low self esteem is a defining feature of depression. Aims: Self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and protective factors in previous studies. This study examined the relationship between low self esteem and depression among adolescents. Methods: This study used a case control (retrospective design. Samples of 1120 adolescents, aged 14-17 years were selected for the study. Screening was done by using MINI-KID and the level of depression was assessed by using Beck depression inventory. Self esteem was measured by Rosenberg self esteem scale. Odds Ratio and Multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relation between self-esteem and socio-demographic variables. Results: The odds ratio analysis revealed that adolescents who had low self esteem found to have 3.7 times (95% CI=1.9-6.9 and p- value 0.001 more risk of developing depression than the adolescents who had high self esteem. Conclusions: The findings implied that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression among adolescents. Adolescents with low self esteem have to be identified earlier and prompt interventions will prevent future psychiatric illnesses. As an intervention towards the educational component pamphlet was distributed to the adolescents, parents and teachers. A concept programme called “Self Esteem Education & Development – SEED” programme, is planned for, from High school level.

  11. Analytical study of associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus among rural population aged 40 years and above

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally and is emerging fast as one of the most serious health problems of our time.  The present study was carried out in the village Hebbal, which is a designated rural field practice area of Community Medicine Department, M R Medical College, Gulbarga for duration of one year from 2008 to 2009 with aim to out to determine the prevalence of diabetes and its associated factors for causation of Diabetes Mellitus II. The present...

  12. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Bank Efficiency Using Combined Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fallah Jelodar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank branches have a vital role in the economy of all countries. They collect assets from various sources and put them in the hand of those sectors that need liquidity. Due to the limited financial and human resources and capitals and also because of the unlimited and new customers’ needs and strong competition between banks and financial and credit institutions, the purpose of this study is to provide an answer to the question of which of the factors affecting performance, creating value, and increasing shareholder dividends are superior to others and consequently managers should pay more attention to them. Therefore, in this study, the factors affecting performance (efficiency in the areas of management, personnel, finance, and customers were segmented and obtained results were ranked using both methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and hierarchical analysis. In both of these methods, the leadership style in the area of management; the recruitment and resource allocation in the area of financing; the employees’ satisfaction, dignity, and self-actualization in the area of employees; and meeting the new needs of customers got more weights.

  13. Development of a Technique of an Analytical Assessment of Crossing of Ellipses of Distribution on Polarizing Raman Ranges at Identification of Nanoparticles of Silver on Polyester Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Dobrovolskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical estimates of crossing of ellipses of distribution at recognition of nanoparticles of colloidal silver are given in polyair fibers on multidimensional correlation components of the Raman ranges with control according to polarizing characteristics. Reliability of recognition of nanoparticles was estimated on joint probability of normal distributions of intensivnost of the Raman spectrograms of nanoparticles of silver on polyair fibers depending on longitudinal and cross polarization of laser radiation on all range of a range with the analysis of 9 main peaks.

  14. EEG source space analysis of the supervised factor analytic approach for the classification of multi-directional arm movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy Handiru, Vikram; Vinod, A. P.; Guan, Cuntai

    2017-08-01

    Objective. In electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for motor control tasks the conventional practice is to decode motor intentions by using scalp EEG. However, scalp EEG only reveals certain limited information about the complex tasks of movement with a higher degree of freedom. Therefore, our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of source-space EEG in extracting relevant features that discriminate arm movement in multiple directions. Approach. We have proposed a novel feature extraction algorithm based on supervised factor analysis that models the data from source-space EEG. To this end, we computed the features from the source dipoles confined to Brodmann areas of interest (BA4a, BA4p and BA6). Further, we embedded class-wise labels of multi-direction (multi-class) source-space EEG to an unsupervised factor analysis to make it into a supervised learning method. Main Results. Our approach provided an average decoding accuracy of 71% for the classification of hand movement in four orthogonal directions, that is significantly higher (>10%) than the classification accuracy obtained using state-of-the-art spatial pattern features in sensor space. Also, the group analysis on the spectral characteristics of source-space EEG indicates that the slow cortical potentials from a set of cortical source dipoles reveal discriminative information regarding the movement parameter, direction. Significance. This study presents evidence that low-frequency components in the source space play an important role in movement kinematics, and thus it may lead to new strategies for BCI-based neurorehabilitation.

  15. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  16. Understanding organizational commitment: A meta-analytic examination of the roles of the five-factor model of personality and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daejeong; Oh, In-Sue; Colbert, Amy E

    2015-09-01

    We examined the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and three forms of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment) and their variability across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Meta-analytic results based on 55 independent samples from 50 studies (N = 18,262) revealed that (a) all FFM traits had positive relationships with affective commitment; (b) all FFM traits had positive relationships with normative commitment; and (c) Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience had negative relationships with continuance commitment. In particular, Agreeableness was found to be the trait most strongly related to both affective and normative commitment. The results also showed that Agreeableness had stronger relationships with affective and normative commitment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personality, job attitudes, and employee selection and retention.

  17. Assessment of analytical and experimental techniques utilized in conducting plume technology tests 575 and 593. [exhaust flow simulation (wind tunnel tests) of scale model Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. R.; Sulyma, P. R.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Since exhaust plumes affect vehicle base environment (pressure and heat loads) and the orbiter vehicle aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, an intensive program involving detailed analytical and experimental investigations of the exhaust plume/vehicle interaction was undertaken as a pertinent part of the overall space shuttle development program. The program, called the Plume Technology program, has as its objective the determination of the criteria for simulating rocket engine (in particular, space shuttle propulsion system) plume-induced aerodynamic effects in a wind tunnel environment. The comprehensive experimental program was conducted using test facilities at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center. A post-test examination of some of the experimental results obtained from NASA-MSFC's 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel is presented. A description is given of the test facility, simulant gas supply system, nozzle hardware, test procedure and test matrix. Analysis of exhaust plume flow fields and comparison of analytical and experimental exhaust plume data are presented.

  18. Factors associated to clinical learning in nursing students in primary health care: an analytical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes; Espejo-Matorrales, Flora; Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Pinto, Ione Carvalho

    2016-09-09

    to identify the students' perception about the quality of clinical placements and asses the influence of the different tutoring processes in clinical learning. analytical cross-sectional study on second and third year nursing students (n=122) about clinical learning in primary health care. The Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool and a synthetic index of attitudes and skills were computed to give scores to the clinical learning (scale 0-10). Univariate, bivariate and multivariate (multiple linear regression) analyses were performed. the response rate was 91.8%. The most commonly identified tutoring process was "preceptor-professor" (45.2%). The clinical placement was assessed as "optimal" by 55.1%, relationship with team-preceptor was considered good by 80.4% of the cases and the average grade for clinical learning was 7.89. The multiple linear regression model with more explanatory capacity included the variables "Academic year" (beta coefficient = 1.042 for third-year students), "Primary Health Care Area (PHC)" (beta coefficient = 0.308 for Area B) and "Clinical placement perception" (beta coefficient = - 0.204 for a suboptimal perception). timeframe within the academic program, location and clinical placement perception were associated with students' clinical learning. Students' perceptions of setting quality were positive and a good team-preceptor relationship is a matter of relevance. identificar a percepção dos estudantes de enfermagem sobre a qualidade das Práticas Clínicas em Atenção Primária à Saúde e avaliar a influência dos diferentes processos de tutoria na aprendizagem clínica. um estudo analítico transversal realizado com alunos do segundo e do terceiro ano de enfermagem (n = 122) na aprendizagem clínica nos serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A Ferramenta de Avaliação de Práticas Clínicas (Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool) e um índice sintético de atitudes e habilidades (escala de 0 a 10) foram calculados para marcar a

  19. How distinctive are morningness and eveningness from the Big Five factors of personality? A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya A; Credè, Marcus; Hahn, Elisabeth; Spinath, Frank M; Roberts, Richard D; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-03-01

    This study explores relations between measures of individuals' circadian preferences and the Big Five. To this end, we compared a model of circadian preferences that acknowledges morningness (M) and eveningness (E) as separate dimensions to that of a model that places M and E on a single continuum (M-E). Analyses of 620 correlations from 44 independent samples (N = 16,647) revealed weak to modest relations between both dimensions of circadian preferences and the Big Five personality traits. The strongest observed relation was found between Conscientiousness and M (ρ = .37). In the next step, regression analyses revealed that personality traits accounted for between 10.9% and 16.4% of the variance in circadian preferences. Of all the Big Five dimensions, Conscientiousness exhibited the strongest unique relation with M (β = .32), E (β = -.26), and M-E (β = .32). Extraversion and Openness exhibited moderate unique relations with E (β = .23 and β = .17, respectively), whereas relations with M (β = .00 and β = .04), and M-E (β = -.05 and β = -.06) were relatively weak. Neuroticism exhibited a modest unique and negative relation with M (β = -.16), and Agreeableness was largely unrelated to all circadian preference variables. To determine whether these findings translated into anything of applied significance, we explored relations between circadian preference and academic performance. M and E incremented slightly over the Big Five factors in predicting grade-point average. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Game Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Game Analytics has gained a tremendous amount of attention in game development and game research in recent years. The widespread adoption of data-driven business intelligence practices at operational, tactical and strategic levels in the game industry, combined with the integration of quantitative...