WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor analyses yielded

  1. Yield gap analyses to estimate attainable bovine milk yields and evaluate options to increase production in Ethiopia and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Dianne; Ash, Andrew; Prestwidge, Di; Godde, Cécile M; Henderson, Ben; Duncan, Alan; Blummel, Michael; Ramana Reddy, Y; Herrero, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India. We combined three different methods in our approach. Benchmarking and a frontier analysis were used to estimate attainable milk yields based on survey data. Household modelling was then used to simulate the effects of various interventions on dairy production and income. We tested interventions based on improved livestock nutrition and genetics in the extensive lowland grazing zone and highland mixed crop-livestock zones of Ethiopia, and the intensive irrigated and rainfed zones of India. Our analyses indicate that there are considerable yield gaps for dairy production in both countries, and opportunities to increase production using the interventions tested. In some cases, combined interventions could increase production past currently attainable livestock yields.

  2. Mathematical Analyses for the Influence of Soil Conditions and Nutrient Interactions on Cotton Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJIANHUI; HUCHANGQING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The influence of soil chemical properties and soil nutrition on cotton yields was studied by means of establishing mathematical models.The nultivarate quadratic regression equations developed by a stepwise regression method not only presented the single effect of soil factors but also displayed the interaction(synergistic or antagonistic) of soil nutrients.The effect of individual factor and the way of nutrient interaction were further analysed by the path analysis method.The results showed that among major factors affecting cotton yields,there existed the interactions between macronutrients(available P× available K),and between macronutrients and microelements(N×Zn,P×Mo,P×Cu,P×Zn,K×Mo)besides the single effect of soil pH,total P ,available Cu and available Zn.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  4. Summary of the analyses for recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn order to determine the hydrocarbon potential of oil reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins for which the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process has been considered suitable, the CO2 Prophet model was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be the primary source for estimating recovery-factor values for individual reservoirs. The choice was made because of the model’s reliability and the ease with which it can be used to assess a large number of reservoirs. The other two approaches—the empirical decline curve analysis (DCA) method and a review of published literature on CO2-EOR projects—were deployed to verify the results of the CO2 Prophet model. This chapter discusses the results from CO2 Prophet (chapter B, by Emil D. Attanasi, this report) and compares them with results from decline curve analysis (chapter C, by Hossein Jahediesfanjani) and those reported in the literature for selected reservoirs with adequate data for analyses (chapter D, by Ricardo A. Olea).To estimate the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential for oil reservoirs where CO2-EOR has been applied, two of the three approaches—CO2 Prophet modeling and DCA—do not include analysis of economic factors, while the third approach—review of published literature—implicitly includes economics. For selected reservoirs, DCA has provided estimates of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, which, in combination with calculated amounts of original oil in place (OOIP), helped establish incremental CO2-EOR recovery factors for individual reservoirs.The review of published technical papers and reports has provided substantial information on recovery factors for 70 CO2-EOR projects that are either commercially profitable or classified as pilot tests. When comparing the results, it is important to bear in mind the differences and limitations of these three approaches.

  5. Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content.

  6. Genetical and environmental analyses of yield in six biparental soybean crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOLEDO JOSÉ FRANCISCO FERRAZ DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The yearly genetic progress obtained by breeding for increased soybean yield has been considered acceptable worldwide. It is common sense, however, that this progress can be improved further if refined breeding techniques, developed from the knowledge of the genetic mechanisms controlling soybean yield, are used. In this paper, data from four cultivars and/or lines and their derived sets of F2, F3, F7, F8, F9 and F10 generations assayed in 17 environments were analyzed to allow an insight of the genetic control of soybean yield under different environmental conditions. The general picture was of a complex polygene system controlling yield in soybeans. Additive genetic effects predominated although dominance was often found to be significant. Complications such as epistasis, linkage and macro and micro genotype x environment (G x E interactions were also commonly detected. The overall heritability was 0.29. The relative magnitude of the additive effects and the complicating factors allowed the inference that the latter are not a serious problem to the breeder. The low heritability values and the considerable magnitude of G x E interactions for yield, however, indicated that careful evaluation through experiments designed to allow for the presence of these effects is necessary for successful selection.

  7. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  8. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  9. Corn Response to Competition: Growth Alteration vs. Yield Limiting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding competition mechanisms among adjacent plants can improve site-specific management recommendations. This 2-yr study compared two hypotheses, yield limiting factors vs. behavior modification, to explain plant interactions. Corn was grown under different levels of stress by varying light ...

  10. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors : Analyses of three factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Peabody, D

    2005-01-01

    This study proceeds from an earlier one that examined the 'Big Five' factors (Peabody & De Raad, 2002). That study considered the substantive nature of five factors from six European psycholexical studies. The results supported Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness), but Factors I (Extraversion) an

  11. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  12. Genome-Wide Association and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Underlying Yield-determining Traits in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Peng, Liu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Junhua; Yang, Bo; Xiao, Zhongchun; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Qu, Cunmin; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Liezhao; Zhu, Qinlong; Fu, Minglian; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiana

    2017-01-01

    Yield is one of the most important yet complex crop traits. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of yield establishment, and to identify candidate genes responsible for yield improvement in Brassica napus, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for seven yield-determining traits [main inflorescence pod number (MIPN), branch pod number (BPN), pod number per plant (PNP), seed number per pod (SPP), thousand seed weight, main inflorescence yield (MIY), and branch yield], using data from 520 diverse B. napus accessions from two different yield environments. In total, we detected 128 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93 of which were revealed as novel by integrative analysis. A combination of GWAS and transcriptome sequencing on 21 haplotype blocks from samples pooled by four extremely high-yielding or low-yielding accessions revealed the differential expression of 14 crucial candiate genes (such as Bna.MYB83, Bna.SPL5, and Bna.ROP3) associated with multiple traits or containing multiple SNPs associated with the same trait. Functional annotation and expression pattern analyses further demonstrated that these 14 candiate genes might be important in developmental processes and biomass accumulation, thus affecting the yield establishment of B. napus. These results provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the establishment of high yield in B. napus, and lay the foundation for developing high-yielding B. napus varieties. PMID:28261256

  13. Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses for the Estimation of Suspended Sediment Yield in Ungauged Basins of Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyawat Wuttichaikitcharoen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting sediment yield is necessary for good land and water management in any river basin. However, sometimes, the sediment data is either not available or is sparse, which renders estimating sediment yield a daunting task. The present study investigates the factors influencing suspended sediment yield using the principal component analysis (PCA. Additionally, the regression relationships for estimating suspended sediment yield, based on the selected key factors from the PCA, are developed. The PCA shows six components of key factors that can explain at least up to 86.7% of the variation of all variables. The regression models show that basin size, channel network characteristics, land use, basin steepness and rainfall distribution are the key factors affecting sediment yield. The validation of regression relationships for estimating suspended sediment yield shows the error of estimation ranging from −55% to +315% and −59% to +259% for suspended sediment yield and for area-specific suspended sediment yield, respectively. The proposed relationships may be considered useful for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged basins of Northern Thailand that have geologic, climatic and hydrologic conditions similar to the study area.

  14. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  15. A device for determining the regularity factor of coke yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Grishin, S.P.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device which determines the regularity factor of coke yield, which contains a furnace output monitoring unit, which is connected to the meter's input and an indicator, also contains a programmer, a comparator, a second meter, a multiplier and a divider to increase the efficiency and the reliability of information and to reduce manual labor. Here, the first output from the programmer is connected to the multiplier's input while the second output is connected to the initial inputs of the divider and the comparator, the second input of which is connected to the first indicator's output, while the output is connected to the second indicator's input, the output of which is connected to the divider's second input; the output of the divider is connected to the multiplier's second input and to the indicator which is connected to the multiplier's output.

  16. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute.

  17. Primary yield and multitranche structure in securitization issues: Explicative factors. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á. Peña-Cerezo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the strong rise in the securitization phenomenon up until the start of the “subprime crisis” need to be analysed. According to many authors, they mainly stem from its offering the possibility of generating fixed yield securities with the highest rating and a low risk premium, thanks to the issues being structured in differentiated bond series, so that certain series absorb most of the risk, thus facilitating the safer or “senior” tranches having a higher rating. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature on the factors underlying the generation of differentiated tranches in this type of issues and regarding the determining factors of the yield offered by securitization issues. It concludes that the search for more complete markets, along with the reducing of problems associated to the moral hazard, are the main reasons for the multi-tranche structuring. And given the strong influence of the number of tranches on the yield offered by the issues, the paper likewise concludes that the multitranche structures has been an efficient tool to place securitization issues with more competitive yields.

  18. PRIMARY YIELD AND MULTITRANCHE STRUCTURE IN SECURITIZATION ISSUES:EXPLICATIVE FACTORS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Cerezo, Miguel A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the strong rise in the securitization phenomenon up until the start of the subprime crisis need to be analysed. According to many authors, they mainly stem from its offering the possibility of generating fixed yield securities with the highest rating and a low risk premium, thanks to the issues being structured in differentiated bond series, so that certain series absorb most of the risk, thus facilitating the safer or senior tranches having a higher rating. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature on the factors underlying the generation of differentiated tranches in this type of issues and regarding the determining factors ofthe yield offered by securitization issues. It concludes thatthe search for more complete markets, along with the reducing of problems associated to the moral hazard, are the main reasons for the multi-tranche structuring. And given the strong influence of the number of tranches on the yield offered by the issues, the paper likewise concludes that the multitranche structures has been an efficient tool to place securitization issues with more competitive yields.

  19. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  20. Determination of Some Factors Affecting Honey Yield by Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Çelik Güney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Path analysis is determinate that relationships among variables by using correlation coefficient, partial correlation coefficient and path coefficient. In this study, direct and indirect effects of honey yield between brood rearing area, flight activity, pollen collection, nectar collection and cleaning power were examined with these coefficients. Data which taken from C.U. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Beekeeping Business were used. In the end of this research, the effect of brood rearing area on honey yield was found significant. In the colonies, brood rearing area has the highest direct effect of honey yield. Nectar collection has the highest indirect effect.

  1. Taxonomy and Phylogeny Can Yield Comparable Results in Comparative Paleontological Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soul, Laura C; Friedman, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Many extinct taxa with extensive fossil records and mature taxonomic classifications have not yet been the subject of formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we test whether the taxonomies available for such groups represent useful (i.e., non-misleading) substitutes for trees derived from matrix-based phylogenetic analyses. We collected data for 52 animal clades that included fossil representatives, and for which a recent cladogram and pre-cladistic taxonomy were available. We quantified the difference between the time-scaled phylogenies implied by taxonomies and cladograms using the matching cluster distance metric. We simulated phenotypic trait values and used them to estimate a series of commonly used, phylogenetically explicit measures (phylogenetic signal [Blomberg's [Formula: see text

  2. Interactions of climatic factors affecting milk yield and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Collider, R.J.; Bachman, K.C.; Martin, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of interactions of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and solar radiation on milk yield and constituent traits. Effects of climate variables and their interactions were significant but small in most cases. Second order regression models were developed for several variables. Six were examined in detail: Holstein and Jersey milk yields, Holstein fat and Feulgen-DNA reflectance percent, and Jersey protein percent and yield. Maximum temperature had greatest influence on each response, followed by minimum relative humidity and solar radiation. Optimum conditions for milk production were at maximum temperatures below 19. 4/degree/C, increasing solar radiation, and minimum relative humidity between 33.4 and 78.2% (cool sunny days, moderate humidity). Maximum Holstein fat percent of 3.5% was predicted for maximum temperatures below 30.8/degree/C, minimum relative humidity below 89%, and solar radiation below 109 Langleys; actual mean Holstein fat percent was 3. 35%. Optimum climatic conditions for Jersey protein percent were at maximum temperature of 10.6/degree/C with solar radiation at 300 Langleys and relative humidity at 16% (cool sunny days, low humidity). Because noteworthy interactions existed between climate effects, response surface methodology was suitable for determining optimum climatic conditions for milk production.

  3. Design factors analyses of second-loop PRHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the operating characteristics of a second-loop Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS, the transient thermal analysis code RELAP5 is used to build simulation models of the main coolant system and second-loop PRHRS. Transient calculations and comparative analyses under station blackout accident and one-side feed water line break accident conditions are conducted for three critical design factors of the second-loop PRHRS:design capacity, emergency makeup tank and isolation valve opening speed. The impacts of the discussed design factors on the operating characteristics of the second-loop PRHRS are summarized based on calculations and analyses. The analysis results indicate that the system safety and cooling rate should be taken into consideration in designing PRHRS's capacity,and water injection from emergency makeup tank to steam generator can provide advantage to system cooling in the event of accident,and system startup performance can be improved by reducing the opening speed of isolation valve. The results can provide references for the design of the second-loop PRHRS in nuclear power plants.

  4. Non-surgical factors influencing lymph node yield in colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Wood; Colin Peirce; Jurgen Mulsow

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous factors which can affect the lymph node(LN) yield in colon cancer specimens.The aim of this paper was to identify both modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that have been demonstrated toaffect colonic resection specimen LN yield and to summarise the pertinent literature on these topics.A literature review of Pub Med was performed to identify the potential factors which may influence the LN yield in colon cancer resection specimens.The terms used for the search were:LN,lymphadenectomy,LN yield,LN harvest,LN number,colon cancer and colorectal cancer.Both nonmodifiable and modifiable factors were identified.The review identified fifteen non-surgical factors:(13 nonmodifiable,2 modifiable) which may influence LN yield.LN yield is frequently reduced in older,obese patients and those with male sex and increased in patients with right sided,large,and poorly differentiated tumours.Patient ethnicity and lower socioeconomic class may negatively influence LN yield.Pre-operative tumour tattooing appears to increase LN yield.There are many factors that potentially influence the LN yield,although the strength of the association between the two varies greatly.Perfecting oncological resection and pathological analysis remain the cornerstones to achieving good quality and quantity LN yields in patients with colon cancer.

  5. An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.

  6. [Analyses prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xiao, Shuifang; Zeng, Zhengang; Zhen, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexi; Lin, Feng; Dong, Mingmin; Lu, Wei; Qin, Zhaobing; Zuo, Bin; Bai, Xianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The internationally accepted standardized clinical research methods, unified design, and unified program were adopted to conduct the prospective clinical multi-center study. The sudden deafness patients between 18 to 65 years old, with the course of this disorder less than two weeks, and without any medical treatments were collected, and then, divided into four types according to the hearing curve: type A, acute sensorineural hearing loss in low tone frequencies; type B, acute sensorineural hearing loss in high tone frequencies; type C, acute sensorineural hearing loss in all frequencies; and type D, total deafness. The factors, in terms of age, gender, type of initial audiogram, time delay before the first visit, and severity of hearing loss, were included in the analyses. A total of 1 024 cases with single side sudden deafness were collected in the study from 33 hospitals in China from August 2007 to October 2011, inclusive of for 492 males (48.05%) and 532 females (51.95%). The average age was (41.2 ± 12.8) years old. There were 553 cases (54.00%) in left ear, and 471 cases (46.00%) in right ear. The curative effects of different types were shown as follows: the type in low tone frequencies had the highest rate of 90.73%, the type in all frequencies was 82.59%; the type of total deafness was 70.29%; and the type in high tone frequencies had the lowest rate of 65.96%. It had significant difference of the effective rate between different types (χ(2) = 231.58, P = 0.000). Age, time delay before first visit, and severity of initial hearing loss were significantly correlated with hearing improvement. Initial audiogram of SSNHL might predict hearing recovery. The young in age and a short time delay before starting treatment are positive prognostic factors for hearing recovery in SSNHL. The initial severity of hearing loss is negative prognostic factor of hearing recovery.

  7. Stability Analyse for Yield and Yield Components of Selected Peanut Breeding Lines (Arachis hypogaea L. in the North Province of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngueguim, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Six advanced Cameroonian peanut breeding lines (Arachis hypogaea L., two introductions from Kano (Nigeria and one traditionally cultivated variety (control were grown at four locations during three seasons, giving a total of twelve locations x year combinations. The purpose was to evaluate yield stability and a number of yield components. Significant lines x environment interactions were detected for all traits. Results revealed that most Cameroonian breeding lines including 82Ds 479, 854, 1809 and 1632 had above-average results for pod and seed yields, good stability shown by their regression coefficients (b close to unity and low non-significant deviations from regression. Lines 82D22P-466 and 82D14S- 1809, with mean yields and yield components higher than average and b values lower or close to unity are expected to perform well for these traits in less favourable environments. The introduced line K2044- 80 was stable for seed yield but had below average yields. Such a line can be utilized in a breeding programme for transferring stability characters into high yielding cultivars. Significant positive correlations between pod and seed yields vs. 100-seed weight for some lines contributed to their yield increase in poor environments.

  8. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  9. Diagnostic yield of stool culture and predictive factors for positive culture in patients with diarrheal illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Cho, Sun Young; Hwang, Hannah Sun Hae; Ryu, Ja Young; Lee, Jongjin; Song, In Do; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Chang, Sae Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwan

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield of stool cultures and identify predictive factors for positive cultures in patients with diarrheal illness.A total of 13,327 patients who underwent stool cultures due to diarrheal illness were reviewed. Stool cultures were performed for enteric pathogens, including Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Yersinia. The culture-positive group was compared with the culture-negative group who were randomly selected from culture negative patients.A total of 196 patients (1.47%) were diagnosed with positive stool culture. In 196 culture positive patients, Salmonella spp. (75.0%) was detected most commonly, followed by Vibrio (19.4%). Univariate analyses showed fever (>37.8°C), vomiting, duration and frequency of diarrhea, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with positive stool culture. Multivariate analysis showed fever (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-4.35; P = .008), ≥5/day of diarrhea (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.93-6.44; P 50 mg/L of CRP (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.18-4.36; P = .014) were independent predictors for positive stool culture. OR in patients with all 3 factors was 6.55 (95% CI, 2.56-16.75; P factor.Diagnostic yield of stool culture in patients with diarrheal illness is very low. Fever, frequency of diarrhea, and high CRP are predictors for positive stool cultures. These findings may lead to more discerning and cost-effective utilization of stool culture by clinicians.

  10. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  11. Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

    2012-02-07

    Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

  12. Amplitude analysis without ambiguity in the transition NN {yields} {Delta}N; Analyse en amplitudes sans ambiguite de la transition NN {yields} {Delta}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, J.P. [Orleans Univ., 45 Orleans (France); Lazard, C. [Theoretical Physics Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-10-01

    A three step method is developed for determining without ambiguity the NN {yields} {Delta}N transition amplitudes. The purpose of the study is to select a set of observables, which determines, first, the 16 values of the amplitudes, secondly, the 15 independent relative phases, and thirdly, some dependent relative phases for resolving the remaining ambiguities. For determining NN {yields} (N{pi})N experiments needed to such an amplitude analysis, the decay distribution is expressed in the density matrix formalism. For particular {Delta} - production angles, an unambiguously amplitude analysis is performed with experiments involving polarized beam and target, only, avoiding the detection of the polarization of the outgoing nucleons. (authors) 2 refs.

  13. B{yields}D{sup (*)} form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S. [Universitaet Siegen, Theoretische Physik 1, Fachbereich Physik, Siegen (Germany); CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Khodjamirian, A.; Klein, C.; Mannel, T. [Universitaet Siegen, Theoretische Physik 1, Fachbereich Physik, Siegen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    We derive new QCD sum rules for B{yields}D and B{yields}D{sup *} form factors. The underlying correlation functions are expanded near the light-cone in terms of B-meson distribution amplitudes defined in HQET, whereas the c-quark mass is kept finite. The leading-order contributions of two- and three-particle distribution amplitudes are taken into account. From the resulting light-cone sum rules we calculate all B{yields}D{sup (*)} form factors in the region of small momentum transfer (maximal recoil). In the infinite heavy-quark mass limit the sum rules reduce to a single expression for the Isgur-Wise function. We compare our predictions with the form factors extracted from experimental B{yields}D{sup (*)}l{nu} {sub l} decay rates fitted to dispersive parameterizations. (orig.)

  14. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    by extracting epidermal proteins from human surgical waste samples and stratum corneum scrapings followed by binding studies using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Results As suggested by Kaplan-Meier event history analyses, FLG null mutations lowered the age of onset of nickel dermatitis, when ear...

  15. Calibrating partial factors for Danish railway embankments using probabilistic analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Lodahl; Kristian T.Brødbæk; Carsten S.Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    High costs are connected with upgrading railway embankments throughout Denmark using the partial factors for geotechnical design calibrated for general application. One way to reduce the costs is reliability-based calibration of the partial factors to a reasonable safety level taking into account the specific design situations and uncertainties relevant to railway embankments. A reliability-based design has been investigated, resulting in an optimal partial factor for the considered subsoil. With a stochastic soil model to simulate the undrained shear strength of soft soil deposits, the partial factor is calibrated using asymptotic sampling for the reliability assessment. The calibration shows that the partial factor can be reduced significantly compared to the value specified in the Danish National Annex to DS/EN 1997-1 (2007), Eurocode 7.

  16. Calibrating partial factors for Danish railway embankments using probabilistic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Lodahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High costs are connected with upgrading railway embankments throughout Denmark using the partial factors for geotechnical design calibrated for general application. One way to reduce the costs is reliability-based calibration of the partial factors to a reasonable safety level taking into account the specific design situations and uncertainties relevant to railway embankments. A reliability-based design has been investigated, resulting in an optimal partial factor for the considered subsoil. With a stochastic soil model to simulate the undrained shear strength of soft soil deposits, the partial factor is calibrated using asymptotic sampling for the reliability assessment. The calibration shows that the partial factor can be reduced significantly compared to the value specified in the Danish National Annex to DS/EN 1997-1 (2007, Eurocode 7.

  17. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.;

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three...

  18. [Effects of cultural factors on yield of Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zhang, Jin; Du, Yan-bin; Cui, Tong-xia; Wang, Li-jun

    2016-02-01

    Cultural factors influencing high yield and good quality Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9) were investigated. The correlations between these factors and its yield were analyzed. Path coefficient and principal component analysis were conducted, adopting uniform design of the 8 cultivating factors, i.e. planting density (X1), base nitrogen quantity (X2), base phosphorus quantity (X3), base potassium quantity (X4), foliar fertilizer (potassium dihydrogen phosphate, X5), foliar fertilizer (boron fertilizer, X6), growth regulator (multi-effect azole, X7) and growth duration irrigation amount (X8), aiming at exploring better cultivating plan of L. usitatissimum for Gansu Province. The results indicated that the factors influencing the yield of L. usitatissimum were X1, X7, X2, X3, X5 and X4 in a descending order. Simulation and optimization of the highest yield was further implemented. Frequency analysis showed that the cultivating factors resulting in yield higher than 173.58 kg . hm-2 were 4. 68 - 4. 92 kg . hm-2 (X1) , 11. 59 - 14. 75 kg . hm-2 (X2), 17.26- 21.95 kg . hm-2 (X3), 7.00-12.50 kg . hm-2 (X4) , 1.41-1.81 kg . hm-2 (X5) and 751.74- 954.04 g . hm-2 (X7).

  19. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  20. No Sommerfeld resummation factor in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}p anti p ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, R. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' E. Fermi' ' , Rome (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, S. [Universita di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Perugia (Italy); INFN, Perugia (Italy); Zallo, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    The Sommerfeld rescattering formula is compared to the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}p anti p BABAR data at threshold and above. While there is the expected Coulomb enhancement at threshold, two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e. vertical stroke G {sup p} (4M{sub p}{sup 2}) vertical stroke = 1, as a pointlike fermion, and, moreover, data show that the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields} baryon-antibaryon cross-sections show similar behavior near threshold. (orig.)

  1. Determinants of sovereign yield spreads during the Euro-crisis: Fundamental factors versus systemic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Jens; Weigert, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The intensity of the Euro-crisis was reflected by significant increases of sovereign bond yields in the troubled countries. This has launched a hot debate whether this increase can solely be attributed to fundamental factors like e.g. rescue programmes, rising budget deficits, deteriorating economic prospects or changes in the rating-status of the country, or whether a part of these growing yields is likely to represent a systemic risk, i.e. that one or more countries will drop out of the Eur...

  2. Sovereign yield spreads during the Euro-crisis: Fundamental factors versus redenomination risk

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Jens; Weigert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The intensity of the Euro-crisis was reflected by significant increases of sovereign bond yields in the troubled countries. This has launched a hot debate whether this increase can solely be attributed to fundamental factors like e.g. rescue programmes, rising budget deficits, deteriorating economic prospects or changes in the rating-status of the country, or whether a part of these growing yields is likely to represent a systemic risk, i.e. that one or more countries will drop out of the Eur...

  3. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Duchesne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter, the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

  4. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  5. Development of analysis and reconstruction tools in Opera and analysis of {tau} {yields} 3 charged hadrons channel; Developpement des outils d'analyse et de reconstruction dans OPERA et analyse du canal {tau} {yields} 3 hadrons charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavy, M

    2004-07-01

    OPERA aims to prove the existence of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation by a direct observation of {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. To achieve this goal, a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam is produced at CERN and directed towards the Gran Sasso underground laboratory where the OPERA detector is located. The nuclear emulsions composing the detector have a very high degree of accuracy in position ({mu}m) and should allow {tau} lepton detection produced via {nu}{sub {tau}} charged current interaction. The emulsions analysis is thus a key point of the OPERA experiment. The development of simulation and reconstruction software is a part of this thesis work. In an other part of this thesis, it is shown that with a suitable kinematic analysis, the 3 charged hadrons tau decay channel can be used as any tau decay channels in the OPERA data analysis. (author)

  6. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  7. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  8. Dimensionality of the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Cheung, C. K.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the responses of 1,501 Chinese married adults to the Chinese version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (C-DAS), confirmatory factor analyses showed that four factors were abstracted from the C-DAS (Dyadic Consensus, Dyadic Cohesion, Dyadic Satisfaction and Affectional Expression) and these four primary factors were subsumed under a…

  9. Comparative analyses of B{yields}K{sub 2}{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} in the standard model and new physics scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Run-Hui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    We analyze the B {yields} K{sub 2}{sup *}({yields} K{pi})l{sup +}l{sup -} (with l=e,{mu},{tau}) decay in the standard model and two new physics scenarios: vector-like quark model and family non-universal Z{sup '} model. We derive the differential angular distributions of the quasi-four-body decay, using the recently calculated form factors in the perturbative QCD approach. Branching ratios, polarizations, forward-backward asymmetries and transversity amplitudes are predicted, from which we find a promising prospective to observe this channel on the future experiment. We also update the constraints on effective Wilson coefficients and/or free parameters in these two new physics scenarios by making use of the experimental data of B{yields}K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} and b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -}. Their impact on B{yields}K{sub 2}{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} is subsequently explored and in particular the zero-crossing point for the forward-backward asymmetry in these new physics scenarios can sizably deviate from the SM scenario. In addition we also generalize the analysis to a similar mode B{sub s}{yields}f{sup '}{sub 2}(1525)({yields}K{sup +}K{sup -})l{sup +}l{sup -}. (orig.)

  10. Assessing factors influencing maize yield response to nitrogen using remote sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, Brian Theodore

    Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in maize that is an environmental issue; the result of over or asynchronous application with respect to crop N uptake. Rates are largely determined by a yield goal, which fails to account for spatial and temporal variability in N supply and grain yield. Crop canopy sensors that monitor N status of maize have been validated as a way to increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and maintain yield potential by applying N in-season. Such methods are not immune to the effects of temporal variability that occur beyond the time of application, such as intense rainfall events that are conducive to N loss. To identify potential factors that influence the temporal stability of hybrid respond to N, two different experiments carried out. In the first, blocks represented a range of soil organic matter (OM) and mean relative yield (MRY) values, and received split N application at different timings. Nitrogen, OM, MRY, and timing were evaluated across years for temporal stability and influence on yield. Results showed only MRY was temporally stable; although all factors influenced yield. Sidedress application beyond V14 lost yield. In the second experiment, temporal stability of hybrid response to N (RTN) was evaluated. Hybrids selected represented a broad range of RTN. Hybrid x N interaction was significant across site years, which indicated an inability to classify hybrids based on RTN. A final experiment compared crop canopy sensors from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), to collect more frequent N status of maize, and established best management practices of how to utilize an active crop canopy sensor mounted to a UAV. Results showed that an active crop canopy sensor mounted on a UAV is a suitable platform to replace or augment current methods of acquiring N status of maize canopies. The collective result of experiments showed a lack in temporal stability that exists in terms of N management that is largely influence by local site and seasonal

  11. Effect of transmembrane pressure on Factor VIII yield in ATF perfusion culture for the production of recombinant human Factor VIII co-expressed with von Willebrand factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Chul; An, Sora; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Park, Beom-Soo; Na, Kyu-Heum; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated three cell retention devices, an alternating tangential flow (ATF) system, a spin-filter, and a Centritech Lab III centrifuge, for the production of recombinant human Factor VIII co-expressed with von Willebrand factor. From the results, it was found that the FVIII activity in bioreactor was significantly higher in the ATF perfusion culture than two other perfusion cultures. Moreover, the FVIII activity yield was unexpectedly low in the ATF perfusion culture. We have, therefore, studied the reasons for this low FVIII activity yield. It was revealed that the inactivation and the surface adsorption of FVIII onto the harvest bag were not the main reasons for the low yield in the ATF perfusion culture. The FVIII activity yield was not increased by the use of a hollow fiber filter with 0.5 μm pore size instead of 0.2 μm pore size. Additionally, the retention of FVIII molecules by the hollow fiber filter was a dominant factor in the low FVIII activity yield in the ATF perfusion culture. We demonstrated that FVIII yield was significantly improved by controlling transmembrane pressure (TMP) across the hollow fiber filter membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that TMP control could be an efficient method for the enhancement of FVIII yield in an ATF perfusion culture.

  12. Determination of the shape factor of (90)Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau Carles, A; Kossert, K; Grau Malonda, A

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of (90)Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of (90)Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition.

  13. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  14. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....

  15. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....

  16. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  17. Polarization observables in the process d + p {yields} d+ X and electromagnetic form factors of N {yields} N* transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    1996-12-31

    We analyze the properties of the inclusive d + p-reactions, with particular interest in the domain of nucleonic resonances excitation. The calculated cross section and polarization observables show that it is possible to disentangle the different reaction mechanisms ({omega}-,{sigma}-, n- exchange) and bring new information about the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron as well as of the nucleonic resonances excitation. Existing data on the tensor analyzing power are in agreement with the predictions based on the {omega}-exchange model. (authors). 18 refs.

  18. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  19. A new technique for analysing interacting factors affecting biodiversity patterns: crossed-DPCoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoine, Sandrine; Blondel, Jacques; Dufour, Anne B; Gasc, Amandine; Bonsall, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    We developed an approach for analysing the effects of two crossed factors A and B on the functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic composition of communities. The methodology, known as crossed-DPCoA, defines a space where species, communities and the levels of the two factors are organised as a set of points. In this space, the Euclidean distance between two species-specific points is a measure of the (functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic) dissimilarity. The communities are positioned at the centroid of their constitutive species; and the levels of two factors at the centroid of the communities associated with them. We develop two versions for crossed-DPCoA, the first one moves the levels of factor B to the centre of the space and analyses the axes of highest variance in the coordinates of the levels of factor A. It is related to previous ordination approaches such as partial canonical correspondence analysis and partial non-symmetrical correspondence analysis. The second version projects all points on the orthogonal complement of the space generated by the principal axes of factor B. This second version should be preferred when there is an a priori suspicion that factor A and B are associated. We apply the two versions of crossed-DPCoA to analyse the phylogenetic composition of Central European and Mediterranean bird communities. Applying crossed-DPCoA on bird communities supports the hypothesis that allopatric speciation processes during the Quaternary occurred in open and patchily distributed landscapes, while the lack of geographic barriers to dispersal among forest habitats may explain the homogeneity of forest bird communities over the whole western Palaearctic. Generalizing several ordination analyses commonly used in ecology, crossed-DPCoA provides an approach for analysing the effects of crossed factors on functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, environmental and geographic structure of species niches, and more broadly the role of genetics on

  20. A new technique for analysing interacting factors affecting biodiversity patterns: crossed-DPCoA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Pavoine

    Full Text Available We developed an approach for analysing the effects of two crossed factors A and B on the functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic composition of communities. The methodology, known as crossed-DPCoA, defines a space where species, communities and the levels of the two factors are organised as a set of points. In this space, the Euclidean distance between two species-specific points is a measure of the (functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic dissimilarity. The communities are positioned at the centroid of their constitutive species; and the levels of two factors at the centroid of the communities associated with them. We develop two versions for crossed-DPCoA, the first one moves the levels of factor B to the centre of the space and analyses the axes of highest variance in the coordinates of the levels of factor A. It is related to previous ordination approaches such as partial canonical correspondence analysis and partial non-symmetrical correspondence analysis. The second version projects all points on the orthogonal complement of the space generated by the principal axes of factor B. This second version should be preferred when there is an a priori suspicion that factor A and B are associated. We apply the two versions of crossed-DPCoA to analyse the phylogenetic composition of Central European and Mediterranean bird communities. Applying crossed-DPCoA on bird communities supports the hypothesis that allopatric speciation processes during the Quaternary occurred in open and patchily distributed landscapes, while the lack of geographic barriers to dispersal among forest habitats may explain the homogeneity of forest bird communities over the whole western Palaearctic. Generalizing several ordination analyses commonly used in ecology, crossed-DPCoA provides an approach for analysing the effects of crossed factors on functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, environmental and geographic structure of species niches, and more broadly the role of

  1. Systematic Selection of Key Logistic Regression Variables for Risk Prediction Analyses: A Five-Factor Maximum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Webster, Kate E; Hurd, Wendy J

    2017-08-16

    The evolution of clinical practice and medical technology has yielded an increasing number of clinical measures and tests to assess a patient's progression and return to sport readiness after injury. The plethora of available tests may be burdensome to clinicians in the absence of evidence that demonstrates the utility of a given measurement. Thus, there is a critical need to identify a discrete number of metrics to capture during clinical assessment to effectively and concisely guide patient care. The data sources included Pubmed and PMC Pubmed Central articles on the topic. Therefore, we present a systematic approach to injury risk analyses and how this concept may be used in algorithms for risk analyses for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in healthy athletes and patients after ACL reconstruction. In this article, we present the five-factor maximum model, which states that in any predictive model, a maximum of 5 variables will contribute in a meaningful manner to any risk factor analysis. We demonstrate how this model already exists for prevention of primary ACL injury, how this model may guide development of the second ACL injury risk analysis, and how the five-factor maximum model may be applied across the injury spectrum for development of the injury risk analysis.

  2. Determination of the {eta}-transition form factor in the {gamma}p{yields}p{eta}{yields}p{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghaeuser, H., E-mail: henning.berghaeuser@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Metag, V. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Starostin, A. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bartolome, P. Aguar; Akasoy, L.K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Arends, H.J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Bantawa, K. [Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Bekrenev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Braghieri, A. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Branford, D. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Briscoe, W.J. [Center for Nuclear Studies, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Brudvik, J. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cherepnya, S.; Demissie, B.T. [Center for Nuclear Studies, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Downie, E.J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Drexler, P. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Dieterle, M. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Fil' kov, L.V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-27

    The Dalitz decay {eta}{yields}{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -} has been measured using the combined Crystal Ball and TAPS photon detector setup at the electron accelerator MAMI-C. Compared to the most recent transition form-factor measurement in the e{sup +}e{sup -} channel, statistics have been improved by one order of magnitude. The e{sup +}e{sup -} invariant mass distribution shows a deviation from the QED prediction for a point-like particle, which can be described by a form-factor. Using the usual monopole transition form-factor parameterization, F(m{sup 2})=(1-m{sup 2}/{Lambda}{sup 2}){sup -1}, a value of {Lambda}{sup -2}=(1.92{+-}0.35(stat){+-}0.13(syst)) GeV{sup -2} has been determined. This value is in good agreement with a recent measurement of the {eta} Dalitz decay in the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} channel and with recent form-factor calculations. An improved value of the branching ratio BR({eta}{yields}{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -})=(6.6{+-}0.4(stat){+-}0.4(syst)).10{sup -3} has been determined.

  3. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  4. Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

    2011-01-01

    This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

  5. Dimensionality of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA). Secondary 1 students (N = 5,649) responded to the CPYDS in the context of a positive youth development program. Results showed that there are 15 basic dimensions of the CPYDS…

  6. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    wang, Xiaobin; Cai, D.X.; Grant, C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012,

  7. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    wang, Xiaobin; Cai, D.X.; Grant, C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012,

  8. Embracing the emerging precision agriculture technologies for site-specific management of yield-limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melakeberhan, H

    2002-09-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is providing an information revolution using Global Positioning (GPS) and Geographic Information (GIS) systems and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies allow better decision making in the management of crop yield-limiting biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions on a site-specific (SSM) basis in a wide range of production systems. Characterizing the nature of the problem(s) and public education are among the challenges that scientists, producers, and industry face when adapting PA technologies. To apply SSM, spatio-temporal characteristics of the problem(s) need to be determined and variations within a field demonstrated. Spatio-temporal characteristics of a given pathogen or pest problem may be known but may not be the only or primary cause of the problem. Hence, exact cause-and-effect relationships need to be established by incorporating GIS, GPS, and RS-generated data as well as possible interactions. Exploiting the potential of PA technologies in sustainable ways depends on whether or not we first ask ''Are we doing the right thing?'' (strategic) as opposed to ''Are we doing it right?'' (tactical).

  9. Optimisation of the Factor VIII yield in mammalian cell cultures by reducing the membrane bound fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2011-01-01

    and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane...... of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²5I-rFVIII) and annexin V...... or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could...

  10. Establishment of forskolin yielding transformed cell suspension cultures of Coleus forskohlii as controlled by different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Ghosh, B; Jha, S

    2000-01-07

    Suspension cultures derived from gall calli which were obtained following infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (C58) were established in Coleus forskohlii. Cell line selection following single cell cloning or cell aggregate cloning was carried out to select cell lines capable of fast growth and for producing high level of forskolin. A fast growing cell line (GSO-5/7) thus selected was found to accumulate 0.021% forskolin in 42 days. The effect of cultural conditions on cell growth was studied to identify factors influencing biomass yield. Cell growth in suspension was found to be influenced significantly by carbon source, initial cell density and light or dark condition. Optimal cell growth (20 fold increase in biomass in a 42 day period) was obtained when the cells were grown in dark condition in B5O media containing 3% sucrose as sole carbon source with an initial cell density of 1.5 x 10(5) cells per ml. Forskolin accumulation was maximum (0.021%) in the stationary phase of cell growth. These suspension cultures showed continuous and stable production of forskolin.

  11. Studies on the Effects of Climatic Factors on Dryland Wheat Grain Yield in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of climate variables on rainfed wheat grain yield, climate data and wheat yield for 10 years (1995-2005 collected from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI in Maragheh as the main station in cold and semi-cold areas. Collected data were analyzed by correlation coefficient, simple regression, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that relationships between grain yield with average relative humidity and total rainfall of growing season was positive and significant at 5% and 1% probabilities, respectively. However, evaluation between grain yield with sunny hours and class A pan evaporation was negative and significant (p

  12. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  13. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  14. Analyses of the contributing factors associated with foodborne outbreaks in school settings (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuto, Margaret; Garcia, Kristin

    2015-03-01

    State-reported school foodborne outbreaks account for about 3.8% (n = 464) of all outbreaks and 8.2% (n = 20,667) of all illnesses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Of 464 school foodborne outbreaks, 122 (26%) outbreaks, 7,603 illnesses, and 301 reported food safety errors met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine the role of contributing factors in school foodborne outbreaks. Contamination factors accounted for the greatest proportion (49.2%) of outbreaks involving some level of food handling interaction by a school food service worker, followed by proliferation (34.9%) and survival factors (15.9%). Over 56% of all illnesses were associated with norovirus and food service worker practices. The results of these analyses highlight the importance of effective food safety education programs that focus on the role of contributing factors and prevention of foodborne disease from food safety errors.

  15. Computing arbitrage-free yields in multi-factor Gaussian shadow-rate term structure models

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel A. Priebsch

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a method to approximate arbitrage-free bond yields within a term structure model in which the short rate follows a Gaussian process censored at zero (a "shadow-rate model" as proposed by Black, 1995). The censoring ensures that model-implied yields are constrained to be positive, but it also introduces non-linearity that renders standard bond pricing formulas inapplicable. In particular, yields are not linear functions of the underlying state vector as they are in affine t...

  16. The rates of G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G transversions at CpG dinucleotides in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The authors have identified eight independent transversions at CpG in 290 consecutive families with hemophilia B. These eight transversions account for 16.3% of all independent transversions in the sample, yet the expected frequency of CpG transversions at random in the factor IX gene is only 2.6% (P<0.1). The aggregate data suggest that the two types of CpG transversions (G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G) possess similar mutation rates (24.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] and 20.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]10], respectively), which are about fivefold greater than the comparable rates for transversions at non-CpG dinucleotides. The enhancement of transversions at CpG suggest that the model by which mutations occur at CpG may need to be reevaluated. The relationship, if any, between deamination of 5-methyl cytosine and enhancement of transversions at CpG remains to be defined. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insec

  18. The influence of environmental factors on daily milk yield and fat and protein content in Istrian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špehar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation, parity, litter size, and lambing season on daily milk production and fat and protein content in Istrian sheep. Data included9.533 test-day records of 2.024 ewes for the period from October 2005 to May 2009. Daily milk yield and fat and protein content were determined during monthly milking controls using AT4 method. The stage of lactation, described by Wilmink lactation curve, had significant effect (P<0.001 on all studied milk traits of Istrian sheep. The peak of daily milk production was achieved between the 20th and 30th day of lactation and gradually decreased towards the end of lactation. Lactation curves for fat and protein content had opposite shape compared to the daily milk yield lactation curve. Parity affected (P<0.05 the daily milk yield and protein content. Daily milk yield and protein content were the lowest in the first and the highest in the third parity. Statistically significant influence of litter size (P<0.05 was determined for daily milk yield and fat content. A higher daily milk yield and lower fat content was observed in ewes lambing twins compared to ewes lambing singles. Differences in daily milk yield and contents were observed for the lambing season effect (P<0.001. Istrian ewes lambed in December and November (first lambing season had the highest daily milk production, while the lowest daily milk yield had ewes lambed in February.

  19. Factor analyses of an Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Bamps, Yvan; LaFrance, W Curt; Stoll, Shelley; Shegog, Ross; Buelow, Janice; Shafer, Patricia; Thompson, Nancy J; McGee, Robin E; Hatfield, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of an enhanced Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI). An instrument of 113 items, covering 10 a priori self-management domains, was generated through a multiphase process, based on a review of the literature, validated epilepsy and other chronic condition self-management scales and expert input. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 422 adults with epilepsy. The instrument was reduced to 65 items, converging on 11 factors: Health-care Communication, Coping, Treatment Management, Seizure Tracking, Social Support, Seizure Response, Wellness, Medication Adherence, Safety, Stress Management, and Proactivity. Exploratory factors supported the construct validity for 6 a priori domains, albeit with significant changes in the retained items or in their scope and 3 new factors. One a priori domain was split in 2 subscales pertaining to treatment. The configuration of the 11 factors provides additional insight into epilepsy self-management behaviors. Internal consistency reliability of the 65-item instrument was high (α=.935). Correlations with independent measures of health status, quality of life, depression, seizure severity, and life impact of epilepsy further validated the instrument. This instrument shows potential for use in research and clinical settings and for assessing intervention outcomes and self-management behaviors in adults with epilepsy.

  20. Reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} and X ray tube ionization yield R{sub (TUBE)Q}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: dansq@on.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The operational facility procedures in diagnostic radiology standardization and calibration, through the relation between the X ray tube current and the ionization chamber current in a radiation quality Q, shown the reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} as the reality estimate to the X ray tube ionization yield, R{sub (TUBE)Q} . (author)

  1. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  2. Derivation of factors to estimate daily yield from single milkings for Holsteins milked two or three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily yield when milk weights are recorded once when cows are milked twice (2x) or once or twice when cows are milked thrice (3x) per d. Data was from herds enrolled in DHI and automatically recording milking weights and times. Following edits, 83,690...

  3. A meta-analysis of responses of canopy photosynthetic conversion efficiency to environmental factors reveal major causes of yield gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving plant energy conversion efficiency is crucial for increasing food and bioenergy crop production and yields. This study statistically quantifies the effects of climate/weather factors and management techniques on energy conversion efficiency from 140 published studies and provides a quantit...

  4. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  5. Age of planted Echinacea purpurea: The factor of seed yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Results for yield and quality of echinacea purpurea seed obtained from age of plants one, two, three, four and five year are presented. In the laboratory experiments germination energy (GE, total germination (TG and weight seed was examined. The highest yield of seed was achieved in three-year echinacea purpurea plants, and the lowest yield was achieved in one-year plants. Age of planted established influence significant on total germination. This parametar the highest of seed in three-year plants and the lowest of seed in five-year echinacea purpurea plants. The highest of germination energy of seed established for the seed deriving from three-year echinacea purpurea planted, and the lowest in one-year plants. The absolute mass of seeds the highest in one-year plants, and the lowest for the seed deriving from five-year echinacea purpurea planted. .

  6. The Forecasting Power of the Yield Curve, a Supervised Factor Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo; Hillebrand, Eric Tobias

    We study the forecast power of the yield curve for macroeconomic time series, such as consumer price index, personal consumption expenditures, producer price index, real disposable income, unemployment rate, and industrial production. We employ a state-space model in which the forecasting objective......¨urkaynak, Sack, and Wright (2006) and Diebold and Li (2006) and macroeconomic data from FRED. We compare the models by means of the conditional predictive ability test of Giacomini and White (2006). We find that the yield curve has more forecast power for real variables compared to inflation measures...

  7. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia–Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (inc...

  8. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  9. Management factors affecting establishment and yield of bioenergy miscanthus on claypan soil landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has been well studied for its establishment and yield in Europe and certain parts of the US Midwest but little has been done to investigate these properties when grown on degraded soils, which are typified as being less productive, and consequently, economically...

  10. Climatic factors affecting annual maize yields in the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Maxx

    1997-11-01

    Locally measured climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, clearly affect agriculture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Some climate/agriculture applications, however, do better to focus on meso- and large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulatory influences on the location of interest. In the Valley of Oaxaca in the highlands of southern Mexico for example, rain-fed maize yields are as sensitive to interannual variations in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and a synoptic index of summer 850 hPa-level temperatures in the Mexico-USA border region as they are to locally measured precipitation, a variable to which yields are also strongly related. From 1978 to 1990, August precipitation explains 62 per cent of the variation in yields on the area planted in rain-fed maize in the Valley of Oaxaca, a region highly dependent on that crop. An index derived from 850 hPa-level temperatures and the annual average value of the SOI are comparable, explaining 48 per cent and 68 per cent of maize-yield variation respectively. This suggests that useful information for agricultural decision-making in the Valley of Oaxaca can be obtained by monitoring ENSO and the development of large-scale circulatory patterns. Unlike local observations, these larger scale phenomena may provide advance warning of precipitation conditions during the agricultural season upon which so many people's livelihoods in the region depend.

  11. Partial Least Squares Regression for Determining the Control Factors for Runoff and Suspended Sediment Yield during Rainfall Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufang Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistics are commonly used to identify the factors that control the dynamics of runoff or sediment yields during hydrological processes. However, one issue with the use of conventional statistical methods to address relationships between variables and runoff or sediment yield is multicollinearity. The main objectives of this study were to apply a method for effectively identifying runoff and sediment control factors during hydrological processes and apply that method to a case study. The method combines the clustering approach and partial least squares regression (PLSR models. The case study was conducted in a mountainous watershed in the Three Gorges Area. A total of 29 flood events in three hydrological years in areas with different land uses were obtained. In total, fourteen related variables were separated from hydrographs using the classical hydrograph separation method. Twenty-nine rainfall events were classified into two rainfall regimes (heavy Rainfall Regime I and moderate Rainfall Regime II based on rainfall characteristics and K-means clustering. Four separate PLSR models were constructed to identify the main variables that control runoff and sediment yield for the two rainfall regimes. For Rainfall Regime I, the dominant first-order factors affecting the changes in sediment yield in our study were all of the four rainfall-related variables, flood peak discharge, maximum flood suspended sediment concentration, runoff, and the percentages of forest and farmland. For Rainfall Regime II, antecedent condition-related variables have more effects on both runoff and sediment yield than in Rainfall Regime I. The results suggest that the different control factors of the two rainfall regimes are determined by the rainfall characteristics and thus different runoff mechanisms.

  12. Studies on the Reaction Mechanism of CPP and the Factors Affecting the Yields of Ethylene and Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HouDianguo; WangXieqing; 等

    2002-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Catalytic Pyrolysis Process and the ethylene and propylene forma-tion reaction are analyzed,and ethylene and propylene are produced through both the free radical reac-tion and carbenium ion reaction.The factors affecting the yields of ethylene and propylene are discussed.The results showed that greater yields of ethylene and propylene can be obtained on ZSM-5 catalysts rather than USY and REY catalysts,and the modified ZSM-5 could improve the ethylene yield.A higher temperature is favorable for enhancement of the free radical reaction as opposed to carbenium ion reaction,and change in temperature can adjust the ratio of ethylene and propylene production.A higher steam amount could produce more ethylene and propylene and less coke,and lowering the catalyst/oil ratio is favorable for producing ethylene.

  13. Studies on the Reaction Mechanism of CPP and the Factors Affecting the Yields of Ethylene and Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Catalytic Pyrolysis Process and the ethylene and propylene forma-tion reaction are analyzed, and ethylene and propylene are produced through both the free radical reac-tion and carbenium ion reaction. The factors affecting the yields of ethylene and propylene are discussed.The results showed that greater yields of ethylene and propylene can be obtained on ZSM-5 catalystsrather than USY and REY catalysts, and the modified ZSM-5 could improve the ethylene yield. A highertemperature is favorable for enhancement of the free radical reaction as opposed to carbenium ion reaction,and change in temperature can adjust the ratio of ethylene and propylene production. A higher steamamount could produce more ethylene and propylene and less coke, and lowering the catalyst/oil ratio isfavorable for producing ethylene.

  14. Studies on the Reaction Mechanism of CPP and the Factors Affecting the Yields of Ethylene and Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo; Wang Xieqing; Xie Chaogang; Shi Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Catalytic Pyrolysis Process and theethylene and propylene forma-tion reaction are analyzed, and ethylene and propylene are produced through both the free radical reac-tion and carbenium ion reaction. The factors affecting the yields of ethylene and propylene are discussed.The results showed that greater yields of ethylene and propylene can be obtained on ZSM-5 catalystsrather than USY and REY catalysts, and the modified ZSM-5 could improve the ethylene yield. A highertemperature is favorable for enhancement of the free radical reaction as opposed to carbenium ion reaction,and change in temperature can adjust the ratio of ethylene and propylene production. A higher steamamount could produce more ethylene and propylene and less coke, and lowering the catalyst/oil ratio isfavorable for producing ethylene.

  15. Reanalyses of the historical series of UK variety trials to quantify the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to trends and variability in yield over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I; Horwell, A; Garner, J; White, J; McKee, J; Philpott, H

    2011-01-01

    Historical datasets have much to offer. We analyse data from winter wheat, spring and winter barley, oil seed rape, sugar beet and forage maize from the UK National List and Recommended List trials over the period 1948-2007. We find that since 1982, for the cereal crops and oil seed rape, at least 88% of the improvement in yield is attributable to genetic improvement, with little evidence that changes in agronomy have improved yields. In contrast, in the same time period, plant breeding and changes in agronomy have contributed almost equally to increased yields of forage maize and sugar beet. For the cereals prior to 1982, contributions from plant breeding were 42, 60 and 86% for winter barley, winter wheat and spring barley, respectively. These results demonstrate the overwhelming importance of plant breeding in increasing crop productivity in the UK. Winter wheat data are analysed in more detail to exemplify the use of historical data series to study and detect disease resistance breakdown, sensitivity of varieties to climatic factors, and also to test methods of genomic selection. We show that breakdown of disease resistance can cause biased estimates of variety and year effects, but that comparison of results between fungicide treated and untreated trials over years may be a means to screen for durable resistance. We find the greatest sensitivities of the winter wheat germplasm to seasonal differences in rainfall and temperature are to summer rainfall and winter temperature. Finally, for genomic selection, correlations between observed and predicted yield ranged from 0.17 to 0.83. The high correlation resulted from markers predicting kinship amongst lines rather than tagging multiple QTL. We believe the full value of these data will come from exploiting links with other experiments and experimental populations. However, not to exploit such valuable historical datasets is wasteful.

  16. Factors Affecting Milk Yield, Composition and Udder Health of Najdi Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Najdi milk has been historically utilized by bedouins to process traditional dairy products, no published studies have been focused on their milk productivity and quality traits. This study was planned to investigate the effects of litter size, sex of lamb and lamb’s birth weight on milk yield, compositions and udder health during suckling and milking periods. A total of 30 multiparous ewes were utilized in this study. Litter size and sex of lambs did not produce any effects (p>0.05 on milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, total solids and Somatic Cell Counts (SCC; whereas, lamb’s birth weight significantly (p0.05 to attain 1.88±0.18 L in the 9th week of lactation. Average milk yield were 2.17 and 1.71 L.d-1, for ewes that gave birth to lambs weighing >5 and 0.05 and had a mean value of 9.95×105 cells/mL. It is concluded that the indigenous Najdi ewes have a noticeable potential for milk production, but milk compositions were lower in comparison to other international dairy sheep.

  17. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Núñez-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0, mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200–300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40–90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1, juvenile transition (SPL3-5 and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1 but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production.

  18. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  19. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  20. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr David C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA. The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51% from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85. However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems

  1. Risk Factor Analyses for the Return of Spontaneous Circulation in the Asphyxiation Cardiac Arrest Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Jun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal models of asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA are frequently used in basic research to mirror the clinical course of cardiac arrest (CA. The rates of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in ACA animal models are lower than those from studies that have utilized ventricular fibrillation (VF animal models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors associated with the ROSC in the ACA porcine model. Methods: Forty-eight healthy miniature pigs underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA. Once induced, CA was maintained untreated for a period of 8 min. Two minutes following the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, defibrillation was attempted until ROSC was achieved or the animal died. To assess the factors associated with ROSC in this CA model, logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze gender, the time of preparation, the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from the beginning of CPR and the pH at the beginning of CPR. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of AMSA for ROSC. Results: ROSC was only 52.1% successful in this ACA porcine model. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ROSC significantly depended on the time of preparation, AMSA at the beginning of CPR and pH at the beginning of CPR. The area under the ROC curve in for AMSA at the beginning of CPR was 0.878 successful in predicting ROSC (95% confidence intervals: 0.773∼0.983, and the optimum cut-off value was 15.62 (specificity 95.7% and sensitivity 80.0%. Conclusions: The time of preparation, AMSA and the pH at the beginning of CPR were associated with ROSC in this ACA porcine model. AMSA also predicted the likelihood of ROSC in this ACA animal model.

  2. THE CHOICE OF INVESTMENT LOCATION – THE DETERMININING FACTOR OF ITS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUŢĂ ANCA JARMILA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of a financial manager is to use the funds of the company within its managerial authority, so that at long-term the firm obtains the investments yield at least as high as that which could be achieved through alternative investments, with similar risks. The second important objective is to maximize the present value of investment resources to achieve the higher yield as possible, without existing the undue risk. For maximization of the earning capacity of the firm, the resources are allocated in such a way that the earning are allocated in such a way that the earning capacity is transformed into a high efficiency as possible for the company. For achieving these objectives the measurement methods are needed to evaluate the company performance. A basic measurement method is the return on investment (ROI, which describes the relationship between profit and investment. The planning of a business regardless of the investment area must take into account the location of the investment project because of its importance to the future success of the company. In this context, the paper analyzes the main aspects concerning the natural environment and related geophysical conditions, the environmental impact of the project, socio-economic and governmental policies as well as the industrial infrastructure conditions, key issues in determining the efficiency of investment for a company with industrial production activity

  3. High yield expression of catalytically active USP18 (UBP43 using a Trigger Factor fusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basters Anja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Covalent linkage of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 interferes with viral infection and USP18 is the major protease which specifically removes ISG15 from target proteins. Thus, boosting ISG15 modification by protease inhibition of USP18 might represent a new strategy to interfere with viral replication. However, so far no heterologous expression system was available to yield sufficient amounts of catalytically active protein for high-throughput based inhibitor screens. Results High-level heterologous expression of USP18 was achieved by applying a chaperone-based fusion system in E. coli. Pure protein was obtained in a single-step on IMAC via a His6-tag. The USP18 fusion protein exhibited enzymatic activity towards cell derived ISG15 conjugated substrates and efficiently hydrolyzed ISG15-AMC. Specificity towards ISG15 was shown by covalent adduct formation with ISG15 vinyl sulfone but not with ubiquitin vinyl sulfone. Conclusion The results presented here show that a chaperone fusion system can provide high yields of proteins that are difficult to express. The USP18 protein obtained here is suited to setup high-throughput small molecule inhibitor screens and forms the basis for detailed biochemical and structural characterization.

  4. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  5. Forecasting the Yield Curve in a Data-Rich Environment Using the Factor-Augmented Nelson-Siegel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter; Dijk, Dick van; Heij, Christiaan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares various ways of extracting macroeconomic information from a data-rich environment for forecasting the yield curve using the Nelson–Siegel model. Five issues in extracting factors from a large panel of macro variables are addressed; namely, selection of a subset of the available...... forecast accuracy, especially for the shortest and longest maturities. Factor-augmented methods perform well in relatively volatile periods, including the crisis period in 2008–9, when simpler models do not suffice. The macroeconomic information is exploited best by partial least squares methods...

  6. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form T: Initial Item-, Test-, Factor-,and Composite-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0093 AIR FORCE OFFICER QUALIFYING TEST FORM T: INITIAL ITEM-, TEST -, FACTOR-, AND COMPOSITE-LEVEL ANALYSES...July 2016 – 28 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-C-6158 Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form T...Initial Item-, Test -, Factor-, and Composite-Level Analyses 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  7. An assessment of recently published gene expression data analyses: reporting experimental design and statistical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuaje Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of large-scale gene expression data is a fundamental approach to functional genomics and the identification of potential drug targets. Results derived from such studies cannot be trusted unless they are adequately designed and reported. The purpose of this study is to assess current practices on the reporting of experimental design and statistical analyses in gene expression-based studies. Methods We reviewed hundreds of MEDLINE-indexed papers involving gene expression data analysis, which were published between 2003 and 2005. These papers were examined on the basis of their reporting of several factors, such as sample size, statistical power and software availability. Results Among the examined papers, we concentrated on 293 papers consisting of applications and new methodologies. These papers did not report approaches to sample size and statistical power estimation. Explicit statements on data transformation and descriptions of the normalisation techniques applied prior to data analyses (e.g. classification were not reported in 57 (37.5% and 104 (68.4% of the methodology papers respectively. With regard to papers presenting biomedical-relevant applications, 41(29.1 % of these papers did not report on data normalisation and 83 (58.9% did not describe the normalisation technique applied. Clustering-based analysis, the t-test and ANOVA represent the most widely applied techniques in microarray data analysis. But remarkably, only 5 (3.5% of the application papers included statements or references to assumption about variance homogeneity for the application of the t-test and ANOVA. There is still a need to promote the reporting of software packages applied or their availability. Conclusion Recently-published gene expression data analysis studies may lack key information required for properly assessing their design quality and potential impact. There is a need for more rigorous reporting of important experimental

  8. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  9. Comparative analyses of developmental transcription factor repertoires in sponges reveal unexpected complexity of the earliest animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja

    2015-12-01

    Developmental transcription factors (DTFs) control development of animals by affecting expression of target genes, some of which are transcription factors themselves. In bilaterians and cnidarians, conserved DTFs are involved in homologous processes such as gastrulation or specification of neurons. The genome of Amphimedon queenslandica, the first sponge to be sequenced, revealed that only a fraction of these conserved DTF families are present in demosponges. This finding was in line with the view that morphological complexity in the animal lineage correlates with developmental toolkit complexity. However, as the phylum Porifera is very diverse, Amphimedon's genome may not be representative of all sponges. The recently sequenced genomes of calcareous sponges Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata allowed investigations of DTFs in a sponge lineage evolutionarily distant from demosponges. Surprisingly, the phylogenetic analyses of identified DTFs revealed striking differences between the calcareous sponges and Amphimedon. As these differences appear to be a result of independent gene loss events in the two sponge lineages, the last common ancestor of sponges had to possess a much more diverse repertoire of DTFs than extant sponges. Developmental expression of sponge homologs of genes involved in specification of the Bilaterian endomesoderm and the neurosensory cells suggests that roles of many DTFs date back to the last common ancestor of all animals. Strikingly, even DTFs displaying apparent pan-metazoan conservation of sequence and function are not immune to being lost from individual species genomes. The quest for a comprehensive picture of the developmental toolkit in the last common metazoan ancestor is thus greatly benefitting from the increasing accessibility of sequencing, allowing comparisons of multiple genomes within each phylum.

  10. Analysing physical fitness and biomechanical factors that determine tennis serve performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Gelen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The purpose of the study is to analyse the fitness and the biomechanical factors which determine the velocity of the ball during serve in tennis (VBTS. The subjects of the study were fifteen male tournament level tennis player between the ages of sixteen and twenty five (18,8 ± 2,70 age/year. The physical fitness measurement of the study were; length, body weight, skinfold, diameter, circumference and length of the body, body composition, isometric handgrip strength, vertical jump, upper extremity range of motion (ROM and isokinetic strength. The angular velocity of racket head, racket handhold, middle finger, wrist, elbow, shoulder and hip joints on three axis during serve shoot were used for the biomechanical measurement.  The relationship between VBTS with physical fitness and biomechanical factors were measured with Pearson Correlation. The analysis showed that there was significant positive relation between VBTS and length, negative relation with mesomorphy; positive relation between ROM of shoulder dominant internal and external rotation, trunk hyper-extension, left lateral flexion and right rotation, negative relation in dominant wrist flexion, positive relation between isokinetic strength characteristics such as shoulder and elbow extension, shoulder internal and external rotation, wrist flexion, handgrip isometric strength, also in biomechanical measures, positive relation between in Y axis elbow, wrist, finger and head of the racket. As a result, fitness and biomechanical parameters that are intensively used in tennis determine VBTS. We think trainers may speed up VBTS by improved parameters and accelerated training programmes.

  11. Analyses of the Temporal Development and Yield Losses due to Sheath Blight of Rice (Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a, has become the most important disease and caused serious yield losses in some major rice-growing regions in China in recent years. In the present study, field plot experiment was conducted to examine the relationships between disease intensity and inoculum density (ID), the seasonal disease epidemic dynamics, and yield reductions due to disease damages. Results from the experiment demonstrated that the areas under progress curves of disease severity and those of percent rice tillers diseased were positively and closely related to the relative initial ID of the pathogen. The inoculum density-disease (IDD) relationships were simulated and the impractical linear models were obtained. Both logistic and Gompertz functions could be used to simulate the disease progress dynamics in time, but the progress curves of the disease severity were modeled better by the Gompertz than by logistic function. However, the Richards function was found to be the best in simulating the disease progress curves when a most appropriate value was chosen for the shape parameter m by using the computer software Epitimulator(R).Sheath blight infection decreased rice yield very significantly and a yield reduction of 40% was recorded in rice crop with the highest inoculum density. Rice yield was linearly and negatively correlated with the disease severity and the percent tillers affected. The simulated models for all these relationships were computed through executing Epitimulator(R) software and were presented in this paper.

  12. Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Jiadong; Malovannaya, Anna; Xi, Yuanxin; Li, Wei; Guerra, Rudy; Hawke, David H; Qin, Jun; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-21

    The current knowledge on how transcription factors (TFs), the ultimate targets and executors of cellular signalling pathways, are regulated by protein-protein interactions remains limited. Here, we performed proteomics analyses of soluble and chromatin-associated complexes of 56 TFs, including the targets of many signalling pathways involved in development and cancer, and 37 members of the Forkhead box (FOX) TF family. Using tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (TAP/MS), we performed 214 purifications and identified 2,156 high-confident protein-protein interactions. We found that most TFs form very distinct protein complexes on and off chromatin. Using this data set, we categorized the transcription-related or unrelated regulators for general or specific TFs. Our study offers a valuable resource of protein-protein interaction networks for a large number of TFs and underscores the general principle that TFs form distinct location-specific protein complexes that are associated with the different regulation and diverse functions of these TFs.

  13. Concept of ground facilities and the analyses of the factors for cost estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K

    2007-09-15

    The geologic disposal of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants is the only way to protect the human beings and the surrounding environments present and future. The direct disposal of the spent fuels from the nuclear power plants is considered, and a Korean Reference HLW disposal System(KRS) suitable for our representative geological conditions have been developed. In this study, the concept of the spent fuel encapsulation process as a key of the above ground facilities for deep geological disposal was established. To do this, the design requirements, such as the functions and the spent fuel accumulations, were reviewed. Also, the design principles and the bases were established. Based on the requirements and the bases, the encapsulation process of the spent fuel from receiving spent fuel of nuclear power plants to transferring canister into the underground repository was established. Simulation for the above-ground facility in graphic circumstances through KRS design concept and disposal scenarios for spent nuclear fuel showed that an appropriate process was performed based on facility design concept and required for more improvement on construction facility by actual demonstration test. And, based on the concept of the above ground facilities for the Korean Reference HLW disposal System, the analyses of the factors for the cost estimation was carried out.

  14. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  15. Genetic, physiological, and gene expression analyses reveal that multiple QTL enhance yield of rice mega-variety IR64 under drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Mallikarjuna Swamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the -QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL--one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10--were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/-QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha⁻¹ over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include

  16. Analyses on the tectonic thermal evolution and influence factors in the deep-water Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenfeng; SHI Xiaobin; YANG Jun; HUANG Baojia; SUN Zhen; WANG Yahui; JIANG Haiyan; YU Chuanhai; YANG Xiaoqiu

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the tectonic thermal evolution and influence factors on the present heat flow distribution, based on 154 heat flow data, the present heat flow distribution features of the main tectonic units are first analyzed in detail, then the tectonic thermal evolution histories of 20 profiles are reestablished crossing the main deep-water sags with a structural, thermal and sedimentary coupled numerical model. On the basis of the present geothermal features, the Qiongdongnan Basin could be divided into three regions: the northern shelf and upper slope region with a heat flow of 50–70 mW/m2, most of the central depression zone of 70–85 mW/m2, and a NE trending high heat flow zone of 85–105 mW/m2 lying in the eastern basin. Numerical modeling shows that during the syn-rift phase, the heat flow increases generally with time, and is higher in basement high area than in its adjacent sags. At the end of the syn-rift phase, the heat flow in the deep-water sags was in a range of 60–85 mW/m2, while in the basement high area, it was in a range of 75–100 mW/m2. During the post-rift phase, the heat flow decreased gradually, and tended to be more uniform in the basement highs and sags. However, an extensive magmatism, which equivalently happened at around 5 Ma, has greatly increased the heat flow values, and the relict heat still contributes about 10–25 mW/m2to the present surface heat flow in the central depression zone and the southern uplift zone. Further analyses suggested that the present high heat flow in the deep-water Qiongdongnan Basin is a combined result of the thermal anomaly in the upper mantle, highly thinning of the lithosphere, and the recent extensive magma-tism. Other secondary factors might have affected the heat flow distribution features in some local regions. These factors include basement and seafloor topography, sediment heat generation, thermal blanketing, local magmatic injecting and hydrothermal activities related to faulting and

  17. Mammography performance in Oman: Review of factors influencing cancer yield and positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taif, Sawsan; Tufail, Fatma; Alnuaimi, Ahmed Sameer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess mammography performance in Oman by estimating the breast cancer rate and the positive predictive value (PPV) with the influence of some variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted on mammograms done in one of the three main breast imaging centers in Oman between January 2008 and July 2012. Diagnostic and screening groups were identified and assessed separately. Rate of abnormal mammograms, rate of breast cancer and the PPV were estimated according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) score, presence of breast lump and patient's age. Total of 653 mammograms were included, 254 diagnostic and 399 screening. Abnormal mammograms (BIRADS 4 and 5) form 31.9% of the diagnostic examinations compared with 6.8% of screening examinations. Breast cancer was present in 17.9% of the diagnostic compared with 1.0% of the screening group. The PPV of BIRADS 5 was 94.1%, and for BIRADS 4 was 37.1 and 26.7% for diagnostic and screening studies. Overall PPV for abnormal mammograms was 65.2% in the diagnostic and 26.7% in the screening group. Mammography PPV shows positive association with age (P = 0.039) while presence of breast lump has no significant effect on the PPV (P = 0.38). BIRADS 5 score was found to have a high cancer yield making it a strong predictor of cancer. Different results were obtained in the diagnostic compared with screening mammography with higher rates of abnormal mammograms and breast cancer. Mammography performance should be better in the older women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Technical note: Comparative analyses of the quality and yield of genomic DNA from invasive and noninvasive, automated and manual extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C; O'Farrelly, C; Meade, K G

    2011-06-01

    Several new automated methods have recently become available for high-throughput DNA extraction, including the Maxwell 16 System (Promega UK, Southampton, UK). The purpose of this report is to compare automated with manual DNA extraction methods, and invasive with noninvasive sample collection methods, in terms of DNA yield and quality. Milk, blood, and nasal swab samples were taken from 10 cows for DNA extraction. Nasal swabs were also taken from 10 calves and semen samples from 15 bulls for comparative purposes. The Performagene Livestock (DNA Genotek, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) method was compared with similar samples taken from the same animal using manual extraction methods. All samples were analyzed using both the Qubit Quantification Platform (Invitrogen Ltd., Paisley, UK) and NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Inc., Wilmington, DE) to accurately assess DNA quality and quantity. In general, the automated Maxwell 16 System performed best, consistently yielding high quantity and quality DNA across the sample range tested. Average yields of 28.7, 10.3, and 19.2 μg of DNA were obtained from 450 μL of blood, 400 μL of milk, and a single straw of semen, respectively. The quality of DNA obtained from buffy coat and from semen was significantly higher with the automated method than with the manual methods (260/280 ratio of 1.9 and 1.8, respectively). Centrifugation of whole blood facilitated the concentration of leukocytes in the buffy coat, which significantly increased DNA yield after manual extraction. The Performagene method also yielded 18.4 and 49.8 μg of high quality (260/280 ratio of 1.8) DNA from the cow and calf nasal samples, respectively. These results show the advantages of noninvasive sample collection and automated methods for high-throughput extraction and biobanking of high quality DNA. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenetic factorization of compositional data yields lineage-level associations in microbiome datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Washburne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Marker gene sequencing of microbial communities has generated big datasets of microbial relative abundances varying across environmental conditions, sample sites and treatments. These data often come with putative phylogenies, providing unique opportunities to investigate how shared evolutionary history affects microbial abundance patterns. Here, we present a method to identify the phylogenetic factors driving patterns in microbial community composition. We use the method, “phylofactorization,” to re-analyze datasets from the human body and soil microbial communities, demonstrating how phylofactorization is a dimensionality-reducing tool, an ordination-visualization tool, and an inferential tool for identifying edges in the phylogeny along which putative functional ecological traits may have arisen.

  20. Age-Related Yield of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Bearing the Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cuevas-Diaz Duran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are a heterogeneous cell population that may be enriched by positive selection with antibodies against the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR or CD271, yielding a selective cell universe with higher proliferation and differentiation potential. This paper addresses the need for determining the quantity of ADSCs positive for the CD271 receptor and its correlation with donor's age. Mononuclear cells were harvested from the lower backs of 35 female donors and purified using magnetic beads. Multipotency capacity was tested by the expression of stemness genes and through differentiation into preosteoblasts and adipocytes. A significant statistical difference was found in CD271+ concentrations between defined age intervals. The highest yield was found within women on the 30–40-year-old age range. CD271+ ADSCs from all age groups showed differentiation capabilities as well as expression of typical multipotent stem cell genes. Our data suggest that the amount of CD271+ cells correlates inversely with age. However, the ability to obtain these cells was maintained through all age ranges with a yield higher than what has been reported from bone marrow. Our findings propose CD271+ ADSCs as the primary choice for tissue regeneration and autologous stem cell therapies in older subjects.

  1. Are semantic and phonological fluency based on the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes? Insights from factor analyses in healthy adults and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Schumacher, Lena V; Römer, Pia; Leonhart, Rainer; Beume, Lena; Martin, Markus; Dressing, Andrea; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2017-05-01

    Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively. This evidence for differential cognitive and neural contributions is, however, strongly challenged by findings from factor analyses, which have consistently yielded only one explanatory factor. As all previous factor-analytical approaches were based on very small item sets, this apparent discrepancy may be due to methodological limitations. In this study, we therefore applied a German version of the verbal fluency task with 8 semantic (i.e. categories) and 8 phonological items (i.e. letters). An exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in N=69 healthy young adults indeed revealed a two-factor solution with markedly different loadings for semantic and phonological items. This pattern was corroborated by a confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of N=174 stroke patients. As results from both samples also revealed a substantial portion of common variance between the semantic and phonological factor, the present data further demonstrate that semantic and phonological verbal fluency are based on clearly distinct but also on shared sets of cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  3. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, C.; Wang, F.; Schnürer, A.; Sun, C.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  4. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-02-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input.

  5. Rumen metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses of low methane yield sheep reveals a Sharpea-enriched microbiome characterised by lactic acid formation and utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Kittelmann, Sandra; Soni, Priya; Li, Yang; Tavendale, Michael; Ganesh, Siva; Janssen, Peter H; Shi, Weibing; Froula, Jeff; Rubin, Edward M; Attwood, Graeme T

    2016-10-19

    Enteric fermentation by farmed ruminant animals is a major source of methane and constitutes the second largest anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Reducing methane emissions from ruminants is needed to ensure sustainable animal production in the future. Methane yield varies naturally in sheep and is a heritable trait that can be used to select animals that yield less methane per unit of feed eaten. We previously demonstrated elevated expression of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway genes of methanogenic archaea in the rumens of high methane yield (HMY) sheep compared to their low methane yield (LMY) counterparts. Methane production in the rumen is strongly connected to microbial hydrogen production through fermentation processes. In this study, we investigate the contribution that rumen bacteria make to methane yield phenotypes in sheep. Using deep sequence metagenome and metatranscriptome datasets in combination with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from HMY and LMY sheep, we show enrichment of lactate-producing Sharpea spp. in LMY sheep bacterial communities. Increased gene and transcript abundances for sugar import and utilisation and production of lactate, propionate and butyrate were also observed in LMY animals. Sharpea azabuensis and Megasphaera spp. act as important drivers of lactate production and utilisation according to phylogenetic analysis and read mappings. Our findings show that the rumen microbiome in LMY animals supports a rapid heterofermentative growth, leading to lactate production. We postulate that lactate is subsequently metabolised mainly to butyrate in LMY animals, producing 2 mol of hydrogen and 0.5 mol of methane per mol hexose, which represents 24 % less than the 0.66 mol of methane formed from the 2.66 mol of hydrogen produced if hexose fermentation was directly to acetate and butyrate. These findings are consistent with the theory that a smaller rumen size with a higher turnover rate, where rapid

  6. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  7. Quality assessment and factor analysis of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of endoscopic ultrasound diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Liu

    Full Text Available Comprehensive monitoring of the quality of systematic reviews (SRs and meta-analyses (MAs of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS requires complete and accurate reporting and methodology.To assess the reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis and to explore the potential factors influencing articles' quality.The quality of the reporting and methodology was evaluated in relation to the adherence of papers to the PRISMA checklist and the AMSTAR quality scale. The total scores for every criterion and for every article on the two standards were calculated. Data were evaluated and analyzed using SPSS17.0 and RevMan 5.1 in terms of publication time, category of reviews, category of journals, and funding resource.A total of 72 SRs/MAs was included, but no Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs were obtained. The number of SRs/MAs ranged from 1 in 1998 to 15 in 2013; 88.1% used the QUADAS tool; the average overall scores by PRISMA statement and AMSTAR tool were 19.9 and 5.4, respectively. Scores on some items showed substantial improvement after publication of PRISMA and AMSTAR. However, no reviews followed the criterion of protocol and registration, and only 11.1% of articles fulfilled the criterion of literature search. SRs/MAs from the Science Citation Index (SCI were of better quality than non-SCI studies. Funding resource made no difference to quality. Regression analysis showed that time of publication and inclusion in the SCI were significantly correlated with total scores on the two standards.The reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis has improved measurably since PRISMA and AMSTAR checklists released. It is hoped that CSR in this field will be produced. Literature searching and protocol criteria, as well as QUADAS-2 tool need to be addressed more in the future. Time of publication and SCI relate more to the overall quality of SRs/MAs than does funding resource.

  8. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-IV with Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…

  9. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  10. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on medical expenditure: evidence from epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have increasingly been raised about the medical economic burden in Japan, of which approximately 20% is attributable to cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Because the management of risk factors is essential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is important to understand the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and medical expenditure in the Japanese population. However, only a few Japanese epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance have provided evidence on this topic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may incur medical expenditures through treatment of the risk factors themselves and through procedures for associated diseases that usually require hospitalization and sometimes result in death. Untreated risk factors may cause medical expenditure surges, mainly due to long-term hospitalization, more often than risk factors preventively treated by medication. On an individual patient level, medical expenditures increase with the number of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. For single risk factors, personal medical expenditure may increase with the severity of that factor. However, on a population level, the medical economic burden attributable to cardiovascular risk factors results largely from a single, particularly prevalent risk factor, especially from mildly-to-moderately abnormal levels of the factor. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors require management on the basis of both a cost-effective strategy of treating high-risk patients and a population strategy for reducing both the ill health and medical economic burdens that result from cardiovascular disease.

  11. Enhancing the secretory yields of leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor in Escherichia coli: influence of trigger factor and signal recognition particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Juan-Miguel; Nannenga, Brent L; Dornfeld, Kevin T; Betton, Jean-Michel; Baneyx, François

    2010-11-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) dependent secretion pathway is as an attractive alternative to Sec-dependent export for the production of disulfide-bonded and/or fast-folding recombinant proteins in the Escherichia coli periplasm. SRP, which shares a ribosomal attachment site with the molecular chaperone trigger factor (TF), recognizes highly hydrophobic signal sequence as they emerge from the ribosome and delivers ribosome nascent chain complexes to FtsY for subsequent cotranslational translocation of target proteins across the SecYEG pore. However, like in the case of Sec-dependent export, secretory yields can be limited by the accumulation of precursor proteins in the cytoplasm. Using leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor (LCI) fused to the SRP-dependent DsbA signal sequence as a model system, we show that a null mutation in the gene encoding TF (Deltatig) or SRP co-expression reduce pre-LCI accumulation by half, and that quantitative export can be achieved by combining the two strategies. Interestingly, enhanced precursor processing did not alter periplasmic LCI levels but increased the amount of protein excreted in the growth medium. All mature LCI was nearly fully active and an 80% increase in productivity was achieved in Deltatig cells alone due to their faster growth. Our results show that competition between SRP and TF can interfere with efficient export of recombinant proteins targeted to the SRP pathway and establish TF-deficient strains and SRP co-expression as a simple solution to improve yields.

  12. High-yield expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF(165) in Escherichia coli and purification for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Shelly A; Gunson, Jane; Field, Matthew J; Dinges, Rachel; Khoo, Stefanie; Dalal, Milind; Lee, Michael; Kaleas, Kimberly A; Moiseff, Kathryn; Garnick, Susan; Reilly, Dorothea E; Laird, Michael W; Schmelzer, Charles H

    2010-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) is a potent mitogen that induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability in vivo and has demonstrated potential in therapeutic applications for accelerating wound healing. An industrial production method that provides high yield as well as high purity, quality, and potency is needed. The process described in this report involves a bacterial expression system capable of producing approximately 9g of rhVEGF per liter of broth and a downstream purification process consisting of protein refolding and three chromatography steps prior to formulation of the drug substance. A high cell density (HCD) fed-batch fermentation process was used to produce rhVEGF in periplasmic inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies are harvested from the cell lysate and subjected to a single-step protein solubilization and refolding operation to extract the rhVEGF for purification. Overall recovery yields observed during development, including refolding and chromatography, were 30+/-6%. Host cell impurities are consistently cleared below target levels at both laboratory and large-scale demonstrating process robustness. The structure of the refolded and purified rhVEGF was confirmed by mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, and tryptic peptide mapping while product variants were analyzed by multiple HPLC assays. Biological activity was verified by the proliferation of human umbilical vein derived endothelial cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    (NHES) reference case studies to (1) introduce sustainability metrics, such as life cycle assessment, (2) demonstrate the methods behind exergy and exergoeconomic analyses, (3) provide an economic analysis of the potential for SMR development from first-of-a-kind (FOAK) to nth-of-a-kind (NOAK), thereby illustrating possible cost reductions and deployment flexibility for SMRs over large conventional nuclear reactors, (4) assess the competitive potential for incorporation of storage and hydrogen production in NHES and in regulated and deregulated electricity markets, (5) compare an SMR-hydrogen production plant to a natural gas steam methane reforming plant using the SEF, and (6) identify and review the social considerations which would support future nuclear development domestically and abroad, such as public and political/regulatory needs and challenges. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) for the SMR (300 MWth)-wind (60 MWe)-high temperature steam electrolysis (200 tons Hydrogen per day) system was calculated as approximately 874 g CO2-equivalent as part of the life cycle assessment. This is 92.6% less than the GWP estimated for steam methane reforming production of hydrogen by Spath and Mann. The unit exergetic and exergoeconomic costs were determined for each flow within the NHES system as part of the exergy/exergoeconomic cost analyses. The unit exergetic cost is lower for components yielding more meaningful work like the one exiting the SMR with a unit exergetic cost of 1.075 MW/MW. In comparison, the flow exiting the turbine has a very high unit exergetic cost of 15.31, as most of the useful work was already removed through the turning of the generator/compressor shaft. In a similar manner, the high unit exergoeconomic cost of 12.45/MW*sec is observed for the return flow to the reactors, because there is very little exergy present. The first and second law efficiencies and the exergoeconomic factors were also determined over several cases. For the first or base SMR

  14. Human combinatorial Fab library yielding specific and functional antibodies against the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenberger, Robert; Borges, Eric; Thomassen-Wolf, Elisabeth; Rom, Eran; Adar, Rivka; Yaniv, Yael; Malka, Michael; Chumakov, Irina; Kotzer, Sarit; Resnitzky, Dalia; Knappik, Achim; Reiffert, Silke; Prassler, Josef; Jury, Karin; Waldherr, Dirk; Bauer, Susanne; Kretzschmar, Titus; Yayon, Avner; Rothe, Christine

    2003-10-03

    The human combinatorial antibody library Fab 1 (HuCAL-Fab 1) was generated by transferring the heavy and light chain variable regions from the previously constructed single-chain Fv library (Knappik, A., Ge, L., Honegger, A., Pack, P., Fischer, M., Wellnhofer, G., Hoess, A., Wölle, J., Plückthun, A., and Virnekäs, B. (2000) J. Mol. Biol. 296, 57-86), diversified in both complementarity-determining regions 3 into a novel Fab display vector, yielding 2.1 x 10(10) different antibody fragments. The modularity has been retained in the Fab display and screening plasmids, ensuring rapid conversion into various antibody formats as well as antibody optimization using prebuilt maturation cassettes. HuCAL-Fab 1 was challenged against the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, a potential therapeutic antibody target, against which, to the best of our knowledge, no functional antibodies could be generated so far. A unique screening mode was designed utilizing recombinant functional proteins and cell lines differentially expressing fibroblast growth factor receptor isoforms diversified in expression and receptor dependence. Specific Fab fragments with subnanomolar affinities were isolated by selection without any maturation steps as determined by fluorescence flow cytometry. Some of the selected Fab fragments completely inhibit target-mediated cell proliferation, rendering them the first monoclonal antibodies against fibroblast growth factor receptors having significant function blocking activity. This study validates HuCAL-Fab 1 as a valuable source for the generation of target-specific antibodies for therapeutic applications.

  15. Factors for analysing and improving performance of R&D in Malaysian universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramli, Mohammad Shakir; de Boer, S.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model for analysing and improving performance of R&D in Malaysian universities. There are various general models for R&D analysis, but none is specific for improving the performance of R&D in Malaysian universities. This research attempts to fill a gap in the body of knowledge

  16. Quantitative Analyses in a Multivariate Study of Language Attrition: The Impact of Extralinguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes--acquisition, change, deterioration--take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful consideration of its interplay with all other factors. The…

  17. Stress analyses coupled with damage laws to determine biomechanical risk factors for deep tissue injury during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Gefen, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcer that onsets in muscle tissue overlying bony prominences and progresses unnoticeably to more superficial tissues. To minimize DTI, the efficacy of wheelchair cushions should be evaluated not only based on their performance in redistributing interface pressures but also according to their effects on stress concentrations in deep tissues, particularly muscles. However, a standard bioengineering approach for such analyses is missing in literature. The goals of this study were to develop an algorithm to couple finite element (FE) modeling of the buttocks with an injury threshold for skeletal muscle and with a damage-stiffening law for injured muscle tissue, from previous animal experiments, to predict DTI onset and progression for different patient anatomies and wheelchair cushions. The algorithm was also employed for identifying intrinsic (anatomical) biomechanical risk factors for DTI onset. A set of three-dimensional FE models of seated human buttocks was developed, representing different severities of pathoanatomical changes observed in chronically sitting patients: muscle atrophy and "flattening" of the ischial tuberosity (IT). These models were then tested with cushions of different stiffnesses representing products available on the market and semirigid supports. Outcome measures were the percentage of damaged muscle tissue volumes after 90 min and 110 min of simulated continuous immobilized sitting as well as muscle injury rates post-60 min, -90 min, and -110 min of continuous sitting. Damaged muscle volumes grew exponentially with the level of muscle atrophy. For example, simulation of a subject with 70% muscle atrophy sitting on a soft cushion showed damage to 33% of the muscle volume after 90 min of immobilized sitting, whereas a comparable simulation with a nonatrophied muscle yielded only 0.4% damaged tissue volume. The rates of DTI progression also increased substantially with

  18. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  19. Analyses of in vivo interactions between transcription factors and the archaeal RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Julie E; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2015-09-15

    Transcription factors regulate the activities of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at each stage of the transcription cycle. Many basal transcription factors with common ancestry are employed in eukaryotic and archaeal systems that directly bind to RNAP and influence intramolecular movements of RNAP and modulate DNA or RNA interactions. We describe and employ a flexible methodology to directly probe and quantify the binding of transcription factors to RNAP in vivo. We demonstrate that binding of the conserved and essential archaeal transcription factor TFE to the archaeal RNAP is directed, in part, by interactions with the RpoE subunit of RNAP. As the surfaces involved are conserved in many eukaryotic and archaeal systems, the identified TFE-RNAP interactions are likely conserved in archaeal-eukaryal systems and represent an important point of contact that can influence the efficiency of transcription initiation.

  20. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschemann-Witzel Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly

  1. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  2. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  3. A quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k -means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  4. Comparative analyses of factors determining soil erosion rates based on network of Mediterranean monitored catchments for the innovative, adaptive and resilient agriculture of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Perdo Nunes, João; Licciardello, Feliciana; Mathys, Nicolle; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Jantzi, Hugo; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    In order to project the soil erosion response to climate change in the fragile Mediterranean region it is inevitable to understand its existing patterns. Soil erosion monitoring on a catchment scale enables to analyse temporal and spatial variability of soil erosion and sediment delivery, while the integrating study of different catchments is often undertaken to depicther the general patterns. In this study, eight small catchments (with area up to 1,32 km2), representative for the western part of the Mediterranean region (according to climate, bedrock, soils and main type of land use) were compared. These catchments, grouped in the R-OS Med Network were situated in France (3), Spain (2), Portugal (1), Italy (1) and Tunisia (1). The average precipitation ranged between 236 to 1303 mm·a-1 and mean annual sediment yield varied 7.5 to 6900 Mg·km-2·a-1. The complex databes was based on more than 120 years of hydrological and sediment data, with series between 3 and 29 years long. The variability of sediment data was described on annual and monthly basis. The relationship between the sediment yield and more than 35 factors influencing the sediment yield including the characteristics of climate, topography, rainfall, runoff, land use, vegetation and soil cover, connectivity and dominant geomorphic processes, was studied. The preliminary results confirmed the differences in rainfall, runoff and sediment response, and revealed both the similarities and differences in soil erosion responses of the catchments. They are further dependent on the variability of factors themselves, with important contribution of the state of soil properties, vegetation cover and land use. Anna Smetanová has received the support of the European Union, in the framework of the Marie-Curie FP7 COFUND People Programme, through the award of an AgreenSkills' fellowship (under grant agreement n° 267196)

  5. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  6. Prospective Analyses of Childhood Factors and Antisocial Behavior for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; Symons, Frank J.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between childhood factors (individual, family, and school characteristics) and later antisocial behavior (official juvenile delinquency and adult crime) for students identified with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., learning disabilities, emotional disturbance). The sample consisted…

  7. Structural, functional, and genetic analyses of the actinobacterial transcription factor RbpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubin, Elizabeth A; Tabib-Salazar, Aline; Humphrey, Laurence J; Flack, Joshua E; Olinares, Paul Dominic B; Darst, Seth A; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Paget, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Gene expression is highly regulated at the step of transcription initiation, and transcription activators play a critical role in this process. RbpA, an actinobacterial transcription activator that is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), binds selectively to group 1 and certain group 2 σ-factors. To delineate the molecular mechanism of RbpA, we show that the Mtb RbpA σ-interacting domain (SID) and basic linker are sufficient for transcription activation. We also present the crystal structure of the Mtb RbpA-SID in complex with domain 2 of the housekeeping σ-factor, σ(A). The structure explains the basis of σ-selectivity by RbpA, showing that RbpA interacts with conserved regions of σ(A) as well as the nonconserved region (NCR), which is present only in housekeeping σ-factors. Thus, the structure is the first, to our knowledge, to show a protein interacting with the NCR of a σ-factor. We confirm the basis of selectivity and the observed interactions using mutagenesis and functional studies. In addition, the structure allows for a model of the RbpA-SID in the context of a transcription initiation complex. Unexpectedly, the structural modeling suggests that RbpA contacts the promoter DNA, and we present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting this finding. Our combined data lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of RbpA function as a transcription activator.

  8. Mutational analyses of epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream pathways in adrenocortical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, I.G.; Haak, H.R.; Krijger, R.R. de; Kerkhofs, T.M.; Feelders, R.A.; Herder, W.W. de; Wilmink, H.; Smit, J.W.A.; Gelderblom, H.; Miranda, N.F. de; Eijk, R. van; Wezel, T. van; Morreau, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Mitotane is considered the standard first-line therapy with only 30% of the patients showing objective tumour response. Defining predictive factors for response is therefore of clinica

  9. Cluster and factor analyses using water quality data in the Sapkyo reservoir watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chang-Soo [Chungwoon University, Hongsung(Korea); Shin, Jae-Ki [Inje University, Kimhae(Korea)

    2002-04-30

    The monthly water quality data measured at 19 stations located in the Sapkyo reservoir watershed were clustered into 2 to 7 clusters and factor analysis was conducted to characterize the water quality, using the information obtained from cluster analysis. The result of cluster analysis shows that Sapkyo reservoir and each stream (Sapkyo stream, Muhan stream and Kokkyo stream) in Sapkyo reservoir watershed have their own water quality characteristics. The result of water quality analysis indicates that the concentration of suspended solids from Sapkyo reservoir is much higher than those of other streams, and which is probably because of increment of phytoplankton biomass with rich nutrient flowing into Sapkyo reservoir from the upper stream of watershed. Furthermore, the concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were 3.5 to 4.8 times and 1.7 to 2.5 times those of other streams, respectively. The overall water quality of Sapkyo reservoir watershed was considered to exceed eutrophic condition. Based on factor analysis, the water quality characteristics of Sapkyo stream and Muhan stream were closely related with farm land and residence. The water quality of Kokkyo stream was influenced by superabundant organic matter flowing from Chonan city and district wastewater treatment plant located in the upper stream of Kokkyo stream. The water quality factor influencing Sapkyo reservoir was closely related with water quality factors of other three streams. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Meta-analyses of Big Six Interests and Big Five Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lisa M.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 24 samples demonstrated overlap between Holland's vocational interest domains (measured by Self Directed Search, Strong Interest Inventory, and Vocational Preference Inventory) and Big Five personality factors (measured by Revised NEO Personalty Inventory). The link is stronger for five interest-personality pairs:…

  11. Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition : the impact of extralinguistic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes - acquisition, change, deterioration - take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful conside

  12. Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition: The impact of extralinguistic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.S.; Dusseldorp, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes - acquisition, change, deterioration - take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful conside

  13. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Matthews, Karen A; Waetjen, L Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-07-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996-2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality.

  14. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  15. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  16. A model for analysing factors which may influence quality management procedures in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.

  17. Analysing risk factors for urinary tract infection based on automated monitoring of hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, J D; Leth, R A; Møller, J K

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections account for as much as one-third of all nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to examine previously reported characteristics of patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) using an automated infection monitoring system (Hospital-Acquired Infection Registry: HAIR). A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of risk factors with HA-UTI. Patients with HA-UTI more frequently had indwelling urinary catheters or a disease in the genitourinary or nervous system than the controls. Automated hospital-acquired infection monitoring enables documentation of key risk factors to better evaluate infection control interventions in general or for selected groups of patients.

  18. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  19. Analysing a Numerical Calculation Adequacy of the Recovery Factor for Various Problem Statement Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kliukvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a recovery temperature distribution in a turbulent boundary layer of the compressible gas in a rectangular heat-insulated channel in supersonic flow mode using the numerical methods of gas dynamics. The software package ANSYS Fluent was used for calculation.In the numerical simulation were used SST and k-epsilon turbulence models with two types of thermal boundary conditions on the channel wall: the standard adiabatic condition, provided by the software package, as well as the user boundary condition (UDF based on the empirical dependence of the recovery factor in a turbulent boundary layer on the Prandtl number of the medium.A data analysis showed that an application of the standard boundary condition of a heatinsulated wall, in some cases, results in recovery factor values on the wall, corresponding to the laminar rather than turbulent boundary layer.For all options of the numerical model under consideration was found a non-zero value of the heat flow to the adiabatic wall. In the case of setting the user boundary conditions, this fact is due to the approximate nature of the dependence of the recovery factor on the Prandtl number.For standard boundary condition of an adiabatic wall the most likely explanation for this result is a feature of the numerical solution scheme, according to which, to set the zero heat flow, is used a number of ghost cells, which can lead to the heat pattern distortion in the computational domain in the vicinity of the wall.Correction of boundary conditions using an empirical relationship for the recovery factor enabled us to reduce the heat flows and have a better approximation of the adiabatic boundary condition.Thus, it follows from the data obtained that the calculation of heat exchange in a turbulent boundary layer by means of ANSYS Fluent software physically yet does not provide the adequate results, and for its update at the moment the third party experimental data are required.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search strategy Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts. Eligibility criteria Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2 years. Results Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong ind...

  1. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer John R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. Methods The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA and factor analysis (FA, two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. Results The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97, pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95, and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89. However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81, but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h2 = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006, whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. Conclusions This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding

  2. metagene Profiles Analyses Reveal Regulatory Element's Factor-Specific Recruitment Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Lamaze, Fabien C; Deschênes, Astrid; Samb, Rawane; Lemaçon, Audrey; Belleau, Pascal; Bilodeau, Steve; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) provides a vast amount of information regarding the localization of proteins across the genome. The aggregation of ChIP-Seq enrichment signal in a metagene plot is an approach commonly used to summarize data complexity and to obtain a high level visual representation of the general occupancy pattern of a protein. Here we present the R package metagene, the graphical interface Imetagene and the companion package similaRpeak. Together, they provide a framework to integrate, summarize and compare the ChIP-Seq enrichment signal from complex experimental designs. Those packages identify and quantify similarities or dissimilarities in patterns between large numbers of ChIP-Seq profiles. We used metagene to investigate the differential occupancy of regulatory factors at noncoding regulatory regions (promoters and enhancers) in relation to transcriptional activity in GM12878 B-lymphocytes. The relationships between occupancy patterns and transcriptional activity suggest two different mechanisms of action for transcriptional control: i) a "gradient effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels follow transcription and ii) a "threshold effect" where the regulatory factor occupancy levels max out prior to reaching maximal transcription. metagene, Imetagene and similaRpeak are implemented in R under the Artistic license 2.0 and are available on Bioconductor.

  3. metagene Profiles Analyses Reveal Regulatory Element’s Factor-Specific Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Rawane; Lemaçon, Audrey; Bilodeau, Steve; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) provides a vast amount of information regarding the localization of proteins across the genome. The aggregation of ChIP-Seq enrichment signal in a metagene plot is an approach commonly used to summarize data complexity and to obtain a high level visual representation of the general occupancy pattern of a protein. Here we present the R package metagene, the graphical interface Imetagene and the companion package similaRpeak. Together, they provide a framework to integrate, summarize and compare the ChIP-Seq enrichment signal from complex experimental designs. Those packages identify and quantify similarities or dissimilarities in patterns between large numbers of ChIP-Seq profiles. We used metagene to investigate the differential occupancy of regulatory factors at noncoding regulatory regions (promoters and enhancers) in relation to transcriptional activity in GM12878 B-lymphocytes. The relationships between occupancy patterns and transcriptional activity suggest two different mechanisms of action for transcriptional control: i) a “gradient effect” where the regulatory factor occupancy levels follow transcription and ii) a “threshold effect” where the regulatory factor occupancy levels max out prior to reaching maximal transcription. metagene, Imetagene and similaRpeak are implemented in R under the Artistic license 2.0 and are available on Bioconductor. PMID:27538250

  4. Multicollinearity in prognostic factor analyses using the EORTC QLQ-C30: identification and impact on model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steen, Kristel; Curran, Desmond; Kramer, Jocelyn; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Vreckem, Ann; Bottomley, Andrew; Sylvester, Richard

    2002-12-30

    Clinical and quality of life (QL) variables from an EORTC clinical trial of first line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer were used in a prognostic factor analysis of survival and response to chemotherapy. For response, different final multivariate models were obtained from forward and backward selection methods, suggesting a disconcerting instability. Quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire completed by patients. Subscales on the questionnaire are known to be highly correlated, and therefore it was hypothesized that multicollinearity contributed to model instability. A correlation matrix indicated that global QL was highly correlated with 7 out of 11 variables. In a first attempt to explore multicollinearity, we used global QL as dependent variable in a regression model with other QL subscales as predictors. Afterwards, standard diagnostic tests for multicollinearity were performed. An exploratory principal components analysis and factor analysis of the QL subscales identified at most three important components and indicated that inclusion of global QL made minimal difference to the loadings on each component, suggesting that it is redundant in the model. In a second approach, we advocate a bootstrap technique to assess the stability of the models. Based on these analyses and since global QL exacerbates problems of multicollinearity, we therefore recommend that global QL be excluded from prognostic factor analyses using the QLQ-C30. The prognostic factor analysis was rerun without global QL in the model, and selected the same significant prognostic factors as before.

  5. Analyses of mode filling factor of a laser end-pumped by a LD with high-order transverse modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juhong; Wang, You; An, Guofei; Rong, Kepeng; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cai, He; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Although the concept of the mode filling factor (also named as "mode-matching efficiency") has been well discussed decades before, the concept of so-called overlap coefficient is often confused by the laser technicians because there are several different formulae for various engineering purposes. Furthermore, the LD-pumped configurations have become the mainstream of solid-state lasers since their compact size, high optical-to-optical efficiency, low heat generation, etc. As the beam quality of LDs are usually very unsatisfactory, it is necessary to investigate how the mode filling factor of a laser system is affected by a high-powered LD pump source. In this paper, theoretical analyses of an end-pumped laser are carried out based on the normalized overlap coefficient formalism. The study provides a convenient tool to describe the intrinsically complex issue of mode interaction corresponding to a laser and an end-pumped source. The mode filling factor has been studied for many cases in which the pump mode and the laser mode have been considered together in the calculation based on analyses of the rate equations. The results should be applied for analyses of any other types of lasers with the similar optical geometry.

  6. Inactivation of a GAL4-Like Transcription Factor Improves Cell Fitness and Product Yield in Glycoengineered Pichia pastoris Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyros, Rebecca; Bukowski, John; Nelson, Stephanie; Sharkey, Nathan; Kim, Sehoon; Copeland, Victoria; Davidson, Robert C.; Chen, Ronghua; Zhuang, Jun; Sethuraman, Natarajan; Stadheim, Terrance A.

    2014-01-01

    With a completely reengineered and humanized glycosylation pathway, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris has emerged as a promising production host for the manufacture of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, the extensive genetic modifications have also negatively affected the overall fitness levels of the glycoengineered host cells. To make glycoengineered Pichia strains more compatible with a scalable industrial fermentation process, we sought to identify genetic solutions to broadly improve cell robustness during fermentation. In this study, we report that mutations within the Pichia pastoris ATT1 (PpATT1) gene (a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL4 [ScGAL4] transcriptional activator) dramatically increased the cellular fitness levels of glycoengineered Pichia strains. We demonstrate that deletion of the PpATT1 gene enabled glycoengineered Pichia strains to improve their thermal tolerance levels, reduce their cell lysis defects, and greatly improve fermentation robustness. The extension of the duration of fermentation enabled the PpATT1-modified glycoengineered Pichia strains to increase their product yields significantly without any sacrifice in product quality. Because the ATT1 gene could be deleted from any Pichia strains, including empty hosts and protein-expressing production strains alike, we suggest that the findings described in this study are broadly applicable to any Pichia strains used for the production of therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, Fc fusions, peptides, hormones, and growth factors. PMID:25344235

  7. The Measuring and Impacting Factors Analysis of Rural Straw Yield-Based on the Perspective of Constructing Low-carbon Agricultural Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo and using developmental trend of China’s straw,4 indices are selected:straw yield,planting area,using amount of fertilizer and effective irrigation area.According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook from 1991 to 2008,by using linear regression model,we calculate China’s rural straw yield,analyze the factors impacting straw yield,and point out that the using amount of fertilizer is the important factor impacting straw yield.Based on these,in the perspective of low-carbon agricultural economy,we put forward suggestions of using straw comprehensively from 4 perspectives in order to provide theoretical reference for decision-makers:improve fertilizer dependence;develop straw reuse technology;popularize the technology of straw gasification actively;strengthen farmers’ low-carbon awareness.

  8. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr

    2014-08-01

    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  9. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects...

  10. Kernel principal component and maximum autocorrelation factor analyses for change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton John

    2009-01-01

    in Nevada acquired on successive passes of the Landsat-5 satellite in August-September 1991. The six-band images (the thermal band is omitted) with 1,000 by 1,000 28.5 m pixels were first processed with the iteratively re-weighted MAD (IR-MAD) algorithm in order to discriminate change. Then the MAD image......Principal component analysis (PCA) has often been used to detect change over time in remotely sensed images. A commonly used technique consists of finding the projections along the eigenvectors for data consisting of pair-wise (perhaps generalized) differences between corresponding spectral bands...... covering the same geographical region acquired at two different time points. In this paper kernel versions of the principal component and maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) transformations are used to carry out the analysis. An example is based on bi-temporal Landsat-5 TM imagery over irrigation fields...

  11. Meta and pooled analyses of FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism as a cancer prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frullanti, Elisa; Berking, Carola; Harbeck, Nadia; Jézéquel, Pascal; Haugen, Aage; Mawrin, Christian; Parise, Orlando; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Dragani, Tommaso A

    2011-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) contains a Gly388Arg functional polymorphism (rs351855) that has shown contrasting results in association studies. In this study, we assessed the association between the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and cancer prognosis. Meta-analysis and pooled analysis of 6817 and 2537 cancer cases, respectively, were carried out by nodal status and overall survival. The study included the following types of cancer: brain, breast, colorectal, head and neck, larynx, lung, melanoma, prostate, sarcomas. A statistically significant association between the Arg388Arg genotype and nodal involvement was found in the meta-analysis (odds ratio=1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.74). In the pooled analysis, the Arg388 allele carriers showed an increased hazard of poor overall survival compared with homozygous carriers of the common Gly388 allele, even after adjusting for nodal status (hazard ratio=1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.40). These results provide evidence of a role for the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism in modulating patients' outcome in different types of cancer, thus offering to clinicians a new marker to predict predisposition to poor survival in cancer patients.

  12. Structural and Kinetic Analyses of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Active Site Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichlow, G.; Lubetsky, J; Leng, L; Bucala, R; Lolis, E

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a secreted protein expressed in numerous cell types that counters the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids and has been implicated in sepsis, cancer, and certain autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the structure of MIF contains a catalytic site resembling the tautomerase/isomerase sites of microbial enzymes. While bona fide physiological substrates remain unknown, model substrates have been identified. Selected compounds that bind in the tautomerase active site also inhibit biological functions of MIF. It had previously been shown that the acetaminophen metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), covalently binds to the active site of MIF. In this study, kinetic data indicate that NAPQI inhibits MIF both covalently and noncovalently. The structure of MIF cocrystallized with NAPQI reveals that the NAPQI has undergone a chemical alteration forming an acetaminophen dimer (bi-APAP) and binds noncovalently to MIF at the mouth of the active site. We also find that the commonly used protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), forms a covalent complex with MIF and inhibits the tautomerase activity. Crystallographic analysis reveals the formation of a stable, novel covalent bond for PMSF between the catalytic nitrogen of the N-terminal proline and the sulfur of PMSF with complete, well-defined electron density in all three active sites of the MIF homotrimer. Conclusions are drawn from the structures of these two MIF-inhibitor complexes regarding the design of novel compounds that may provide more potent reversible and irreversible inhibition of MIF.

  13. Expression and functional analyses of Krüppel-like factor 3 in chicken adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Yan; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Studies in mammalian species showed that Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) regulated adipose tissue development. However, it was not reported in chicken. In the current study, we found that during the growth and development of abdominal fat tissue, chicken KLF3 (Gallus gallus KLF3, gKLF3) was consecutively expressed, and its transcripts were higher at 7 weeks of age and lower at 10 weeks of age in lean broilers than in fat broilers. In addition, gKLF3 overexpression suppressed chicken CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter activities, but increased chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) promoter activity. Additionally, point mutagenesis analysis showed that the substitution of Asp by Gly within the Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Thr (PVDLT) motif of gKLF3 significantly reduced the ability of gKLF3 to regulate the promoter activities of FABP4, FASN, LPL, C/EBPα, and PPARγ.

  14. Expression and Protein Interaction Analyses Reveal Combinatorial Interactions of LBD Transcription Factors During Arabidopsis Pollen Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mirim; Kim, Min-Jung; Pandey, Shashank; Kim, Jungmook

    2016-11-01

    LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcription factor gene family members play key roles in diverse aspects of plant development. LBD10 and LBD27 have been shown to be essential for pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. From the previous RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data set of Arabidopsis pollen, we identified the mRNAs of LBD22, LBD25 and LBD36 in addition to LBD10 and LBD27 in Arabidopsis pollen. Here we conducted expression and cellular analysis using GFP:GUS (green fluorescent protein:β-glucuronidase) reporter gene and subcellular localization assays using LBD:GFP fusion proteins expressed under the control of their own promoters in Arabidopsis. We found that these LBD proteins display spatially and temporally distinct and overlapping expression patterns during pollen development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assays demonstrated that protein-protein interactions occur among the LBDs exhibiting overlapping expression during pollen development. We further showed that LBD10, LBD22, LBD25, LBD27 and LBD36 interact with each other to form heterodimers, which are localized to the nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Taken together, these results suggest that combinatorial interactions among LBD proteins may be important for their function in pollen development in Arabidopsis.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor-20 increases the yield of midbrain dopaminergic neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Correia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-20 has been reported to act preferentially on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. It also promotes the dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells. We have analyzed the effects of FGF-20 on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. We induced neuronal differentiation of hESCs by co-culturing those with PA6 mouse stromal cells for 3 weeks. When we supplemented the culture medium with FGF-20, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH- expressing neurons increased fivefold, from 3% to 15% of the hESC-derived cells. The cultured cells also expressed other midbrain dopaminergic markers (PITX3, En1, Msx1, and Aldh1, suggesting that some had differentiated into midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We observed no effect of FGF-20 on the size of the soma area or neurite length of the TH-immunopositive neurons. Regardless of whether FGF-20 had been added or not, 17% of the hESC-derived cells expressed the pan-neuronal marker b-III-Tubulin. The proportion of proliferating cells positive for Ki-67 was also not affected by FGF-20 (7% of the hESC-derived cells. By contrast, after 3 weeks in culture FGF-20 significantly reduced the proportion of cells undergoing cell death, as revealed by immunoreactivity for cleaved caspase-8, Bcl-2 associated X protein (BAX and cleaved caspase-3 (2.5% to 1.2% of cleaved caspase-3-positive cells out of the hESC-derived cells. Taken together, our results indicate that FGF-20 specifically increases the yield of dopaminergic neurons from hESCs grown on PA6 feeder cells and at least part of this effect is due to a reduction in cell death.

  16. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive measures for depression in postmenopausal women.

  17. Confirmatory factor analyses of the full and short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, R; Thorpe, K

    2000-10-01

    Over the years, researchers have developed various short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. P. Crowne & D. Marlowe, 1960). The authors used confirmatory factor analyses (J. L. Arbuckle, 1997) as well as item and scale analyses to evaluate the adequacy of the full version and various short versions. Overall, the results from 232 Canadian undergraduates showed (a) that all the short versions in the present study are a significant improvement in fit over the 33-item full scale and (b) that W. M. Reynolds's (1982) Forms A and B are the best fitting short versions. No gender differences were found for the full scale or any of the short versions. The results show that the full scale could be improved psychometrically and that the psychometrically sound short versions should be available because they require less administration time than the full scale.

  18. Differential expression pattern of rubber elongation factor (REF) mRNA transcripts from high and low yielding clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P; Venkatachalam, P; Thulaseedharan, A

    2007-10-01

    In Hevea tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) is a key gene involved in rubber biosynthesis. Since the immaturity period for Hevea is 6 years, identification of molecular marker for latex yield potential will be beneficial for early selection of high yielding clones. The main objective of this research is to study the expression pattern of the REF gene in contrasting latex yield rubber clones (high and low yielding) by Northern blot as well as RT-PCR analysis. Accumulation of REF mRNA transcripts was significantly higher in latex cells compared to other cells of seedlings and mature Hevea trees. Northern results revealed that the level of REF gene expression in latex cells of high yielding rubber clones was significantly higher than in low yielders. According to RT-PCR results, the abundance of REF mRNA transcripts in latex cells was fivefold higher in the RRII105 clone, one of the most high yielding rubber clones. It is evident from the results that both tapping and ethephon treatment had a direct effect on induction of REF gene expression. Results demonstrate a positive correlation between REF gene expression pattern and latex yield.

  19. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  20. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  1. CREB3 subfamily transcription factors are not created equal: Recent insights from global analyses and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chi-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CREB3 subfamily of membrane-bound bZIP transcription factors has five members in mammals known as CREB3 and CREB3L1-L4. One current model suggests that CREB3 subfamily transcription factors are similar to ATF6 in regulated intramembrane proteolysis and transcriptional activation. Particularly, they were all thought to be proteolytically activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress to stimulate genes that are involved in unfolded protein response (UPR. Although the physiological inducers of their proteolytic activation remain to be identified, recent findings from microarray analyses, RNAi screens and gene knockouts not only demonstrated their critical roles in regulating development, metabolism, secretion, survival and tumorigenesis, but also revealed cell type-specific patterns in the activation of their target genes. Members of the CREB3 subfamily show differential activity despite their structural similarity. The spectrum of their biological function expands beyond ER stress and UPR. Further analyses are required to elucidate the mechanism of their proteolytic activation and the molecular basis of their target recognition.

  2. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  3. Effects of various factors of ultrasonic treatment on the extraction yield of all-trans-lycopene from red grapefruit (Citrus paradise Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Pan, Siyi

    2013-07-01

    The effects of various factors, including the extraction time, temperature, solvent/material ratio, the ultrasonic intensity and duty cycle of ultrasonic irradiation on the extraction yield of all-trans-lycopene from red grapefruit by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were investigated. In comparison with conventional solvent extraction (CSE), UAE showed a pronounced greater extraction yield and reduced extraction time effectively with a peak value at 30 min. The extraction yield was significantly influenced by temperature and the optimum condition was 30 °C. The extraction yield increased with increasing of solvent/material ratio until equilibrium was arrived at the optimal ratio of 3:1 (mL/g). The extraction yield increased first and then decreased with an increase in ultrasonic intensity. The extraction yield of UAE increased with the increase of duty cycle, whereas pulsed ultrasound with proper intervals was more efficient than continuous ultrasonication. The degradation via isomerisation of all-trans-lycopene under ultrasonic treatment was also observed with the formation of 9,13'-di-cis-, 9,13-di-cis-, 15-cis-, 13-cis- and 9-cis-lycopene isomers which were tentatively identified by HPLC-PAD.

  4. Investigation of some effective factors on yield traits of Pepino (Solanum muricatum) as a new vegetable in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, S H; Karimian, Z; Tehranifar, A; Mashhadian, N V; Lakzian, A

    2009-03-15

    To find out the effects of media culture and foliar fertilization on some yield traits including the number of fruits per bush, mean weight of fruit, yield of per bush, long of fruits and diameter of fruits 9 months completely randomized factorial experiment (3 x 5) with four replications was conducted. Media culture treatments include 5 levels namely soil; mixture of soil and vermy compost; mixture of soil and sand; mixture of soil and peat moss and mixture of soil, sand and peat moss. Foliar fertilization treatments include 3 levels namely applying once a week, once a 3 week and no fertilization (control). The results showed that the media culture treatments on the whole of traits and foliar fertilization also on the whole of traits except yield of per bush had a significant difference (p foliar fertilization except yield per bush the once a 3 week fertilization caused highest increase than other treatments and in the media culture treatments, the mixture of soil and peat moss showed highest increase than other treatments.

  5. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  6. Decay Heat Analyses after Thermal-Neutron Fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu by SCALE-6.1.3 with Recently Available Fission Product Yield Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The heat reaches about 1.5% after one hour and falls to 0.4% after a day. After a week it will be about 0.2%. The reactor, however, still requires further cooling for several years to keep the fuel rods safe. In general, the decay heat in the reactors can be calculated using a summation calculation method, which is simply the sum of the activities of the fission products produced during the fission process and after the reactor shutdown weighted by the mean decay energies. Consequently, the method is strongly dependent on the available nuclear structure data. Nowadays, the method has been implemented in various burnup and depletion programs such as ORIGEN and CINDER. In this study, the decay heat measurements after thermal-neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S with the decay data and fission product yield libraries included in the SCALE-6.1.3 software package. The new libraries were applied to the decay heat calculations, and the results were compared with those by the ORIGEN reference calculation. The decay heat measurements for very short cooling times after thermal-neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S summation calculation. The reference calculation results by the latest ORIGEN data libraries of the SCALE-6.1.3 have been validated with the measurements by ORNL and Studsvik. In addition, the generation of the new ORIGEN yield libraries has been completed based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1, JENDL/FPY-2011, and JENDL-4.0. The new libraries have been successfully applied to the decay heat calculations and comparative analyses have been devoted to verifying the importance of the fission product yield data when estimating the decay heat values for each isotope in a very short time. The decay data library occupies an important position in the ORIGEN summation calculation along with the fission product yield library.

  7. Evaluation of seed yield-related characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using factor and path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabani, A R; Pakniyat, H

    2008-04-15

    Fifteen sesame genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications during 2004, in experimental station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University in Badjgah, Iran. Many plant traits were scored in the field. Path coefficient analysis and factor analysis divided the 15 measured variables into 5 factors. The 5 factors explained 81% of the total genetic variation in the dependence structure. Factor 1 was strongly associated with number of capsules in the main stem, length of floral axis, number of capsules per plant and plant height. Other factors (2, 3, 4 and 5) explained the rest of genetic variations and may not be important in sesame breeding programs.

  8. Phylogeny, Functional Annotation, and Protein Interaction Network Analyses of the Xenopus tropicalis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous survey identified 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins, but it was proved to be incomplete, and the functional information and regulatory networks of frog bHLH transcription factors were not fully known. Therefore, we conducted an updated genome-wide survey in the Xenopus tropicalis genome project databases and identified 105 bHLH sequences. Among the retrieved 105 sequences, phylogenetic analyses revealed that 103 bHLH proteins belonged to 43 families or subfamilies with 46, 26, 11, 3, 15, and 4 members in the corresponding supergroups. Next, gene ontology (GO enrichment analyses showed 65 significant GO annotations of biological processes and molecular functions and KEGG pathways counted in frequency. To explore the functional pathways, regulatory gene networks, and/or related gene groups coding for Xenopus tropicalis bHLH proteins, the identified bHLH genes were put into the databases KOBAS and STRING to get the signaling information of pathways and protein interaction networks according to available public databases and known protein interactions. From the genome annotation and pathway analysis using KOBAS, we identified 16 pathways in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. From the STRING interaction analysis, 68 hub proteins were identified, and many hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within the protein families.

  9. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    , drought risk and irrigation requirement on rain-fed maize yield in specific maize growth phases. The maize growing season was divided into four growth phases comprising seeding, vegetative, flowering and maturity based on observations of phenological data from 1981 to 2010. The dual crop coefficient...... was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration and soil water balance during the maize growing season. The effects of mean temperature, solar radiation, effective rainfall, water deficit, drought stress days, actual crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement in different growth phases were included...... in the statistical model to predict maize yield. During the period 1961–2010, mean temperature increased significantly in all growth phases in NFR, while solar radiation decreased significantly in southern NFR in the seeding, vegetative and flowering phases. Effective rainfall increased in the seeding and vegetative...

  10. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora Vladimir; Berenji Janoš; Latković Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined vari...

  11. Factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat: a case study in Golestan province – Bandargaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaman Nekahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat, a non systematic survey experiment was conducted in 45 fields in the township of Bandar-gaz (Sarmahaleh village in 2012. Sampling of wheat and weeds were taken in two stages (Heading and Harvest maturity by randomized to the five points of each field using quadrate size 1m*1m. In this study all information about crop management including Land area , farmers experience , the seed bed preparation, sowing date , cultivar and site preparation of them, sowing ways , seed rate , weeds control ways , kind , amount and time of herbicide , fungicide use and wheat harvest time were collected during a growing season by preparing questionnaire and complete them with farmers. At the end of the growing season, the actual yield harvested by farmers’ ‬ recorded. Among the various parameters, Wheat plant and raceme density, farmer experience, Kind of variety and use of Tapic+Geranestar herbicide had significant effects on weed population. With increased wheat plant density, weed density decreased. Also there was less weed density in field of high experience farmer. Weed density was lesser in N8118 variety than N8019 variety and not use Tapic+granestar herbicide due to increased of weeds density. Among weed different species, Avena sp, Phalaris minor and Sinapis arvense had highest negative effect on wheat yield. Model study showed if wheat plant density was optimum and there were weeds, yield will be 2713kg/ha and if weeds remove yield will increase to 2877kg/ha (yield gap equal164kg/ha. Amaong weed, Phalaris minor (12 plant per m-2, Sinapis arvensis (3plant per m-2 and Avena sp (2 plant per m-2 with 65, 18 and 17% yield loss respectively, were the strongest competitor with wheat.

  12. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Structural Invariance in Caucasian and African American Samples, and Score Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Green, Bradley A.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated…

  13. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Structural Invariance in Caucasian and African American Samples, and Score Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Green, Bradley A.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated…

  14. Ectopic expression of a hot pepper bZIP-like transcription factor in potato enhances drought tolerance without decreasing tuber yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seok-Jun; Han, Se-Youn; Kim, Dool-Yi; Yoon, In Sun; Shin, Dongjin; Byun, Myung-Ok; Kwon, Hawk-Bin; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2015-11-01

    Over-expression of group A bZIP transcription factor genes in plants improves abiotic stress tolerance but usually reduces yields. Thus, there have been several efforts to overcome yield penalty in transgenic plants. In this study, we characterized that expression of the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) gene CaBZ1, which encodes a group S bZIP transcription factor, was induced by salt and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants over-expressing CaBZ1 exhibited reduced rates of water loss and faster stomatal closure than non transgenic potato plants under drought and ABA treatment conditions. CaBZ1 over-expression in transgenic potato increased the expression of ABA- and stress-related genes (such as CYP707A1, CBF and NAC-like genes) and improved drought stress tolerance. Interestingly, over-expression of CaBZ1 in potato did not produce undesirable growth phenotypes in major agricultural traits such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation under normal growth conditions. The transgenic potato plants also had higher tuber yields than non transgenic potato plants under drought stress conditions. Thus, CaBZ1 may be useful for improving drought tolerance in tuber crops. This might be the first report of the production of transgenic potato with improved tuber yields under drought conditions.

  15. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris; Kiessling, Ann A

    2016-01-15

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  16. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  17. Spatiotemporal factors affecting fish harvest and their use in estimating the monthly yield of single otter trawls in Putuo district of Zhoushan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji; WANG Yang; ZHENG Xianzhi

    2012-01-01

    We used generalized additive models (GAM) to analyze the relationship between spatiotemporal factors and catch,and to estimate the monthly marine fishery yield of single otter trawls in Putuo district of Zhoushan,China.We used logbooks from five commercial fishing boats and data in government's monthly statistical reports.We developed two GAM models:one included temporal variables (month and hauling time) and spatial variables (longitude and latitude),and another included just two variables,month and the number of fishing boats.Our results suggest that temporal factors explained more of the variability in catch than spatial factors.Furthermore,month explained the majority of variation in catch.Change in spatial distribution of fleet had a temporal component as the boats fished within a relatively small area within the same month,but the area varied among months.The number of boats fishing in each month also explained a large proportion of the variation in catch.Engine power had no effect on catch.The pseudo-coefficients (PCf) of the two GAMs were 0.13 and 0.29 respectively,indicating the both had good fits.The model yielded estimates that were very similar to those in the governmental reports between January to September,with relative estimate errors (REE) of <18%.However,the yields in October and November were significantly underestimated,with REEs of 36% and 27%,respectively.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking enable to explore the biophysical factors controlling the yields of engineered nanobodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; de Marco, Ario; Fortuna, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features. One set contained point mutations introduced to humanize a wild type sequence, in the second the CDRs were swapped between single-domain frameworks with Camelidae and human hallmarks. The method resulted in accurate scoring approaches to predict experimental yields and enabled to identify the structural modifications induced by mutations. This work is a promising tool for the in silico development of single-domain antibodies and opens the opportunity to customize single functional domains of larger macromolecules. PMID:27721441

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking enable to explore the biophysical factors controlling the yields of engineered nanobodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; De Marco, Ario; Fortuna, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features. One set contained point mutations introduced to humanize a wild type sequence, in the second the CDRs were swapped between single-domain frameworks with Camelidae and human hallmarks. The method resulted in accurate scoring approaches to predict experimental yields and enabled to identify the structural modifications induced by mutations. This work is a promising tool for the in silico development of single-domain antibodies and opens the opportunity to customize single functional domains of larger macromolecules.

  20. Factors Affecting Specific-Capacity Tests and their Application--A Study of Six Low-Yielding Wells in Fractured-Bedrock Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Mining and Reclamation, evaluates factors affecting the application of specific-capacity tests in six low-yielding water wells in areas of coal mining or quarrying in Pennsylvania. Factors such as pumping rate, duration of pumping, aquifer properties, wellbore storage, and turbulent flow were assessed by theoretical analysis and by completing multiple well tests, selected to be representative of low-yielding household-supply wells in areas of active coal mining or quarrying. All six wells were completed in fractured-bedrock aquifers--five in coal-bearing shale, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and coal of Pennsylvanian and Permian age and one in limestone of Cambrian age. The wells were pumped 24 times during 2007-09 at rates from 0.57 to 14 gallons per minute during tests lasting from 22 to 240 minutes. Geophysical logging and video surveys also were completed to determine the depth, casing length, and location of water-yielding zones in each of the test wells, and seasonal water-level changes were measured during 2007-09 by continuous monitoring at each well. The tests indicated that specific-capacity values were reproducible within about ? 20 percent if the tests were completed at the same pumping rate and duration. A change in pumping duration, pumping rate, or saturated aquifer thickness can have a substantial effect on the comparability of repeated tests. The largest effect was caused by a change in aquifer thickness in well YO 1222 causing specific capacity from repeated tests to vary by a factor of about 50. An increase in the duration of pumping from 60 to 180 minutes caused as much as a 62 percent decrease in specific capacity. The effect of differing pumping rates on specific capacity depends on whether or not the larger rate causes the water level in the well to fall below a major water-yielding zone; when this

  1. Gene expression analyses implicate an alternative splicing program in regulating contractile gene expression and serum response factor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twishasri Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF regulate alternative splicing in the heart. In MHC-CELFΔ transgenic mice, CELF splicing activity is inhibited postnatally in heart muscle via expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein under an α-myosin heavy chain promoter. MHC-CELFΔ mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by alternative splicing defects, enlarged hearts, and severe contractile dysfunction. In this study, gene expression profiles in the hearts of wild type, high- and low-expressing lines of MHC-CELFΔ mice were compared using microarrays. Gene ontology and pathway analyses identified contraction and calcium signaling as the most affected processes. Network analysis revealed that the serum response factor (SRF network is highly affected. Downstream targets of SRF were up-regulated in MHC-CELFΔ mice compared to the wild type, suggesting an increase in SRF activity. Although SRF levels remained unchanged, known inhibitors of SRF activity were down-regulated. Conversely, we found that these inhibitors are up-regulated and downstream SRF targets are down-regulated in the hearts of MCKCUG-BP1 mice, which mildly over-express CELF1 in heart and skeletal muscle. This suggests that changes in SRF activity are a consequence of changes in CELF-mediated regulation rather than a secondary result of compensatory pathways in heart failure. In MHC-CELFΔ males, where the phenotype is only partially penetrant, both alternative splicing changes and down-regulation of inhibitors of SRF correlate with the development of cardiomyopathy. Together, these results strongly support a role for CELF-mediated alternative splicing in the regulation of contractile gene expression, achieved in part through modulating the activity of SRF, a key cardiac transcription factor.

  2. Empirical Bayes factor analyses of quantitative trait loci for gestation length in Iberian × Meishan F2 sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Varona, L; Muñoz, G; Ramírez, O; Barragán, C; Tomás, A; Martínez-Giner, M; Ovilo, C; Sánchez, A; Noguera, J L; Rodríguez, M C

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions affecting gestation length in sows. An experimental F2 cross between Iberian and Meishan pig breeds was used for this purpose and we genotyped 119 markers covering the 18 porcine autosomal chromosomes. Within this context, we have developed a new empirical Bayes factor (BF) approach to compare between nested models, with and without the quantitative trait loci (QTL) effect, and after including the location of the QTL as an unknown parameter in the model. This empirical BF can be easily calculated from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling by averaging conditional densities at the null QTL effects. Linkage analyses were performed in each chromosome using an animal model to account for infinitesimal genetic effects. Initially, three QTL were detected at chromosomes 6, 8 and 11 although, after correcting for multiple testing, only the additive QTL located in cM 110 of chromosome 8 remained. For this QTL, the allelic effect of substitution of the Iberian allele increased gestation length in 0.521 days, with a highest posterior density region at 95% ranged between 0.121 and 0.972 days. Although future studies are necessary to confirm if detected QTL is relevant and segregating in commercial pig populations, a hot-spot on the genetic regulation of gestation length in pigs seems to be located in chromosome 8.

  3. Malignancy risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockers: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuehong; Sun, Jianhong; Yang, Yuan; Huang, Yupeng; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to systematically review the malignancy risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) agents. Databases of PubMed Medline, OVID EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized control trials, observational studies, and case series that evaluated malignancy risk of anti-TNFα blockers. Search time duration was restricted from January 1st, 2000 to July 16th, 2015. Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaires were used to assess the quality of included reviews. Two methodology trained reviewers separately and repeatedly screened searched studies according to study selection criteria, collected data, and assessed quality. Totally, 42 reviews proved eligible with only one Cochrane review. Anti-TNFα antagonists were extensively used to treat various diseases; nevertheless, malignancy risks were most commonly described in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In RA patients, no increased risks of breast cancer, lymphoma, and non-melanoma skin cancer were found, but if the use of anti-TNFα agents was associated with elevated risk of overall malignancy was still uncertainty. In IBD patients, the use of anti-TNFα inhibitors was not connected with enhanced risk of overall cancer. No increased cancer risk was found in other disease conditions. Twenty-nine reviews were rated as good quality, 12 as moderate, and one as poor. There are no sufficient evidences to draw the conclusion that anti-TNFα blockers have relationship with increased malignancy risk.

  4. ttH, H {yields} WW{sup (*)} analysis at Atlas, LHC and Very Low Energy electron studies of 2004 combined test beam; Analyse ttH,H {yields} WW{sup (*)} avec ATLAS au LHC et etude des electron a tres basses energie dans le test faisceau combine 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H

    2008-06-15

    The Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN is a proton-proton collider with a designed center of mass energy of 14 TeV. ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector located at one of the colliding point of the LHC. Using ATLAS Computing System Commissioning (CSC) Monte Carlo full simulation data of the tt-bar H, H {yields} WW{sup *} channel, this thesis studies the feasibility of measuring top-quark Yukawa Coupling up to 30 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity, within the intermediate Higgs mass range from 120 to 200 GeV. For the first time, trigger, pileup effects as well as all possible systematic uncertainties are extensively studied. For a Higgs mass of 160 GeV, with the detailed systematics uncertainties studied, the signal significance is shown to exceed 2{sigma} by combining 2 leptons and 3 leptons final states together. The combined branching ratio of {sigma}{sub tt}-bar{sub H}*BR{sub H{yields}WW{sup (*)}} can reach an accuracy of 47%, and gives important information on the top quark Yukawa Coupling. This is the first study of the tt-bar H, H {yields} WW{sup *} channel based on full simulation data, including a complete and detailed study of the systematic uncertainties. The most difficult part of the tt-bar H, H {yields} WW{sup *} analysis is to extract signal from an abundant background since the total cross section of signal is only 0.1% of the main background. Moreover, signals have a complex final state of at least 4 jets, 2 leptons, 2 neutrinos, making the Higgs mass reconstruction very difficult. Lepton isolation is one of the most powerful method to suppress reducible backgrounds. This thesis develops a special Cone Isolation procedure, which suppress by a factor 5 the main tt-bar background. Lepton energy scale uncertainty is one of the important systematics for the tt-bar H, H {yields} WW{sup *} analysis. A good linearity of Very Low Energy (VLE) electrons can improve the performance of estimating electron energy scale. The second part of this thesis

  5. Plant nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) B subunits confer drought tolerance and lead to improved corn yields on water-limited acres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donald E; Repetti, Peter P; Adams, Tom R; Creelman, Robert A; Wu, Jingrui; Warner, David C; Anstrom, Don C; Bensen, Robert J; Castiglioni, Paolo P; Donnarummo, Meghan G; Hinchey, Brendan S; Kumimoto, Roderick W; Maszle, Don R; Canales, Roger D; Krolikowski, Katherine A; Dotson, Stanton B; Gutterson, Neal; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Heard, Jacqueline E

    2007-10-16

    Commercially improved crop performance under drought conditions has been challenging because of the complexity of the trait and the multitude of factors that influence yield. Here we report the results of a functional genomics approach that identified a transcription factor from the nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family, AtNF-YB1, which acts through a previously undescribed mechanism to confer improved performance in Arabidopsis under drought conditions. An orthologous maize transcription factor, ZmNF-YB2, is shown to have an equivalent activity. Under water-limited conditions, transgenic maize plants with increased ZmNF-YB2 expression show tolerance to drought based on the responses of a number of stress-related parameters, including chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, reduced wilting, and maintenance of photosynthesis. These stress adaptations contribute to a grain yield advantage to maize under water-limited environments. The application of this technology has the potential to significantly impact maize production systems that experience drought.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended by cover-crops and under plastic film mulching: Fluxes, emission factors and yield-scaled emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Das, Suvendu; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factor (EF) for N2O emission inventory from arable crops fertilized with different nitrogen sources are under increased scrutiny because of discrepancies between the default IPCC EFs and low EFs reported by many researchers. Mixing ratio of leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues incorporation and plastic film mulching (PFM) in upland soil has been recommended as a vital agronomic practice to enhance yield and soil quality. However, how these practices together affect N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the EFs remain uncertain. Field experiments spanning two consecutive years were conducted to evaluate the effects of PFM on N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the seasonal EFs in cover crop residues amended soil during maize cultivation. The mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seeds with 75% recommended dose (RD 140 kg ha-1) and 25% recommended dose (RD 90 kg ha-1), respectively, were broadcasted during the fallow period and 0, 25, 50 and 100% of the total aboveground harvested biomass that correspond to 0, 76, 152 and 304 kg N ha-1 were incorporated before maize transplanting. It was found that the mean seasonal EFs from cover crop residues amended soil under No-mulching (NM) and PFM were 1.13% (ranging from 0.81 to 1.23%) and 1.49% (ranging from 1.02 to 1.63%), respectively, which are comparable to the IPCC (2006) default EF (1%) for emission inventories of N2O from crop residues. The emission fluxes were greatly influenced by NH4+sbnd N, NO3--N, DOC and DON contents of soil. The cumulative N2O emissions markedly increased with the increase in cover crop residues application rates and it was more prominent under PFM than under NM. However, the yield-scaled emissions markedly decreased under PFM compared to NM due to the improved yield. With relatively low yield-scaled N2O emissions, 25% biomass mixing ratio of barley and hairy vetch (76 kg N ha-1) under PFM could be

  7. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jin Hou

    Full Text Available MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB. Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  8. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  9. THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE OF THE CO {yields} H{sub 2} CONVERSION FACTOR IN z {>=} 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Schreiber, N. M. Foerster; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Sternberg, A. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Bouche, N. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Davis, M.; Newman, S. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Apartado 1143, 28800 Alcala de Henares- Madrid (Spain); Naab, T., E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik (MPA), Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-02-10

    We use the first systematic samples of CO millimeter emission in z {>=} 1 'main-sequence' star-forming galaxies to study the metallicity dependence of the conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO,} from CO line luminosity to molecular gas mass. The molecular gas depletion rate inferred from the ratio of the star formation rate (SFR) to CO luminosity, is {approx}1 Gyr{sup -1} for near-solar metallicity galaxies with stellar masses above M{sub S} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. In this regime, the depletion rate does not vary more than a factor of two to three as a function of molecular gas surface density or redshift between z {approx} 0 and 2. Below M{sub S} the depletion rate increases rapidly with decreasing metallicity. We argue that this trend is not caused by starburst events, by changes in the physical parameters of the molecular clouds, or by the impact of the fundamental-metallicity-SFR-stellar mass relation. A more probable explanation is that the conversion factor is metallicity dependent and that star formation can occur in 'CO-dark' gas. The trend is also expected theoretically from the effect of enhanced photodissociation of CO by ultraviolet radiation at low metallicity. From the available z {approx} 0 and z {approx} 1-3 samples we constrain the slope of the log({alpha}{sub CO})-log (metallicity) relation to range between -1 and -2, fairly insensitive to the assumed slope of the gas-SFR relation. Because of the lower metallicities near the peak of the galaxy formation activity at z {approx} 1-2 compared to z {approx} 0, we suggest that molecular gas masses estimated from CO luminosities have to be substantially corrected upward for galaxies below M{sub S}.

  10. Gene network analyses of first service conception in Brangus heifers: use of genome and trait associations, hypothalamic-transcriptome information, and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Snelling, W M; Reverter, A; Nagaraj, S H; Lehnert, S A; Hawken, R J; DeAtley, K L; Peters, S O; Silver, G A; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Islas-Trejo, A; Thomas, M G

    2012-09-01

    Measures of heifer fertility are economically relevant traits for beef production systems and knowledge of candidate genes could be incorporated into future genomic selection strategies. Ten traits related to growth and fertility were measured in 890 Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus, from 67 sires). These traits were: BW and hip height adjusted to 205 and 365 d of age, postweaning ADG, yearling assessment of carcass traits (i.e., back fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and LM area), as well as heifer pregnancy and first service conception (FSC). These fertility traits were collected from controlled breeding seasons initiated with estrous synchronization and AI targeting heifers to calve by 24 mo of age. The BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to ascertain 53,692 SNP genotypes for ∼802 heifers. Associations of genotypes and phenotypes were performed and SNP effects were estimated for each trait. Minimally associated SNP (P < 0.05) and their effects across the 10 traits formed the basis for an association weight matrix and its derived gene network related to FSC (57.3% success and heritability = 0.06 ± 0.05). These analyses yielded 1,555 important SNP, which inferred genes linked by 113,873 correlations within a network. Specifically, 1,386 SNP were nodes and the 5,132 strongest correlations (|r| ≥ 0.90) were edges. The network was filtered with genes queried from a transcriptome resource created from deep sequencing of RNA (i.e., RNA-Seq) from the hypothalamus of a prepubertal and a postpubertal Brangus heifer. The remaining hypothalamic-influenced network contained 978 genes connected by 2,560 edges or predicted gene interactions. This hypothalamic gene network was enriched with genes involved in axon guidance, which is a pathway known to influence pulsatile release of LHRH. There were 5 transcription factors with 21 or more connections: ZMAT3, STAT6, RFX4, PLAGL1, and NR6A1 for FSC. The SNP that identified these genes were intragenic and were on chromosomes

  11. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.

    2012-06-01

    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  12. Astrophysical S factor for the radiative-capture reaction p{sup 6}Li {yields} {sup 7}Be{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovichenko, S. B., E-mail: sergey@dubovichenko.ru [National Space Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Fessenkov Astrophysical Institute, National Center of Space Research and Technology (Kazakhstan); Burtebaev, N., E-mail: burteb@inp.kz; Zazulin, D. M.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Amar, A. S. A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2011-07-15

    A new measurement of differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 6}Li scattering in the energy range 0.35-1.2 MeV was performed. A partial-wave analysis of the data obtained in this way was carried out, and potentials simulating the p{sup 6}Li interaction were constructed. Various experiments devoted to studying elastic p{sup 6}Li scattering over the broad energy range of 0.5-50 MeV were analyzed on the basis of the optical model. By using the potentials obtained from the partial-wave analysis, the possibility of describing the astrophysical S factor for radiative proton capture on {sup 6}Li at low energies was considered within the potential cluster model involving forbidden states.

  13. Long-duration effect of multi-factor stresses on the cellular biochemistry, oil-yielding performance and morphology of Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Likun; Huang, Xuxiong

    2017-01-01

    Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Elevating its oil-yielding capacity is conducive to cost-saving biodiesel production. However, the regulatory processes of multi-factor collaborative stresses (MFCS) on the oil-yielding performance of N. oculata are unclear. The duration effects of MFCS (high irradiation, nitrogen deficiency and elevated iron supplementation) on N. oculata were investigated in an 18-d batch culture. Despite the reduction in cell division, the biomass concentration increased, resulting from the large accumulation of the carbon/energy-reservoir. However, different storage forms were found in different cellular storage compounds, and both the protein content and pigment composition swiftly and drastically changed. The analysis of four biodiesel properties using pertinent empirical equations indicated their progressive effective improvement in lipid classes and fatty acid composition. The variation curve of neutral lipid productivity was monitored with fluorescent Nile red and was closely correlated to the results from conventional methods. In addition, a series of changes in the organelles (e.g., chloroplast, lipid body and vacuole) and cell shape, dependent on the stress duration, were observed by TEM and LSCM. These changes presumably played an important role in the acclimation of N. oculata to MFCS and accordingly improved its oil-yielding performance.

  14. Relation Between Maize Yield and Eco-climate Factors%玉米产量与生态气候因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雅丽; 王志伟; 栾青; 胡良温; 张爱芝

    2009-01-01

    By using the integral regression analysis method, the relationship between maize yield and eco-climate factors during 1971 and 2000 in Shanxi Province was analyzed. The result showed that the impacts of temperature and precipitation on maize yield per unit were bigger than that of the sunshine, while the eco-climate had bigger impacts on maize yields in the North Shanxi Province than that in the Middle and South Shanxi Province. For the spring maize, the precipitation had positive impacts on maize yields during seeding period, while the temperature and precipitation had positive impacts on maize yields during jointing and heading stage. The sunshine hours were more than maize needs, and had negative impacts on maize yields in the whole stage of maize. The abundand radiation resource showed a great potential for solar energy utilization of maize production in Shanxi Province. For summer maize, the temperature had negative impacts on maize yields during heading and flowering stage, while the precipitation had negative impacts on maize yields in Yuncheng during jointing and ripening stage, especially cloudy and rainy weather in ripening stage. The study revealed that the impact of ecological climatic factors on maize growing in the different growth stages, and could provide scientific references for making full use of eco-climatic resources in Shanxi Province.%采用多元积分回归的方法,对山西省1971-2000年玉米产量与生态气候因子的关系进行分析研究.结果表明:气温和降水对玉米产量的影响大,日照影响小,北部影响大,中南部影响小.春玉米播种期和苗期降水影响大多为正效应,拔节-抽雄期气温和降水影响为显著正效应,日照时数在全生育期普遍偏多,影响多为负效应,光能资源丰富,光能利用潜力大.夏玉米拔节-开花期气温影响为显著负效应,运城地区降水在拔节-成熟期为负效应,尤其成熟期阴雨天气对产量影响较大.研究结果揭示

  15. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  16. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  17. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  18. Pertinent spatio-temporal scale of observation to understand sediment yield control factors in the Andean Region: the case of the Santa River (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Morera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-sedimentology development is a great challenge in Peru due to limited data as well as sparse and confidential information. Consequently, little is known at present about the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, precipitation, runoff, land use and the sediment transport dynamics. The aim of this paper is to bridge this gap in order to quantify and understand the signal of magnitude and frequency of the sediment fluxes from the central western Andes; also, to identify the main erosion control factor and its relevance.

    The Tablachaca River (3132 km2 and the Santa River (6815 km2, two mountainous Andean catchments that are geographically close to each other, both showed similar statistical daily rainfall and discharge variability but high contrast in sediment yield (SY. In order to investigate which factors are of importance, the continuous water discharge and hourly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC of the Santa River were studied. Firstly, the specific sediment yield (SSY at the continental Andes range scale for the Pacific side is one of the highest amounts (2204 t km2 yr−1. Secondly, no relationship between the water discharge (Q and El Niño/La Niñ a events is found over a 54 yr time period. However, the Santa Basin is highly sensitive during mega Niños (1982–1983 and 1997–1998. Lastly, dispersed micro-mining and mining activity in specific lithologies are identified as the major factors that control the high SSY. These remarks make the Peruvian coast key areas for future research on Andean sediment rates.

  19. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations, 2. Robustness of Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1999-03-24

    Procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses are described and illustrated. These procedures attempt to detect increasingly complex patterns in scatterplots and involve the identification of (i) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (ii) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (iii) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (iv) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (v) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. A sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow illustrates how the individual procedures can differ in the variables that they identify as having effects on particular model outcomes. The example analyses indicate that the use of a sequence of procedures is a good analysis strategy and provides some assurance that an important effect is not overlooked.

  20. Assessment of Factors Affecting the Usefulness and Diagnostic Yield of Core Biopsy Needles with a Side Hole in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Sano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    A barbed puncture needle with a side hole was recently developed to improve sample quality and quantity in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we retrospectively assessed the usefulness of this puncture needle. Factors affecting diagnostic yield, safety, and diagnostic accuracy were investigated in 76 patients who consecutively underwent EUS-FNA for neoplastic lesions at our hospital between January and December 2013. The procedure was successful in all cases; the rates of sample collection and determination of the correct diagnosis were 92.1% and 89.5%, respectively. The mean number of needle passes required for diagnosis was 1.1. Complications included mild intraluminal bleeding in two patients (2.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion size (≤20 mm) was significantly associated with a decreased chance of determining the correct diagnosis. Core biopsy needles with a side hole are safe and provide a satisfactory diagnostic yield. However, the side hole may potentially reduce the rate of making the correct diagnosis in small lesions.

  1. Factores significativos del rendimiento excelente: PISA y otros estudios Fatores significativos no rendimento excelente: PISA e outros estudos Significant factors in the yield excellent: PISA and other studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jiménez Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se centra en tres investigaciones sobre los alumnos con rendimiento excelente. El estudio de PISA Top of de class, que analiza los factores subyacentes al rendimiento excelente de los alumnos de 15-16 años; el estudio de una muestra de alumnos españoles que han obtenido Premio Extraordinario de Bachillerato (PEB y un tercer estudio sobre alumnos que han obtenido Beca de Excelencia (BEpara estudiar en la universidad de Madrid. Se concluye que aunque la procedencia social no es determinante, la mayor parte de los alumnos con rendimiento excelente proceden de ambientes culturalmente favorecidos si bien el centro escolar ejerce mayor influencia que la clase social; la cantidad de horas semanales que el currículo dedica a la enseñanza de las materias fundamentales y la cantidad de horas que el alumno dedica al estudio son factores importantes del rendimiento excelente; los centros con mejor rendimiento atraen más a los alumnos con rendimiento excelente y, a su vez, hay más alumnos con rendimiento excelente en los centros más elitistas; en el estudio de PISA no hay diferencias de género; en los estudios sobre alumnos con PEB y BE persisten reductos sexistas.O presente trabalho se centra em três pesquisas sobre alunos com rendimento excelente. O estudo de PISA Top of de class, que analisa os fatores subjacentes ao rendimento excelente de alunos entre 15 e16 anos; o estudo de uma amostra de alunos espanhóis que obtiveram o Premio Extraordinário de Ensino Médio e um terceiro estudo sobre alunos que obtiveram Bolsa de Excelência para estudar na Universidade de Madrid. Chega-se à conclusão que embora a procedência social não seja determinante, a maior parte dos alunos com rendimento excelente procedem de ambientes culturalmente favorecidos, ainda que o centro escolar exerce maior influência que a classe social; a quantidade de horas semanais que o currículo dedica ao ensino das disciplinas fundamentais e a quantidade de horas que o aluno

  2. Fertilization for High Yields in Corn-Sweet Potato-Wheat Rotation: A Systematic Approach to Nutrient Limiting Factors of Soils in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A systematic approach was adopted to investigate the nutrient limiting factors in gray-brown purple soils and yellow soils derived from limestone in Chongqing, China, to study balanced fertilization for corn, sweet potato and wheat in rotation. The results showed that N, P and K were deficient in both soils, Cu, Mn, S andZn in the gray-brown purple soils and Ca, Mg, Mo and Zn for the yellow soils. Balanced fertilizer application increased yields of corn, sweet potato and wheat by 28.4%, 28.7% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared to the local farmers' practice. The systematic approach can be considered as one of the most efficient and reliable methods in fertility study.

  3. Factor analyses for the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire for working and nonworking patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; Vroomen, Patrick; Stewart, Roy; Coppes, Maarten; Stegeman, Patrick; Dijkstra, Pieter; Reneman, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) has good psychometric properties to predict return to work in patients with acute low back pain. Although it is used in patients with chronic back pain and nonworkers, there is no evidence on the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in these populations. This is deemed an important prerequisite for future prediction studies. This study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain. This is a cross-sectional study in a university-based spine center. The patient sample consists two cohorts of working and nonworking adult patients (>18 years) with specific and nonspecific chronic back pain. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed in working (N=557) and nonworking (N=266) patients for three, four, five, and six factors identified in literature. A goodness of fit index was calculated by a chi-square. Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was calculated, and the number of factors identified was based on RMSEA values 0.90 are considered to indicate acceptable fit. In working patients, a five-factor solution had the best fit (RMSEA0.90), but substantial adaptations should be made to get proper fit (removal of the work-related items). In nonworking patients, a four-factor analysis had the best fit (RMSEAback pain. Substantial adaptations should be made to obtain a factor structure with acceptable fit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Hui Zhao Yalei Liu Jianguo Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    .... By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing...

  5. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined varieties had small influence on expression of this trait. Regarding expression of other yield components, influence of genetic factors was more important than environmental conditions. Correlation between analyzed traits shows that high stem and fiber yield are achieved in higher populations of fiber hemp with thicker stem. Fiber content increased with stem thickness increase.

  6. Structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Confirmatory factor analyses with the 16 primary and secondary subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C

    2017-04-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample (N = 2,200) was examined using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with maximum likelihood estimation for all reported models from the WISC-V Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Additionally, alternative bifactor models were examined and variance estimates and model-based reliability estimates (ω coefficients) were provided. Results from analyses of the 16 primary and secondary WISC-V subtests found that all higher-order CFA models with 5 group factors (VC, VS, FR, WM, and PS) produced model specification errors where the Fluid Reasoning factor produced negative variance and were thus judged inadequate. Of the 16 models tested, the bifactor model containing 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Results from analyses of the 10 primary WISC-V subtests also found the bifactor model with 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Variance estimates from both 16 and 10 subtest based bifactor models found dominance of general intelligence (g) in accounting for subtest variance (except for PS subtests) and large ω-hierarchical coefficients supporting general intelligence interpretation. The small portions of variance uniquely captured by the 4 group factors and low ω-hierarchical subscale coefficients likely render the group factors of questionable interpretive value independent of g (except perhaps for PS). Present CFA results confirm the EFA results reported by Canivez, Watkins, and Dombrowski (2015); Dombrowski, Canivez, Watkins, and Beaujean (2015); and Canivez, Dombrowski, and Watkins (2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Exploratory factor analyses with the 16 primary and secondary subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C

    2016-08-01

    The factor structure of the 16 Primary and Secondary subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample was examined with exploratory factor analytic methods (EFA) not included in the WISC-V Technical and Interpretive Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Factor extraction criteria suggested 1 to 4 factors and results favored 4 first-order factors. When this structure was transformed with the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization procedure, the hierarchical g-factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance while the 4 first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance; rendering interpretation at the factor index level less appropriate. Although the publisher favored a 5-factor model where the Perceptual Reasoning factor was split into separate Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning dimensions, no evidence for 5 factors was found. It was concluded that the WISC-V provides strong measurement of general intelligence and clinical interpretation should be primarily, if not exclusively, at that level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. 短期融资券收益率影响因素研究%Factors Influencing Yields of Short-Term Financing Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳铭; 范龙振

    2011-01-01

    The short-term financing bonds require no collateral, or guarantee from other companies or banks, and many companies choose to issue them for financing. They are representative of marketable bonds or notes with credit risk in China. Thus, their market behavior has important meaning for the development of bonds with credit risk, especially of the corporate bonds. This paper makes a research into the factors that have influence on yields of the short-term financing bonds. The result shows that, no matter in primary or secondary market, issuers' credit rating which represents credit risk, ask-bid spread which represents liquidity risk, along with the industry and macro-systematic factors, all have significant effect on the bonds' yields; there exists liquidity expectation in primary market, which means that those which have better liquidity characteristic in the secondary market have lower issuing yield in the primary market.%短期融资券不需要担保,发行数量多,是我国市场化的具有信用风险的债券,其市场表现对我国信用债券特别是公司债的发展具有启示意义.主要讨论短期融资券收益率的影响因素.研究结果显示,无论在发行或交易市场,以主体评级指标为代表的信用风险因素、以买卖价差为代表的流动性因素、行业因素以及宏观系统因素对融资券收益率影响显著;发行定价中存在流动性预期,即预期在二级市场流动性好的债券在一级市场具有更低的收益率.

  9. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  10. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hui; Zhao Yalei; Liu Jianguo; Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Sealing clearance is a key factor for a metal rubber seal’s sealability. The expansion coef-ficient and expansion deformation in the radial direction of metal rubber have been obtained through a thermal expansion experiment of metal rubber. The influence of the elastic modulus to the sealing clearance has been analyzed theoretically. By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing clearance and the leakage rate in certain working conditions have been calculated. Experimental results are consistent with calculation results in a high degree. The calculation formula of the sealing clearance can explain the influences of the temperature and elastic modulus factors of metal rubber on the sealing clearance. It can pro-vide guidance for the study of sealing mechanism of metal rubber seals.

  11. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting. METHODS: This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites. FINDINGS: After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99. CONCLUSION: Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  12. Expression profiling and Ingenuity biological function analyses of interleukin-6- versus nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriades-Schmutz Beatrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major goal of the study was to compare the genetic programs utilized by the neuropoietic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the neurotrophin (NT Nerve Growth Factor (NGF for neuronal differentiation. Results The designer cytokine Hyper-IL-6 in which IL-6 is covalently linked to its soluble receptor s-IL-6R as well as NGF were used to stimulate PC12 cells for 24 hours. Changes in gene expression levels were monitored using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. We found different expression for 130 genes in IL-6- and 102 genes in NGF-treated PC12 cells as compared to unstimulated controls. The gene set shared by both stimuli comprises only 16 genes. A key step is upregulation of growth factors and functionally related external molecules known to play important roles in neuronal differentiation. In particular, IL-6 enhances gene expression of regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A; 1084-fold, regenerating islet-derived 3 beta (REG3B/PAPI; 672-fold, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15; 80-fold, platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA; 69-fold, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH; 30-fold, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; 20-fold and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 5-fold. NGF recruits GDF15 (131-fold, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; 101-fold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 89-fold. Both stimuli activate growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43 indicating that PC12 cells undergo substantial neuronal differentiation. Moreover, IL-6 activates the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA; 20-fold and early growth response 1 (Egr1/Zif268; 3-fold known to play key roles in neuronal differentiation. Ingenuity biological function analysis revealed that completely different repertoires of molecules are recruited to exert the same biological functions in neuronal differentiation. Major sub-categories include cellular growth and differentiation, cell migration, chemotaxis, cell

  13. High statistic measurement of the K{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup -}{nu} decay form-factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushchenko, O.P.; Akimenko, S.A.; Britvich, G.I.; Datsko, K.V.; Filin, A.P.; Inyakin, A.V.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korolkov, I.Y.; Khmelnikov, V.A.; Leontiev, V.M.; Novikov, V.P.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Romanovsky, V.I.; Ronjin, V.M.; Shelikhov, V.I.; Smirnov, N.E.; Tchikilev, O.G.; Uvarov, V.A.; Bolotov, V.N.; Laptev, S.V.; Polyarush, A.Yu

    2004-06-10

    The decay K{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup -}{nu} is studied using in-flight decays detected with the 'ISTRA+' spectrometer. About 920K events are collected for the analysis. The {lambda}{sub +} slope parameter of the decay form-factor f{sub +}(t) in the linear approximation (average slope) is measured: {lambda}{sub +}{sup lin}=0.02774{+-}0.00047(stat){+-}0.00032(syst). The quadratic contribution to the form-factor was estimated to be {lambda}'{sub +}=0.00084{+-}0.00027(stat){+-}0.00031(syst). The linear slope, which has a meaning of df{sub +}(t)/dt vertical bar{sub t=0} for this fit, is {lambda}{sub +}=0.02324{+-}0.00152(stat){+-}0.00032(syst). The limits on possible tensor and scalar couplings are derived: f{sub T}/f{sub +}(0)=-0.012{+-}0.021(stat){+-}0.011(syst), f{sub S}/f{sub +}(0)=-0.0037{sup +0.0066}{sub -0.0056}(stat){+-}0.0041(syst)

  14. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croft, Laurence J; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs) as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential...

  15. Bioinformatics Analyses of the Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu; Wu, Shuqiang; Jia, Yongshi; Yang, Yunmei; Luo, Limin; Bi, Aihong; Fang, Min

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore its potential correlation with the progression of NSCLC. Gene expression profile GSE39345 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Twenty healthy controls and 32 NSCLC samples before chemotherapy were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Then pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. Particularly, VEGF genes and the VEGF signaling pathway were analyzed. The sub-network was constructed followed by functional enrichment analysis. Total 1666 up-regulated and 1542 down-regulated DEGs were identified. The down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways associated with cancer. VEGFA and VEGFB were found to be the initiating factor of VEGF signaling pathway. In addition, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), VEGFA and VEGFB associated sub-network, kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), fibronectin 1 (FN1), transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were found to interact with at least two of the three hub genes. The DEGs in this sub-network were mainly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to cell proliferation. EGFR, KDR, FN1, TGFBI and PCNA may interact with VEGFA to play important roles in NSCLC tumorigenesis. These genes and corresponding proteins may have the potential to be used as the targets for either diagnosis or treatment of patients with NSCLC.

  16. Analyses of risk factors for intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕法红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease(aGVHD)after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT).Methods The clinical data of 534 cases of 533 patients undergoing allo-HSCT during Jan 2004 and Sep 2012were retrospectively analyzed.The effects of donor-recipient HLA

  17. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  18. Factor Analyses of Parts 1 and 2 of the IIQ. Technical Report No. 6.1-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.

    A factor analysis was performed on 2,535 and 2,447 cases of the Instructional Improvement Questionnaire (IIQ) parts I and II, respectively. A correlation matrix for each part was calculated. Squared multiple correlations (SMC) for each item, using the other items as predictors, was placed in the main diagonal of the correlation matrix. The…

  19. Comparative genomic and functional analyses: unearthing the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in Pseudomonas putida strain 1A00316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Jing, Xueping; Peng, Wen-Lei; Nie, Qiyu; Zhai, Yile; Shao, Zongze; Zheng, Longyu; Cai, Minmin; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Rui-Ru; Huang, Dian; Cheng, Wanli; Yu, Ziniu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    We isolated Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) strain 1A00316 from Antarctica. This bacterium has a high efficiency against Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The complete genome of P. putida 1A00316 was sequenced using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. A comparative genomic analysis of 16 Pseudomonas strains revealed that although P. putida 1A00316 belonged to P. putida, it was phenotypically more similar to nematicidal Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) strains. We characterized the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida 1A00316 with comparative genomics and functional analysis, and found that P. putida 1A00316 has diverse nematicidal factors including protein alkaline metalloproteinase AprA and two secondary metabolites, hydrogen cyanide and cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline). We show for the first time that cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline) exhibit nematicidal activity in P. putida. Interestingly, our study had not detected common nematicidal factors such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and pyrrolnitrin in P. putida 1A00316. The results of the present study reveal the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida strain 1A00316. PMID:27384076

  20. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  1. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  2. Comparative analyses imply that the enigmatic sigma factor 54 is a central controller of the bacterial exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot Kormelink Tom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sigma-54 is a central regulator in many pathogenic bacteria and has been linked to a multitude of cellular processes like nitrogen assimilation and important functional traits such as motility, virulence, and biofilm formation. Until now it has remained obscure whether these phenomena and the control by Sigma-54 share an underlying theme. Results We have uncovered the commonality by performing a range of comparative genome analyses. A The presence of Sigma-54 and its associated activators was determined for all sequenced prokaryotes. We observed a phylum-dependent distribution that is suggestive of an evolutionary relationship between Sigma-54 and lipopolysaccharide and flagellar biosynthesis. B All Sigma-54 activators were identified and annotated. The relation with phosphotransfer-mediated signaling (TCS and PTS and the transport and assimilation of carboxylates and nitrogen containing metabolites was substantiated. C The function annotations, that were represented within the genomic context of all genes encoding Sigma-54, its activators and its promoters, were analyzed for intra-phylum representation and inter-phylum conservation. Promoters were localized using a straightforward scoring strategy that was formulated to identify similar motifs. We found clear highly-represented and conserved genetic associations with genes that concern the transport and biosynthesis of the metabolic intermediates of exopolysaccharides, flagella, lipids, lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins and peptidoglycan. Conclusion Our analyses directly implicate Sigma-54 as a central player in the control over the processes that involve the physical interaction of an organism with its environment like in the colonization of a host (virulence or the formation of biofilm.

  3. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  4. Two new monoclonal antibodies for biochemical and flow cytometric analyses of human interferon regulatory factor-3 activation, turnover, and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Arjun; Doehle, Brian P; McElrath, M Juliana; Gale, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) is a master transcription factor that drives the host intracellular innate immune response to virus infection. The importance of IRF-3 in innate immune responses is highlighted by the fact that pathogenic viruses have developed strategies for antagonism of IRF-3. Several tools exist for evaluation of viral regulation of IRF-3 activation and function, but high-quality monoclonal antibodies that mark the differential activation states of human IRF-3 are lacking. To study IRF-3 activation, turnover, and depletion in a high-throughput manner in the context of virus infection, we have developed two new monoclonal antibodies to human IRF-3. These antibodies detect IRF-3 in virus-infected cells in a wide variety of assays and provide a new tool to study virus-host interactions and innate immune signaling.

  5. Bioinformatics Analyses of the Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to explore its potential correlation with the progression of NSCLC.Gene expression profile GSE39345 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Twenty healthy controls and 32 NSCLC samples before chemotherapy were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Then pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. Particularly, VEGF genes and the VEGF signaling pathway were analyzed. The sub-network was constructed followed by functional enrichment analysis.Total 1666 up-regulated and 1542 down-regulated DEGs were identified. The down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways associated with cancer. VEGFA and VEGFB were found to be the initiating factor of VEGF signaling pathway. In addition, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, VEGFA and VEGFB associated sub-network, kinase insert domain receptor (KDR, fibronectin 1 (FN1, transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were found to interact with at least two of the three hub genes. The DEGs in this sub-network were mainly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to cell proliferation.EGFR, KDR, FN1, TGFBI and PCNA may interact with VEGFA to play important roles in NSCLC tumorigenesis. These genes and corresponding proteins may have the potential to be used as the targets for either diagnosis or treatment of patients with NSCLC.

  6. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Zenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM. Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys. Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM, and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.86–1.49, 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.48–2.54, multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.79–1.56, while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.89–4.70. Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence.

  7. Nonintrusive Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Image Sensor and Accuracy Analyses According to Various Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that enables an individual person to be identified based on human physiological and behavioral characteristics. Among biometrics technologies, face recognition has been widely used because of its advantages in terms of convenience and non-contact operation. However, its performance is affected by factors such as variation in the illumination, facial expression, and head pose. Therefore, fingerprint and iris recognitions are preferred alternatives. However, the performance of the former can be adversely affected by the skin condition, including scarring and dryness. In addition, the latter has the disadvantages of high cost, large system size, and inconvenience to the user, who has to align their eyes with the iris camera. In an attempt to overcome these problems, finger-vein recognition has been vigorously researched, but an analysis of its accuracies according to various factors has not received much attention. Therefore, we propose a nonintrusive finger-vein recognition system using a near infrared (NIR image sensor and analyze its accuracies considering various factors. The experimental results obtained with three databases showed that our system can be operated in real applications with high accuracy; and the dissimilarity of the finger-veins of different people is larger than that of the finger types and hands.

  8. Nonintrusive Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Image Sensor and Accuracy Analyses According to Various Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kwon, Seung Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-07-13

    Biometrics is a technology that enables an individual person to be identified based on human physiological and behavioral characteristics. Among biometrics technologies, face recognition has been widely used because of its advantages in terms of convenience and non-contact operation. However, its performance is affected by factors such as variation in the illumination, facial expression, and head pose. Therefore, fingerprint and iris recognitions are preferred alternatives. However, the performance of the former can be adversely affected by the skin condition, including scarring and dryness. In addition, the latter has the disadvantages of high cost, large system size, and inconvenience to the user, who has to align their eyes with the iris camera. In an attempt to overcome these problems, finger-vein recognition has been vigorously researched, but an analysis of its accuracies according to various factors has not received much attention. Therefore, we propose a nonintrusive finger-vein recognition system using a near infrared (NIR) image sensor and analyze its accuracies considering various factors. The experimental results obtained with three databases showed that our system can be operated in real applications with high accuracy; and the dissimilarity of the finger-veins of different people is larger than that of the finger types and hands.

  9. Indoor Environmental Risk Factors for Occupant Symptoms in 100U.S. Office Buildings: Summary of Three Analyses from the EPA BASEStudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Cozen, M.; Brightman, H.S.; Apte,M.; Erdmann, C.A.; Brunner, G.; Girman, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of data on building-related environmental factors and occupant symptoms collected from 100 representative large U.S. office buildings. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found increased occupant symptoms associated with a number of building-related factors, including lower ventilation rates even at the current guideline levels, lack of scheduled cleaning for air-conditioning drain pans and cooling coils, poor condition of cooling coils, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lower outdoor air intake height. Some expected relationships were not found, and several findings were opposite of expected. Although requiring replication, these findings suggest preventive actions to reduce occupant symptoms in office buildings.

  10. Indoor Environmental Risk Factors for Occupant Symptoms in 100U.S. Office Buildings: Summary of Three Analyses from the EPA BASEStudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Cozen, M.; Brightman, H.S.; Apte,M.; Erdmann, C.A.; Brunner, G.; Girman, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of data on building-related environmental factors and occupant symptoms collected from 100 representative large U.S. office buildings. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found increased occupant symptoms associated with a number of building-related factors, including lower ventilation rates even at the current guideline levels, lack of scheduled cleaning for air-conditioning drain pans and cooling coils, poor condition of cooling coils, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lower outdoor air intake height. Some expected relationships were not found, and several findings were opposite of expected. Although requiring replication, these findings suggest preventive actions to reduce occupant symptoms in office buildings.

  11. Factorization and non-local 1/m{sub b} corrections in the decay anti B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzke, Michael

    2011-06-10

    In this thesis, a systematic analysis of the anti B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} photon spectrum in the endpoint region is presented. The endpoint region refers to a kinematic configuration of the final state, in which the photon has a large energy m{sub b}-2E{sub {gamma}}=O({lambda}{sub QCD}), while the jet has a large energy but small invariant mass. Using methods of soft-collinear effective theory and heavy-quark effective theory, it is shown that the spectrum can be factorized into hard, jet, and soft functions, each encoding the dynamics at a certain scale. The relevant scales in the endpoint region are the heavy-quark mass m{sub b}, the hadronic energy scale {lambda}{sub QCD} and an intermediate scale {radical}({lambda}{sub QCD}m{sub b}) associated with the invariant mass of the jet. It is found that the factorization formula contains two different types of contributions, distinguishable by the space-time structure of the underlying diagrams. On the one hand, there are the direct photon contributions which correspond to diagrams with the photon emitted directly from the weak vertex. The resolved photon contributions on the other hand arise at O(1/m{sub b}) whenever the photon couples to light partons. In this work, these contributions are explicitly defined in terms of convolutions of jet functions with subleading shape functions. While the direct photon contributions can be expressed in terms of a local operator product expansion, when the photon spectrum is integrated over a range larger than the endpoint region, the resolved photon contributions always remain non-local. Thus, they are responsible for a non-perturbative uncertainty on the partonic predictions. In this thesis, the effect of these uncertainties is estimated in two different phenomenological contexts. First, the hadronic uncertainties in the anti B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} branching fraction, defined with a cut E{sub {gamma}} > 1.6GeV are discussed. It is found, that the resolved photon

  12. Expression of Interleukin-11 and Interleukin-11 receptor in human colorectal adenocarcinoma; Immunohistochemical analyses and correlation with clinicopathological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyuki Yamazumi; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Takafumi Kusaba; Chun Yang Wen; Ayumi Yoshizaki; Yuichi Yakata; Takeshi Nagayasu; Ichiro Sekine

    2006-01-01

    AIM: There is strong evidence that interleukin-11 (IL-11)is involved in the regulation of tumor progression, cellular growth and differentiation. Recently, interleukin-11receptor (IL-11R) has been detected on some cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-11 and IL-11R in colorectal adenocarcinoma.METHODS: To elucidate the involvement of IL-11 and IL-11Rα in human intestinal adenocarcinomas, we examined 115 cases of surgically resected human colonic adenocarcinoma and 11 cases of adenoma by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.RESULTS: Among 115 cases of adenocarcinoma, 100cases (87.0%) showed positive staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells for the IL-11, and 87 cases (75.6%)were positive for the IL-11Rα. Six cases (54.5%) and four cases (36.4%) of 11 adenomas were positive for IL-11 and IL-11Rα, respectively. The expression of IL-11Rα correlated with the histological differentiation (P =0.033503), the depth of tumor invasion (P= 0.006395),Dukes classification (P= 0.015648) and lymphatic invasion (P=0.003865). However, the expression of IL-11Rα was not correlated with the venous invasion and the presence of lymph node metastasis. The expression of IL-11 was not correlated with any clinicopathological factors. In Western blot analysis, two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines and four tissues of surgically resected human carcinoma expressed both IL-11 and IL-11Rαproteins.CONCLUSION: IL-11 and IL-11Rα are highly expressed in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and the IL-11Rα expression is correlated with clinicopathological factors.These findings suggest that the expression of IL-11Rα is an important factor for the invasion of human colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  13. Impacts of Seedling Age on Early Rice Yield and Yield component Factors%不同秧龄对早稻产量及其构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹文忠; 梅少华; 范向阳; 梅金安; 翟中兵; 刘诗晴; 张从德; 魏坦雄

    2012-01-01

    Using hybrid early rice Liangyou 302 as experiment material, the effects of seedling age on growth characteristics, breed features and yield performance of rice with transplanting and seedling throwing methods were studied. The results showed that there were the same performance tendencies in growth characteristics, breed features and yield performance between transplanting rice and seedling throwing rice. Early planting at suitable age had the advantages of premature and early maturity. The vegetative period of 20 days-seedlings prolonged 3~10 d and its mature period arrived 2~6 d ahead of time. There were very significant negative correlations between seedling age and effective panicles, total grain number and yield.%以杂交早稻两优302为试验材料,研究了不同秧龄在移栽和抛栽方式下的生长特点、生育特性及产量表现.结果表明,移栽和抛栽表现趋势相同,适龄早栽具有早发和早熟优势,秧龄20 d时大田营养生长期延长3~10d,早熟2~6 d;秧龄与有效穗数、每穗总粒数和产量均呈极显著的负相关.

  14. 长江上游社会经济因子对侵蚀产沙的影响%Impacts of socio-economic factors on sediment yield in the Upper Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊; 师长兴; 范小黎; 周园园

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the role of human activities in changing sediment yield has become more apparent for the construction of hydraulic engineering and water conservation projections in the Upper Yangtze River, but it has not been evaluated at the macro scale. Taking Sichuan Province and Chongqing City as an example, this paper studies the relationship between socio-economic factors and sediment yield in the Upper Yangtze River based on section data in 1989 and 2007. The results show that sediment yield is significantly correlated with population density and cultivated area, in which the former appears to be more closely related to sediment yield. Moreover, in the relation of sediment yield vs. population density, a critical value of population density exists, below which the sediment yield increases with the increase of population density and over which the sediment yield increases with the decrease of population density. The phenomenon essentially reflects the influence of natural factors, such as topography, precipitation and soil property, and some human activities on sediment yield. The region with a higher population density than critical value is located in the east of the study area and is characterized by plains, hills and low mountains, whereas the opposite is located in the west and characterized by middle and high mountains. In the eastern region, more people live on the lands with a low slope where regional soil erosion is slight; therefore, sediment yield is negatively related with population density. In contrast, in the western region, the population tends to aggregate in the areas with abundant soil and water resources which usually lead to a higher intensity of natural erosion, and in turn, high-intensity agricultural practices in these areas may further strengthen local soil erosion. It is also found that population tends to move from the areas with bad environment and high sediment yield to the areas with more comfortable environment and less

  15. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionNowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237. Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125. In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving priority to it in rural development programs, housing provision has always been one of the problems of many people, especially low-income families in rural areas.Non-availability of suitable and standard housing, which is an index of rural development, causes psychological and social damage in rural people's lives, interruption and irregularity in rural housing structures, and ultimately social and economic crises in national level. Therefore, the issue of appropriate planning and policy making for housing and access to a desirable model for rural residents is a major concern of rural planners (Lotfi, 2010:105. One of the important ways of having knowledge of rural condition in the process of rural planning is the use of rural housing indicators (Azizi, 2006:26.2- Theoretical basesRural housing is a coordinated structure consistent with economic, social and cultural structure of rural area that has essential differences with urban housing. In fact, the expectations of two urban and rural societies from housing are not the same. In cities, nowadays, houses mostly have the role of dormitory or resort, while in rural areas people expect more from the housing. For a rural person, housing, besides being a resort unit, is also considered as an economic functional unit (Papoliyazdi, 1994:490. Based on the policies enforced and the amount of government intervention in the housing issue, there are two distinct lines of thought among housing scholars and researchers

  16. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohawn, David G; O'Brien, Laura C; Bennett, James P

    2016-01-01

    ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina) to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR) for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's). Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA) and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2) as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA). Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF) controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1) and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer). Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms) reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be helpful

  17. Analyses of genome architecture and gene expression reveal novel candidate virulence factors in the secretome of Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Liliana M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes. It exhibits high evolutionary potential and rapidly adapts to host plants. The P. infestans genome experienced a repeat-driven expansion relative to the genomes of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum and shows a discontinuous distribution of gene density. Effector genes, such as members of the RXLR and Crinkler (CRN families, localize to expanded, repeat-rich and gene-sparse regions of the genome. This distinct genomic environment is thought to contribute to genome plasticity and host adaptation. Results We used in silico approaches to predict and describe the repertoire of P. infestans secreted proteins (the secretome. We defined the "plastic secretome" as a subset of the genome that (i encodes predicted secreted proteins, (ii is excluded from genome segments orthologous to the P. sojae and P. ramorum genomes and (iii is encoded by genes residing in gene sparse regions of P. infestans genome. Although including only ~3% of P. infestans genes, the plastic secretome contains ~62% of known effector genes and shows >2 fold enrichment in genes induced in planta. We highlight 19 plastic secretome genes induced in planta but distinct from previously described effectors. This list includes a trypsin-like serine protease, secreted oxidoreductases, small cysteine-rich proteins and repeat containing proteins that we propose to be novel candidate virulence factors. Conclusions This work revealed a remarkably diverse plastic secretome. It illustrates the value of combining genome architecture with comparative genomics to identify novel candidate virulence factors from pathogen genomes.

  18. Effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on growth traits of high yielding dairy seed calves and genetic parameter estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know the effects of several genetic and non-genetic factors like season, sex, year of birth, genotype of calves and milk yield of dam associated with growth performance of crossbred calves. Data were collected from registered farmers during the period of May, 2011 to April, 2013. Birth weight, three-month weight, six-month weight, weaning weight and heritability estimates of those growth performances were performed using a total of 82 registered calves which had pedigree information having the genotypes of 25% Local - 75% Friesian and 37.5% Local - 62.5% Friesian. The average birth, three-month, six-month and weaning weight of calves were 29.33, 64.32, 99.06 and 151.77 kg, respectively. The effects of non-genetic factors like sex, season of birth and genotype were non-significant (P>0.05 for the traits birth weight, three-month, six-month, weaning weight and average daily gain of calves. However, year of birth was found significant on birth (P0.05 on weaning weight and average daily gain of calves. The heritability estimates were 0.40±0.09, 0.46±0.08, 0.39±0.12 and 0.50±0.12 for the traits birth weight, three-month weight, six-month weight and weaning weight, respectively. Estimated heritabilities of live weights suggest that individual own performance basis selection would be more effective for increasing growth and therefore, should be paid more emphasis in cattle improvement program.

  19. The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F): Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses at Item Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Cano, Francisco; Berben, A. B. G.; De la Fuente, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    The underlying structure of the Revised Two Factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), a 20-item instrument for the evaluation of students' approaches to learning (SAL), was examined at item level using two independent groups of undergraduate students enrolled in the first (n = 314) and last (n = 522) years of their studies. The…

  20. The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F): Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses at Item Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Cano, Francisco; Berben, A. B. G.; De la Fuente, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    The underlying structure of the Revised Two Factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), a 20-item instrument for the evaluation of students' approaches to learning (SAL), was examined at item level using two independent groups of undergraduate students enrolled in the first (n = 314) and last (n = 522) years of their studies. The…

  1. Analyses of patterns-of-failure and prognostic factors according to radiation fields in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Lorraine; Guillerm, Sophie; Menard, Jean; Hennequin, Christophe; Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Paris (France); Amorin, Sandy; Brice, Pauline [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Hematooncology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Doses and volumes of radiation therapy (RT) for early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have been reduced over the last 30 years. Combined modality therapy (CMT) is currently the standard treatment for most patients with early-stage HL. The aim of this study was to analyze the site of relapse after RT according to the extent of radiation fields. Between 1987 and 2011, 427 patients were treated at our institution with RT ± chemotherapy for stage-I/II HL. Among these, 65 patients who experienced a relapse were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had nodular sclerosis histology (86 %) and stage-II disease (75.9 %). Bulky disease was present in 21 % and 56 % of patients belonged to the unfavorable risk group according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/The Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) definitions. CMT was delivered to 91 % of patients. All patients received RT with doses ranging from 20 to 45 Gy (mean = 34 ± 5.3 Gy). The involved-field RT technique was used in 59 % of patients. The mean time between diagnosis and relapse was 4.2 years (range 0.3-24.5). Out-of-field relapses were suffered by 53 % of patients. Relapses occurred more frequently at out-of-field sites in patients with a favorable disease status, whereas in-field relapses were associated with bulky mediastinal disease. Relapses occurred later for favorable compared with the unfavorable risk group (3.5 vs. 2.9 years, p = 0.5). From multivariate analyses, neither RT dose nor RT field size were predictive for an in-field relapse (p = 0.25 and p = 0.8, respectively), only bulky disease was predictive (p = 0.018). In patients with bulky disease, RT dose and RT field size were not predictive for an in-field relapse. In this subgroup of patients, chemotherapy should be intensified. We confirmed the bad prognosis of early relapses. (orig.) [German] Waehrend der letzten 30 Jahre wurden die Strahlentherapie-(RT-)Dosis und die RT-Volumina fuer die Behandlung der Fruehstadien

  2. Validating the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire in people with type 2 diabetes: Latent trait analyses applying multidimensional Rasch modelling and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finbråten, Hanne Søberg; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun; Trollvik, Anne; Guttersrud, Øystein

    2017-11-01

    To validate the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HLS-EU-Q47 latent variable is outlined in a framework with four cognitive domains integrated in three health domains, implying 12 theoretically defined subscales. Valid and reliable health literacy measurers are crucial to effectively adapt health communication and education to individuals and groups of patients. Cross-sectional study applying confirmatory latent trait analyses. Using a paper-and-pencil self-administered approach, 388 adults responded in March 2015. The data were analysed using the Rasch methodology and confirmatory factor analysis. Response violation (response dependency) and trait violation (multidimensionality) of local independence were identified. Fitting the "multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit" model, 1-, 3- and 12-dimensional Rasch models were applied and compared. Poor model fit and differential item functioning were present in some items, and several subscales suffered from poor targeting and low reliability. Despite multidimensional data, we did not observe any unordered response categories. Interpreting the domains as distinct but related latent dimensions, the data fit a 12-dimensional Rasch model and a 12-factor confirmatory factor model best. Therefore, the analyses did not support the estimation of one overall "health literacy score." To support the plausibility of claims based on the HLS-EU score(s), we suggest: removing the health care aspect to reduce the magnitude of multidimensionality; rejecting redundant items to avoid response dependency; adding "harder" items and applying a six-point rating scale to improve subscale targeting and reliability; and revising items to improve model fit and avoid bias owing to person factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Risk factors for crop health under global change and agricultural shifts: a framework of analyses using rice in tropical and subtropical Asia as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, S; Mila, A; Willocquet, L; Esker, P D; Carisse, O; McRoberts, N

    2011-06-01

    Plant disease epidemiology requires expansion of its current methodological and theoretical underpinnings in order to produce full contributions to global food security and global changes. Here, we outline a framework which we applied to farmers' field survey data set on rice diseases in the tropical and subtropical lowlands of Asia. Crop health risks arise from individual diseases, as well as their combinations in syndromes. Four key drivers of agricultural change were examined: labor, water, fertilizer, and land availability that translate into crop establishment method, water shortage, fertilizer input, and fallow period duration, respectively, as well as their combinations in production situations. Various statistical approaches, within a hierarchical structure, proceeding from higher levels of hierarchy (production situations and disease syndromes) to lower ones (individual components of production situations and individual diseases) were used. These analyses showed that (i) production situations, as wholes, represent very large risk factors (positive or negative) for occurrence of disease syndromes; (ii) production situations are strong risk factors for individual diseases; (iii) drivers of agricultural change represent strong risk factors of disease syndromes; and (iv) drivers of change, taken individually, represent small but significant risk factors for individual diseases. The latter analysis indicates that different diseases are positively or negatively associated with shifts in these drivers. We also report scenario analyses, in which drivers of agricultural change are varied in response to possible climate and global changes, generating predictions of shifts in rice health risks. The overall set of analyses emphasizes the need for large-scale ground data to define research priorities for plant protection in rapidly evolving contexts. They illustrate how a structured theoretical framework can be used to analyze emergent features of agronomic and

  4. Multiple Deprivation, Severity and Latent Sub-Groups: Advantages of Factor Mixture Modelling for Analysing Material Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera Catalan, Hector E

    2017-01-01

    Material deprivation is represented in different forms and manifestations. Two individuals with the same deprivation score (i.e. number of deprivations), for instance, are likely to be unable to afford or access entirely or partially different sets of goods and services, while one individual may fail to purchase clothes and consumer durables and another one may lack access to healthcare and be deprived of adequate housing . As such, the number of possible patterns or combinations of multiple deprivation become increasingly complex for a higher number of indicators. Given this difficulty, there is interest in poverty research in understanding multiple deprivation, as this analysis might lead to the identification of meaningful population sub-groups that could be the subjects of specific policies. This article applies a factor mixture model (FMM) to a real dataset and discusses its conceptual and empirical advantages and disadvantages with respect to other methods that have been used in poverty research . The exercise suggests that FMM is based on more sensible assumptions (i.e. deprivation covary within each class), provides valuable information with which to understand multiple deprivation and is useful to understand severity of deprivation and the additive properties of deprivation indicators.

  5. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  6. Analyses of a satiety factor NUCB2/nesfatin-1; gene expressions and modulation by different dietary components in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomoko; Kurishima, Miyuki; Mimura, Kana; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Momota, Yutaka; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from a precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), which is distributed in various organs, coexists with ghrelin in the gastric X/A-like cells and closely relates to an appetite control in rodents and humans. Nesfatin-1 may be a significant factor addressing the satiety also in veterinary medicine, however, there are few reports about nesfatin-1 in dogs. In the present study, we detected canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA in various tissues, especially abundant in pancreas, gastrointestinal tracts, testis and cerebellum. We examined circulating nesfatin-1 concentrations and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in upper gastrointestinal tracts (gastric corpus, pyloric antrum and duodenum) in dogs fed on different types of diets. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in the dogs were approximately 4 ng/ml and they did not change after feeding through the study, however, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in pyloric antrum were 1.84-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fiber/High protein diet (Pdogs fed on a High fat/Low protein diet (Pdogs fed on a Low fat/High carbohydrate diet (not significant) comparing to those on a control diet. It was concluded that High fiber/High protein and High fat/Low protein diets increased NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in canine gastrointestinal tracts. These results may set the stage for further investigations of canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which may relate to satiety effects in dogs.

  7. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping

    2017-03-01

    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  8. A modeling study on the controlling factors of seismic source distribution and their strength index——Practical analyses of the seismic environmental factors of the Honghe fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model, in which various seismic environmental factors areinvolved, has been developed in the paper on the bases of relevant data. The environmental factors include the crust structure, lithological conditions, fault plan attitude, the crust stress state, pore-fluid pressure and geothermal conditions, etc. The effect of each of the factors on the tectonic movement energy index has been analyzed. The model calculation results indicate that shear fractu-re energy of a fault generally increases with depth; it reached a peak value at a certain depth, then turns gradually attenuated. Of all the factors, the effects of pore-fluid pressure and geothermal conditions on the energy index are of prominence. High pore-fluid pressure and high temperature circumstance may result in decline of the peak value of the shear fracture energy curve, making the depths of the peak value and of the bell-waist value deepened. Such effects restrict strong seismic events, but suitable for micro-seismic activity and/or fault creep. The lower limit of focal depth under such an environment is relatively deep. Contrarily, low pore-fluid pressure and low geothermal temperature circumstance result in increase of the peak value of the shear fracture energy curve, and the curve becoming steep. The later circumstance is favorable to the formation of locked segment where possesses high strength and high-energy accumulation. If these two kind of segments are arranged interactively along a fault zone, such arrangement would boost the energy transition among the segments, forming mechanical circumstance of energy highly accumulated in one segment with adjacent segment(s) less-locked. Such contrast of the strength and energy would provide conditions for strong earthquakes with high stress drop. An analysis of the northwest seg-ment of the Honghe fault has provided some evidence for the modeling results.

  9. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Larry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential, self-regulatory connectivity between miRNAs and TFs. Here we investigate the connectivity from TFs and miRNAs to other genes and each other using text mining, TF promoter binding site and 6 different miRNA binding site prediction methods. Results In the first approach text mining of PubMed abstracts reveal statistically significant associations between miRNAs and both TFs and signal transduction gene classes. Secondly, prediction of miRNA targets in human and mouse 3’UTRs show enrichment only for TFs but not consistently across prediction methods for signal transduction or other gene classes. Furthermore, a random sample of 986 TarBase entries was scored for experimental evidence by manual inspection of the original papers, and enrichment for TFs was observed to increase with score. Low-scoring TarBase entries, where experimental evidence is anticorrelated miRNA:mRNA expression with predicted miRNA targets, appear not to select for real miRNA targets to any degree. Our manually validated text-mining results also suggests that miRNAs may be activated by more TFs than other classes of genes, as 7% of miRNA:TF co-occurrences in the literature were TFs activating miRNAs. This was confirmed when thirdly, we found enrichment for predicted, conserved TF binding sites in miRNA and TF genes compared to other gene classes. Conclusions We see enrichment of connections between miRNAs and TFs using several independent methods, suggestive of a network of mutual activating and suppressive regulation. We have also built regulatory networks (containing 2- and 3-loop motifs for mouse and human using predicted miRNA and TF binding sites and we have developed a web server

  10. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. Objective: We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. Design: This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). Results: We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive

  11. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Wicke, Birka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Faaij, Andre

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of

  12. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of t

  13. Kvalitative analyser ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolsen, Merete Watt

    bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse......bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse...

  14. Factors predicting the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population who receive standardized preventive care: secondary analyses of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarre, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Clays, Els; Grypdonck, Maria; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2015-02-01

    To identify predictive factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients at risk who receive standardized preventive care. Numerous studies have examined factors that predict risk for pressure ulcer development. Only a few studies identified risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development in hospitalized patients receiving standardized preventive care. Secondary analyses of data collected in a multicentre randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 610 consecutive patients at risk for pressure ulcer development (Braden Score Pressure ulcers in category II-IV were significantly associated with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and higher body temperature. Predictive factors significantly associated with superficial pressure ulcers were admission to an internal medicine ward, incontinence-associated dermatitis, non-blanchable erythema and a lower Braden score. Superficial sacral pressure ulcers were significantly associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Despite the standardized preventive measures they received, hospitalized patients with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and a higher body temperature were at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. Improved identification of at-risk patients can be achieved by taking into account specific predictive factors. Even if preventive measures are in place, continuous assessment and tailoring of interventions is necessary in all patients at risk. Daily skin observation can be used to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genome-wide identification, classification and functional analyses of the bHLH transcription factor family in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuyi

    2015-08-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest families of gene regulatory proteins and play crucial roles in genetic, developmental and physiological processes in eukaryotes. Here, we conducted a survey of the Sus scrofa genome and identified 109 putative bHLH transcription factor members belonging to super-groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while four members were orphan genes. We identified 6 most significantly enriched KEGG pathways and 116 most significant GO annotation categories. Further comprehensive surveys in human genome and other 12 medical databases identified 72 significantly enriched biological pathways with these 113 pig bHLH transcription factors. From the functional protein association network analysis 93 hub proteins were identified and 55 hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within their protein families. Especially, there were 20 hub proteins found highly connected in the functional interaction network. The present study deepens our understanding and provided insights into the evolution and functional aspects of animal bHLH proteins and should serve as a solid foundation for further for analyses of specific bHLH transcription factors in the pig and other mammals.

  16. Identification of humic-like substances (HULIS in oxygenated organic aerosols using NMR and AMS factor analyses and liquid chromatographic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paglione

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric organic aerosol composition is characterized by a great diversity of functional groups and chemical species challenging simple classification schemes. Traditional off-line chemical methods identified chemical classes based on the retention behavior on chromatographic columns and absorbing beds. Such approach led to the isolation of complex mixtures of compounds such as the humic-like substances (HULIS. More recently, on-line aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS was employed to identify chemical classes by extracting fragmentation patterns from experimental data series using statistical methods (factor analysis, providing simplified schemes for oxygenated organic aerosols (OOAs classification on the basis of the distribution of oxygen-containing functionalities. The analysis of numerous AMS datasets suggested the occurrence of very oxidized OOAs which were postulated to correspond to the HULIS. However, only a few efforts were made to test the correspondence of the AMS classes of OOAs with the traditional classification from the off-line methods. In this paper, we consider a case study representative for polluted continental regional background environments. We examine the AMS factors for OOAs identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF and compare to chemical classes of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC analysed off-line on a set of filters collected in parallel. WSOC fractionation was performed by means of factor analysis applied to H-NMR spectroscopic data, and by applying an ion-exchange chromatographic method for direct quantification of HULIS. Results show that the very oxidized low-volatility OOAs from AMS correlate with the NMR factor showing HULIS features and also with true "chromatographic" HULIS. On the other hand, UV/VIS-absorbing polyacids (or HULIS sensu stricto isolated on ion-exchange beds were only a fraction of the AMS and NMR organic carbon fractions showing functional groups attributable to highly substituted

  17. Identification of humic-like substances (HULIS) in oxygenated organic aerosols using NMR and AMS factor analyses and liquid chromatographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Mensah, A. A.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Sandrini, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.; Schlag, P.; Piazzalunga, A.; Tagliavini, E.; Henzing, J. S.; Decesari, S.

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric organic aerosol composition is characterized by a great diversity of functional groups and chemical species, challenging simple classification schemes. Traditional offline chemical methods identify chemical classes based on the retention behaviour on chromatographic columns and absorbing beds. Such an approach led to the isolation of complex mixtures of compounds such as the humic-like substances (HULIS). More recently, online aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) was employed to identify chemical classes by extracting fragmentation patterns from experimental data series using statistical methods (factor analysis), providing simplified schemes for the classification of oxygenated organic aerosols (OOAs) on the basis of the distribution of oxygen-containing functionalities. The analysis of numerous AMS data sets suggested the occurrence of very oxidized OOAs which were postulated to correspond to HULIS. However, only a few efforts were made to test the correspondence of the AMS classes of OOAs with the traditional classifications from the offline methods. In this paper, we consider a case study representative of polluted continental regional background environments. We examine the AMS factors for OOAs identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and compare them to chemical classes of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) analysed offline on a set of filters collected in parallel. WSOC fractionation was performed by means of factor analysis applied to proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data, and by applying an ion-exchange chromatographic method for direct quantification of HULIS. Results show that the very oxidized low-volatility OOAs from AMS correlate with the NMR factor showing HULIS features and also with true "chromatographic" HULIS. On the other hand, UV/VIS-absorbing polyacids (or HULIS {sensu stricto}) isolated on ion-exchange beds were only a fraction of the AMS and NMR organic carbon fractions showing functional groups

  18. Teff (Eragrostis tef) production constraints on Vertisols in Ethiopia: farmers' perceptions and evaluation of low soil zinc as yield-limiting factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haileselassie, B.; Stomph, T.J.; Hoffland, E.

    2011-01-01

    Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is a major food crop in Ethiopia and Eritrea. It is well adapted to Vertisols. Yields are low (around 1000¿kg ha-1) despite fertilization with urea and diammonium phosphate. The objectives of this study were to understand farmers’ perception on teff production c

  19. 影响荷斯坦奶牛305d产奶量的因素分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing 305-days Milk Yield of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东东; 张孔杰; 热西提·阿不都热合曼; 黄锡霞; 张再国; 邓江玲; 张桂芬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] In order to investigate factors influencinf; 305 - days milk yield of Holstein cow. [ Method]The effects of SA58 . 1 CLM on 305 - days milk yield were analyzed. [ Result]Effect of different years on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) ; Effect of calving season on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , 305 - days milk yield was the highest in winter, the lowest in summer; Effect of different parities on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , the 305 - days milk yield increased by the parity increased, decreased after the fifth parity; Effect of different first calving month age on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , the 305 - days milk yield was the highest when first calving age during 24 -26 months. [ Conclusion] Year, calving season, parity and first calving month age were the main factors influencing 305 - days milk yield .%[目的]探讨各因素对荷斯坦奶牛305 d产奶量的影响.[方法]采用SAS8.1软件对影响305 d产奶量的因素进行最小二乘方差分析.[结果]不同年度对305 d产奶量的影响极显著(P<0.01);不同产犊季节对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),冬季产奶量最高,夏季产奶量最低;不同胎次对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),305 d产奶量随着奶牛胎次的增加产奶量也逐渐增加,5胎后开始下降;不同初产月龄对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),当初产年龄在24-26月龄间产奶量最高.[结论]年度、产犊季节、胎次和初产月龄均是影响荷斯坦奶牛305 d产奶量的主要因素.

  20. Functional genomic analyses of two morphologically distinct classes of Drosophila sensory neurons: post-mitotic roles of transcription factors in dendritic patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Prasad R Iyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurons are one of the most structurally and functionally diverse cell types found in nature, owing in large part to their unique class specific dendritic architectures. Dendrites, being highly specialized in receiving and processing neuronal signals, play a key role in the formation of functional neural circuits. Hence, in order to understand the emergence and assembly of a complex nervous system, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that direct class specific dendritogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used the Drosophila dendritic arborization (da neurons to gain systems-level insight into dendritogenesis by a comparative study of the morphologically distinct Class-I (C-I and Class-IV (C-IV da neurons. We have used a combination of cell-type specific transcriptional expression profiling coupled to a targeted and systematic in vivo RNAi functional validation screen. Our comparative transcriptomic analyses have revealed a large number of differentially enriched/depleted gene-sets between C-I and C-IV neurons, including a broad range of molecular factors and biological processes such as proteolytic and metabolic pathways. Further, using this data, we have identified and validated the role of 37 transcription factors in regulating class specific dendrite development using in vivo class-specific RNAi knockdowns followed by rigorous and quantitative neurometric analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the first global gene-expression profiles from purified Drosophila C-I and C-IV da neurons. We also report the first large-scale semi-automated reconstruction of over 4,900 da neurons, which were used to quantitatively validate the RNAi screen phenotypes. Overall, these analyses shed global and unbiased novel insights into the molecular differences that underlie the morphological diversity of distinct neuronal cell-types. Furthermore, our class-specific gene expression datasets should prove a

  1. 甜高粱产量及品质相关性状对环境因子反应度分析%Responsiveness of Sweet Sorghum in Yield and Quality Related Traits to Envi-ronmental Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝臣; 罗峰; 李欣禹; 裴忠有; 高建明; 孙守钧

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effects of environmental factors on the traits related to yield and quality in sweet sorghum, to quantify the responsive degree of sweet sorghum traits to the key factors, to analyze the requirements of envi-ronmental factors for high yield and quality, and to construct prediction models of yield. Based on the data of five traits and envi-ronmental factors obtained from six provinces of China in 2013 and 2014, we studied the responsiveness of sweet sorghum in five traits to environmental factors by the methods of RBF analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results demonstrated that the environment was the dominant factor affecting the sweet sorghum traits, with greater effects than genotype and G×E interaction. Soil factors exerted more significant effects on sweet sorghum traits than meteorological factors. Precipitation, diurnal tempera-ture difference, soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, and available potassium were important environmental factors determining fresh yield, sugar brix, juice yield, sugar yield and stem diameter in sweet sorghum. Organic matter, pH value and total nitrogen content of soil were the three most important environmental factors. The prediction models for fresh weight yield and total sugar yield were verified by significant test with high determination coefficientR2. The paper provides an accurate and reliable theo-retical basis for ecological region division, planting management, high yield and good quality in sweet sorghum.%于2013年和2014年在天津、安徽、海南、黑龙江、新疆和内蒙古试验,应用 RBF网络模型、逐步回归等多元统计方法,从区域的角度阐明甜高粱产量及品质相关性状与环境因子之间的关系,明确影响目标性状的关键环境因子,量化关键环境因子的作用程度,剖析高产优质甜高粱对环境因子的要求并构建产量预测模型。结果表明,环境(E)效应对甜高粱性状的

  2. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom; Härmä, Mikko; Rugulies, Reiner; Seitsamo, Jorma; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-02-08

    Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Internal validity was assessed independently by two referees with a detailed checklist for sources of bias. Conclusions were drawn based on studies with acceptable quality. We calculated combined effect estimates by means of averaged associations (Risk ratios) across samples, weighting observed associations by the study's sample size. Thirty-nine studies of accepted quality were found, 37 of which from the Nordic countries. There was moderate evidence for the role of low control (supported by weighted average RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.21-1.61) and moderate evidence for the combination of high demands and low control (although weighted average was RR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96-2.19) as predictors of disability retirement. There were no major systematic differences in findings between the highest rated and the lowest rated studies that passed the criterion for adequate quality. There was limited evidence for downsizing, organizational change, lack of employee development and supplementary training, repetitive work tasks, effort-reward imbalance to increase risk of disability pension. Very limited evidence was found for job demands, evening or night work, and low social support from ones superior. Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of

  3. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, Danielle AJM; Jackson, Caroline A; Rowlands, Jemma V; Mishra, Gita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is considered a marker of biological ageing and is increasingly recognized as a sentinel for chronic disease risk in later life. Socioeconomic position (SEP) and lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with ANM. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the overall mean ANM, and the effect of SEP and lifestyle factors on ANM by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooling adjusted hazard ratios. We explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and also included unpublished findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Results: We identified 46 studies across 24 countries. Mean ANM was 48.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3, 49.2], with between-study heterogeneity partly explained by geographical region. ANM was lowest among African, Latin American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries and highest in Europe and Australia, followed by the USA. Education was associated with later ANM (WMD middle vs low education 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.51; high vs low education 0.64, 95% CI 0.26, 1.02). A similar dose-response relationship was also observed for occupation. Smoking was associated with a 1-year reduction of ANM (WMD: -0.91, 95% CI: –1.34, –0.48). Being overweight and moderate/high physical activity were modestly associated with later ANM, but findings were less conclusive. Conclusions: ANM varies across populations, partly due to differences across geographical regions. SEP and some lifestyle factors are associated with ANM, but further research is needed to examine the impact of the associations between risk factors and ANM on future health outcomes. PMID:24771324

  4. Caracterização agronômica da produção de rizomas de clones de taro Characterization of yield factors in taro clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hevilásio F. Pereira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar agronomicamente 36 acessos (clones de taro pertencentes ao Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV quanto às características relativas à produção de rizomas. O experimento foi conduzido na horta de pesquisas da UFV, de 19/09/2000 a 13/07/2001. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 36 tratamentos (clones e cinco repetições. A parcela foi composta de quatro fileiras, com quatro metros de comprimento, com as plantas espaçadas de 1,0 x 0,5 m. As características avaliadas foram peso médio de rizomas comerciáveis; número de rizomas comerciáveis por planta; produtividade de rizomas comerciáveis e total; razão de formato (diâmetro longitudinal/diâmetro transversal de rizomas comerciáveis; produtividade de rizomas em classes (com base no diâmetro transversal filho grande (>47 mm, filho médio (40-47 mm, filho pequeno (33-40 mm e refugo (Clones of taro, from the Germoplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, were agronomically characterized. The experiment was carried out from 19/09/2000 to 13/07/2001, in a randomized complete block design, with 36 treatments (clones and five replicates. The experimental unit was comprised of four rows spaced 1.0 m apart, with four meters in length. The distance between plants in the row was 0.5 m. We evaluated the average commercial rhizome weight; number of commercial rhizomes/plant; total and commercial rhizome yield; format ratio (longitudinal/transversal diameter of the commercial production, and rhizomes classification according to the transversal diameter (large offspring >47 mm; medium offspring = 40-47 mm; small offspring = 33-40 mm; and discard < 33 mm. Clones BGH 5916, BGH 6137, and BGH 6298 presented good rhizome shape (ratio between 1.1 and 1.7 and higher values of mean corm fresh commercial weight, commercial and total yields. These clones did not differ from BGH 5925 (Japanese, presenting significantly higher values than BGH

  5. The analyses of risk factors for COPD in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding YP

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,1,* Junxu Xu,2,* Jinjian Yao,1 Yu Chen,2 Ping He,1 Yanhong Ouyang,1 Huan Niu,1 Zhongjie Tian,1 Pei Sun1 1Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, 2Department of Respiratory, The Third People’s Hospital of Haikou, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Li population in Hainan province, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <0.70 were further examined by postbronchodilator spirometry, and those with a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 was diagnosed with COPD. The information of physical condition and history, smoking intensity, smoking duration, second-hand smoking, education, job category, monthly household income, working years, residential environment, primary fuel for cooking and heating (biomass fuel including wood, crop residues, dung, and charcoal, or modern fuel such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, and solar energy, ventilated kitchen, heating methods, air pollution, recurrent respiratory infections, family history of respiratory diseases, cough incentives, and allergies of COPD and non-COPD subjects was analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify correlated risk factors for COPD.Results: Out of the 5,463 Li participants, a total of 277 COPD cases were identified by spirometry, and 307 healthy subjects were randomly selected as controls. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that older people (65 years and above, low body mass index (BMI, biomass smoke

  6. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.

  7. Three Dimensional Parametric Analyses on Effect of Fibre Orientation for Stress Concentration Factor in Fibrous Composite Cantilever Plate with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE ABSTRACT: A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the two dimensional study of stress concentration around the hole(s in isotropic and composite plates subjected to in-plane or transverse loading conditions. The information on the techniques for three dimensional analyses of stress concentration factor (SCF around the hole in isotropic and composite plates subjected to transverse loading conditions is, however, limited. The present work emphasizes on the effect of fibre orientation (q on the stress concentration factor in fibrous composite plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading condition. The work is carried out for cantilever fibrous composite plates. The effects of thickness -to- width (T/A and diameter-to-width (D/A ratios upon SCF at different fibre orientation are studied. Plates of four different composite materials were considered for hole analysis in order to determine the sensitivity of SCF with elastic constants. Deflections in transverse direction were calculated and analysed. All results are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation and its analysis were carried out using ANSYS package.ABSTRAK: Terdapat pelbagai teknik analitikal dan numerical untuk kajian tumpuan tegasan dua dimensi di sekeliling lubang-lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada satah atau keadaan bebanan melintang. Bagaimanapun, maklumat mengenai kaedah analisis tiga dimensi untuk faktor ketumpatan tegasan (SCF sekitar lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada keadaan bebanan melintang adalah terhad. Kertas ini menekankan kesan orientasi gentian (q pada faktor tumpuan tegasan dalam komposit plat bergentian dengan lubang berpusat di bawah keadaan bebanan melintang. Kajian ini dilkukan untuk cantilever plat komposit bergentian. Kesan ketebalan terhadap kelebaran plat (T/A dan diameter terhadap kelebaran komposit (D/A dengan SCF

  8. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  9. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Low-Yield Cigarettes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... they compensate when smoking them. Smokers Who Use Low-Yield Cigarettes Many smokers consider smoking low-yield ...

  10. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  11. Description of OPRA: A Danish database designed for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission of people aged 65+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona K; Nielsen, Gunnar L; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Ole S; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2017-08-01

    To describe the construction of the Older Person at Risk Assessment (OPRA) database, the ability to link this database with existing data sources obtained from Danish nationwide population-based registries and to discuss its research potential for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission. We reviewed Danish nationwide registries to obtain information on demographic and social determinants as well as information on health and health care use in a population of hospitalised older people. The sample included all people aged 65+ years discharged from Danish public hospitals in the period from 1 January 2007 to 30 September 2010. We used personal identifiers to link and integrate the data from all events of interest with the outcome measures in the OPRA database. The database contained records of the patients, admissions and variables of interest. The cohort included 1,267,752 admissions for 479,854 unique people. The rate of 30-day all-cause acute readmission was 18.9% ( n=239,077) and the overall 30-day mortality was 5.0% ( n=63,116). The OPRA database provides the possibility of linking data on health and life events in a population of people moving into retirement and ageing. Construction of the database makes it possible to outline individual life and health trajectories over time, transcending organisational boundaries within health care systems. The OPRA database is multi-component and multi-disciplinary in orientation and has been prepared to be used in a wide range of subgroup analyses, including different outcome measures and statistical methods.

  12. Incorporating phenology into yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Because the yields of many crops are sensitive to meteorological forcing during specific growth stages, phenological information has potential utility in yield mapping and forecasting exercises. However, most attempts to explain the spatiotemporal variability in crop yields with weather data have relied on growth stage definitions that do not change from year-to-year, even though planting, maturity, and harvesting dates show significant interannual variability. We tested the hypothesis that quantifying temperature exposures over dynamically determined growth stages would better explain observed spatiotemporal variability in crop yields than statically defined time periods. Specifically, we used National Agricultural and Statistics Service (NASS) crop progress data to identify the timing of the start of the maize reproductive growth stage ("silking"), and examined the correlation between county-scale yield anomalies and temperature exposures during either the annual or long-term average silking period. Consistent with our hypothesis and physical understanding, yield anomalies were more correlated with temperature exposures during the actual, rather than the long-term average, silking period. Nevertheless, temperature exposures alone explained a relatively low proportion of the yield variability, indicating that other factors and/or time periods are also important. We next investigated the potential of using remotely sensed land surface phenology instead of NASS progress data to retrieve crop growth stages, but encountered challenges related to crop type mapping and subpixel crop heterogeneity. Here, we discuss the potential of overcoming these challenges and the general utility of remotely sensed land surface phenology in crop yield mapping.

  13. Fatores de ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura na raça Holandesa para idade e núcleo de controle leiteiro Age of calving and region adjustment factors for milk and fat yields for graded and purebred Holstein in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Durães

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados fatores de ajustamento para produção de leite e de gordura em rebanhos da raça Holandesa do Estado de Minas Gerais, segundo a idade da vaca ao parto, a composição racial e o núcleo de controle leiteiro onde ocorreu o parto. Utilizou-se a metodologia dos modelos mistos, usando-se a máxima verossimilhança restrita em um modelo animal com os efeitos fixos de rebanho-ano, época do parto e classes idade-composição racial-núcleo de controle leiteiro, e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Utilizaram-se 46.971 lactações de 26.822 vacas, sendo 17.354 vacas puras por cruzamento (PC e 9.468 puras de origem (PO. Nos cinco núcleos regionais, denominados 1545, 2585, 5565, 35 e 75, formaram-se 21 classes de idade, sendo a menor constituída de vacas que pariram com menos de 24 meses e a maior pelas vacas com mais de 99 meses de idade. Para as vacas PO, os fatores para ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura tenderam a ser menores do que os correspondentes valores estimados para as vacas PC; todavia, a variabilidade foi maior nas vacas PO em relação às PC nos núcleos 75, 2585 e 5565. Os fatores para vacas jovens foram maiores do que para vacas de maior idade. Os fatores de ajustamento para produção de gordura foram maiores que os correspondentes para produção de leite. É recomendável utilizar fatores específicos para o ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura em cada núcleo e grupo racial.Adjustment factors were estimated for milk and fat yields for Holstein herds according to age of cow at calving, genetic group (purebred or graded cows and region of recorded milk yield (nucleus in Minas Gerais State. Statistical analyses used mixed model methodologies by restricted maximum likelihood using animal model. Herd-year, season of calving, age of cow classes, genetic group, and region of recorded milk records were used as fixed effects, and cows and residuals as random effects. Analyses used 46

  14. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  15. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  16. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary; Wang, Dan; Khan, Unab I; Zeb, Irfan; Manson, JoAnn E; Miller, Virginia; Hodis, Howard N; Budoff, Matthew J; Merriam, George R; Harman, Mitchell S; Brinton, Eliot A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Su, Yali; Lobo, Rogerio A; Naftolin, Frederick; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Wildman, Rachel P

    2012-05-15

    The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), and coronary artery calcification (CAC). The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6) years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5) μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01), but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05). Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile). However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10). In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00154180.

  17. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses of the LupusPRO between southern California and Filipino samples of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ(2) (794) = 1283.32, p factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ(2 ) (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p model fit improved significantly [χ(2) (15) = 147.165, p < 0.000]. Conclusions This research provides significant support for the subscale structure of the LupusPRO in two disparate cultural samples of SLE patients. Despite significant sociodemographic and

  18. Reverse genetics vaccine seeds for influenza: Proof of concept in the source of PB1 as a determinant factor in virus growth and antigen yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gíria, Marta; Santos, Luís; Louro, João; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena

    2016-09-01

    Growth deficits of reverse genetics vaccine seeds have compromised effective immunization. The impairment has been attributed to sub-optimal protein interactions. Some level of dependence may exist between PB1 and antigenic glycoproteins, however, further research is necessary to clarify the extent to which it can be used in favor of seed production. Our objective was to establish proof of concept on the phenotypic outcome of PB1 source in the PR8: A(H1N1)pdm09 reassortants. Reassortants were generated with the gene constellation of the classical 6:2 PR8: HA, NApdm09 seed prototype and the 5:3 reassortant PR8: HA, NA, PB1pdm09. Viral growth and antigen yield were evaluated 12-60h post-infection. The 5:3 reassortant presented statistically significant growth and antigen yield improvements when compared to the 6:2. We believe these findings to be of promising value to vaccine research towards an improvement of reverse genetic seeds, an overall more cost-effective vaccine manufacture and timely delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polarization effects in the reaction e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup +} + {rho}{sup -} and determination of the {rho}{sup -} meson form factors in the time-like region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamuscin, C. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gakh, G.I. [NSC Kharkov Physical Technical Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine); Tomasi-Gustafsson, E. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-12-15

    The electron positron annihilation reaction into 4 pion production has been studied, through the channel e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} {rho}-bar + {rho}. The differential (and total) cross sections and various polarization observables for this reaction have been calculated in terms of the electromagnetic form factors of the corresponding {gamma}{sup *}{rho}{rho} current. The elements of the spin-density matrix of the {rho}-meson were also calculated. Numerical estimations have been done, with the help of phenomenological form factors obtained in the space-like region of the momentum transfer squared and analytically extended to the time-like region. (authors)

  20. The Development of Protein Microarrays and Their Applications in DNA-Protein and Protein-Protein Interaction Analyses of Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gong; Kun He; Mike Covington; S.R Dinesh-Kumar; Michael Snyder; Stacey L.Harmer; Yu-Xian Zhu; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We used our collection of Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) ORFeome clones to constructprotein microarrays containing as many as 802 TF proteins. These protein microarrays were used for both protein-DNA and proteinprotein interaction analyses. For protein-DNA interaction studies, we examined AP2/ERF family TFs and their cognate cis-elements. By careful comparison of the DNA-binding specificity of 13 TFs on the protein microarray with previous non-microarray data, we showed that protein microarrays provide an efficient and high throughput tool for genome-wide analysis of TF-DNA interactions. This microarray protein-DNA interaction analysis allowed us to derive a comprehensive view of DNA-binding profiles of AP2/ERF family proteins in Arabidopsis. It also revealed four TFs that bound the EE (evening element) and had the expected phased gene expression under clock-regulation, thus providing a basis for further functional analysis of their roles in clock regulation of gene expression. We also developed procedures for detecting protein interactions using this TF protein microarray and discovered four novel partners that interact with HY5, which can be validated by yeast two-hybrid assays. Thus, plant TF protein microarrays offer an attractive high-throughput alternative to traditional techniques for TF functional characterization on a global scale.

  1. The development of protein microarrays and their applications in DNA-protein and protein-protein interaction analyses of Arabidopsis transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; He, Kun; Covington, Mike; Dinesh-Kumar, S P; Snyder, Michael; Harmer, Stacey L; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Deng, Xing Wang

    2008-01-01

    We used our collection of Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) ORFeome clones to construct protein microarrays containing as many as 802 TF proteins. These protein microarrays were used for both protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction analyses. For protein-DNA interaction studies, we examined AP2/ERF family TFs and their cognate cis-elements. By careful comparison of the DNA-binding specificity of 13 TFs on the protein microarray with previous non-microarray data, we showed that protein microarrays provide an efficient and high throughput tool for genome-wide analysis of TF-DNA interactions. This microarray protein-DNA interaction analysis allowed us to derive a comprehensive view of DNA-binding profiles of AP2/ERF family proteins in Arabidopsis. It also revealed four TFs that bound the EE (evening element) and had the expected phased gene expression under clock-regulation, thus providing a basis for further functional analysis of their roles in clock regulation of gene expression. We also developed procedures for detecting protein interactions using this TF protein microarray and discovered four novel partners that interact with HY5, which can be validated by yeast two-hybrid assays. Thus, plant TF protein microarrays offer an attractive high-throughput alternative to traditional techniques for TF functional characterization on a global scale.

  2. Relationship between High Yield in Cone Production for Pinus sy lvest ris var .mongolica and Temperature Factor%温度因子与樟子松球果产量丰产的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴汝松; 侯庆娟

    2014-01-01

    为了分析温度因子与樟子松(Pinus sylvestnis var .mongolica Litv .)球果产量丰歉产之间的关系,设置3块面积为150 m×300 m的样带,连续6年对样带内单株樟子松的结实量和月平均温度进行调查,结合以上数据,逐年进行处理,采用因子筛选法和线性回归分析,进行温度因子与樟子松球果产量的相关系数分析。结果表明:球果生长期第3年3月份月均温、第2年11月的极端最高温度与樟子松球果产量之间的相关系数颇高,回归关系显著。%In order to analyze the relationship among temperature factor ,high yield and low yield in cone production for Pinus sylvestris var .mongolica ,three sample plots were set in the study area ;the cone production and the monthly mean temperature were investigated for six consecutive years ;combining the above data ,analyzed year by year;correlation coefficient analysis be-tween temperature factor & yield of cones were conducted by using factor screening method & linear regression analysis .Re-sult shows that :the correlation coefficient among the monthly mean temperature in March in the 3rd year of cone growing stage ,extreme temperature in November in the 2nd year ,the yield among the cone production of Pinus sylvestris var .mongol-ica is quite high and its regression relationship is significant .

  3. Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest that Factors Other Than the Capsid Protein Play a Role in the Epidemic Potential of GII.2 Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Lepore, Cara J.; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For over two decades, a single genotype (GII.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. However, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the GII.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (GII.17) in several countries of the Asian continent. Moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the GII.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. This reemerging GII.2 strain is a recombinant virus that presents a GII.P16 polymerase genotype. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of GII.2 to determine the mechanism of this sudden emergence in the human population. The phylogenetic analyses indicated strong linear evolution of the VP1-encoding sequence, albeit with minor changes in the amino acid sequence over time. Without major genetic differences among the strains, a clustering based on the polymerase genotype was observed in the tree. This association did not affect the substitution rate of the VP1. Phylogenetic analyses of the polymerase region showed that reemerging GII.P16-GII.2 strains diverged into a new cluster, with a small number of amino acid substitutions detected on the surface of the associated polymerase. Thus, besides recombination or antigenic shift, point mutations in nonstructural proteins could also lead to novel properties with epidemic potential in different norovirus genotypes. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral available to treat norovirus disease. Multiple norovirus strains infect humans, but a single genotype (GII.4) has been regarded as the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Its persistence and predominance have been explained by the continuous replacement of variants that present new antigenic properties on their capsid protein, thus evading the herd immunity acquired to the previous

  4. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercós Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly

  5. A Generalized Yield Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijian YUAN; Dazhi XIAO; Zhubin HE

    2004-01-01

    A generalized yield criterion is proposed based on the metal plastic deformation mechanics and the fundamental formula in theory of plasticity. Using the generalized yield criterion, the reason is explained that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion do not completely match with experimental data. It has been shown that the yield criteria of ductile metals depend not only on the quadratic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J2, but also on the cubic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J3 and the ratio of the yield stress in pure shear to the yield stress in uniaxial tension k/σs. The reason that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion are not in good agreement with the experimental data is that the effect of J3 and k/σs is neglected.

  6. Gene expression analyses of essential catch factors in the smooth and striated adductor muscles of larval, juvenile and adult great scallop (Pecten maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Øivind; Torgersen, Jacob S; Pagander, Helene H; Magnesen, Thorolf; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    The scallop adductor muscle consists of striated fibres responsible for the fast closure of the shells, and smooth fibres able to maintain tension in a prolonged state of contraction called catch. Formation of the force-bearing catch linkages has been demonstrated to be initiated by dephosphorylation of the key catch-regulating factor twitchin by a calcineurin-like phosphatase, while the involvement of other thick filament proteins is uncertain. Here we report on the development of catchability of the adductor smooth muscle in the great scallop (Pecten maximus) by analysing the spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLCr), twitchin, myorod and calcineurin using whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. The MLCr signal was identified in the retractor and adductor muscles of the pediveliger larvae, and the juvenile and adult scallop displayed abundant mRNA levels of MLCr in the smooth and striated adductor muscles. Twitchin was mainly expressed in the smooth adductor muscle during metamorphosis, whereas the adult striated adductor muscle contained seven-folds higher twitchin mRNA levels compared to the smooth portion. Calcineurin expression predominated in the gonads and in the smooth adductor, and five-folds higher mRNA levels were measured in the smooth than in the striated fibres at the adult stage. In contrast to the other genes examined, the expression of myorod was confined to the smooth adductor muscle suggesting that myorod plays a permissive role in the molluscan catch muscles, which are first required at the vulnerable settlement stage as a component of the predator defence system.

  7. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future.

  8. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

  9. Effect of different cultivating factors on potato yield%不同栽培因素对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱荣彬; 李广昌; 陈锐芬

    2012-01-01

    研究基肥施用方法、种薯切块大小和膨大素喷施次数对马铃薯生长、产量及品质的影响,试验结果表明:每667 m2用鸡粪375 kg+复合肥25 kg、种薯切块30 g、膨大素喷施2次(现蕾期和盛花期各1次)处理效果最优。%Effects of basal fertilizer-applying methods,cutting size of potato seedtuber and spraying times of forchlorfenuron(CPPU) on the growth,tuber yield and quality of potato were studied.The results showed that the best treating efficiency was found by applying chicken waste 375 kg/667m2+compound fertilizers 25 kg/667m2,using the size of 30 g potato seedtuber,and spraying two times of CPPU(at squaring period and full broom period,respectively).

  10. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagöz, Vahram; Manning, William J

    2005-08-01

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'R123' (O(3)-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O(3)-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O(3) concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O(3)-sensitive and O(3)-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O(3).

  11. Metanálisis: Relación entre factores psicosociales en el trabajo y absentismo laboral Meta-analyses: Relation between psychosocial factors in the work and labour absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Mª Molina Aragonés

    2010-09-01

    era relevante para ser incluidos. Control: El gráfico Forest (Fig. 2 muestra el resultado del metanálisis: el riesgo relativo de sufrir un episodio de absentismo es estadísticamente significativo, con un valor de 1,36 (CI: 1,02-1,82 (Tabla 2. Demanda: El riesgo de sufrir un episodio de absentismo no es valorable, con un valor de 1,01 (IC: 0,91-1,11. (Tabla 3. Si bien la demanda, como dimensión propia de estos factores psicosociales, no parece una variable relacionada o que influencie el absentismo laboral, el control si que se encuentra asociado a este, de manera reiterada y consistente.Introduction: In accordance with the model of demand-control, the overhead labour demand, the low control on itself and in a very special way the combination of both, it would suppose an important risk for health. The balance between demand and control depends, just as this model, on the organization of the work and not on the individual characteristics of each person, although, of course, the influence of the working psychosocial environment can be, and in fact is, moderated by the characteristics of the individual answer. Objectives: The study's objective was to analyse in a systematic way those studies that related the effects over absenteeism that the psychosocial factors have constituted in the enterprises, using as a main element of assessment, the model of demand-control of Karasek, and to make a meta-analyses to evaluated the relation between both of them. Methods: There were identified publications from the electronics data bases Medline (2004 to July 2009, Embase (2004 to March 2009, PsycInfo (2004 to July 2009 and in the Bookshop Cochrane (2004 to July 2009, without restrictions motivated by language. The keyboards used were absenteeism, sickness absence, psychosocial, occupational and combinations of them that were chosen initially by its inclusion on the meta-analyses. Additionally the appointments mentioned were reviewed in the selected originals to detect some other

  12. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  13. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  14. Study on the Impact of Main Measure Tree Factors on Resin Yield of Pinus Massoniana%主要测树因子对马尾松产脂量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢善高; 李梦华; 郑小贤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to conduct resin yield under the impact of main measure tree factors from main resin producing areas of southeastern Guangxi province. [ Method ] Based on the measurement of different age stands and high resin yield stands at the plot from resin-tapping P. Massoniana forest,and the resting of resin yield. [Result] The results showed that diameter at breast height was the important factors on affecting resin yield of P. Massoniana stands. The output of the resin increased the volume of the two with the larger diameter at breast height; different age stands, diameter at breast height on the resin production of the impact of varying levels of resin. The impact of the tree height to the resin yield was not so significant as the diameter at breast height, and its impact on the resin yield was indirectly reflected in the live crown high on this factor. In the same age, the output of the resin increased with the increasing of crown height ratio. The crown height ratio was the important factors on affecting resin yield of P. Massoniana stands, which of medium-aged forest with 0. 6 crown height ratio, of nearly-mature forest with 0.5 crown height ratio and of mature forest with 0.4 crown height ratio could help improve resin production and gain better economic efficiency. [ Conclusion ] The output of the resin was the result of the comprehension. The principle of the mutual impact of breast height and live tree^ crown height was significant, which effected on the output of the resin in different tree age stands.%[目的]探讨测树因子对马尾松产脂量的影响.[方法]对不同林龄采脂经营的马尾松林分和高产脂林分标准地进行调查及其产脂量测定.[结果]胸径对产脂量影响明显,产脂量随着胸径的增大而增大;树高对产脂量的影响没有胸径明显,其对产脂量影响体现在冠高比上,同一林龄,产脂量往往随着冠高比的增加而增大,中龄林保持0.6

  15. Application of stem cell/growth factor system, as a multimodal therapy approach in regenerative medicine to improve cell therapy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrajab, Fatemeh; Babaei Zarch, Mojtaba; Baghi Yazdi, Mohammad; Rahimi Zarchi, Abolfazl; Vakili Zarch, Abbas

    2014-04-15

    Stem cells hold a great promise for regenerative medicine, especially for replacing cells in infarcted organ that hardly have any intrinsic renewal capacity, including heart and brain. Signaling pathways that regulate pluripotency or lineage-specific gene and protein expression have been the major focus of stem cell research. Between them, there are some well known signaling pathways such as GF/GFR systems, SDF-1α/CXC4 ligand receptor interaction and PI3K/Akt signaling, and cytokines may regulate cell fate decisions, and can be utilized to positively influence cell therapy outcomes or accentuate synergistic compliance. For example, contributing factors in the progression of heart failure are both the loss of cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction, and the absence of an adequate endogenous repair signaling. Combining cell engraftment with therapeutic signaling factor delivery is more exciting in terms of host progenitor/donor stem cell survival and proliferation. Thus stem cell-based therapy, besides triggering signaling pathways through GF/GFR systems can become a realistic option in regenerative processes for replacing lost cells and reconstituting the damaged organ, as before.

  16. 异位妊娠发生的危险因素分析%Clinical analyses of risk factors related to ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 邱骏; 滕银成; 邹文燕; 杨弋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct an epidemiological survey on the relevant risk factors of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and provide scientific rationales for prevention and reducing its incidence.Methods During June 2010 to December 2011 at three local hospitals,a total of 800 patients with a diagnosis of EP responded to a questionnaire survey for understanding the risk factors of EP.And another 700 cases of normal early pregnancy women were selected as control group.Both multi and uni-factorial regression analyses were performed for the acquired clinical data.And the high-risk factors of EP were screened.Results Among them,the age distribution was ≤ 25 years (n =175,25.5%),26-30 years (n =302,37.8%) and 31-35 years (n =213,26.6%).No contraceptive measure was adopted for 259 women (32.4%).The risk factors related to EP included oral emergency contraceptives,intrauterine device (IUD),pelvic inflammatory disease,infertility history,previous EP,smoking and age,etc.Based upon multivariate Logistic regression analysis of screening results,the decreasing odds rations were infertility,EP history,smoking history,emergency contraceptive use,history of EP,IUD,pelvic inflammatory disease and age.Conclusion The risks of EP are affected by many factors,including infertility,EP history,smoking history,emergency contraceptive use,history of EP,IUD,pelvic inflammatory disease and age.%目的 调查异位妊娠发生的相关危险因素,为进一步预防及减少异位妊娠的发病提供科学依据.方法 对2010年6月至2011年12月在上海市三家医院确诊为异位妊娠的800例住院患者,通过问卷调查的方式,了解异位妊娠的相关发病因素.并随机选取700例同期正常早期妊娠者作为对照组,采集相关临床资料分别进行单因素、多因素回归分析,筛选出异位妊娠发病的高危因素.结果 800例中年龄≤25岁175例,占25.5%;26—30岁302例,占37.8%;31~ 35岁213例,占26.6%;无避孕措施259例,占32.4%;异位

  17. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as mayon

  18. Effects of Different Agricultural Wastes on Some Growth Factors, Yield and Crude Polysaccharide Content of Fruit of “Reishi” A Medicinal Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Azimi

    2017-02-01

    , biological yield andcrude polysaccharide content and polysaccharide contents of fruits. Material and Methods:The main portion of the medium for production of Ganodermalucidum was wood chips as 5-10 mm long that supplemented with different agricultural wastes included black seed waste, tea waste, hazelnut waste, coconut waste, almond wasteand sesame waste, with two types of bran (wheat and rice. The statistical design was afactorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized design with threereplications. The treatment were included Wood chips (80 percent + black seed waste (10 percent + rice bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + tea waste (10 percent + rice bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + sesame waste (10 percent + rice bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + hazelnut waste (10 percent + rice bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + coconut waste (10 percent + rice bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + black seed waste (10 percent + wheat bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + almond waste (10 percent + wheat bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + sesame waste (10 percent + wheat bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + hazelnut waste (10 percent + wheat bran (10 percent Wood chips (80 percent + coconut waste (10 percent + wheat bran (10 percent At first Wood chips soaked in water for 2 days until the their moisture reached60-65 then the other agricultural waste materials added on the basis of the treatments and the autoclavable propylene bags filledwith the mixture and autoclaved for 2 hours at 121ºC. After cooling, all bags inoculated with wheat spawn of the Ganodermalucidium and the bags putunderdark condition in growth chamber with 85-95% humidity at 30ºC. After full colonization of the bags, they transfer to the light condition (200-500 Lux at 25ºC until primordial formation. Then the light increased to 500-700 Lux until fruiting body formation. Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed that the use of these

  19. Spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of grain yield change in China%中国粮食产量变化的时空格局与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秧分; 李先德

    2013-01-01

    Despite high attention to the stability and increase of grain production and market supply by Chinese government, grain yield in China has been undergoing a great fluctuation during the past decades, which could be a big challenge to national food security. This paper thus analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influence factors of grain yield change in China since 1990 from the aspect of evolution stages and main types. Statistical indicators and spatial econometric models for panel data are introduced, which are supported by Geodata, ArcGIS, and Matlab software. It shows that the growing process of Chinese grain yield has three stages, namely stage 1990-1998, 1998-2003, and 2003-2011 respectively. Meanwhile, provinces in China can be categorized into three sets according to different supply-demand relationships, which are provinces with surplus grain (PGSG), provinces with balanced grain supply and demand (PBGSD), and provinces with insufficient grain supply (PIGS). The three separate types vary every year, with different provinces included each other. Roughly speaking, the grain production status of eastern provinces, central provinces, western provinces, and northeastern provinces is decreased, weakened, enhanced and strengthened respectively. In 2011, the PGSG, the PBGSD, and the PIGS distribute mainly at North, Middle, and South China respectively. Among all the factors that influence grain yield, the land factor has a significant positive impact, changing from strong to weak. It indicates grain production in China is increasingly dependent upon factors that contribute to per unit yield, such as technical progress, capital investment, etc. The labor factor brings an effect from positive significant to insignificant then negative significant, reflecting the change of agricultural surplus labor, rural labor structure, etc. The impact of different types of capital input varies as follows. Definitely, agricultural infrastructure investment, represented

  20. Effect of some technological factors on yield of calcium pectinate from orange peel%不同工艺条件对桔皮果胶钙产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀君; 黄雪松

    2013-01-01

    为提高桔皮果胶钙的产量,以桔皮为原料,用钙盐析法沉淀果胶,利用单因素和正交分析法,探讨pH、盐析时间、盐析温度、氯化钙添加量等因素对果胶钙产量的影响.结果表明,pH、盐析时间和温度对果胶钙产量影响显著,氯化钙添加量对果胶钙产量的影响不显著.生产果胶钙的最适宜条件为:pH10.00,温度40℃,时间6h,CaCl2用量为7.2gCaCl2/100g干桔皮,此条件下的桔皮果胶钙产量为19.67%.本研究为生产果胶钙提供了一定的参考.%To increase yield of calcium pectinate from orange peel,pH,time,temperature,calcium chloride dosage were investigated through single factor and orthogonal method.Results showed that pH,time,temperature had significant effect on the yield of calcium pectinate,followed by the effects of calcium chloride concentration.The highest yield of calcium pectinate of 19.67% was achieved under the optimal extraction conditions of pH10.00,temperature 40℃,time 6h,7.2g calcium chloride per 100g orange peel.These results provided a basis to improve the yield of calcium pectinate.

  1. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2016-09-01

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983–2012 to understand how growing-season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change substantially over 1983–2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations.

  2. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2016-09-12

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in 26 understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and 27 soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983-2012 to understand how growing-28 season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation 29 across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn 30 and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% 31 can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in 32 variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies 33 that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of 34 crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial 35 variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical 36 corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change 37 substantially over 1983-2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important 38 implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations.

  3. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to

  4. Revision of the JENDL FP Fission Yield Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katakura Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some fission yields data of JENDL FP Fission Yields Data File 2011 (JENDL/FPY-2011 revealed inadequacies when applied to delayed neutron related subjects. The sensitivity analyses of decay heat summation calculations also showed some problems. From these results the fission yields of JENDL/FPY-2011 have been revised. The present report describes the revision of the yield data by emphasizing the sensitivity analyses.

  5. Analyses prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss%突发性聋预后相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 肖水芳; 曾镇罡; 甄甄; 张雪溪; 林枫; 董明敏; 卢伟; 秦兆冰

    2015-01-01

    standardized clinical research methods,unified design,and unified program were adopted to conduct the prospective clinical multi-center study.The sudden deafness patients between 18 to 65 years old,with the course of this disorder less than two weeks,and without any medical treatments were collected,and then,divided into four types according to the hearing curve:type A,acute sensorineural hearing loss in low tone frequencies;type B,acute sensorineural hearing loss in high tone frequencies;type C,acute sensorineural hearing loss in all frequencies;and type D,total deafness.The factors,in terms of age,gender,type of initial audiogram,time delay before the first visit,and severity of hearing loss,were included in the analyses.Results A total of 1 024 cases with single side sudden deafness were collected in the study from 33 hospitals in China from August 2007 to October 2011,inclusive of for 492 males (48.05%) and 532 females (51.95%).The average age was (41.2 ± 12.8) years old.There were 553 cases(54.00%) in left ear,and 471 cases(46.00%) in right ear.The curative effects of different types were shown as follows:the type in low tone frequencies had the highest rate of 90.73%,the type in all frequencies was 82.59%;the type of total deafness was 70.29%;and the type in high tone frequencies had the lowest rate of 65.96%.It had significant difference of the effective rate between different types (x2 =231.58,P =0.000).Age,time delay before first visit,and severity of initial hearing loss were significantly correlated with hearing improvement.Conclusions Initial audiogram of SSNHL might predict hearing recovery.The young in age and a short time delay before starting treatment are positive prognostic factors for hearing recovery in SSNHL.The initial severity of hearing loss is negative prognostic factor of hearing recovery.

  6. In vitro and in vivo analyses of a genetically—restricted antigen specific factor from mixed cell cultures of macrophage,T and B lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAURMW; LAUASK

    1990-01-01

    An immunostimulatory factor was identified to be secreted by antigen-pulsed macrophages.This factor was able to induce the generation of antigen specific T helper lymphocytes in vitro as well as in vivo.Further in vitro experiments testing for the genetic restriction of this factor indicated that it is a geneticallyrestricted antigen specific factor (ASF).The Cunningham plaque assay was used to quantify the generation of T helper lymphocytes by measuring the number of plaque forming cells after sequential incubations of antigen-qulsed macrophages with T lymphocytes,and then spleen cells,and finally the TNP-coated sheep red blood cells.

  7. Influencing Factors Analysis of Yield Drift Angles for Reinforced Concrete Frame Columns%钢筋混凝土框架柱层间屈服位移角的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁健; 邓瑞基; 贺国京

    2013-01-01

    The seismic performance test data of 181 reinforced concrete columns with rectangular section both at home and abroad are collected,but the relationship between the yield drift angles and influencing factors couldn' t be obtained by using the traditional fitting regression method directly because of the differences or missing of secondary factors.In order to eliminate some of the secondary factor bias effects,an improved data filtering processing method is presented and the compiling program is used to filter some data for each interval,which tried to make the secondary factors means of remaining data points in each interval at the same level.According to the filtered data points,the influence of axial compression ratio,longitudinal reinforcement ratio and shear span ratio to the yield drift angles of reinforced concrete columns are discussed respectively.The results show that the yield drift angles of frame columns decrease linearly with the increase of axial compression ratio,and they increase linearly with the increase of longitudinal reinforcement ratio,but the effect of shear span ratio is smaller.%收集了国内外181根钢筋混凝土矩形截面柱的抗震性能试验数据,由于各试验因素取值存在差异或缺失,无法直接采用传统的拟合回归方法得到层间屈服位移角与各因素之间的关系.为了将次要因素偏差的影响控制在一定程度,本文提出了一种改进的数据过滤处理方法,并利用编制的程序对每个区间的数据点进行过滤,从而使各区间剩余数据点的次要因素均值尽可能处于同一水平.根据过滤后剩余的数据点,分别探讨了轴压比、纵向配筋率及剪跨比对框架柱层间屈服位移角的影响规律.结果表明,框架柱的层间屈服位移角随轴压比的增大而线性减小,随纵向配筋率的增大而线性增大,而受剪跨比的影响较小.

  8. Analyses of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in lower extremities%下肢深静脉血栓发病的高危因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱天; 郭曙光; 方伟; 苏宏斌; 陈匡荣; 张铠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in lower extremities.Methods Retrospective data analyses were performed for a total of 1264 DVT patients at our department from January 2010 to December 2012.Results Among them,984 cases (77.85%) were over 40 years old,no overt cause was found for 642 cases (50.79%),142 cases (11.23%) had a clear history of trauma before onset (without surgery).Among 316 recurrent postoperative cases,there were the surgical histories of orthopedics (n =142,11.23%),gynecology (n =90,7.12%),general practice (n =42,3.32%),vascular (n =23,1.82%),urological (n =12,0.94%) and others (n =7,0.55%).Ten cases (0.79%) occurred after suffering bedridden chronic diseases.And 20 cases (1.58%) were caused by conditions during pregnancy or postpartum period,had Malignant tumors were found in 25 (1.98%) patients.After long-term uses of hormones,10 patients (0.79%) of rheumatoid arthritis had a recurrence.Owing to varicose veins,27 patients (2.14%) recurred.Eight patients (0.63%) had a history of drug abuse,2 cases (0.16%) suffered depression and 62 cases (4.9%) were recurrent.Conclusion There are many causative factors of DVT so that prevention is of great importance.We should pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of high-risk DVT patients.%目的 探讨下肢深静脉血栓形成(DVT)发病的相关高危因素.方法 对2010年1月至2012年12月期间在成都军区昆明总医院血管外科住院的1264例下肢DVT患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 1264例患者当中,年龄≥40岁的有984例,占77.85%;无明显诱因发病的有642例,占50.79%;发病前有明确外伤史(未行手术治疗)的142例,占11.23%;手术后发病的有316例,其中骨科手术史142例,占11.23%;妇产科手术史90例,占7.12%;普外科手术史42例,占3.32%;血管外科手术史23例,占1.82%;泌尿外科手术史12例,占0.94%;其他手术7例,占0.55%;慢性

  9. Pull factors (as GDP components hierarchy of internal migration in turkey from 1995 to 2000: A statistical analyses with Atkinson regional inequality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çiftçi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at level of sensitivity for immigrants to pull economic factors in the destination provinces. Using data from TUIK and applying method is based on Atkinson regional inequality index. It is shown that the levels of sensitivity for immigrants to pull economic factors in the destination provinces are almost low.

  10. Caring for children with intellectual disabilities part 2: Detailed analyses of factors involved in respite workers' reported assessment and care decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genik, Lara M; McMurtry, C Meghan; Breau, Lynn M

    2017-02-20

    Respite workers (RW) commonly care for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), and pain is common for these children. Little is known about factors which inform RW pain assessment and management-related decisions.

  11. 低温煤热解焦油产率和品质影响因素研究%Influencing factors of coal tar yield and quality from low-temperature coal pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗青; 郑化安; 张生军; 李学强; 陈静升; 张志刚

    2014-01-01

    煤焦油是低温煤热解技术的主要产物,是重要的化工原料,其产率和品质是评价煤热解工艺的重要指标。从原煤性质(煤种和煤粒径)、热解反应器结构形式及热解工艺条件(原煤预处理、热解温度、压力、升温速率、停留时间、热解气氛及催化剂)等方面综合分析了煤热解焦油产率和品质的影响因素,认为通过优选煤种和热解反应器,对煤样进行适当预处理,选择合适的工艺操作条件和引入加氢催化热解等有助于提高焦油产率和品质。%Coal tar,the main product of low-temperature coal pyrolysis,is an essential chemical material.The yield and quality of coal tar is an important indicator to evaluate the pyrolysis.Investigate the influencing factors of coal tar yield and quality from the aspects of raw coal characteristics such as coal types and coal particle size,structure of pyrolysis reactors and technical conditions including raw coal pretreat-ment,reaction temperature and pressure,heating rate,gas residence time,reaction atmosphere and catalysts.The results show that the yield and quality of coal tar can be improved by using proper coal and pyrolysis reactors,choosing appropriate technical conditions,adopting cat-alytic hydrogenation pyrolysis and the like.

  12. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  13. Research Progress in the Affective Factors of Sugar Beet Root Yield and Sugar Content%影响甜菜块根产量及含糖率因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娜; 刘雪; 于超; 徐军; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    Sugar beet is one of the important raw materials in the sugar industry,In our country, low per unit area yield and low sugar content become important restrict factors in the production of sugar beet. Four aspects of the relationship between root weight and sugar content, the impact of varieties on root growth and sugar content, the relationship between photosynthetic characteristics and growth of root and sugar content, the impact of plant growth regulators on root and sugar content were summarized in this article. The idea would be provided for researching root yield and sugar content in the future.%甜菜是制糖工业的重要原料之一,单产和含糖率低成为制约中国甜菜生产的重要因素。文章对甜菜根重与含糖率相关关系、品种对甜菜块根增长和含糖率的影响、光合特性与甜菜块根和含糖增长的关系、植物生长调节剂对甜菜块根和含糖率影响四方面进行了概述,为今后研究甜菜块根产量及含糖率提供一些思路。

  14. Yield of bedrock wells in the Nashoba terrane, central and eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The yield of bedrock wells in the fractured-bedrock aquifers of the Nashoba terrane and surrounding area, central and eastern Massachusetts, was investigated with analyses of existing data. Reported well yield was compiled for 7,287 wells from Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. Geological Survey databases. Yield of these wells ranged from 0.04 to 625 gallons per minute. In a comparison with data from 103 supply wells, yield and specific capacity from aquifer tests were well correlated, indicating that reported well yield was a reasonable measure of aquifer characteristics in the study area. Statistically significant relations were determined between well yield and a number of cultural and hydrogeologic factors. Cultural variables included intended water use, well depth, year of construction, and method of yield measurement. Bedrock geology, topography, surficial geology, and proximity to surface waters were statistically significant hydrogeologic factors. Yield of wells was higher in areas of granites, mafic intrusive rocks, and amphibolites than in areas of schists and gneisses or pelitic rocks; higher in valleys and low-slope areas than on hills, ridges, or high slopes; higher in areas overlain by stratified glacial deposits than in areas overlain by till; and higher in close proximity to streams, ponds, and wetlands than at greater distances from these surface-water features. Proximity to mapped faults and to lineaments from aerial photographs also were related to well yield by some measures in three quadrangles in the study area. Although the statistical significance of these relations was high, their predictive power was low, and these relations explained little of the variability in the well-yield data. Similar results were determined from a multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression models for the Nashoba terrane and for a three-quadrangle subarea included, as significant variables, many of the cultural and

  15. YIELD OF AMARANTH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. (Received 28 ... properties, growth and shoot yield of large-green leafy amaranth (Amaranth sp.). Soil moisture ... microorganisms which stimulate the physical processes ... to plants and, consequently, crop establishment ... sustainable soil structure.

  16. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate new interspecific genotypes for intensified double cropping of irrigated rice. The experimental ... the performance of the new irrigated .... nursing at a spacing of 20 cm between plants ..... if new technologies, comprising high yielding.

  17. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI; Multivariable Analyse klinischer Einflussfaktoren auf die Signalintensitaet bei Gd-EOB-DTPA 3T-MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Trials; Teufel, A. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lang, S. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  18. APPROACH OF FIVE-YEAR-AVERAGE HAZARD RATES FOR THE BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AND ANALYSES OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS-AN APPLICATION OF COX REGRESSION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Xueliang; Fan Zhimin; Liu Guojin; Jacques Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare with five-year survival after surgery for the 116 breast cancer patients treated at the First Teaching Hospital (FTH) and the 866 breast cancer patients at Hopital du Saint-Sacrement (HSS). Methods:Using Cox regression model, after eliminating the confounders, to develop the comparison of the five-year average hazard rates between two hospitals and among the levels of prognostic factors. Results: It has significant difference for the old patients (50 years old or more)between the two hospitals. Conclusion: Tumor size at pathology and involvement of lymph nodes were important prognostic factors.

  19. Semi-quantitative and simulation analyses of effects of {gamma} rays on determination of calibration factors of PET scanners with point-like {sup 22}Na sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-0373 (Japan); Sato, Yasushi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakamachi, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Wada, Yasuhiro [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, 6-7-3, Minamimachi, Minatoshima, Chuo, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: hasegawa@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Japan Radioisotope Association, 2-28-45, Komagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8941 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    The uncertainty of radioactivity concentrations measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scanners ultimately depends on the uncertainty of the calibration factors. A new practical calibration scheme using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources has been developed. The purpose of this study is to theoretically investigate the effects of the associated 1.275 MeV {gamma} rays on the calibration factors. The physical processes affecting the coincidence data were categorized in order to derive approximate semi-quantitative formulae. Assuming the design parameters of some typical commercial PET scanners, the effects of the {gamma} rays as relative deviations in the calibration factors were evaluated by semi-quantitative formulae and a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative deviations in the calibration factors were less than 4%, depending on the details of the PET scanners. The event losses due to rejecting multiple coincidence events of scattered {gamma} rays had the strongest effect. The results from the semi-quantitative formulae and the Monte Carlo simulation were consistent and were useful in understanding the underlying mechanisms. The deviations are considered small enough to correct on the basis of precise Monte Carlo simulation. This study thus offers an important theoretical basis for the validity of the calibration method using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources.

  20. The structure of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of war: confirmatory factor analyses of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Böhme, H.F.; Ajdukovic, D.; Bogic, M.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Stangier, U.; Priebe, S.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at establishing the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) in survivors of war. A total sample of 4167 participants with potentially traumatic experiences during the war in Ex-Yugoslavia was split into three samples: two independent samples of people who stayed

  1. The structure of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of war: confirmatory factor analyses of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Morina; H.F. Böhme; D. Ajdukovic; M. Bogic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; U. Stangier; S. Priebe

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at establishing the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) in survivors of war. A total sample of 4167 participants with potentially traumatic experiences during the war in Ex-Yugoslavia was split into three samples: two independent samples of people who stayed

  2. Waist circumference measures: cutoff analyses to detect obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men population--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Cocate, Paula G; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Bressan, Josefina; de Silva, Mateus Freitas; Rodrigues, Joel Alves; Natali, Antônio José

    2014-09-01

    Low-cost practical and reliable tools to evaluated obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are of clinical practice and public heath relevance worldwide. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the anatomical point of waist circumference that best identify overweight, obesity and central obesity in Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men and to test the relationships of its cutoff points with metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred men [age: 51 (47-54)] underwent anthropometric, body composition, clinical, sociodemographic and blood plasma biochemical evaluations. The umbilical line circumference (WCUL) was the best predictor for overweight (total body fat ≥ 20%; cutoff point: 88.8 cm), obesity (total body fat ≥ 25%; cutoff point: 93.4 cm) and central obesity (abdominal area fat ≥ 34.6%; cutoff point: 95.6 cm) as measured by dual beam X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm or ≥ 93.4 cm showed significantly higher values for MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure). The occurrence of WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm was positively associated (p risk factors and increased the central obesity prevalence by 19.3% while that of WCUL ≥ 93.4 cm was associated with the prevalence of MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors. WCUL measure seems to be the best predictor for overweight, obesity and central obesity in urban residents Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men; and the WCUL cutoff point (88.8 cm) is significantly associated with MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors in the studied population.

  3. 加工番茄品质与影响因素的相关性分析%Correlation Analyses of Processing Tomato Quality and Influence Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 姜波

    2015-01-01

    为探索加工番茄品质与其影响因素的内在关联性,选取番茄红素、可溶性固形物、色差3种品质性状作为母因素,平均气温、灌水总量、氮肥投入量、磷肥投入量、钾肥投入量作为子因素,通过关联分析法得出上述番茄品质性状与影响因素的关联程度,并对关联结果进行了优势分析. 结果表明,上述影响因素与番茄红素的关联度次序为平均气温>灌水总量>钾肥投入量>氮肥投入量>磷肥投入量, 且最大关联度数值达0.760 4;与可溶性固形物含量的关联度次序为氮肥投入量>灌水总量>钾肥投入量>磷肥投入量>平均气温,氮肥投入量与可溶性固形物显著相关,数值达0.786 6;与色差的关联度次序为灌水总量>氮肥投入量>磷肥投入量>平均气温>钾肥投入量,色差与灌水总量相关性最大,数值为0.697 0.根据关联矩阵优势分析结果,得出灌水总量为相对优势因素,其对番茄品质的相对影响最大.%In order to explore the intrinsic relevance of processing tomato quality with influence factors, lycopene, soluble solids content and color difference were selected as the mother factors, average temperature, total irrigation, nitrogen, phosphate,and potassium fertilizer inputs were selected as sub-factors. Through correlation analysis method, the association degree of the tomato quality traits and factors were obtained, furthermore, the advantage analysis of correlation results was conducted. The results showed that the correlation degree of lycopene with the influencing factors followed this order: average temperature>total irrigation>potassium fertilizer inputs>nitrogen fertilizer inputs>phosphate fertilizer inputs,and the maximum value is 0.760 4; The related degree order of soluble solids content with the influencing factors is: nitrogen fertilizer inputs>total irrigation>potassium fertilizer inputs>phosphate fertilizer inputs>average temperature. Soluble solids content is

  4. Analyses of factors influencing adolescent psycho-problems%青少年心理问题影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张战胜; 张哂

    2015-01-01

    青少年群体存在不同程度的心理问题,严重影响其心身健康发展。青少年心理问题的发生与心理社会多种因素有关,本文对青少年心理健康的影响因素进行了分析,旨在为促进青少年的心身健康发展提供依据。%Adolescences have different degrees of psycho‐problems influencing psychosomatic health development gravely .The development of adolescent psy‐cho‐problem is related to many psychosocial factors ,in this paper factors influen‐cing adolescent psycho‐problems are analyzed in order to promote adolescent psy‐chosomatic health development .

  5. [Analyses of risk factors for postoperative recurrence after curative resection of stage III A-N2 non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guangliang; Guo, Yongqing; Xiao, Fei; Yu, Qiduo; Liang, Chaoyang; Song, Zhiyi; Tian, Yanchu; Shi, Bin; Liu, Deruo

    2014-11-11

    To explore the patterns of mediastinal lymph node metastases and prognostic factors of recurrence in patients undergoing curative resection of stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 92 patients underwent curative operation and pathologically diagnosed as stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathological data were compared between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. And the potential prognostic factors were included for multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. The 3 and 5-year recurrence rates were 61.0% and 70.2% respectively. For univariate analysis, the prognostic factors were number of metastatic lymph nodes, positive lymph node ratio, number of metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), positive MLN ratio, number of MLN metastasis > 3, multiple station metastasis, trans-regional metastasis and multi-zonal metastasis. A multivariate analysis using Cox regression identified 2 independent factors of prognosis: trans-regional MLN metastasis (P = 0.035) and number of MLN metastasis >3 (P = 0.045). The recurrence risk of patients with trans-regional MLN metastasis was 2.0 times higher than those with regional MLN metastasis while the recurrence risk of patients with number of MLN metastasis >3 was 2.2 times higher than those with number of MLN metastasis of 1-3. Recurrence risk of stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after curative resection may be estimated by location and number of MLN metastasis. And the subgroup with trans-regional MLN metastasis and number of MLN metastasis >3 carries the highest risk of recurrence.

  6. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene.

  7. Origin of mobility enhancement by chemical treatment of gate-dielectric surface in organic thin-film transistors: Quantitative analyses of various limiting factors in pentacene thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, R.; Sakai, Y.; Nomura, T.; Sakai, M.; Kudo, K.; Majima, Y.; Knipp, D.; Nakamura, M.

    2015-11-01

    For the better performance of organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), gate-insulator surface treatments are often applied. However, the origin of mobility increase has not been well understood because mobility-limiting factors have not been compared quantitatively. In this work, we clarify the influence of gate-insulator surface treatments in pentacene thin-film transistors on the limiting factors of mobility, i.e., size of crystal-growth domain, crystallite size, HOMO-band-edge fluctuation, and carrier transport barrier at domain boundary. We quantitatively investigated these factors for pentacene TFTs with bare, hexamethyldisilazane-treated, and polyimide-coated SiO2 layers as gate dielectrics. By applying these surface treatments, size of crystal-growth domain increases but both crystallite size and HOMO-band-edge fluctuation remain unchanged. Analyzing the experimental results, we also show that the barrier height at the boundary between crystal-growth domains is not sensitive to the treatments. The results imply that the essential increase in mobility by these surface treatments is only due to the increase in size of crystal-growth domain or the decrease in the number of energy barriers at domain boundaries in the TFT channel.

  8. Systematic two-hybrid and comparative proteomic analyses reveal novel yeast pre-mRNA splicing factors connected to Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    Full Text Available Prp19 is the founding member of the NineTeen Complex, or NTC, which is a spliceosomal subcomplex essential for spliceosome activation. To define Prp19 connectivity and dynamic protein interactions within the spliceosome, we systematically queried the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome for Prp19 WD40 domain interaction partners by two-hybrid analysis. We report that in addition to S. cerevisiae Cwc2, the splicing factor Prp17 binds directly to the Prp19 WD40 domain in a 1:1 ratio. Prp17 binds simultaneously with Cwc2 indicating that it is part of the core NTC complex. We also find that the previously uncharacterized protein Urn1 (Dre4 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe directly interacts with Prp19, and that Dre4 is conditionally required for pre-mRNA splicing in S. pombe. S. pombe Dre4 and S. cerevisiae Urn1 co-purify U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs and multiple splicing factors, and dre4Δ and urn1Δ strains display numerous negative genetic interactions with known splicing mutants. The S. pombe Prp19-containing Dre4 complex co-purifies three previously uncharacterized proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing, likely before spliceosome activation. Our multi-faceted approach has revealed new low abundance splicing factors connected to NTC function, provides evidence for distinct Prp19 containing complexes, and underscores the role of the Prp19 WD40 domain as a splicing scaffold.

  9. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  10. An analyse of quality of life of elderly person in community and influencing factors%社区老人生命质量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤军克; 李惠英; 陈林利; 尤佳恺; 赵耐青

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the quality of life of elderly person living at community,and to find out the related influencing factors and thus to provide references for policies makers to improve the of life quality of the elderly person.Methods To investigate quality of life for elderly person living at community in Minhang district of Shanghai by adopting SF-36 form. Meanwhile,to find out the principal influencing factors on quality of life by adopting both single-factor and multiple-factor analysis.Results The score of life quality of senior citizen in local was as following 71.94±23.29(Physical Function),73.64±43.03(Role Physical),80.24±20.25(Bodily Pain),53.20±19.07(General Health),70.40±15.67(Vitality),83.79±20.24(Social Function),81.13±37.16(Role Emotional),78.14±15.43(Mental Health),74.06±17.49(Weighted average).There were two aspects of the factors that influencing elderly persons' the quality of life:disease-related (coronary heart disease,arthritis,diabetes mellitus,cerebrovascular accident,cataract,gall-stone and chronic bronchitis) and non-disease-related (habitation,physical exercise,age,gender,entertainment and record of employment). Conclusions The controllable factors that impact on quality of life of elderly living at community is habitation,physical exercise,entertainment and disease.%目的 了解社区老人生命质量及其影响因素,为有关部门提高老年人生命质量提供决策依据.方法 采用健康状况调查问卷中文版(SF-36)调查上海市闵行区社区老人生命质量,采用单因素、多因素统计方法进行数据处理.结果 老年人生命质量情况为:躯体功能(71.94±23.29)分,躯体角色(73.64±43.03)分,肌体疼痛(80.24±20.25)分,一般健康状况(53.20±19.07)分,生命力(70.40±15.67)分,社会功能(83.79±20.24)分,情感角色(81.13±37.16)分,心理健康(78.14±15.43)分,加权平均分为(74.06±17.49)分.影响社区老人生命质量的因素有疾病(冠心病、关节炎、

  11. Provider risk factors for medication administration error alerts: analyses of a large-scale closed-loop medication administration system using RFID and barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeonsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Hee; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk factors and rate of medication administration error (MAE) alerts by analyzing large-scale medication administration data and related error logs automatically recorded in a closed-loop medication administration system using radio-frequency identification and barcodes. The subject hospital adopted a closed-loop medication administration system. All medication administrations in the general wards were automatically recorded in real-time using radio-frequency identification, barcodes, and hand-held point-of-care devices. MAE alert logs recorded during a full 1 year of 2012. We evaluated risk factors for MAE alerts including administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, and factors associated with nurse practices by logistic regression analysis. A total of 2 874 539 medication dose records from 30 232 patients (882.6 patient-years) were included in 2012. We identified 35 082 MAE alerts (1.22% of total medication doses). The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration at non-standard time [odds ratio (OR) 1.559, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.515-1.604], emergency order (OR 1.527, 95%CI 1.464-1.594), and the number of medication doses administered (OR 0.993, 95%CI 0.992-0.993). Medication route, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule were also significantly related. The MAE alert rate was 1.22% over the 1-year observation period in the hospital examined in this study. The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule. The real-time closed-loop medication administration system contributed to improving patient safety by preventing potential MAEs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cold-induced modulation and functional analyses of the DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GmDREB3, in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhaoshi; Xia, Lanqin; Li, Liancheng; Cheng, Xianguo; Dong, Jianhui; Wang, Qiaoyan; Ma, Youzhi

    2008-01-01

    DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding protein) transcription factors have important roles in the stress-related regulation network in plants. A DREB orthologue, GmDREB3, belonging to the A-5 subgroup of the DREB subfamily, was isolated from soybean using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of GmDREB3 in soybean seedlings was induced following cold stress treatment for 0.5 h and was not detected after 3 h. However, it was not...

  13. Improving the Estimates of International Space Station (ISS) Induced K-Factor Failure Rates for On-Orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) Supportability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif F.; Harrington, Sean P.; Omeke, Ojei, II; Schwaab, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study on revised estimates of induced failure for International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit replacement units (ORUs). We devise a heuristic to leverage operational experience data by aggregating ORU, associated function (vehicle sub -system), and vehicle effective' k-factors using actual failure experience. With this input, we determine a significant failure threshold and minimize the difference between the actual and predicted failure rates. We conclude with a discussion on both qualitative and quantitative improvements the heuristic methods and potential benefits to ISS supportability engineering analysis.

  14. Energy management as a factor of success. International comparative analysis of energy management systems standards; Energiemanagement als Erfolgsfaktor. International vergleichende Analyse von Energiemanagementnormen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenborn, Walter; Knopf, Jutta; Richter, Ina [adelphi research, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This report outlines the current state of standardised energy management systems (EnMSs) worldwide whose aim is to promote energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The core intention of the study is to identify the potential of EnMSs for German energy efficiency policy. The study examines the experiences of countries that can be defined as front runners in this context, such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland and the USA. Further input was taken from recently completed, and still ongoing, development processes of national standards. Data were generated from an intensive literature review as well as interviews with experts. Central to the analysis are questions of characteristics as well as the effectiveness of national energy management standards. In addition, political frameworks (i.e. voluntary agreements), financial tools (i.e. subsidies) and other measures of assistance (i.e. capacity building) supporting the implementation of an EnMS were analysed. The study concludes with a comparison of findings from the country-by-country analysis and provides recommendations for the effective implementation of EnMS in Germany. As part of the entire project adelphi produced a manual on the use of EN 16001 which has been published by BMU/UBA. (orig.)

  15. Partial protection against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) of seasonal influenza vaccination and related regional factors: Updated systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yuan; Chen, Jin-yan; Zhang, Yan-ling; Fu, Wei-ming

    2015-01-01

    This updated systematic review and meta-analyses aims to systematically evaluate the cross-protection of seasonal influenza vaccines against the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1) influenza infection, and investigate the potential effect of the influenza strains circulating previous to the pandemic on the association between vaccine receipt and pandemic infection. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed based on the study locations and previous circulating influenza viruses. Relevant articles in English and Chinese from 2009 to October 2013 were systematically searched, and 21 eligible studies were included. For case-control studies, an insignificant 20% reduced risk for pandemic influenza infection based on combined national data (OR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.60, 1.05) was calculated for people receiving seasonal influenza vaccination. However, for RCTs, an insignificant increase in the risk of seasonal influenza vaccines was observed (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.46, 3.53). For the subgroup analysis, a significant 35% cross-protection was observed in the subgroup where influenza A outbreaks were detected before the 2009 pandemic. Moreover, the results indicated that seasonal influenza vaccination may reduce the risk of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99). Our findings partially support the hypothesis that seasonal vaccines may offer moderate cross-protection for adults against laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and ILIs. Further immunological studies are needed to understand the mechanism underlying these findings.

  16. Analyse of Browning Factors during the Process of Chinese Chestnut%板栗加工过程中褐变因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖

    2014-01-01

    The browning and factors including different peeling methods,heating time,heating temperature,pH of water and storage time during the process of Chinese chestnut were studied. The results showed that the peeling and heating were the main factors of browning chestnut. Chestnut browning could be controlled by reducing the heating temperature,shortening the heating time and changing pH of the water.%试验研究了板栗(Castanea mollissima)加工过程中的褐变及不同去皮方法、加热时间、温度和水的pH及贮藏时间等影响因素。结果表明,加工中的去皮、加热是影响褐变的主要因素,可通过降低加热温度、缩短加热时间及调整水的pH抑制褐变的发生。

  17. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA.

  18. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA.

  19. EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUMMER CORN IN HENAN PROVINCE%气象因子对河南省夏玉米产量与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段鹏飞; 刘天学; 赵春玲; 张学林; 李潮海

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with maize cultivar ZD958, XD20 and DH662 planting on farmland of four ecological area( YS, YE, YM and YN mean area in south part, east part, middle part and north part) in Henan province) were conducted to study the effects of climatic factors on grain yield and quality of summer maize, during 2007 and 2008. Results showed that, the order of average grain yield of maize of two years was YN > YE > YM > YS. Among them, the average grain yield of maize in YN was 708.5kg/667m2, which was much higher than that in the other ecological areas. Among four ecological area, the contents of crude starch, crude fat and lysine of grain in YE, crude protein in YN were higher, while crude protein, crude fat and lysine in YM were lower. The grain yield had positive correlation with illumination hours during the whole growth stage and illumination hours per day after silking ( r = 0. 97 and 0. 92 respectively), and had a negatively correlated relationship with total rainfall during the whole growth stage ( r = - 0. 88). The crude protein content had positively correlated relationships with illumination hours during the whole growth stage, illumination hours after silking and illumination hours per day after silking (r = 0. 76, 0. 85 and 0. 88, respectively), while the contents of crude starch, crude fat and lysine of grain had no significant correlation with climatic factors. Test showed that,sufficient illumination, illumination hours after silking and illumination hours per day after silking were the favorable factors of high-yield, high-quality grain in YN; rainfall more limited yield formation in YS; higher accumulated temperature, accumulated temperature after silking and accumulated temperature per day after silking were against crude starch, crude fat and lysine formation accumulation in YM; the air humidity higher in YE, was helpful for crude starch,crude fat and lysine formation accumulation.%以郑单958、浚单20、登海662三个

  20. Improvement in Production Yield of Hot-rolled Coil by Controlling Process Cobbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.CHAKRAVARTY

    2016-01-01

    The yield is dependent upon many factors,such as cobbles,total scrap generation,crop loss and scale loss. It appears that the huge quantity of scale is mainly responsible for the yield loss.However,by the correlation study, it reveals that the number of cobbles is the major contributor to the yield loss.The innovation lies in changing the fo-cus of attacking the real problem by analysing the operating data which was not surfaced earlier.The focus shifted from the furnace to the mill and the cobbles studied through the years deeply.All the analysis proved to be helpful for the future prevention of the similar kind of failure.The internal target of bringing down the number of cobbles per month in single digit was taken.This also helped in improving the maintenance practice and reducing the amount of delays significantly.The yield was improved by 0.9 3%.

  1. 多轮次胁迫驯化及多因子复合筛选丁醇高产菌%Multi-repeat stress acclimation and butanol high-yielding strain screening by multi-factor complex medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小波; 罗玮; 顾秋亚; 余晓斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to isolate a butanol-producing strain from the soil of corn field in Shiquan County, Shaanxi Province, China, and to improve its butanol tolerance and butanol yield.[Methods] Using the multi-factor complex screening and the treatment of butanol stress acclimation, the strain with a high yield and butanol tolerance was obtained.[Results] The results showed that through several batches of acclimation and screening, the mutant T64 was derived from isolated wild-type strain D64, its butanol tolerance was significantly improved and could grow well in the complex screening medium containing 20 g butanol/L.It produced 21.8 g/L total solvent (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and a butanol yield reached 15.18 g/L using 7% corn mash as fermentation medium, which was higher than that of the wild-type strain D64 (13.35 g/L).[Conclusion] In conclusion, the designed multi-factor complex screening is more effective than the mono-factor screening for obtaining high-producing butanol strain.In addition, the stress acclimation of increasing butanol concentration in long term provides new ideas to research the tolerance of butanol.%[目的]从陕西省石泉县玉米地土壤中分离获得一株产丁醇菌株并提高其丁醇耐受性和丁醇产量.[方法]采用自行设计的多因子复合筛选方法和丁醇胁迫驯化处理,在获得丁醇高产菌株的同时提高菌株的丁醇耐受性.[结果]野生菌株D64经多轮次丁醇胁迫驯化处理和多因子复合筛选,分离获得突变株T64,其丁醇耐受性明显提高,能在丁醇浓度为20 g/L的复合筛选培养基上正常生长,发酵7%玉米醪丁醇产量由13.35 g/L提高到15.18 g/L,总溶剂(丙酮、丁醇、乙醇)达到21.8 g/L.[结论]采用长时间且丁醇浓度呈梯度渐进增加的胁迫驯化方式,可使菌种在丁醇的环境中不断进化并有效地提高菌株对丁醇的耐受性.多因子复合筛选方法较其他单一因子

  2. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi* and morphology cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Kracalik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle and small (sheep and goats domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi* statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149 and for small ruminants (n = 9. In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122 and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61. Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann- Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  3. Targeted sequencing for high-resolution evolutionary analyses following genome duplication in salmonid fish: Proof of concept for key components of the insulin-like growth factor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Fiona M; Shaw, Rebecca L; Macqueen, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing has revolutionised comparative and evolutionary genome biology. It has now become relatively commonplace to generate multiple genomes and/or transcriptomes to characterize the evolution of large taxonomic groups of interest. Nevertheless, such efforts may be unsuited to some research questions or remain beyond the scope of some research groups. Here we show that targeted high-throughput sequencing offers a viable alternative to study genome evolution across a vertebrate family of great scientific interest. Specifically, we exploited sequence capture and Illumina sequencing to characterize the evolution of key components from the insulin-like growth (IGF) signalling axis of salmonid fish at unprecedented phylogenetic resolution. The IGF axis represents a central governor of vertebrate growth and its core components were expanded by whole genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor ~95Ma. Using RNA baits synthesised to genes encoding the complete family of IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) and an IGF hormone (IGF2), we captured, sequenced and assembled orthologous and paralogous exons from species representing all ten salmonid genera. This approach generated 299 novel sequences, most as complete or near-complete protein-coding sequences. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed congruent evolutionary histories for all nineteen recognized salmonid IGFBP family members and identified novel salmonid-specific IGF2 paralogues. Moreover, we reconstructed the evolution of duplicated IGF axis paralogues across a replete salmonid phylogeny, revealing complex historic selection regimes - both ancestral to salmonids and lineage-restricted - that frequently involved asymmetric paralogue divergence under positive and/or relaxed purifying selection. Our findings add to an emerging literature highlighting diverse applications for targeted sequencing in comparative-evolutionary genomics. We also set out a viable approach to obtain large sets of nuclear genes for any

  4. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Ian T; Blackburn, Jason K; Lukhnova, Larisa; Pazilov, Yerlan; Hugh-Jones, Martin E; Aikimbayev, Alim

    2012-11-01

    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA) were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149) and for small ruminants (n = 9). In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122) and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61). Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  5. Factors associated with oxyhemoglobin desaturation during rapid sequence intubation in a pediatric emergency department: findings from multivariable analyses of video review data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Andrea S; Mittiga, Matthew R; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Geis, Gary L; Kerrey, Benjamin T

    2015-04-01

    In a video-based study of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in a pediatric emergency department (PED), 33% of children experienced oxyhemoglobin desaturation (SpO2 performance of key RSI process elements uniquely available from video review) associated with desaturation during pediatric RSI. These were planned analyses of data collected during a retrospective, video-based study of RSI in a high-volume, academic PED. For variables with plausible associations with desaturation, multiple logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to identify those characteristics independently associated with desaturation at both the patient and the attempt levels. The authors analyzed video data from 114 patients undergoing RSI over 12 months. Desaturation was more common in patients 24 months of age and younger (59%) than in patients older than 24 months of age (10%). Variables associated with desaturation in patients 24 months of age and younger were duration of attempts (both individual and cumulative), the occurrence of esophageal intubation, a respiratory indication for intubation, and young age. The receiver operating characteristics curve for the model had an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 0.92). Forty-six percent of desaturations occurred after 45 seconds of laryngoscopy, and 82% after 30 seconds. The odds ratio for desaturation on individual attempts lasting longer than 30 seconds (vs. those 30 seconds or less) was 5.7 (95% CI = 2.26 to 14.36). For children 24 months of age or younger undergoing RSI in a PED, respiratory indication for intubation, esophageal intubation, and duration of laryngoscopy (both individual and cumulative) were associated with desaturation; the number of attempts was not. Interventions to limit attempt duration in the youngest children may improve the safety of RSI. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Geriatric factors analyses from FFCD 2001-02 phase III study of first-line chemotherapy for elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Thomas; Gargot, Dany; Teillet, Laurent; Maillard, Emilie; Genet, Dominique; Cretin, Jacques; Locher, Christophe; Bouché, Olivier; Breysacher, Gilles; Seitz, Jean-François; Gasmi, Mohamed; Stefani, Laetitia; Ramdani, Mohamed; Lecomte, Thierry; Auby, Dominique; Faroux, Roger; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Lepère, Céline; Khemissa, Faiza; Sobhani, Iradj; Boulat, Olivier; Mitry, Emmanuel; Jouve, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    Several predictors of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) outcomes have been described. Specific geriatric characteristics could be of interest to determine prognosis. Elderly patients (75+) with previously untreated mCRC were randomly assigned to receive infusional 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, either alone (FU) or in combination with irinotecan (IRI). Geriatric evaluations were included as an optional procedure. The predictive value of geriatric parameters was determined for the objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). From June 2003 to May 2010, the FFCD 2001-02 randomised trial enrolled 282 patients. A baseline geriatric evaluation was done in 123 patients; 62 allocated to the FU arm and 61 to the IRI arm. The baseline Charlson index was ≤1 in 75%, Mini-Mental State Examination was ≤27/30 in 31%, Geriatric Depression Scale was >2 in 10% and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) was impaired in 34% of the patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that no geriatric parameter was predictive for ORR or PFS. Normal IADL was independently associated with better OS. The benefit of doublet chemotherapy on PFS differed in subgroups of patients ≤80 years, with unresected primary tumour, leucocytes >11,000 mm(3) and carcinoembryonic antigen >2N. There was a trend towards better OS in patients with normal IADL. The autonomy score was an independent predictor for OS. A trend toward a better efficacy of doublet chemotherapy in some subgroups of patients was reported and should be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysizing Influence Factors of Recurrence of Stroke in Youth%青年脑卒中复发的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婧

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To explore the influence factors of recurrence of stroke in youth ,to provide reference for preven‐ting stroke in youth .Methods :528 young stroke patients who were treated in neural internal medicine department of our hospital from January 2007 to June 2011 .They were divided into relapse group (n=112) and non relapse group (n=416) according to relapse during follow‐up .The clinical data were compared between two groups .Results:The age of relapse group were higher than that of non relapse group ,the ratio of mood swings’s position ,often stay up late ,often surf internet ,hypertension ,high blood fat ,high blood sugar ,drinking history ,heart disease history ,family history of stroke ,a history of TIA in relapse group were higher than those of non recurrent group (P<0 .05) .Logistic regression analysis showed that marital status ,physical exercise were protective factors of stroke in youth ,mood swings ,often stay up late ,often surf Internet ,high blood lipids ,hypertension ,hyperglycemia ,heart disease history ,drinking history ,drink‐ing history ,family history of stroke were independent risk factors for relapse of stroke in youth.Conclusion:The recur‐rence influence factors of stroke in young patients and in elderly stroke patients has some certain differences ,so in two grade prevention of stroke in youth ,blood glucose ,blood lipid ,blood pressure should be controlled in addition ,drinking measures ,strengthening exercise ,maintain emotional stability ,adjust state mind can help to reduce risk of recurrence , and improve patients’prognosis .%目的:探讨青年脑卒中复发的影响因素,为青年脑卒中的防治提供参考。方法:收集2007年1月-2011年6月期间在我院神经内科就诊治疗的青年脑卒中患者528例。根据随访期间是否复发分为复发组( n=112)和未复发组(n=416)。比较两组患者的临床资料情况。结果:复发组年龄高于未复发组,情绪波动

  8. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  9. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  10. 论高强度钢压杆稳定计算中的屈服强度因数%Discussion on the Yield Strength Factor in the Stability Calculation of High-Strength Steel Struts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍蕃; 申红侠

    2011-01-01

    The regulations regarding strut stability calculation in the current code for design of steel structures (GB50017-2003) are based on Q235 steel and a factor of yield strength ξ= (fy/234) is introduced to take care of high-strength struts. But,use of this factor has been in many instances overly simplified,so that the capacity of high-strength struts can not be fully developed. Comprehensive analysis has shown that,for members of medium and large slenderness, only part of the limiting width-thickness ratios need to be linked with the ξ factor. In this analysis two criteria have been adopted in combination and the influence of members' initial crookedness taken into account. The investigation of the shear force in the open-web compression members reveals that the factor ξ in Formula (5. 1. 6) of the current code could be deleted. Moreover, when single angle struts connected by one leg at the ends are treated as axially compressed members,their equivalent slenderness may be multiplied by the factor ξ only in part.%《钢结构设计规范》(GB 50017-2003)关于压杆稳定计算的规定一般以Q235钢为基础,并通过引入屈服强度因数ξ=(√fy/235)使其适用于高强度钢压杆.但是,这一因数的运用在很多情况下过于简单化,致使高强度钢压杆承载潜力不能充分发挥.本文对轴压构件的板件进行的综合分析表明,中等和大长细比构件的板件宽厚比限值只有一部分需要和因数ξ挂钩.此项分析同时采取了两种准则,并考虑了构件初弯曲的影响.格构式轴压构件剪力分析表明,现行规范的公式(5.1.6)的因数ξ可以删去.此外,单边连接的单角钢压杆简化为轴压构件时,等效长细比只要部分乘以因数ξ即可.

  11. Factores socioacadémicos, estilo de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo de médicos internos de pregrado Socioacademic factors, style of learning, intellectual level and their relationship with the previous academic yield of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Padierna-Luna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El aprendizaje es una actividad compleja, en la que intervienen factores individuales, sociales-culturales y académicos. Objetivo. Describir factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo (promedio de los médicos internos de pregrado (MIP. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta transversal analítica a MIP aplicando tres cuestionarios: datos socioacadémicos, cuestionario CHAEA (estilos de aprendizaje y test de Raven para adultos (nivel intelectual. La muestra incluyó 174 alumnos procedentes de nueve universidades, tres privadas (n = 43; 24,7% y seis públicas (n = 131; 75,29%. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión múltiple para establecer asociaciones entre variables. Resultados y conclusiones. Predominó el género femenino, con el 59,2% (n = 103, frente al masculino, con el 40,8% (n = 71. El promedio de edad fue de 23,63 años, con un rango de 21 a 33. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en el rendimiento previo (8,21 frente a 8,25. Se midió la relación entre los factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje y nivel intelectual con el rendimiento académico, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De los datos socioacadémicos, sólo la edad se relaciona inversamente con el rendimiento, con r = 0,2 y p Introduction. The learning is a complex activity, in that takes part individual factors, social and academic factors, among others. Aim. To describe socioacademic factors, styles of learning (SL, intellectual level (IL and its relation with previous academic yield (academic average of the Pre-degree interns (PDI. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional and analytic survey to PDI was applied with three questionnaires: socioacademic data, adult questionnaire CHAEA (SL and test Raven (IL. The sample included 174 students coming from nine universities, three private (n = 43; 24.7% and six public (n = 131; 75.29%. It was used

  12. Analyses of Influencing Factors of Hydrocarbon Identification Using NMR Time Domain Analysis%核磁共振测井TDA识别油气的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 肖立志; 孙华峰

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain analysis (TDA) is one of the most important NMR methods used in fluid identification and porosity calculation. It shows great advantages in reservoir evaluation, but there are also certain limitations. In order to investigate the adaptability of TDA in hydrocarbon identification under different reservoir conditions, numerical simulation was used in this study to analyze the factors influencing the outcomes of TDA, including longitudinal relaxation time T1 , polarization time Tw, porosity, hydrocarbon saturation, hydrogen index HI and polarization function. It is concluded that when acquisition mode D9TW is chosen, the viscosity of oil that can be measured by TDA is less than 9 mPa. S. After changing the short waiting time up to 2 s while keeping the long waiting time constant, the minimal viscosity reduces to less than 4 mPa. S. We also found the intensity of differential signals correlated positively with all the influencing factors mentioned above. With real low SNR NMR data, TDA can effectively I-dentify hydrocarbon and calculate porosity only under the conditions that the differential porosities of hydrocarbon are greater than 1. 5 p. U.%TDA(时域分析)方法是核磁共振测井的主要方法之一,在判断储层流体类型、性质和孔隙度计算方面有很大的优势,但在应用中却存在一定的局限性.针对TDA方法在流体识别中存在的一些问题,通过数值模拟不同条件的地层对其在油气识别中的影响因素及适用性进行分析.研究结果表明:TDA主要用来识别轻烃,采用D9TW采集模式采集核磁自旋回波串,TDA能识别的轻质油粘度<9 mPa.s;长极化时间不变,短极化时间Tws提高到2 s,TDA能识别的轻质油粘度<4 mPa.s.双Tw回波串的差(差值信号,转换为孔隙度单位称为差分孔隙度)与地层孔隙度、含烃饱和度、含氢指数、极化函数等影响因素正相关.对于低信噪比的核磁数据,综合各影响

  13. Indicators of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S. office buildings as risk factors for respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms: analyses of the EPA BASE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Cozen, Myrna; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Brightman, Howard S; Erdmann, Christine A; Girman, John R; Womble, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    We assessed associations between indicators for moisture in office buildings and weekly, building-related lower respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms in office workers, using the U.S. EPA BASE data, collected in a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings. We estimated the strength of associations between the symptom outcomes and moisture indicators in multivariate logistic regression models as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounding factors and adjusting for correlation among workers in buildings. This analysis identified associations between building-related symptoms and several indicators of moisture or contamination in office buildings. One set of models showed almost a tripling of weekly building-related lower respiratory symptoms in association with lack of cleaning of the drip pans under air-conditioning cooling coils (OR [CI] = 2.8 (1.2-6.5)). Other models found that lack of cleaning of either drip pans or cooling coils was associated with increased mucous membrane symptoms (OR [CI] = 1.4 (1.1-1.9)). Slightly increased symptoms were also associated with other moisture indicators, especially mucous membrane symptoms and past water damage to building mechanical rooms (OR [CI] = 1.3 (1.0-1.7)). Overall, these findings suggest that the presence of moisture or contamination in ventilation systems or occupied spaces in office buildings may have adverse respiratory or irritant effects on workers. The analysis, however, failed to confirm several risks identified in a previous study, such as condition of drain pans or outdoor air intakes, and other hypothesized moisture risks. Studies with more rigorous measurement of environmental risks and health outcomes will be necessary to define moisture-related risks in buildings.

  14. Cloning, expression and functional analyses of human platelet-derived growth factor-B chain peptide for wound repair of cat corneal endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wen-juan; ZHAO Gui-qiu; WANG Chuan-fu; WANG Li-mei; WANG Xiao-ji

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological function of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) on the survival and proliferation of cat corneal endothelial cells so as to provide bases for further studies of its role in wound repair and its clinical application.Methods: Total RNA was extracted from the placenta tissues of healthy pregnant women undergoing hysterotokotomy and PDGF eDNA was obtained with re-verse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The prokaryotic expression vector pET-PDGF-B was constructed and expressed the recombinant PDGF-B in Escherichia coli (E.coli) BL21 (DE3). After purification and refolding on Ni2+-chelation affinity chromatography (NTA) column, it was used to culture cat corneal endothelial cells. Cell proliferation was tested by modified tertrazolium salt (MTT) and flow cytometer. And the morphologic change and the ultrastructure were ob-served under an inverted phase contrast microscope, a scan-ning electron microscope and a transmission electon microscope, respectively.Results: PDGF-B chain peptide (PDGF-BB) gene was successfully inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector, pET-28a(+). The purified recombined protein pET-PDGF-B showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) with the molecular weight of about 27 u, which was in agreement with the de-duced value. MTT and flow cytometry showed that PDGF-BB promoted the survival and proliferation of cat corneal en-dothelial cells.Conclusions: The construction of recombinant prokary-otic expression vector pET-PDGF-B and the preparation of PDGF-BB protein provide a foundation for further study of the function of PDGF-BB and producing biological PDGF-BB protein. The expressed PDGF-BB promotes the prolif-eration of cultured cat corneal endothelial cells.

  15. Comparative transcriptome combined with morpho-physiological analyses revealed key factors for differential cadmium accumulation in two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Miao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Jihong; Li, Dongsheng; Zhu, Cheng; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2017-07-13

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil contaminant threatening human health. As an ideal energy plant, sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has great potential in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soils, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, key factors responsible for differential Cd accumulation between two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes (high-Cd accumulation one H18, and low-Cd accumulation one L69) were investigated. H18 exhibited a much higher ability of Cd uptake and translocation than L69. Furthermore, Cd uptake through symplasmic pathway and Cd concentrations in xylem sap were both higher in H18 than those in L69. Root anatomy observation found the endodermal apoplasmic barriers were much stronger in L69, which may restrict the Cd loading into xylem. The molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-physiological traits were further dissected by comparative transcriptome analysis. Many genes involved in cell wall modification and heavy metal transport were found to be Cd-responsive DEGs and/or DEGs between these two genotypes. KEGG pathway analysis found phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was over-represented, indicating this pathway may play important roles in differential Cd accumulation between two genotypes. Based on these results, a schematic representation of main processes involved in differential Cd uptake and translocation in H18 and L69 is proposed, which suggests that higher Cd accumulation in H18 depends on a multilevel coordination of efficient Cd uptake and transport, including efficient root uptake and xylem loading, less root cell wall binding, and weaker endodermal apoplasmic barriers. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Increased mobilization and yield of stem cells using plerixafor in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M Pelus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Louis M Pelus1, Sherif S Farag21Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 2Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IndianaAbstract: Multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma remain the most common indications for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue. While a CD34+ cell dose of 1 × 106/kg is considered the minimum required for engraftment, higher CD34+ doses correlate with improved outcome. Numerous studies, however, support targeting a minimum CD34+ cell dose of 2.0 × 106/kg, and an “optimal” dose of 4 to 6 × 106/kg for a single transplant. Unfortunately, up to 40% of patients fail to mobilize an optimal CD34+ cell dose using myeloid growth factors alone. Plerixafor is a novel reversible inhibitor of CXCR4 that significantly increases the mobilization and collection of higher numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Two randomized multi-center clinical trials in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma have demonstrated that the addition of plerixafor to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor increases the mobilization and yield of CD34+ cells in fewer apheresis days, which results in durable engraftment. This review summarizes the pharmacology and evidence for the clinical efficacy of plerixafor in mobilizing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and discusses potential ways to utilize plerixafor in a cost-effective manner in patients with these diseases.Keywords: plerixafor, mobilization, stem cells, lymphoma, myeloma

  17. 生态因子对玉米产量构成因素的调控作用%Studies on Regulating Effects of Ecological Factors on the Yield- related traits in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓华

    2000-01-01

    Regulating effects of ecological factors such as planting density, fertilizer, water and photointensity on the yield - related traits in Maize were studied by the methods of combination of field - growth with por - growth. The results are as follows: raising density can cause the decrease of chlorophyll content, leaf area and dry weight per plant. The effects of density and the interaction of density with fertilizer on the grain number per ear reached high significant levels(F = 55.08 * *, F = 70.30 * * ).The effect of P fertilizer is less than that of density(F = 7.33 * ). Grain weight and grain number per ear was reduced 44.66 % and 52.32 % under drought from silking to 6 days after silking respectivily. Abortive grains were increased 443.85% and 100 - grain weight was decreased 21.81% from 12 to 17 days after silking. Photointensity on ear position and low leaf layer were correlated and regressed significantly to grain traits.

  18. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  19. Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Poudyal, D; Chen, X M

    2011-05-01

    Climatic variation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) affects epidemics of wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Previous models only estimated disease severity at the flowering stage, which may not predict the actual yield loss. To identify weather factors correlated to stripe rust epidemics and develop models for predicting potential yield loss, correlation and regression analyses were conducted using weather parameters and historical yield loss data from 1993 to 2007 for winter wheat and 1995 to 2007 for spring wheat. Among 1,376 weather variables, 54 were correlated to yield loss of winter wheat and 18 to yield loss of spring wheat. Among the seasons, winter temperature variables were more highly correlated to wheat yield loss than the other seasons. The sum of daily temperatures and accumulated negative degree days of February were more highly correlated to winter wheat yield loss than the other monthly winter variables. In addition, the number of winter rainfall days was found correlated with yield loss. Six yield loss models were selected for each of winter and spring wheats based on their better correlation coefficients, time of weather data availability during the crop season, and better performance in validation tests. Compared with previous models, the new system of using a series of the selected models has advantages that should make it more suitable for forecasting and managing stripe rust in the major wheat growing areas in the U.S. PNW, where the weather conditions have become more favorable to stripe rust.

  20. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  1. Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and second order factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, MANOVA, ... This does not mean that the high levels of violence, crime and abuse that are aggravated by socio economic factors such as poverty, unemployment, corruption, ...

  2. Factors of schizoid personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Allbutt, J

    1989-02-01

    The increasing use of schizoid personality scales with normals has led to a number of validation studies, but to date there are no published analyses of the factorial structure of these scales. This study presents results of factor analyses of schizoid personality scales in an initial attempt to delineate their factorial structure. Questionnaires were administered to 114 male and female undergraduates and factor analysed using Varimax, Quartimax, and Oblique rotations. A two-factor varimax solution yielded a first factor accounting for 49 per cent of total unrotated variance with high (0.70 to 0.91) loadings from Hallucinatory predisposition, Perceptual aberration, Schizophrenism, STA and STB scales, and was interpreted as reflecting a general factor of schizoid personality disorder. Psychoticism and Social anhedonia loaded on a second factor accounting for 20 per cent of the variance which was uncorrelated (r = 0.09) with factor 1. This factor solution was closely replicated using quartimax and oblimin rotation criteria. It is concluded that Social anhedonia and Psychoticism represent a separate dimension from other scales which reflect the more positive features of schizoid personality.

  3. Yields of rotating stars at solar metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, R; Maeder, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a new set of stellar yields obtained from rotating stellar models at solar metallicity covering the massive star range (12-60 solar masses). The stellar models were calculated with the latest version of the Geneva stellar evolution code described in Hirschi et al (2004). Evolution and nucleosynthesis are in general followed up to silicon burning. The yields of our non-rotating models are consistent with other calculations and differences can be understood in the light of the treatment of convection and the rate used for C12(a,g)O16. This verifies the accuracy of our calculations and gives a safe basis for studying the effects of rotation on the yields. The contributions from stellar winds and supernova explosions to the stellar yields are presented separately. We then add the two contributions to compute the total stellar yields. Below about 30 solar masses, rotation increases the total metal yields, Z, and in particular the yields of carbon and oxygen by a factor of 1.5-2.5. As a rule of thumb, th...

  4. Human Factors Engineering Data Base Development for Armored Combat Vehicles and Analyses of Three NATO Tank Systems. Volume 3. Human Factors Engineering Analysis of the British Chieftain Main Battle Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-03

    Commander’s Hatch nure -’. ommanoer- ; ar.cn. Haiter Handle. ind Comnat .-cc:, - .. .. m - . . . . ° : - THE BDM CORPORATION BDM/ABQ-86-0608-TR U 23 inches...3, 1986 8 0MIABQ-86-0608-TR I 86 8 7 089 Smm • ’ THE BDM CORPORATION 1801 Randoiph Road, S.E, Albuquerque, NM 87106 0 (505) 848-5000 _ _. I. * HUMAN...5 % 5-| THE BDM CORPORATION BDM/ABQ-86-O608-TR TABLE OF CONTENTSR Chapter Page I HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE BRITISH CHIEFTAIN MAIN

  5. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Correlation, Wheat; growth, yield, yield components, grain quality. INTRODUCTION. Wheat ... macaroni, biscuits, cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous; beer, many .... and 6 WAS which ensured weed free plots. Fertilizer was ...

  6. Effects of Different Plant Distances on Yield and Yield Factors of Capsicum annuum L. in Sunlight Greenhouse%不同株距处理对日光温室辣椒产量构成因素及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦国信

    2012-01-01

      In this paper, we analyzed the total fruit number, average fruit weight, early yield and total yield of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under four different plant distances. The results showed that, as the decrease of the plant distance, the total fruit number increased, but the average fruit weight declined, while the early yield and total yield showed a unimodal curve. And the most feasible plant distance was 25 cm to obtain higher economic benefits at New Year's Day and the Spring Festival.%  通过对4个不同株距处理下辣椒总结果数、平均单果质量、产期产量和总产量的分析得出,随着株距的减小,辣椒总结果数逐渐增加,而平均单果质量逐渐下降,前期产量和总产量呈单峰曲线,为追求元旦及春节市场的较高价格,最适宜的株距为25 cm.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  8. Poor farmers - poor yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Baijukya, F.; Kantengwa, S.; Reckling, M.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Climbing bean is the key staple legume crop in the highlands of East and Central Africa. We assessed the impact of interactions between soil fertility characteristics, crop management and socio-economic factors, such as household resource endowment and gender of the farmer, on climbing bean

  9. Poor farmers - poor yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Baijukya, F.; Kantengwa, S.; Reckling, M.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Climbing bean is the key staple legume crop in the highlands of East and Central Africa. We assessed the impact of interactions between soil fertility characteristics, crop management and socio-economic factors, such as household resource endowment and gender of the farmer, on climbing bean producti

  10. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  11. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    many factors including genetic, agronomic and environmental factors (Ara et al., .... The interaction effect of cultivar, inter and intra-row spacing for canopy width was ... reported the highest total fruit yield of potato cultivars was obtained at closer spacing .... To Evaluate Physiological Traits In Genotypes of Horticulture Crops.

  12. Maximizing ROI with yield management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil Snyder

    2001-01-01

    .... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...

  13. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  14. An algorithm that predicts the viability and the yield of human hepatocytes isolated from remnant liver pieces obtained from liver resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serene M L; Schelcher, Celine; Laubender, Rüdiger P; Fröse, Natalja; Thasler, Reinhard M K; Schiergens, Tobias S; Mansmann, Ulrich; Thasler, Wolfgang E

    2014-01-01

    Isolated human primary hepatocytes are an essential in vitro model for basic and clinical research. For successful application as a model, isolated hepatocytes need to have a good viability and be available in sufficient yield. Therefore, this study aims to identify donor characteristics, intra-operative factors, tissue processing and cell isolation parameters that affect the viability and yield of human hepatocytes. Remnant liver pieces from tissue designated as surgical waste were collected from 1034 donors with informed consent. Human hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion technique with modifications and hepatocyte yield and viability were subsequently determined. The accompanying patient data was collected and entered into a database. Univariate analyses found that the viability and the yield of hepatocytes were affected by many of the variables examined. Multivariate analyses were then carried out to confirm the factors that have a significant relationship with the viability and the yield. It was found that the viability of hepatocytes was significantly decreased by the presence of fibrosis, liver fat and with increasing gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and bilirubin content. Yield was significantly decreased by the presence of liver fat, septal fibrosis, with increasing aspartate aminotransferase activity, cold ischemia times and weight of perfused liver. However, yield was significantly increased by chemotherapy treatment. In conclusion, this study determined the variables that have a significant effect on the viability and the yield of isolated human hepatocytes. These variables have been used to generate an algorithm that can calculate projected viability and yield of isolated human hepatocytes. In this way, projected viability can be determined even before isolation of hepatocytes, so that donors that result in high viability and yield can be identified. Further, if the viability and yield of the isolated hepatocytes is lower

  15. Genetic relationship between yield and yield components of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and yield components, in S1 and HS progenies of one early synthetic maize population. Grain yield was in high significant, medium strong and strong association with all studied yield components, in both populations. The strongest correlation was recorded between grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (S1 progenies rg = 0.684; HS progenies rg = 0.633. Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic coefficient of correlations were found between 1000-kernel weight and kernel depth in S1 population, and 1000-kernel weight and ear length in HS population. Also, objective of this research was founding the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for 1000-kernel weight and kernel row number, and in S1 and HS progenies, and for ear length in population of S1 progenies. Kernel depth has undesirable direct effect on grain yield, in both populations.

  16. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  17. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  18. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza yadavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  19. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  20. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Šančevi (Region of Vojvodina and Kula (Central Serbia show that the new confectionary hybrids are expressing higher seed yields in comparison to standards (Vranac and Cepko though with a lower seed oil content. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed yield and seed protein content, kernel content and mass of 1000 seeds. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed protein content, seed yield and mass of 1000 seeds, with protein yield. This indicates that seed yield, seed protein content and mass of 1000 seeds have a high influence on protein yield. The degree of interdependence between different traits is a sign of direction which is supposed to facilitate better planning of sunflower breeding program.

  1. Refinement and evaluation of the Massachusetts firm-yield estimator model version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Massey, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The firm yield is the maximum average daily withdrawal that can be extracted from a reservoir without risk of failure during an extended drought period. Previously developed procedures for determining the firm yield of a reservoir were refined and applied to 38 reservoir systems in Massachusetts, including 25 single- and multiple-reservoir systems that were examined during previous studies and 13 additional reservoir systems. Changes to the firm-yield model include refinements to the simulation methods and input data, as well as the addition of several scenario-testing capabilities. The simulation procedure was adapted to run at a daily time step over a 44-year simulation period, and daily streamflow and meteorological data were compiled for all the reservoirs for input to the model. Another change to the model-simulation methods is the adjustment of the scaling factor used in estimating groundwater contributions to the reservoir. The scaling factor is used to convert the daily groundwater-flow rate into a volume by multiplying the rate by the length of reservoir shoreline that is hydrologically connected to the aquifer. Previous firm-yield analyses used a constant scaling factor that was estimated from the reservoir surface area at full pool. The use of a constant scaling factor caused groundwater flows during periods when the reservoir stage was very low to be overestimated. The constant groundwater scaling factor used in previous analyses was replaced with a variable scaling factor that is based on daily reservoir stage. This change reduced instability in the groundwater-flow algorithms and produced more realistic groundwater-flow contributions during periods of low storage. Uncertainty in the firm-yield model arises from many sources, including errors in input data. The sensitivity of the model to uncertainty in streamflow input data and uncertainty in the stage-storage relation was examined. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed on 22 reservoirs

  2. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150,000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Emberson, Jonathan; Alegre-Díaz, Jesús; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Whitlock, Gary

    2009-01-09

    While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. From 1998-2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged > or =35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common - for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65-74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65-74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men - the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35-54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35-54 were obese (i.e. BMI > or =30 kg/m2). The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure > or =140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65-74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  3. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G. Zielke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield. A highly significant effect (corrected p-value =3.362 x10-4 was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the estimated breeding value for milk fat yield in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72% and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analysed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF-region affecting the milk fat yield. The fat yield increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF-region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers: population genetic analyses and association of genotypes with reproductive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Vanleeuwen, D M; DeAtley, K L; Islas-Trejo, A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-04-01

    The growth endocrine axis influences reproduction. The objectives of this study were to evaluate population genetic characteristics of SNP genotypes within genes of the GH-IGF axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers (n = 650) and to test the association of these genotypes with measures of reproduction. These objectives were achieved using 73 SNP within 7 genes on chromosome 5 and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) and GH-receptor genes, which map to chromosomes 16 and 20, respectively. The SNP were elucidated by resequencing conserved regions of each gene by using DNA from familial-unrelated cattle of a multibreed discovery population. A multiplex SNP assay yielded 59 biallelic SNP useful for evaluating genetic identity and distance. Specifically, the divergence of straightbred Brahman cattle was approximately 15.5% from 5 Bos taurus-influenced breed groups. In the straightbred groups used as a validation population, only 3 SNP had minor allele frequencies >10%. These SNP were in the genes PAPP-A2 (ss115492449-A/C and ss115492450-G/T within intron 10) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 2 (STAT2; ss252841035-A/G within the 5' untranslated region), and they met the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.31). The other 56 SNP were useful for assigning each animal into ancestral clusters (n = 3 proportions) to account for population stratification in genotype to phenotype association analyses. The 2 SNP in the PAPP-A2 gene influenced (P < 0.05) traits indicative of first-calf heifer rebreeding (i.e., calving interval, days to calving, and pregnancy rate). A STAT2 SNP genotype (i.e., GG) × primary ancestral cluster interaction (P < 0.05) suggested heifers primarily of B. taurus ancestry had a reduction of approximately 16.4 ± 0.1% in calving interval and days to calving relative to heifers clustering primarily as Bos indicus ancestry. Even though additional research is needed to

  5. Domain analyses of the Runx1 transcription factor responsible for modulating T-cell receptor-β/CD4 and interleukin-4/interferon-γ expression in CD4+ peripheral T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Ryuji

    2009-01-01

    The Runx1 transcription factor is one of the master regulators of T-lymphocyte differentiation. There have been several reports trying to assign a domain within the Runx1 protein that is responsible for gene expression in thymocytes. The Runx1 domains involved in regulating the expression of several genes in peripheral CD4+ T cells were analysed. It was observed that Runx1 over-expression enhanced the surface expression of CD4 and CD69 molecules via its activation domain and VWRPY domain, and decreased that of T-cell receptor-β via its activation domain. Runx1 over-expression enhanced interferon-γ expression via its activation and VWRPY domains, and abolished interleukin-4 expression through its activation domain. Transduction of Runx1 did not down-regulate CD4 expression until 72 hr of culture, but the repression of CD4 expression became evident after 96 hr. The main region responsible for repressing CD4 expression was the inhibitory domain of Runx1. Taken together, these results lead to a proposal that the regions in Runx1 responsible for modulating gene expression are distinct in thymocytes and in peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:19689732

  6. 股票未来收益相关因素的多重对应分析%The Multiple Correspondence Analyses on the Related Factors of the Future Stock Return

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2016-01-01

    Using the method of the multiple correspondence analyses, the paper makes an empirical analysis on the factors affect-ing the future income stock. The results finds that the small cap stocks with the high rate of return on net assets, high earnings quali-ty, and low ratio of book to market are easier to obtain high future excess returns, and the ratio of book to market and the size of a company effect the future stock returns more than the earnings per share and return on net assets. The above analysis has a certain reference to the investment analysis.%本文运用多重对应分析方法对股票未来收益的影响因素进行实证分析,结果发现高净资产收益率、高盈余质量、低账面市值比的小盘股票更容易获得高的未来超额收益率,而且账面市值比和公司规模对股票未来收益率的影响大于每股收益和净资产收益率。这对投资分析有一定的借鉴作用。

  7. Effect of Nitrogen and Boron in Seed Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrient is one of the limiting factors affecting crop production. Nitrogen and boron are major nutrients in case of broccoli. So, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and boron in seed yield and yield attributing characters of broccoli in Rampur, Chitwan during winter season. The experiment was laid out in factorial RCBD design with four levels of nitrogen and two levels of boron. Each plot consists of 25 plants which were separated by 60 * 60 cm spacing. There are altogether eight treatments replicates thrice. Local variety Calabrese was used. Significant effect of different dose of nitrogen and boron on yield attributing characters was found. Also interactive effect of nitrogen and boron in number of pods, pod length, seed yield and number of seeds per pod was found significantly different.

  8. Grain yield, net blotch and scald of barley in Finnish official variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ROBINSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on grain yield, and terminal severity of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis from Finnish official barley (Hordeum vulgare variety trials were analysed to indicate the pattern of disease incidence over six years and five sites for nineteen barley genotypes, and the effect of the diseases on yield and the genotype by environment interaction for yield. The effect of climatic factors on net blotch severity were also investigated. The genotype by site interaction for net blotch severity was not statistically significant, but that for yield was. Net blotch severity differed between years, but was similar across sites and there were statistically significant first order interactions between year, site and genotype. 'Saana' and 'Thule' had relatively low mean terminal net blotch scores and their reaction to the disease was less sensitive to the environment than was that of 'Tyra' for example. Analysis of yield data adjusted for net blotch severity indicated that the magnitude of the genotype by environment interaction terms were not accounted for to any significant degree by differences in relative net blotch resistances among the barley genotypes. Overall, mean scores for scald severity were lower than those for net blotch. Terminal net blotch severity was correlated with May rainfall and growing degree days.;

  9. The effect of irrigation times and animal manure on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad ghanbari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cumin (Cuminum cyminum is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran’s dry region. Animal manure in soil prepares essential elements, enhance moisture capacity on soil and increase plant yield. To study the effects of irrigation times and animal manure on yield and yield components of cumin, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during years 2003 – 2004 based on a randomized complete block design in factorial with four replications. Factors including irrigation times (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and animal manure (F1: without animal manure, F2: with 20 tons/ha animal manure. By useing animal manure, biological yield and seed yield were increased. I2F2 had the highest number of umbers per plant, seed yield, biological yield and the lowest 1000 seeds weight and number of seeds per umber. Differences between I1F2, I2F1 and I3F1 were not significant. The result showed that animal manure decreased irrigation times. Among treatments, I1F1 had the lowest yield and its components. Seed yield and biological yield had positeive correlation with number of umber per plant and number of seeds per plant. It showed that numbers of umber per plant is the most important factor on cumin yield.

  10. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.I.

    1967-01-01

    Specific yield is defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water that a saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to (2) the total volume of the rock or soft. Specific yield is usually expressed as a percentage. The value is not definitive, because the quantity of water that will drain by gravity depends on variables such as duration of drainage, temperature, mineral composition of the water, and various physical characteristics of the rock or soil under consideration. Values of specific yields nevertheless offer a convenient means by which hydrologists can estimate the water-yielding capacities of earth materials and, as such, are very useful in hydrologic studies. The present report consists mostly of direct or modified quotations from many selected reports that present and evaluate methods for determining specific yield, limitations of those methods, and results of the determinations made on a wide variety of rock and soil materials. Although no particular values are recommended in this report, a table summarizes values of specific yield, and their averages, determined for 10 rock textures. The following is an abstract of the table. [Table

  11. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  12. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  13. Global streamflows Part 2: Reservoir storage yield performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Thomas A.; Vogel, Richard M.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.; Peel, Murray C.; Etkin, Derek

    2007-12-01

    SummaryThis is the second of three papers describing hydrologic analyses of monthly and annual streamflow data for a global set of 729 unregulated rivers with at least 25 years of continuous data. Capacity estimates of hypothetical reservoirs are computed for each river using the Sequent Peak Algorithm (SPA), Behaviour analysis and the Gould-Dincer Gamma procedure. Based on SPA and Behaviour procedures, empirical relationships relating reservoir capacity and yield were developed which accounted for 87-96% of the variance in capacity estimates across the global data set of monthly streamflows. The theoretical Gould-Dincer Gamma procedure was also shown to be a suitable technique to estimate reservoir capacity-yield relationships. It is noted that the three procedures are based on different definitions of supply reliability. Continental variations of the estimated capacities under equivalent conditions are examined. Reservoir performance measures - reliability, resilience and dimensionless vulnerability - are computed and their continental variations described. As a result of these analyses a number of differences are noted about the performance of reservoirs across continental regions. For example, the median continental reservoir capacity as a ratio of the mean annual flow varied by a factor of 9 across the continental regions. Furthermore, based on the reliability metric as an example of reservoir performance, high reliabilities occur in the South Pacific and Europe, slightly less reliable systems in North and South America, lower still in northern Africa, followed by Australia and the lowest value in southern Africa. This distribution follows inversely with the coefficient of variation of annual streamflow between continents.

  14. A Methodology to Infer Crop Yield Response to Climate Variability and Change Using Long-Term Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Lange

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology to extract crop yield response to climate variability and change from long-term crop yield observations is presented in this study. In contrast to the existing first-difference approach (FDA, the proposed methodology considers that the difference in value between crop yields of two consecutive years reflects necessarily the contributions of climate and management conditions, especially at large spatial scales where both conditions may vary significantly from one year to the next. Our approach was applied to remove the effect of non-climatic factors on crop yield and, hence, to isolate the effect of the observed climate change between 1961 and 2006 on three widely crops grown in three Mediterranean countries—namely wheat, corn and potato—using national-level crop yield observations’ time-series. Obtained results show that the proposed methodology provides us with a ground basis to improve substantially our understanding of crop yield response to climate change at a scale that is relevant to large-scale estimations of agricultural production and to food security analyses; and therefore to reduce uncertainties in estimations of potential climate change effects on agricultural production. Furthermore, a comparison of outputs of our methodology and FDA outputs yielded a difference in terms of maize production in Egypt, for example, that exceeds the production of some neighbouring countries.

  15. 光合作用与相关因素对小麦生长及产量的影响%Effects of photosynthesis and related factors on wheat production and yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旺杰次仁

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of photosynthesis on wheat yield,especially the relation-ship between photosynthesis rate and grain yield of wheat [1].In this paper,through the discussion of Fertilization on Photosynthesis and different tillage on wheat flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency and wheat root extended depth of flag leaf senescence and photosynthetic product dis-tribution of summary of the impact of the photosynthesis of wheat on the yield variation,and introduces the wheat most production from photosynthesis[2],and photosynthesis in the late period of wheat growth contribution to grain can reach above 80%[3].And tell us,in the actual production process,to take the best cultivation and management measures,so as to achieve a higher yield.%本文重点介绍光合作用对小麦产量的影响,特别是光合速率与小麦籽粒饱满度之间的关系[1]。本文通过论述施肥对光合作用的影响、不同耕作方式对小麦旗叶光合特性和水分利用效率的影响以及小麦根系扩展深度对旗叶衰老及光合产物分配的影响综述了小麦的光合作用对产量变化,并介绍小麦的绝大部分产量来自于光合作用[2],以及光合作用在小麦生育后期对籽粒的贡献可达80以上%[3]。并告诉我们,在实际的生产过程中,要采取最佳栽培与管理措施,从而达到更高的产量。

  16. Cheese yield in Brazil: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    SALES,Danielle Cavalcanti; RANGEL,Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; Urbano,Stela Antas; BORGES,Kátia Cristina; ANDRADE NETO,Júlio César de; Bruna Maria Emerenciano CHAGAS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk qual...

  17. Effects of Planting Dates on Yield and Yield Components of Four Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soheyli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effect of fall and winter planting dates on phenological and morphological traits, yield and yield components of four cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. landraces, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Agricultural College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2005-06 growing season. Four planting dates (11th Nov., 11th Dec., 20th Feb. and 17th Mar. were allocated to main plots and four landraces (Ghayen, Torbat-e-heidariyeh, Sabzevar and Khaf were assigned to sub plots. The results indicated that the effects of planting date, landrace and interaction effect of these two factors on plant height, percent of plant survival after winter, yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were significant. With respect to plant height, there was no difference between fall (11th Nov. and 11th Dec. and winter (20th Feb. planting dates, while plant height in the fourth planting date (17th Mar. decreased severely. The lowest percent of plant survival was observed in the fall sowing dates, while the third and fourth plantings had no plant mortality, for not exposing to cold conditions. The maximum percent of plant survival belonged to Ghayen and Khaf landraces with 85% and 84% respectively, and Torbat-e-heidariyeh had the lowest percent of plant survival with 59%. The greatest number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, 1000 seeds weight and seeds weight per plant were achieved in the first planting date. Despite priority of the first planting date in yield components over other planting dates, the greatest seed yield and biological yield observed in the third planting date (20th Feb.. With regard to seed yield and biological yield, Ghayen in the third planting and Torbat-e-heidariyeh in the first planting had the greatest and the lowest yields, respectively. Since the fall and winter planting dates led to

  18. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  19. Understanding Human Error Based on Automated Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a report on a continuing study of automated analyses of experiential textual reports to gain insight into the causal factors of human errors in aviation...

  20. Combining ability of highland tropic adapted potato for tuber yield and yield components under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirut, Betaw; Shimelis, Hussein; Fentahun, Mengistu; Bonierbale, Merideth; Gastelo, Manuel; Asfaw, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development. Sixteen advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population were crossed in two sets using the North Carolina Design II. The resulting 32 families were evaluated together with five checks and 12 parental clones in a 7 x 7 lattice design with two water regimes and two replications. The experiment was carried out at Adet, in northwest Ethiopia under well-watered and water stressed conditions with terminal drought imposed from the tuber bulking stage. The results showed highly significant differences between families, checks, and parents for growth, physiological, and tuber yield related traits. Traits including marketable tuber yield, marketable tuber number, average tuber weight and groundcover were positively correlated with total tuber yield under both drought stressed and well-watered conditions. Plant height was correlated with yield only under drought stressed condition. GCA was more important than SCA for total tuber yield, marketable tuber yield, average tuber weight, plant height, groundcover, and chlorophyll content under stress. This study identified the parents with best GCA and the combinations with best SCA effects, for both tuber yield and drought tolerance related traits. The new population is shown to be a valuable genetic resource for variety selection and improvement of potato

  1. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138 and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar and leaf

  2. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  3. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  4. Water Yield and Sediment Yield Simulations for Teba Catchment in Spain Using SWRRB Model: Ⅰ. Model Input and Simulation Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water yield and sediment yield in the Teba catchment, Spain, were simulated using SWRRB (Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins) model. The model is composed of 198 mathematical equations. About 120 items (variables) were input for the simulation, including meteorological and climatic factors, hydrologic factors, topographic factors, parent materials, soils, vegetation, human activities, etc. The simulated results involved surface runoff, subsurface runoff, sediment, peak flow, evapotranspiration, soil water, total biomass,etc. Careful and thorough input data preparation and repeated simulation experiments are the key to get the accurate results. In this work the simulation accuracy for annual water yield prediction reached to 83.68%.``

  5. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Jocić Siniša; Miklič Vladimir; Saftić-Panković Dejana; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2011-01-01

    The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Sancevi (Region of Vojvodina) and Kula (Central Serbia) show t...

  6. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge. METHOD: Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls. RESULTS: The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or

  7. Yield constraints of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.; Tuong, T.P.; Jatmiko, S.Y.; Burac, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The low and unstable yields of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java can be attributed to drought, nutrient stress, pest infestation or a combination of these factors. Field experiments were conducted in six crop seasons from 1997 to 2000 at Jakenan Experiment Station to quantify the yield loss due t

  8. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under ... At the same ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the ..... selected factors on the milk yield, somatic cells content and chemical.

  9. Economic analyses of agricultural co-substrates for use in biogas plants; Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen zum Einsatz landwirtschaftlicher Kosubstrate in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, P.; Ploechl, M.; Heiermann, M. [Inst. fuer Agrartechnik Bornim, Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislaeufe, Potsdam (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The study analyses the effect of different factors (yields, production costs, methane yields, amount of co-substrates, investment costs and economies of scale) on the profitability of crops as inputs in biogas production plants. The profitability of silages from perennial ryegrass, alfalfa, maize and barley varies mainly within positive economic results, while rapeseed, hemp and topinambur mainly present a range of negative results. Fresh rye and silages from rye and wheat show equal positive and negative variation of results. Even the economic result of biogas plants is determined by investment costs, the sum of effects resulting from variations of yields, co-substrate production costs, amount of co-substrates, methane yields and economies of scales is decisive for the profitability of biogas plants. (orig.)

  10. Yield mapping, soil fertility and tree gaps in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Molin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current high competition on Citrus industry demands from growers new management technologies for superior efficiency and sustainability. In this context, precision agriculture (PA has developed techniques based on yield mapping and management systems that recognize field spatial variability, which contribute to increase profitability of commercial crops. Because spatial variability is often not perceived the orange orchards are still managed as uniform and adoption of PA technology on citrus farms is low. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability of three factors: fruit yield, soil fertility and occurrence of plant gaps caused by either citrus blight or huanglongbing (HLB in a commercial Valencia orchard in Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data from volume, geographic coordinates and representative area of the bags used on harvest were recorded to generate yield points that were then interpolated to produce the yield map. Soil chemical characteristics were studied by analyzing samples collected along planting rows and inter-rows in 24 points distributed in the field. A map of density of tree gaps was produced by georeferencing individual gaps and later by counting the number of gaps within 500 m² cells. Data were submitted to statistical and geostatistical analyses. A t test was used to compare means of soil chemical characteristics between sampling regions. High variation on yield and density of tree gaps was observed from the maps. It was also demonstrated overlapping regions of high density of plant absence and low fruit yield. Soil fertility varied depending on the sampling region in the orchard. The spatial variability found on yield, soil fertility and on disease occurrence demonstrated the importance to adopt site specific nutrient management and disease control as tools to guarantee efficiency of fruit production.

  11. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  12. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  13. Using the Yield Curve in Forecasting Output Growth and In‡flation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Huang, Huiyu; Lee, Tae-Hwy

    Following Diebold and Li (2006), we use the Nelson-Siegel (NS, 1987) yield curve factors. However the NS yield curve factors are not supervised for a specifi…c forecast target in the sense that the same factors are used for forecasting different variables, e.g., output growth or infl‡ation. We...... propose a modifed NS factor model, where the new NS yield curve factors are supervised for a specifi…c variable to forecast. We show it outperforms the conventional (non-supervised) NS factor model in out-of-sample forecasting of monthly US output growth and infl‡ation. The original NS yield factor model...... is to combine information (CI) of predictors and uses factors of predictors (yield curve). The new supervised NS factor model is to combine forecasts (CF) and uses factors of forecasts of output growth or infl‡ation conditional on the yield curve. We formalize the concept of supervision, and demonstrate...

  14. 温州市小学生超重肥胖现状及其影响因素分析%Prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou city and the analyses of the risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俐挺; 王黎荔; 山若青; 林莺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou City in Zhejiang Province, and to explore their relative risk factors. Methods Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 9035 children from the primary schools in Wenzhou City for the anthropometric measurements. 369 obesity cases and their paired controls of 389 children were chosen based on the large sample investigation. Diet and lifestyle factors were investigated in the nested case-control study for following logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 11.2% and 6.4% , respectively. Male group had higher prevalence than female (P < 0. 05 ) . High frequency of vegetable intake, milk and dairy products intake, more physical activity were the benefit factors for preventing obesity (multi-variable logistic regression analysis, OR =0.770, 0.821, 0.697 and 0. 567 , P = 0. 033 , 0. 037 , 0. 017 and 0. 008 , respectively) , whereas longer sedentary behavior was the risk factor of obesity (OR = 1. 583 , P = 0. 003 ) . Conclusions The prevalence of both overweight and obesity in students from the primary schools were high in Wenzhou city, and were highly related to the diet habit and physical activity.%目的 了解浙江省温州市小学生超重肥胖的流行现状,探讨肥胖的危险因素.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法抽取9035例温州市小学生进行体格检查,选取其中369例肥胖儿童作为病例组,并配以同班级同性别的正常体重学生389例作为对照组,开展病例-对照研究,进行膳食、身体活动方式等相关因素的Logistic 回归分析.结果 温州市小学生总体超重率和肥胖率分别为11.2%和6.4%,男性高于女性(P<0.05).蔬菜摄入频率高、奶类及其制品摄入频率高、每日运动时间长和每日睡眠时间充足分别为肥胖的保护性因素(多因素Logistic回归分析,OR值分别为0

  15. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  16. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing the Yield of Bond-type Financial Products%债券型理财产品收益率影响因素的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁洁

    2014-01-01

    The paper, based on the theory of Asset Management and taking the expected rate of return of the bond-type financial products issued from February to April during 2014 as the research object, conducts an empirical research using the appropriate methods of quantitative analysis, and Eviews3.1. It's found that the yield of bond-type financial products is positively related with the increasing unit of principal amount, the investment period and the bank size but is passively related with the termination of the agreement made by the bank in advance. This fixed type financial product is expected to yield lower than non floating type financial products. On the basis of the model obtained, relevant policy recommendations are made.%以资产管理理论为基础,以2014年2-4月发行的债券型理财产品预期收益率为研究对象,采用合适计量分析方法,运用Eviews3.1进行实证研究,得出债券型理财产品收益率与委托金额递增单位、投资期限、银行规模正相关,与银行提前终止协议负相关,保本固定较非保本浮动预期收益率低,依据所得模型给出相关政策建议。

  17. Multiaxial yield behaviour of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the yield behavior of polypropylene as a function of pressure and to verify the applicability of the Drucker-Prager yield function, various tests were conducted to cover a wide range of stress states from uniaxial tension and compression to multiaxial tension and confined compression. Tests were performed below and above the glass transition temperature, to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature. The pressure sensitivity coefficient as an intrinsic material parameter was determined as a function of temperature. Increasing pressure sensitivity values were found with increasing temperature, which can be related to the change in the free volume and thus, to the enhanced molecular mobility. A best-fit Drucker-Prager yield function was applied to the experimental yield stresses and an average error between the predictions and the measurements of 7 % was obtained.

  18. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  19. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  20. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.A.; Luyten, J.W.; Scheerens, J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  1. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    . Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  2. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  3. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  4. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  5. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  6. Effects of Chemical Treatment on the Wheat Take-all Control and the Wheat Yield Factor%药剂处理对小麦全蚀病防效及其产量因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫国

    2012-01-01

    Chemical soil treatment and seed dressing had a good control effect on wheat take-all and also could affect the wheat yield. Different chemical soil treatments, like Jianshixiao, 70% Thiophanate Methyl or 50% Carbendazim, could delay damage symptoms of secondary roots about 8~10 days compared with the control group, and the control effects of them were 57.4%, 32.9%, 21.8% respectively; their control effects of the late dry ear rates were 72.0%, 66.6%, 56.0% respectively compared with the control dry ear rate 0.75%; the yield increased 31.1%, 22.3%, 18.6% respectively compared with the yield of the control group. Compared with the control group, Jianhebao could delay damage symptoms of roots 12 days, while other seed dressing methods could delay 16~18 days; the research on the damage degree of the secondary roots indicated that the average control effect was 90.6% in the comprehensive treatment area, and the average control effects of 3% Dividend, 2.5% Celest, 12.5% Latitude, 3% Dividend with 2.5% Celest, 6% Raxil or Jianhebao were 75.7%, 51.2%, 83.3%, 66.4%, 81.7%, 57.4% respectively; compared with the control group, the average control effect of the late dry ear rates were 85.3%, 80.0%, 97.3%, 78.6%, 84.0%, 52.0% respectively; seed dressing with 2.5% Celest produced the highest yield, while seed dressing with 12.5% Latitude produced low yield.%研究结果表明,采用药剂土壤处理和药剂拌种对小麦全蚀病[Gaeumanonomyces graminis (Sacc.)ArX& Olivier var.tritici J.Walker]均表现出较好防效,对小麦产量也有明显影响.不同药剂土壤处理与对照相比,次生根受害症状表现推迟8~10d,剑蚀消、70%甲基托布津和50%多菌灵防效分别为57.4%、32.9%和21.8%,后期枯穗率与对照枯穗率(0.75%)相比,防效分别为72.0%、66.6%和56.0%;产量与对照相比,分别增产31.1%、22.3%和18.6%.不同药剂拌种处理与对照相比,健禾保根部受害症状表现推迟12d

  7. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought and its impact on maize yield in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Cailin; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun

    2017-10-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought has become an important factor that affects the maize yield in China. To analyse the impact of drought on maize yield loss in Northeast China in current and future climate scenarios, the Composite Meteorological Drought Index (CI) is introduced to reconstruct the following drought indicators: drought accumulative days (DAD), drought accumulative intensity (DAI), and consecutive drought days (CDD). These three drought indicators are used to describe the three-dimensional characteristics of drought in this study. Sen's slope method and three-dimensional copula functions are adopted to analyse the variety of drought features, and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is used to analyse the variations in maize yield. A temporal assessment of the standardized yield residuals series (SYRS) of maize from 1961 to 2014 is conducted. A panel regression model is applied to demonstrate the drought impact on maize yield at various growth stages under the RCP4.5 scenario. The results show that the drought risk level for midwest Jilin Province, western Liaoning, and eastern Heilongjiang increase with global warming in the current scenario. The shorter three-dimensional joint return periods, 44-80 yr, were mainly located in western Jilin Province, Liaodong Peninsula, and northwestern Liaoning. Eastern Heilongjiang has a slightly longer joint return period of 80-100 yr. The SYRS shows a strong statistical correlation with drought indicator variations; drought-prone regions exhibit strong positive correlations. In comparison, excess precipitation regions show strong negative correlations with drought indicators in most growth stages. Drought indicators have a relatively strong association with SYRS at the milky-mature maize growth stage, and the occurrence of drought during this period primarily determines the maize yield changes in the future. Maize yield changes are -2.04%, -2.65% and -1.57% for Liaoning, Jilin, and

  8. Validation of Methods for Determining Consumer Smoked Cigarette Yields from Cigarette Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepperd CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods based on the analyses of cigarette filters have been used to estimate ‘tar’ and nicotine yields to smokers. These methods rely on the measurement of filtration efficiencies (FEs. However FEs may be influenced by both cigarette design features e.g., type of filter and levels of filter ventilation, and human smoking behaviour factors such as puff flow-rates and cigarette butt lengths. Two filter analysis methods are considered in our study. One is based on the analysis of whole filters using average values of FEs obtained from a range of machine smoking regimes. The other, a ‘part filter’ method, analyses a 10 mm section from the mouth end of the filter where the FE remains relatively constant irrespective of puff flow rates and butt lengths. Human puffing behaviour records were obtained from 10 smokers, each smoking six commercial cigarettes ranging from 1 mg to 12 mg ‘tar’ yields [International Standard (ISO values]. These records were used to drive a human smoke duplicator and the resulting ‘tar’ and nicotine yields obtained from duplication were compared with the estimates obtained from ‘whole’ and ‘part filter’ analysis. The results indicated that whilst both filter methods gave good correlations with nicotine and ‘tar’ yields obtained from smoke duplication, the ‘part filter’ method was less susceptible to the effect of nicotine condensation and changes in FEs and hence gave a more accurate assessment of yields than the ‘whole filter’ method.

  9. Possible future HERA analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing $ep$ collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA programme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-e...

  10. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set......When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible...

  11. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  12. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  13. Possible future HERA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-15

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  14. Influence of organic polymer on yield components and seed yield of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Faligowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2005 a two-factorial experiment was conducted at the Research-Didactic Station in Gorzyń belong to Poznań University of Life Sciences. The factors were: soybean cultivars (‘Aldana’, ‘Nawiko’, ‘Jaselda’, ‘Pripyat’, line ‘SN 2394’ and organic polymer in dose 30 g·m-2 by control. The yield components (number of pods and seeds per plant, weight of seeds per plant, yield and weight of 1000 seeds depended mostly on the weather conditions. The highest number of pods and seeds per plant, weight of seeds per plant was recorded in cultivar ‘Nawiko’. The polymer application increased only the number of pods per plant in ‘SN 2394’ line but did not influence the seed yield.

  15. A Comparison of Imputation Methods for Bayesian Factor Analysis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Imputation methods are popular for the handling of missing data in psychology. The methods generally consist of predicting missing data based on observed data, yielding a complete data set that is amiable to standard statistical analyses. In the context of Bayesian factor analysis, this article compares imputation under an unrestricted…

  16. Yield statistics of interpolated superoscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Eytan; Perlsman, Ehud; Schwartz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Yield optimized interpolated superoscillations have been recently introduced as a means for possibly making the use of the phenomenon of superoscillation practical. In this paper we study how good is a superoscillation that is not optimal. Namely, by how much is the yield decreased when the signal departs from the optimal one. We consider two situations. One is the case where the signal strictly obeys the interpolation requirement and the other is when that requirement is relaxed. In the latter case the yield can be increased at the expense of deterioration of signal quality. An important conclusion is that optimizing superoscillations may be challenging in terms of the precision needed, however, storing and using them is not at all that sensitive. This is of great importance in any physical system where noise and error are inevitable.

  17. Relationship of runoff, erosion and sediment yield to weather types in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Cortesi, N.; Desir, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Lasanta, T.; Lucía, A.; Marín, C.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Pacheco, E.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Romero Díaz, A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Taguas, E. V.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.; Úbeda, X.; Zabaleta, A.

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation has been recognized as one of the main factors driving soil erosion and sediment yield (SY), and its spatial and temporal variability is recognized as one of the main reasons for spatial and temporal analyses of soil erosion variability. The weather types (WTs) approach classifies the continuum of atmospheric circulation into a small number of categories or types and has been proven a good indicator of the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between WTs, runoff, soil erosion (measured in plots), and sediment yield (measured in catchments) in different areas of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) with the aim of detecting spatial variations in these relationships. To this end, hydrological and sediment information covering the IP from several Spanish research teams has been combined, and related with daily WTs estimated by using the NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The results show that, in general, a few WTs (particularly westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic) provide the largest amounts of precipitation; and southwesterly, northwesterly and westerly WTs play an important role in runoff generation, erosion and sediment yield as they coincide with the wettest WTs. However, this study highlights the spatial variability of erosion and sediment yield in the IP according to WT, differentiating (1) areas under the influence of north and/or north-westerly flows (the north coast of Cantabria and inland central areas), (2) areas under the influence of westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic WTs (western and southwestern IP), (3) areas in which erosion and sediment yield are controlled by easterly flows (Mediterranean coastland), and (4) lastly, a transitional zone in the inland northeast Ebro catchment, where we detected a high variability in the effects of WTs on erosion. Overall results suggest that the use of WTs derived from observed atmospheric pressure patterns could be a useful

  18. Hyperspectral sensing to detect the impact of herbicide drift on cotton growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, L. A.; Apan, A.; Werth, J.

    2016-10-01

    Yield loss in crops is often associated with plant disease or external factors such as environment, water supply and nutrient availability. Improper agricultural practices can also introduce risks into the equation. Herbicide drift can be a combination of improper practices and environmental conditions which can create a potential yield loss. As traditional assessment of plant damage is often imprecise and time consuming, the ability of remote and proximal sensing techniques to monitor various bio-chemical alterations in the plant may offer a faster, non-destructive and reliable approach to predict yield loss caused by herbicide drift. This paper examines the prediction capabilities of partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models for estimating yield. Models were constructed with hyperspectral data of a cotton crop sprayed with three simulated doses of the phenoxy herbicide 2,4-D at three different growth stages. Fibre quality, photosynthesis, conductance, and two main hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were also analysed. Except for fibre quality and ABA, Spearman correlations have shown that these variables were highly affected by the chemical. Four PLS-R models for predicting yield were developed according to four timings of data collection: 2, 7, 14 and 28 days after the exposure (DAE). As indicated by the model performance, the analysis revealed that 7 DAE was the best time for data collection purposes (RMSEP = 2.6 and R2 = 0.88), followed by 28 DAE (RMSEP = 3.2 and R2 = 0.84). In summary, the results of this study show that it is possible to accurately predict yield after a simulated herbicide drift of 2,4-D on a cotton crop, through the analysis of hyperspectral data, thereby providing a reliable, effective and non-destructive alternative based on the internal response of the cotton leaves.

  19. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  20. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  1. Yield analysis of large capacity magnetic bubble circuits with redundancy design. [fabrication reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. F.; Reekstin, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication yield of an on-chip modifiable redundant circuit design for a 100M bit serial shift register is evaluated. The yield model is a redundancy design in which there is a primary loop and a set of secondary loops which can be enabled/disabled without introducing blanks to the data stream. This function has a finite yield, the loop-modification yield factor, which must be greater than 0.9 to make the system more economical than the simple nonredundant design. It is further established that small loop capacities greatly degrade the yield because of the effect of the modification yield factor, while large loop capacities degrade the yield because of defects in the operating area. As the modification yield increases the optimum loop capacity decreases. An optimum value for the number of redundant loops exists for each loop capacity. Other factors that affect the yield are the garnet film and the processed circuit.

  2. Yield estimation of metallic layers in integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Ping; Hao Yue; Zhang Jun-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In the existing models of estimating the yield and critical area, the defect outline is usually assumed to be circular, but the observed real defect outlines are irregular in shape. In this paper, estimation of the yield and critical area is made using the Monte Carlo technique and the relationship between the errors of yield estimated by circular defect and the rectangle degree of the defect is analysed. The rectangular model of a real defect is presented, and the yield model is provided correspondingly. The models take into account an outline similar to that of an original defect, the characteristics of two-dimensional distribution of defects, the feature of a layout routing, and the character of yield estimation. In order to make the models practicable, the critical area computations related to rectangular defect and regular (vertical or horizontal) routing are discussed. The critical areas associated with rectangular defect and non-regular routing are developed also, based on the mathematical morphology. The experimental results show that the new yield model may predict the yield caused by real defects more accurately than the circular model. It is significant that the yield is accurately estimated using the proposed model for 1C metals.

  3. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  4. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  5. INFLUENCE OF EDAPHIC FACTORS IN TOTAL PHENOLS AND TANNINS YIELD OF TWO BARBATIMÃO SPECIES (Stryphnodendron sp. INFLUÊNCIA DE FATORES EDÁFICOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FENÓIS TOTAIS E TANINOS DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE BARBATIMÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiel Khan Baiocchi Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the influence of edaphic factors on total phenols and tannins yield of two species of barbatimão (S. adstringens and S. polyphyllum. Data were collected in four ";cerrado"; locations in Goiás State, Brazil, during the dry (July 2001 and rainy season (February 2002. S. adstringens specimens (trees were sampled in the municipalities of Rio Verde, Bela Vista de Goiás and Silvânia, and specimens of S. polyphyllum were sampled in Rio Verde, Bela Vista de Goiás and Abadia de Goiás; five specimens were collected from each county, totaling thirty specimens. The collected material consisted of one bark sample per specimen and season, and soil samples at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in the dry season. Bark total phenols and tannins were determined by Hagerman & Butler method, and soil analyses followed the current methods recommended by Embrapa. Data was statistically analyzed by principal component analysis. It was showed that low chemical fertility soils were associated with the highest total phenols and tannins, particularly for S. polyphylum. Higher yields of these metabolic products were observed in the rainy season. In the dry season, sandy soils were positively correlated with total phenols and tannins yields, while soil aluminum saturation was more correlated with total phenols and tannins in the rainy season.

    KEY-WORDS: Medicinal herb; cerrado; tannin; phenol.

    Neste estudo avaliou-se a influência de fatores edáficos sobre a produção de fenóis totais e taninos em duas espécies de barbatimão (S. adstringens e S. polyphyllum. Os dados foram coletados em quatro localidades da região de cerrado, em Goiás, nas estações seca (julho de 2001 e chuvosa (fevereiro de 2002. Foram amostrados indiv

  6. Yield gap analysis and assessment of climate-induced yield trends of irrigated rice in selected provinces of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Wassmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a combined empirical/modeling approach to assess the possible impact of climate variability on rice production in the Philippines. We collated climate data of the last two decades (1985-2002 as well as yield statistics of six provinces of the Philippines, selected along a North-South gradient. Data from the climate information system of NASA were used as input parameters of the model ORYZA2000 to determine potential yields and, in the next steps, the yield gaps defined as the difference between potential and actual yields. Both simulated and actual yields of irrigated rice varied strongly between years. However, no climate-driven trends were apparent and the variability in actual yields showed no correlation with climatic parameters. The observed variation in simulated yields was attributable to seasonal variations in climate (dry/wet season and to climatic differences between provinces and agro-ecological zones. The actual yield variation between provinces was not related to differences in the climatic yield potential but rather to soil and management factors. The resulting yield gap was largest in remote and infrastructurally disfavored provinces (low external input use with a high production potential (high solar radiation and day-night temperature differences. In turn, the yield gap was lowest in central provinces with good market access but with a relatively low climatic yield potential. We conclude that neither long-term trends nor the variability of the climate can explain current rice yield trends and that agroecological, seasonal, and management effects are over-riding any possible climatic variations. On the other hand the lack of a climate-driven trend in the present situation may be superseded by ongoing climate change in the future.

  7. Factors Affecting Biogas Yields of Manure-Straw Mixture%鸡粪与玉米秸秆混合发酵沼气产量影响因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋籽霖; 郭燕; 杨改河; 任广鑫; 冯永忠; 周小武

    2012-01-01

    To study the importance of material mixture ratio, temperature, initial fermentation concentration, biogas production and also the relationship among them, a simulation experiment using self-designed constant-temperature anaerobic fermentation equipment was conducted in indoor conditions. In the present study, chicken manure and rice straw mixture with different ratio and initial concentration at 20 ℃, 25 ℃, 30 ℃, 35 ℃, 40 ℃ was used as the digestion material, aiming at investigating the biogas production of chicken manure and corn straw mixture, and analyzing the effect of material mixture ratio, initial fermentation concentration and the temperature on the pH value, cumulative biogas production and biogas yield of TS, and also sequencing their importance in the fermentation. The results showed that the mixture ratio, initial fermentation concentration and temperature affected the biogas production significantly. The highest biogas production was found at 2:1 of manure-corn straw when the initial fermentation concentration was 20%; and 35 ℃ was the best temperature for fermentation. The stepwise aggression showed that the importance of temperature, initial fermentation concentration, material mixture ratio on biogas production was ranked by an order: temperature>initial fermentation concentration>material mixture ratio. Therefore appropriate adjustment of temperature and initial fermentation concentration can increase the efficiency of biogas production.%为探索物料配比、发酵温度、初始发酵浓度与产气量之间的关系以及各因素的重要性,通过自行研究设计的可控性恒温发酵装置,以玉米秸秆和鸡粪混合物为原料,在20、25、30、35、40℃下按不同干物质配比及初始发酵浓度分别进行厌氧发酵,分析不同物料配比、发酵温度、初始发酵浓度对发酵过程中pH值、累积产气量和TS产气量的影响,并对影响沼气发酵的各因子进行重要性排序.结果表

  8. Analyse de "La banlieue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Morais

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Préambule - Conditions de réalisation de la présente analyse Un groupe d'étudiants de master 1 de FLE de l'université Paris 3 (donc des étudiants en didactique des langues se destinant à l'enseignement du FLE a observé le produit au cours d'un module sur les TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication et la didactique des langues. Une discussion s'est ensuite engagée sur le forum d'une plate-forme de formation à distance à partir de quelques questions posées par l'enseigna...

  9. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  10. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  11. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, H.C.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crop yields are a result of interactions between genetics, environment and management (G × E × M). As in the Netherlands differences between potential yield and actual farm yields (yield gaps) are relatively small, progress in genetic potential is essential to further increase farm yields. In this p

  12. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  13. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  14. An automated blood culture system: the detection of anaerobic bacteria using a Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, J P; Barr, J G; Campbell, R R; Bennett, R B; Smyth, E T

    1985-10-01

    The Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser has proved to be sensitive in detecting conductivity changes due to anaerobic metabolism in a number of widely used blood culture media. Freshly prepared cooked meat media and Thiol medium yielded the greatest gross conductivity changes, and were more sensitive of anaerobic metabolism than other media. Failure of the instrument to detect anaerobic metabolism was a problem particularly associated with growth in the thioglycollate medium. False positive detections of growth were attributed to a number of factors including electrode instability (6.0%) and bacterial contamination (8.75%).

  15. Establishing and Analysing the Model of the Factors Affecting the Profits of Private House Mortgage Loans%个人住房抵押贷款利润影响因素的建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宜钟; 肖俊喜; 王庆石

    2003-01-01

    Based on an real bank case, this paper explores the main factors that affect the bank' s profit of housing mortgage loan and then quantify and model them with the profit formation. These models help the bank analyze and mainpulate these factors in order to gain the satisfactory profits.

  16. A generic method to analyse yield gaps in feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart

    2017-01-01

    Global livestock production is expected to increase in future decades, and expansion of the agricultural area for feed production is not desired. Hence, increasing livestock production per unit agricultural area is essential. The bio-physical scope to increase production of livestock systems with

  17. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy t

  18. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy t

  19. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi