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Sample records for factor alpha expression

  1. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  2. Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Appel, K; Sauter, A; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were

  3. Retinal neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiersch, Markus; Lange, Christina; Joly, Sandrine; Heynen, Severin; Le, Yun Zheng; Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian

    2009-06-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 alpha in the retina and protects photoreceptors against light-induced cell death. HIF-1 alpha is one of the major transcription factors responding to low oxygen tension and can differentially regulate a large number of target genes. To analyse whether photoreceptor-specific expression of HIF-1 alpha is essential to protect photoreceptors by hypoxic preconditioning, we knocked down expression of HIF-1 alpha specifically in photoreceptor cells, using the cyclization recombinase (Cre)-lox system. The Cre-mediated knockdown caused a 20-fold reduced expression of Hif-1 alpha in the photoreceptor cell layer. In the total retina, RNA expression was reduced by 65%, and hypoxic preconditioning led to only a small increase in HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Accordingly, HIF-1 target gene expression after hypoxia was significantly diminished. Retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown animals did not show any pathological alterations, and tolerated hypoxic exposure in a comparable way to wild-type retinas. Importantly, the strong neuroprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration persisted in knockdown mice, suggesting that hypoxia-mediated survival of light exposure does not depend on an autocrine action of HIF-1 alpha in photoreceptor cells. Hypoxia-mediated stabilization of HIF-2 alpha and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) were not affected in the retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown mice. Thus, these factors are candidates for regulating the resistance of photoreceptors to light damage after hypoxic preconditioning, along with several potentially neuroprotective genes that were similarly induced in hypoxic knockdown and control mice.

  4. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its downstream targets in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Groep, P. van der; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha and its downstream targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors in the survival of proliferating tumor cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. We studied the expression and prognostic relevance

  5. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and receptor I(P55in pterygium

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    Bing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the expression of tumor necrosis factor- alpha(TNF-αand its receptor I(P55in different pterygium and discuss the role of TNF-α and receptor I(P55in pterygium.METHODS: Immunohistochemistical staining method(PVwas adopted to detect the expression of TNF-α and receptor I in pterygium(72 eyesand para-pterygium conjunctival tissue(30 eyes. The relationship between the expression and clinical-pathological parameters was also analyzed. RESULTS: The positive rates of TNF-α were 65.3%(47/72, 26.7%(8/30in pterygium and para-pterygium conjunctival tissue. The positive expression of TNF-α had statistic difference between the two groups(χ2=12.706, Pχ2=13.875, Pχ2=6.547, P=0.011. There had no statistically significance of the expression intensity between the two groups(F=1.288, P=0.393; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than quiescent pterygium group(χ2=4.082, P=0.043. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.489, P=0.708. The positive rate of P55 in recurrent pterygium group was higher than primary pterygium group(χ2=9.907, P=0.002. There had no statistically significance of the two group's expression intensity(F=1.175, P=0.424; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than in quiescent pterygium group(χ2=11.140, P=0.001. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.665, P=0.621. CONCLUSION:The expression of TNF-α and P55 are changing according to the development of clinical staging and onset. The expression of TNF-α and P55 may be related to clinical classification, staging and patient's working conditions of pterygium. There has no significant difference expression intensity of TNF-α and P55 in clinical staging and onset of pterygium.

  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha expression increases during colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiantonaki, Nektaria; Taxeidis, Marios; Jayasinghe, Caren; Kurzik-Dumke, Ursula; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is involved in processes promoting carcinogenesis of many tumors. However, its role in the development of colorectal cancer is unknown. To investigate the significance of HIF-1α during colorectal carcinogenesis and progression we examined its expression in precursor lesions constituting the conventional and serrated pathways, as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot is used to analyse HIF-1α expression in normal colonic mucosa, hyperplastic polyps (HPP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), low-grade (TA-LGD) and high-grade (TA-HGD) traditional adenomas as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. Eight colorectal carcinoma cell lines are tested for their HIF-1α inducibility after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation using western blot and immunocytochemistry. In normal mucosa, HPP and TA-LGD HIF-1α was not expressed. In contast, perinuclear protein accumulation and nuclear expression of HIF-1α were shown in half of the examined SSA and TA-HGD. In all investigated colorectal carcinomas a significant nuclear HIF-1α overexpression compared to the premalignant lesions was observed but a significant correlation with the metastatic status was not found. Nuclear HIF-1α expression was strongly accumulated in perinecrotic regions. In these cases HIF-1α activation was seen in viable cohesive tumor epithelia surrounding necrosis and in dissociated tumor cells, which subsequently die. Enhanced distribution of HIF-1α was also seen in periiflammatory regions. In additional in vitro studies, treatment of diverse colorectal carcinoma cell lines with the potent pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to HIF-1α expression and nuclear translocation. We conclude that HIF-1α expression occurs in early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and achieves a maximum in the invasive stage independent of the metastatic status. Perinecrotic

  8. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

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    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  9. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  10. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and accumulation of fibronectin in coronary artery restenotic lesions retrieved by atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, N.; de Lima, V. C.; Molossi, S.; Liu, P.; Turley, E.; Gotlieb, A. I.; Adelman, A. G.; Rabinovitch, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The formation of coronary artery neointima experimentally induced in piglets after cardiac transplantation is related to an immune-inflammatory reaction associated with increased expression of T cells and inflammatory mediators (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and upregulation of fibronectin. In vivo blockade of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rabbits after cardiac transplantation results in reduced neointimal formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary restenosis after atherectomy or percutaneous balloon angioplasty is associated with a similar inflammatory cascade initiated by mechanical injury. METHODS--Specimens taken at coronary atherectomy were analysed from 16 patients. Nine had had the procedure performed twice, firstly, to remove a primary lesion, and secondly, to remove a restenotic lesion. Seven had percutaneous balloon angioplasty after removal of restenotic tissue. Coronary atherectomy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T cells, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex II, interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibronectin, and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility. RESULTS--The groups were clinically and angiographically similar with equivalent lumens before and after atherectomy. Restenotic lesions had increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin compared with the primary lesions (P < 0.05 for both). There was also a trend towards a greater number of T cells and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta. CONCLUSIONS--Restenosis is associated with increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin, suggesting that an immune-inflammatory reaction probably contributes to neointimal formation and may represent a form of wound healing and repair secondary to mechanical injury. Images PMID:7626352

  11. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina H; Lambertsen, Kate L; Babcock, Alicia A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We inv...

  12. [Characteristics of sublingual vein and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-yu; Wang, Li-na; Yue, Xiao-qiang; Li, Bai

    2009-05-01

    To observe sublingual vein characteristics and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into normal control group and cirrhotic portal hypertension group. There were 6 dogs in each group. A canine model of cirrhosis portal hypertension was established by injecting dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) into portal vein once a week for 7 weeks. The characteristics of sublingual vein were observed. Portal venous pressure was measured by using bioelectric recording techniques. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual vein were detected by immunohistochemical method. The shape and color of sublingual vein in beagle dogs in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group changed obviously as compared with the normal control group. Immunohistochemical results showed that there were almost no expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the normal control group; however, the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group significantly increased. Changes of portal pressure may lead to the formation of the abnormal sublingual vein by increasing the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in Beagle dogs with portal hypertension.

  13. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

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    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rebecchi, Mario, E-mail: Mario.rebecchi@SBUmed.org [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  14. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shao-hang; Lu, Shi-xun; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. Methods: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and pe...

  15. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

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    Joshi Sandeep S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  16. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, represses hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha expression through translational inhibition.

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    Darren M Hutt

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor--eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Prognostic role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis

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    Ren HY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Yong Ren,1 Yin-Hua Zhang,1,2 Heng-Yuan Li,1 Tao Xie,1 Ling-Ling Sun,1 Ting Zhu,1 Sheng-Dong Wang,1 Zhao-Ming Ye1 1Department of Orthopaedics, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2The First Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital of Zhejiang General Corps of Armed Police Forces, Jiaxing, People’s Republic of China Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. A number of studies have investigated the association of HIF-1α with prognosis and clinicopathological characteristics of osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results.  Method: Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the prognostic value of HIF-1α expression. The standard mean difference was used to analyze the continuous variable.  Results: Finally, nine studies comprising 486 patients were subjected to final analysis. Protein expression level of HIF-1α was found to be significantly related to overall survival (HR =3.0; 95% CI: 1.46–6.15, disease-free survival (HR =2.23; 95% CI: 1.26–3.92, pathologic grade (OR =21.33; 95% CI: 4.60–98.88, tumor stage (OR =10.29; 95% CI: 3.55–29.82, chemotherapy response (OR =9.68; 95% CI: 1.87–50.18, metastasis (OR =5.06; 95% CI: 2.87–8.92, and microvessel density (standard mean difference =2.83; 95% CI: 2.28–3.39.  Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of HIF-1α is a predictive factor of poor outcomes for osteosarcoma. HIF-1α appeared to play an important role in prognostic evaluation and may be a potential target in antitumoral therapy. Keywords: HIF-1α, osteosarcoma, prognosis, meta-analysis

  18. [Genetic cloning and expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in high altitude hypoxic adaptation species Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)].

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    Liu, Fang; Wuren, Tana; Ma, Lan; Yang, Ying-Zhong; Ge, Ri-Li

    2011-12-25

    In order to investigate the role of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the adaptation mechanism to high altitude hypoxia, the cloning of the HIF-1α gene cDNA of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), using RT-PCR and RACE, was applied, and the comparative analysis of the tissue-specific expressions of HIF-1α among Tibetan antelope, Tibetan sheep and plain sheep was performed using real-time PCR and Western blot. The sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA sequences acquired by cloning from the HIF-1α gene of Tibetan antelope comprised a 2 471-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 1 911-bp 3'UTR. The similarity between its coding sequence, predicted amino acid sequence and HIF-1α of other mammals exceeded 87%, in which the similarity with cow was up to more than 98%, which showed that this sequence was the cDNA of HIF-1α of Tibetan antelope. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein appeared in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, with the highest expression in lung. HIF-1α mRNA and protein had obvious differential expression in these tissues. Further research showed that Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep possessed higher expressions of HIF-1α protein in the three tissues above-mentioned compared with plain sheep, and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were higher than those of Tibetan sheep. It illustrates that the hypoxic HIF-1α-specific expression is one of the molecular bases of high altitude hypoxia adaptation in Tibetan antelope.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

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    Miettinen, Johanna A., E-mail: johanna.miettinen@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Pietilae, Mika [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Salonen, Riikka J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ohlmeier, Steffen [Proteomics Core Facility, Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Lehenkari, Petri [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  20. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Cai, Shao-Hang; Lu, Shi-Xun; Liu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry. The relationship between P2-HNF4α and clinical features of HCC patients were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of P2-HNF4α. The results showed that the expression of P2-HNF4α in HCC was noticeably increased in HCC tissues compared with the nontumourous tissues. In addition, P1-HNF4α expression was negatively correlated with P2-HNF4α expression ( p  = 0.023). High P2-HNF4α expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation of HCC ( p = 0.002) and vascular invasion ( p = 0.017). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that P2-HNF4α expression was closely correlated with overall survival in the training group ( p = 0.01), validation group ( p = 0.034), and overall group of patients with HCC ( p P2-HNF4α, different from P1-HNF4α, is markedly upregulated and serves as an oncogene-associated protein in HCC. Our study therefore provides a promising biomarker for prognostic prediction and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activates signal transduction in hypothalamus and modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and orexigenic/anorexigenic neurotransmitters.

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    Amaral, Maria E; Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Romanatto, Talita; Barbosa, Helena C; Nadruz, Wilson; Bertolo, Manoel B; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mario J A; Franchini, Kleber G; Velloso, Licio A

    2006-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to participate in the wastage syndrome that accompanies cancer and severe infectious diseases. More recently, a role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been shown. Much of the regulatory action exerted by TNF-alpha upon the control of energy stores depends on its action on the hypothalamus. In this study, we show that TNF-alpha activates canonical pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus of rats. These signaling events lead to the transcriptional activation of an early responsive gene and to the induction of expression of cytokines and a cytokine responsive protein such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3, respectively. In addition, TNF-alpha induces the expression of neurotransmitters involved in the control of feeding and thermogenesis. Thus, TNF-alpha may act directly in the hypothalamus inducing a pro-inflammatory response and the modulation of expression of neurotransmitters involved in energy homeostasis.

  2. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  3. Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activators on tumor necrosis factor expression in mice during endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M R; Clarke, S; Rodgers, K; Thornhill, B; Peters, J M; Gonzalez, F J; Gimble, J M

    1999-07-01

    Inflammatory mediators orchestrate the host immune and metabolic response to acute bacterial infections and mediate the events leading to septic shock. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been identified as one of the proximal mediators of endotoxin action. Recent studies have implicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) as a potential target to modulate regulation of the immune response. Since PPARalpha activators, which are hypolipidemic drugs, are being prescribed for a significant population of older patients, it is important to determine the impact of these drugs on the host response to acute inflammation. Therefore, we examined the role of PPARalpha activators on the regulation of TNF expression in a mouse model of endotoxemia. CD-1 mice treated with dietary fenofibrate or Wy-14,643 had fivefold-higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF plasma levels than LPS-treated control-fed animals. Higher LPS-induced TNF levels in drug-fed animals were reflected physiologically in significantly lower glucose levels in plasma and a significantly lower 50% lethal dose than those in LPS-treated control-fed animals. Utilizing PPARalpha wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we showed that the effect of fenofibrate on LPS-induced TNF expression was indeed mediated by PPARalpha. PPARalpha WT mice fed fenofibrate also had a fivefold increase in LPS-induced TNF levels in plasma compared to control-fed animals. However, LPS-induced TNF levels were significantly decreased and glucose levels in plasma were significantly increased in PPARalpha KO mice fed fenofibrate compared to those in control-fed animals. Data from peritoneal macrophage studies indicate that Wy-14,643 modestly decreased TNF expression in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of PPARalpha in 293T cells decreased activity of a human TNF promoter-luciferase construct. The results from these studies suggest that any anti-inflammatory activity of PPARalpha in vivo can be masked by other

  4. PPAR-alpha agonist treatment increases trefoil factor family-3 expression and attenuates apoptosis in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tarkan; Kerem, Mustafa; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Engin, Doruk; Alper, Murat; Akın, Okan

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha activation modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. The trefoil factor family comprises mucin-associated proteins that increase the viscosity of mucins and help protect epithelial linings from insults. We evaluated the effect of short-term administration of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha agonist, on trefoil factor family-3 expression, degree of apoptosis, generation of free radicals, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 = sham operated, 2 = bile duct ligation, 3 = bile duct-ligated + vehicle (gum Arabic), and 4 = bile duct-ligated + fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day). All rats were sacrificed on the 7 th day after obtaining blood samples and liver tissue. Liver function tests, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta in serum, and trefoil factor family-3 mRNA expression, degree of apoptosis (TUNEL) and tissue malondialdehyde (malondialdehyde, end-product of lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species) in liver tissue were evaluated. Fenofibrate administration significantly reduced serum total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β levels. Apoptosis and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced in the fenofibrate group. Trefoil factor family-3 expression increased with fenofibrate treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate significantly increased trefoil factor family-3 expression and decreased apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in the liver and attenuated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in bile duct-ligated rats. Further studies are needed to determine the protective role of fenofibrate in human cholestatic disorders.

  5. Interferon beta 1, an intermediate in the tumor necrosis factor alpha- induced increased MHC class I expression and an autocrine regulator of the constitutive MHC class I expression

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    In conclusion, our observations indicate that the constitutive MHC class I expression is regulated by autocrine production of IFN-beta 1. TNF-alpha acts as an enhancer of the autocrine production of IFN-beta 1, and consequently as an enhancer of the MHC class I expression and viral protection.

  6. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    IFN-α and IFN-α Receptor mRNA expression in the liver. All the patients showed IFN-α gene expression except one patient who had the highest degree of fibrosis (fibrosis grade 5) and HAI Index of 9. IFN- α Receptor mRNA was expressed in 30% (9/30). (Figure 4). Non of the patients with HCC had. IFNα-Rc expression and ...

  7. Post-transcriptional regulation of osteoblastic platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression by co-cultured primary endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkenzeller, Günter; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen

    2010-01-01

    -alpha downregulation is dependent on time and cell number. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed when hOBs were co-cultured with human primary chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Likewise, HUVEC-mediated suppression of PDGFR-alpha expression was only seen in hOBs and mesenchymal stem cells......Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling plays an important role in osteoblast function. Inhibition of PDGFR activity leads to a suppression of osteoblast proliferation, whereas mineralized matrix production is enhanced. In previous experiments, we showed that co......-cultivation of human primary endothelial cells and human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) leads to a cell contact-dependent downregulation of PDGFR-alpha expression in the osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated this effect in more detail, revealing that human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-mediated PDGFR...

  8. Cytokine production in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: dynamics of mRNA expression for interleukin-10, interleukin-12, cytolysin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Ljungdahl, A; Höjeberg, B

    1995-01-01

    in cryosections of spinal cords using in situ hybridization technique with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. Three stages of cytokine mRNA expression could be distinguished: (i) interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta (= lymphotoxin-alpha) and cytolysin appeared early and before onset of clinical...... signs of EAE; (ii) TNF-alpha peaked at height of clinical signs of EAE; (iii) IL-10 appeared increasingly at and after clinical recovery. The early expression of IL-12 prior to the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA shown previously is consistent with a role of IL-12 in promoting...... proliferation and activation of T helper 1 (Th1) type cells producing IFN-gamma. The TNF-beta mRNA expression prior to onset of clinical signs favours a role for this cytokine in disease initiation. A pathogenic effector role of TNF-alpha was suggested from these observations that TNF-alpha mRNA expression...

  9. Quantitative gene-expression of the tumor angiogenesis markers vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin alphaV and integrin beta3 in human neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxboel, Jytte; Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    , in neuroendocrine tumors. We used quantitative real-time PCR for measuring mRNA gene-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), integrin alphaV, and integrin beta3, and CD34 for a group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (n=13). Tissue from patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (n=14...... compared to both colorectal liver metastases (p=0.10) and normal liver tissue (p=0.06). In neuroendocrine tumors, gene-expression was highly variable of VEGF (530-fold), integrin alphaV (23-fold) and integrin beta3 (106-fold). Quantitative gene-expression levels of the key angiogenesis molecules VEGF......Anti-angiogenesis treatment is a promising new therapy for cancer that recently has also been suggested for patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the level of tumor angiogenesis, and thereby the molecular basis for anti-angiogenesis treatment...

  10. Neomycin is a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist that allows discrimination of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor signals in cells expressing both receptor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Siegbahn, A; Holmsen, H; Heldin, C H

    1992-08-05

    The aminoglycoside neomycin has recently been found to affect certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) responses in C3H/10T1/2 C18 fibroblasts. Using porcine aortic endothelial cells transfected with PDGF alpha- or beta-receptors, we explored the possibility that neomycin interferes with the interaction between the different PDGF isoforms and their receptors. We found that neomycin (5 mM) inhibited the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the alpha-receptor with only partial effect on the binding of 125I-PDGF-AA; in contrast, the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the beta-receptor was not affected by the aminoglycoside. Scatchard analyses showed that neomycin (5 mM) decreased the number of binding sites for PDGF-BB on alpha-receptor-expressing cells by 87%. Together with cross-competition studies with 125I-labeled PDGF homodimers, the effect of neomycin indicates that PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB bind to both common and unique structures on the PDGF alpha-receptor. Neomycin specifically inhibited the autophosphorylation of the alpha-receptor by PDGF-BB, with less effect on the phosphorylation induced by PDGF-AA and no effect on the phosphorylation of the beta-receptor by PDGF-BB. Thus, neomycin is a PDGF isoform- and receptor-specific antagonist that provides a possibility to compare the signal transduction pathways of alpha- and beta-receptors in cells expressing both receptor types. This approach was used to show that activation of PDGF beta-receptors by PDGF-BB mediated a chemotactic response in human fibroblasts, whereas activation of alpha-receptors by the same ligand inhibited chemotaxis.

  11. Expression of DDX3 is directly modulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendran Botlagunta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia inducible factor-1α is a transcriptional activator of DDX3 in breast cancer cells. Within the promoter region of the human DDX3 gene, we identified three putative hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements. By luciferase reporter assays in combination with mutated hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements, we determined that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive element at position -153 relative to the translation start site is essential for transcriptional activation of DDX3 under hypoxic conditions. We also demonstrated that hypoxia inducible factor-1 binds to the DDX3 promoter and that the binding is specific, as revealed by siRNA against hypoxia inducible factor-1 and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Thus, the activation of DDX3 expression during hypoxia is due to the direct binding of hypoxia inducible factor-1 to hypoxia responsive elements in the DDX3 promoter. In addition, we observed a significant overlap in the protein expression pattern of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and DDX3 in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of DDX3 as a hypoxia-inducible gene that exhibits enhanced expression through the interaction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 with hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements in its promoter region.

  12. Forkhead box protein A2, a pioneer factor for hepatogenesis, is involved in the expression of hepatic phenotype of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Nobuhisa; Fugo, Kazunori; Kishimoto, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma is a high-malignant variant of adenocarcinoma with a hepatic or fetal-intestinal phenotype. The number of cases of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas is increasing, but the molecular mechanism underlying the aberrant production of AFP is unclear. Here we sought to assess the role of Forkhead box A (FoxA)2, which is a pioneer transcription factor in the differentiation of hepatoblasts. FoxA2 expression was investigated in five cases of AFP-producing gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry, and all cases showed FoxA2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed the DNA binding of FoxA2 on the regulatory element of AFP gene in AFP-producing adenocarcinoma cells. The inhibition of FoxA2 expression with siRNA reduced the mRNA expression of liver-specific proteins, including AFP, albumin, and transferrin. The inhibition of FoxA2 also reduced the expressions of liver-enriched nuclear factors, i.e., hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α and HNF6, although the expressions of HNF1α and HNF1β were not affected. The same effect as FoxA2 knockdown in AFP producing adenocarcinoma cells was also observed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our results suggest that FoxA2 plays a key role in the expression of hepatic phenotype of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by dihydroxyphenylethanol, a product from olive oil, blocks microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1/vascular endothelial growth factor expression and reduces tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel; Melillo, Giovanni; Ziche, Marina

    2010-08-15

    2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenil)-ethanol (DPE), a polyphenol present in olive oil, has been found to attenuate the growth of colon cancer cells, an effect presumably related to its anti-inflammatory activity. To further explore the effects of DPE on angiogenesis and tumor growth we investigated the in vivo efficacy of DPE in a HT-29 xenograft model and in vitro activities in colon cancer cells exposed to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). DPE (10 mg/kg/day for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth, reducing vessel lumina and blood perfusion to tumor, and diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1). In vitro, DPE (100 mumol/L) neither affected cell proliferation nor induced apoptosis in HT-29 and WiDr cells. DPE prevented the IL-1beta-mediated increase of mPGEs-1 expression and PGE-2 generation, as it did the silencing of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, DPE blocked mPGEs-1-dependent expression of VEGF and inhibited endothelial sprouting induced by tumor cells in a coculture system. PGE-2 triggers a feed-forward loop involving HIF-1alpha, which impinges on mPGEs-1 and VEGF expression, events prevented by DPE via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. The reduction of PGE-2 and VEGF levels, caused by DPE, was invariably associated with a marked decrease in HIF-1alpha expression and activity, independent of proteasome activity, indicating that the DPE effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation. We show that the in vivo DPE antitumor effect is associated with anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities resulting from the downregulation of the HIF-1alpha/mPGEs-1/VEGF axis.

  14. The Ikaros transcription factor regulates responsiveness to IL-12 and expression of IL-2 receptor alpha in mature, activated CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T Clambey

    Full Text Available The Ikaros family of transcription factors is critical for normal T cell development while limiting malignant transformation. Mature CD8 T cells express multiple Ikaros family members, yet little is known about their function in this context. To test the functions of this gene family, we used retroviral transduction to express a naturally occurring, dominant negative (DN isoform of Ikaros in activated CD8 T cells. Notably, expression of DN Ikaros profoundly enhanced the competitive advantage of activated CD8 T cells cultured in IL-12, such that by 6 days of culture, DN Ikaros-transduced cells were 100-fold more abundant than control cells. Expression of a DN isoform of Helios, a related Ikaros-family transcription factor, conferred a similar advantage to transduced cells in IL-12. While DN Ikaros-transduced cells had higher expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain, DN Ikaros-transduced cells achieved their competitive advantage through an IL-2 independent mechanism. Finally, the competitive advantage of DN Ikaros-transduced cells was manifested in vivo, following adoptive transfer of transduced cells. These data identify the Ikaros family of transcription factors as regulators of cytokine responsiveness in activated CD8 T cells, and suggest a role for this family in influencing effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation.

  15. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  16. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Kotaro, E-mail: hif.panc@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Uto, Yoshihiro [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nagasawa, Hideko [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Hori, Hitoshi [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Shimada, Mitsuo [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  17. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha up-regulates the expression of phospholipase D2 in colon cancer cells under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maoxi; Du, Kunli; Fu, Zhongxue; Zhang, Shouru; Wu, Xingye

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. Recent studies confirmed that phospholipase D2 (PLD2) plays significant roles in cancer progression. In this study, correlation between the expression of PLD2 and the change in the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-α) was studied. Thirty human colon cancer tissues were examined for the expression of HIF1-α and PLD2 protein, and mRNA levels. SW480 and SW620 cells were exposed to normoxia (20 %) or hypoxia (Hypoxic stress induced PLD2 mRNA and protein expression in SW480 and SW620 cells. Cells transfected with HIF1-α siRNA showed attenuation of hypoxia stress-induced PLD2 expression. In vivo growth decreased in response to HIF1-α and PLD2 inhibition. These results suggest that PLD2 expression in colon cancer cells is up-regulated via HIF1-α in response to hypoxic stress and underscores the crucial role of HIF1-α-induced PLD2 in tumor growth.

  19. Functional characterization of rs2229094 (T>C polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor locus and lymphotoxin alpha expression in human retina: the Retina 4 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor-Idoate S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvador Pastor-Idoate,1,2 Irene Rodríguez-Hernández,2,3 Jimena Rojas,1 Lucia Gonzalez-Buendia,1 Santiago Delgado-Tirado,1,4 Jose Carlos López,1 Rogelio González-Sarmiento,2,3 Jose C Pastor1,4 1IOBA Eye Institute, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, 2Molecular Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, 3Molecular and Cellular Cancer Biology Institute, High Council of Scientific Research, Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the expression and localization of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA in human retinas and the functionality of one of its polymorphisms rs2229094 (C13R (T>C, previously associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development.Materials and methods: Total RNA from three healthy human retinas were extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis, using flanking primers of LTA cDNA. In addition, three human eyes with retinal detachment (RD and three healthy control eyes were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC with a specific antibody against LTA. The functionality of T and C alleles was assessed by using pCEFL-Flag expression vector and transient transfection assays in COS-1 cell line. In addition, expression analysis by RT-PCR, Western blot and subcellular localization of both alleles and by immunofluorescence assay was performed.Results: RT-PCR analysis revealed no significant levels of messenger RNA (mRNA LTA in healthy human retinas. Sequential IHC staining showed differences between healthy human and RD retinas. No differences in mRNA and protein expression levels and in subcellular localization between both alleles were found. Both alleles were located in the cytoplasm of COS-1 cells.Conclusion: Although results suggest lack of functionality, the differences found in IHC study and its strong association

  20. Intermitted pharmacologic pretreatment by xenon, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and the opioid morphine prevents tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Kandler, Jennis; Schlack, Wolfgang; Grueber, Yvonne; Frädorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier properties of the endothelium are of critical importance during pathophysiologic processes. These barrier properties depend on an intact cytoskeleton and are regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to induce cell adhesion

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-α exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-α exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-α exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-α exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-α exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  2. Expression of toll-like receptor 4, tumor necrosis factor- alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and effects of benazepril in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Cao, Yun-Shan; Su, Peng; Li, Yu-Hong; Gao, Zhi-Ling; Borst, Mathias M

    2010-10-11

    The study aims to explore the relationship between expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on peripheral blood monocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with acute coronary syndromes(ACS), and to investigate the possible mechanisms of Benazepril stabilizing atherosclerosis plaques. 70 patients selected were randomly divided into Benazepril treatment group (35 patients) and regular treatment group (35 patients). Meanwhile, Stable angina pectoris (SAP) group of 32 patients and control group of 22 patients were also set up. With the help of flow-cytometry, expressions of TLR4 on peripheral blood monocytes of the four groups were analyzed and compared to show differences, correlations and changes of the above mentioned indicators. The concentration of TNF-α and MMP-9 in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (1) Expressions of TLR4, levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 were increased and the rate was rising from the control group, to SAP group and then to ACS group. All these indicators in ACS group are significantly higher than those in other groups (P Benazepril treatment group and regular treatment group before treatment (P > 0.05) while they all fell after treatment (P Benazepril can inhibit over-expression of TLR4 and reduce serum levels of TNF-α and MMP-9, thus stabilize the vulnerable plaques and improve the condition of the patients with ACS.

  3. The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol\\/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg\\/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

  4. Expression of alpha V integrin is modulated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 through interaction with the GATA-1 and Sp1 transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Tathagata; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S.

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotrophic herpesvirus infecting most of the world's population. It is associated with a number of human lymphoid and epithelial tumors and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised patients. A subset of latent EBV antigens is required for immortalization of primary B-lymphocytes. The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 which is downregulated in human invasive breast carcinoma reduces the migration and metastatic activity of breast carcinoma cells when expressed from a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) reverses these activities of Nm23-H1. The alpha V integrins recognize a variety of ligands for signaling and are involved in cell migration and proliferation and also serve as major receptors for extracellular-matrix-mediated cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to determine if Nm23-H1 and EBNA3C can modulate alpha V integrin expression and downstream activities. The results of our studies indicate that Nm23-H1 downregulates alpha V intregrin expression in a dose responsive manner. In contrast, EBNA3C can upregulate alpha V integrin expression. Furthermore, the study showed that the association of the Sp1 and GATA transcription factors with Nm23-H1 is required for modulation of the alpha V integrin activity. Thus, these results suggest a direct correlation between the alpha V integrin expression and the interaction of Nm23-H1 with EBNA3C

  5. Efficacy of Omega Fatty Acid Supplementation on mRNA Expression Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Asghar; Ardebili, Seyed Mojtaba Mohaddes

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a multifunctional cytokine, is involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell survival, and inflammation. It plays a dual role in cancer development and progression. It has been revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the production and activity of TNF family cytokines. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on messenger RNA expression levels of TNF-α in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Thirty-four chemotherapy-naive patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (17 individuals) received cisplatin without supplements and the second group (17 individuals) received cisplatin plus orally administered PUFA supplements for 3 weeks, based on treatment strategies. The gastric biopsy samples were obtained from all participants before and after treatment, and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR procedure. Our findings revealed that TNF-α mRNA expression is downregulated in group II, after receiving cisplatin and omega fatty acid supplement for 3 weeks. However, this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). TNF-α mRNA expression did not show significant alteration in group I, after receiving cisplatin alone. Taken together, we concluded that omega fatty acids reduce TNF-α expression at the mRNA level in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that TNF-α may act as a potential target for the therapy of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

  6. Extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion and ICAM-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, S

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and progesterone receptor expression and correlation with clinicopathologic factors and proliferative marker Ki-67 in breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Caldeira, José R F; Felipes, Joice

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular profile of hormonal steroid receptor status, we analyzed ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PGR mRNA and protein expression in 80 breast carcinomas using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analysis. Qualitative ana...

  9. Substance P ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating eNOS expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jiyuan; Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of SP on NO production and inflammation-induced vascular endothelium cell death. To mimic the inflammatory environment, TNF-α was treated with HUVECs, and SP was added prior to TNF-α to determine its protective effect. WST-1 assay was performed to detect cell viability. NO level in conditioned medium was measured by Griess Reagent System. The protein level of cleaved caspase-3, eNOS, and phosphorylated Akt was detected by Western blot analysis. TNF-α declined endothelial cell viability by downregulating Akt and NO production. TNF-α-induced cell death was reliably restored by NO, confirming the requirement of NO for cell survival. By contrast, pretreatment of SP attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS expression, and NO production. Blockage of NK-1R, phosphorylated Akt or eNOS by CP-96345, A6730, or L-NAME entirely eliminated the effect of SP. SP can protect the vascular endothelium against inflammation-induced damage through modulation of the Akt/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Association of occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 in serum and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F Y; Tian, R L; Qiang, Y; He, K P; Liu, H R; Zhang, W; Song, H

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Using case-control study design, we selected 622 cases in 20 to 60 years old and unrelated patients with metabolic syndrome as the case group between October 2011 and October 2012 at two hospitals of Ningxia hui autonomous region. At the same time, we selected 600 healthy people from health check-up crowd in the above two hospitals as control group. The the research objects were sex, age, nation, height, weight, smoking, drinking, exercise, and so on. After informed consent, all the research objects were collected fasting venous blood samples 10 ml in order to proceed laboratory testing of biochemical indicators. The expression of HSP70 and TNF-α in serum was determined by ELISA. Using the revised occupational stress inventory (OSI) to survey the occupational chronic psychological stress factors and stress level of research object. The correlation of occupational chronic psychological stress scores with HSP70 and TNF-α was investigated by partial correlation analysis. We built a multivariate linear regression equation With HSP70 and TNF alpha as the independent variable and occupational chronic psychological stress scores as the dependent variable, using equation of the determination coefficient R(2) to judge the degree of fitting equation. The total points of chronic stress factors in all respondents was (136.65±16.19). Among them, the mild stress level group was 313, moderate was 588, severe was 321, chronic heart stress factors scores were (119.96±13.30), (135.33±3.23), (155.33±13.55) points, respectively. In the case group subjects, the expression of HSP70 in mild, moderate and severe occupational chronic psychological stress levels were (29.88±30.08), (36.38±30.08), (27.16±23.77) ng/ml (F=6.85, P=0.001). The control group were (27.64±9.89), (39.78±29.77), (3.94±3.09) ng/ml (F=125.71, Pstress

  11. The redox protein thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha protein expression: Trx-1 overexpression results in increased vascular endothelial growth factor production and enhanced tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Sarah J; Bellamy, William T; Briehl, Margaret M; Powis, Garth

    2002-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, is a transcriptional activator central to the cellular response to low oxygen that includes metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inhibited apoptosis. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a small redox protein overexpressed in a number of human primary tumors. We have examined the effects of Trx-1 on HIF activity and the activation of downstream genes. Stable transfection of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells with human Trx-1 caused a significant increase in HIF-1alpha protein levels under both normoxic (20% oxygen) and hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions. Trx-1 increased hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transactivation activity measured using a luciferase reporter under the control of the hypoxia response element. Changes in HIF-1alpha mRNA levels did not account for the changes observed at the protein level, and HIF-1beta protein levels did not change. Trx-1 transfection also caused a significant increase in the protein products of hypoxia-responsive genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase 2 in a number of different cell lines (MCF-7 human breast and HT29 human colon carcinomas and WEHI7.2 mouse lymphoma cells) under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The pattern of expression of the different isoforms of VEGF was not changed by Trx-1. Transfection of a redox-inactive Trx-1 (C32S/C35S) markedly decreased levels of HIF-1alpha protein, HIF-1 transactivating activity, and VEGF protein in MCF-7 cells compared with empty vector controls. In vivo studies using WEHI7.2 cells transfected with Trx-1 showed significantly increased tumor VEGF and angiogenesis. The results suggest that Trx-1 increases HIF-1alpha protein levels in cancer cells and increases VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  12. A Promising Recombinant Herpesvirus of Turkeys Vaccine Expressing PmpD-N of Chlamydia psittaci Based on Elongation Factor-1 Alpha Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia psittaci often causes avian chlamydiosis and influenza-like symptoms in humans. However, the commercial subunit C. psittaci vaccine could only provide a partial protection against avian chlamydiosis due to poor cellular immune response. In our previous study, a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT-delivered vaccine against C. psittaci and Marek’s disease based on human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter (rHVT-CMV-pmpD was developed and provided an effective protection against C. psittaci disease with less lesions and reduced chlamydial loads. In this study, we developed another recombinant HVT vaccine expressing the N-terminal fragment of PmpD (PmpD-N based on human elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α promoter (rHVT-EF-pmpD by modifying the HVT genome within a bacterial artificial chromosome. The related characterization of rHVT-EF-pmpD was evaluated in vitro in comparison with that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD. The expression of PmpD-N was determined by western blot. Under immunofluorescence microscopy, PmpD-N protein of both two recombinant viruses was located in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface. Growth kinetics of rHVT-EF-pmpD was comparable to that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD, and the growth rate of rHVT-EF-pmpD was apparently higher than that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD on 48, 72, and 120 h postinfection. Macrophages activated by rHVT-EF-pmpD could produce more nitric oxide and IL-6 than that activated by rHVT-CMV-pmpD. In this study, a recombinant HVT vaccine expressing PmpD-N based on EF-1α promoter was constructed successfully, and a further research in vivo was needed to analyze the vaccine efficacy.

  13. A comprehensive study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphisms, its expression in skin and relation to histopathological features in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil N Moorchung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G- A polymorphism at the -308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods : 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried.

  14. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0.......01). In a similar fashion, MSG elicited release of TNF-alpha. Initial increases were also seen at 4 h, and at 20 h, TNF-alpha levels reached 6.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, compared to 0.08 +/- 0.01 ng/ml for control cultures (P alpha secretion was observed at 20 h...

  15. Interleukin-4 and 13 induce the expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 and stem cell factor from human detrusor smooth muscle cells: synergy with interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andresen, Lars; Alvarez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development,......, signaling and function. We investigated whether HDSMCs are capable of expressing and releasing MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF in response to IL-4, IL-13, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.......Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development...

  16. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyazono, Agasa [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM gene expression. {yields} Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-{kappa}B activation by TNF-{alpha}. {yields} Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-{alpha}-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-{alpha} in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-{alpha}-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM expression through the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}.

  17. Mucosal expression of basic fibroblastic growth factor, Syndecan 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in diverticular disease of the colon: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, A; Elisei, W; Brandimarte, G; Giorgetti, G M; Inchingolo, C D; Nenna, R; Picchio, M; Giorgio, F; Ierardi, E

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation may be detected in diverticular disease (DD), and fibrosis may also develop. We assessed the mucosal expression of bFGF, SD1, and TNF-α in DD according to the severity of the disease. Moreover, we assessed the response to therapy of these cytokines in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD). Fifteen patients affected by AUD and seven patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) were enrolled. Patients with asymptomatic diverticulosis (AD), segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and healthy subjects (HC) served as control groups. The expression of bFGF, SD1, and TNF-α was significantly higher in diverticulitis than in healthy controls, in diverticulosis, and in uncomplicated diverticular disease. Cytokines were significantly higher in uncomplicated diverticular disease than in healthy controls. Cytokine expression in diverticulitis did not differ significantly from that of ulcerative colitis. After treatment, TNF-α expression dropped significantly. Mucosal TNF-α is overexpressed only in symptomatic DD, while SD1 and bFGF are already overexpressed in AD. Finally, TNF-α but not SD1 or bFGF expression seems to be influenced by the treatment in AUD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor gene promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afink, G. B.; Nistér, M.; Stassen, B. H.; Joosten, P. H.; Rademakers, P. J.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; van Zoelen, E. J.; Mosselman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGF alpha R) is strictly regulated during mammalian development and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specific regulation of PDGF alpha R expression are unknown, but transcriptional regulation of the PDGF alpha R

  19. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor expression in BRCA1-related breast cancer: A prospective study in tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the commonest cause of death among middle aged women. BRCA1 associated tumors carry a poor prognosis. Angiogenesis is considered necessary for tumor growth and for its metastasis. Hypoxia stimulates HIF-1α which then activates transcription of various proangiogenic cytokines like VEGF. In the present study we examined HIF-1α expression, sVEGF levels and BRCA1 mutations and their relation with clinicopathological parameters. We also determined whether the angiogenic markers have different role in angiogenesis in BRCA1 related cancers as compared to sporadic breast cancers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 cases of breast cancer specimens. Histopathological typing and grading was done followed by immunohistochemistry for BRCA1 and HIF-1α. VEGF was done in the serum by ELISA. Results: All the tumors were infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS. 16 cases were reported grade II and 34 cases as grade III. On immunohistochemistry, 27 cases showed BRCA1 positivity and HIF-1α was positive in 39 cases. sVEGF levels were increased in 21 cases (42%. BRCA1 positivity, HIF-1α expression and increased VEGF levels were significantly associated with higher grade and lymph node metastasis. There was significant correlation of BRCA1 positivity with increased HIF-1α expression (P = 0.009 and increased sVEGF levels (P = 0.005. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that BRCA 1 positive tumors have unique molecular profile and different mechanism of tumorigenesis. Such tumors are associated with increased HIF-1α expression and VEGF levels.

  20. Immunohistochemical examination of effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on platelet derived growth factor-c and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression in mouse liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, B; Sari, E K; Aydin, B D; Yildiz, S E

    2015-04-01

    We investigated using immunohistochemistry the effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on the expression of platelet derived growth factor-c (PDGF-C) and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α) in mouse liver and kidney. Mice were assigned to four groups: group 1 was given commercial probiotic capsules, group 2 was given kefir, group 3 was given koumiss and group 4 was untreated. After oral administration for 15 days, body weights were recorded and liver and kidney tissue samples were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to examine histology. PDGF-C and PDGFR-α in liver and kidney were localized using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex method (ABC). We found that the weights of the mice in the kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules groups increased compared to the control group. No differences in liver and kidney histology were observed in any of the experimental groups. Kefir, koumiss and the commercial probiotic preparation increased PDGF-C and PDGFR-α expression.

  1. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 in cultured brain slices after oxygen-glucose deprivation☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hong; Han, Weijuan; Yang, Lijun; Chang, Yanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expressed in oligodendrocytes may trigger the repair of neuronal myelin impairment, and play a crucial role in myelin repair. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor, is of great significance in premature infants with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. There is little evidence of direct regulatory effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α on oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1. In this study, brain slices of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and subjected to oxy...

  2. Functional activities of receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human vascular endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleolog, E.M.; Delasalle, S.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Feldmann, M.

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the control of endothelial cell function and hence in regulating traffic of circulating cells into tissues in vivo. Stimulation of endothelial cells in vitro by TNF-alpha increases the surface expression of leukocyte adhesion

  3. Induction of VEGF expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate via PI3Kgamma/PKB and hTAP1/SEC14L2-mediated lipid exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    In several studies, vitamin E has been observed to influence angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We recently showed that the phosphorylated form of alpha-tocopherol (alphaT), alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), increases the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thus, alphaTP m...

  4. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.<...

  5. High Nuclear Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Expression Is a Predictor of Distant Recurrence in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbert, Lauren E.; Fisher, Sarah B.; Balci, Serdar; Saka, Burcu; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Maithel, Shishir K.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression as a prognostic factor for distant recurrence (DR) and local recurrence (LR) after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Methods and Materials: Tissue specimens were collected from 98 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy between January 2000 and December 2011. Local recurrence was defined as radiographic or pathologic evidence of progressive disease in the pancreas, pancreatic bed, or associated nodal regions. Distant recurrence was defined as radiographically or pathologically confirmed recurrent disease in other sites. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored by an independent pathologist blinded to patient outcomes. High HIF-1α overall expression score was defined as high percentage and intensity staining and thus score >1.33. Univariate analysis was performed for HIF-1α score with LR alone and with DR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LR and DR. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 16.3 months. Eight patients (8%) demonstrated isolated LR, 26 patients (26.5%) had isolated DR, and 13 patients had both LR and DR. Fifty-three patients (54%) had high HIF-1α expression, and 45 patients (46%) had low HIF-1α expression. High HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with DR (P=.03), and low HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with isolated LR (P=.03). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high HIF-1α was the only significant predictor of DR (odds ratio 2.46 [95% confidence interval 1.06-5.72]; P=.03). In patients with a known recurrence, an HIF-1α score ≥2.5 demonstrated a specificity of 100% for DR. Conclusions: High HIF-1α expression is a significant predictor of distant failure versus isolated local failure in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of HIF-1α may have utility in determining candidates for

  6. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alpha and EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through......Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF...... receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated...

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with early childhood social interaction in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Iwata, Keiko; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasunori; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Okumura, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Takahira; Yoshino, Hiroki; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Mori, Norio; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Elevated blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. On the other hand, early childhood adverse experience also increases blood levels of these cytokines. Since social experience of children with autism spectrum disorder is generally unlike to typically developing children, we hypothesized that social interaction during childhood contribute to pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. We compared revised Autism Diagnostic Interview scores and expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (n = 30). The score of domain A on the revised Autism Diagnostic Interview, indicating social interaction impairment in early childhood, was negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not interleukin-1β or -6. Consistently, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was markedly low in subjects with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children who presumably experienced the regular levels of social interaction. These findings suggest that the low blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in subjects with autism spectrum disorder might be due to impaired social interaction in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  9. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected...... previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases......., the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus...

  10. Prognostic impact of HIF-1{alpha} expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellas, K.; Bache, M.; Kappler, M.; Haensgen, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Pigorsch, S.U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Taubert, H.; Holzhausen, H.J. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Holzapfel, D.; Zorn, E. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the hypoxia-inducible factor-(HIF-)1{alpha} expression in tumor tissue, tumor oxygenation and hemoglobin levels in patients with advanced cervical cancers prior to radiotherapy and the effect on clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: The investigation included 44 patients who underwent definitive radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancers between May 1995 and March 1999. Tumor biopsies were taken prior to treatment, and HIF-1{alpha} expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same tumor area, tumor tissue oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) was measured using the Eppendorf device. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival of all patients was 60%. Twelve of 44 tumor specimens were HIF-1{alpha}-negative with a significantly better 5-year survival (92 {+-} 8%) versus 32 patients who were HIF-1{alpha}-positive (45 {+-} 10%; p < 0.02). There was no correlation between HIF-1{alpha} expression and tumor oxygenation (p = 0.57 both for pO{sub 2} median and hypoxic fraction < 5 mmHg vs. HIF-1{alpha} expression). However, patients with hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl showed elevated HIF-1{alpha} expression compared to patients with hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dl (p = 0.04). Furthermore, HIF-1{alpha} correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression (p = 0.002). In a multivariate Cox regression model, HIF-1{alpha} expression (relative risk [RR] = 7.5; p = 0.05) revealed an increased risk of tumor-related death. Conclusion: The study indicates, that endogenous tumor markers such as HIF-1{alpha} may serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome concerning cervical cancer after primary radiotherapy. (orig.)

  11. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  12. A RNA antagonist of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, EZN-2968, inhibits tumor cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D; Filpula, David

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, drug resistance, and glucose metabolism. Elevated expression of the alpha-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha), which occurs in response to hypoxia or activation of growth facto...

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  14. Inflammatory microenvironment and tumor necrosis factor alpha as modulators of periostin and CCN2 expression in human non-healing skin wounds and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Christopher G; Forbes, Thomas L; Leask, Andrew; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2015-04-01

    Non-healing skin wounds remain a significant clinical burden, and in recent years, the regulatory role of matricellular proteins in skin healing has received significant attention. Periostin and CCN2 are both upregulated at day 3 post-wounding in murine skin, where they regulate aspects of the proliferative phase of repair including mesenchymal cell infiltration and myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, we examined 1) the wound phenotype and expression patterns of periostin and CCN2 in non-healing skin wounds in humans and 2) the regulation of their expression in wound fibroblasts by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Chronic skin wounds had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by macrophage infiltration, TNFα immunoreactivity, and neutrophil infiltration. Periostin, but not CCN2, was significantly suppressed in non-healing wound edge tissue at the mRNA and protein level compared with non-involved skin. In vitro, human wound edge fibroblasts populations were still able to proliferate and contract collagen gels. Compared to cells from non-involved skin, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels increased significantly in the presence of TGF-β1 in wound cells and were significantly decreased by TNFα, but not those of Col1A2 or CCN2. In the presence of both TGF-β1 and TNFα, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels were significantly reduced compared to TGF-β1 treated wound cells. Effects of TGF-β1 and TNFα on gene expression were also more pronounced in wound edge cells compared to non-involved fibroblasts. We conclude that variations in the expression of periostin and CCN2, are related to an inflammatory microenvironment and the presence of TNFα in human chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masako; Suzuki, Yuko; Obara, Nobuko; Uchida, Nobuhiko; Kawakoshi, Kentaro

    2004-11-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) affects the survival and maintenance of central and peripheral neurons. Using an immunocytochemical method, we examined whether the taste bud cells in the circumvallate papillae of normal mice expressed GDNF and its GFR alpha 1 receptor. Using double immunostaining for either of them and NCAM, PGP 9.5, or alpha-gustducin, we additionally sought to determine what type of taste bud cells expressed GDNF or GFR alpha 1, because NCAM is reported to be expressed in type-III cells, PGP 9.5, in type-III and some type-II cells, and alpha-gustducin, in some type-II cells. Normal taste bud cells expressed both GDNF and GFR alpha 1. The percentage of GDNF-immunoreactive cells among all taste bud cells was 31.63%, and that of GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells, 83.21%. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observations after double immunostaining showed that almost none of the GDNF-immunoreactive cells in the taste buds were reactive with anti-NCAM or anti-PGP 9.5 antibody, but could be stained with anti-alpha-gustducin antibody. On the other hand, almost all anti-PGP 9.5- or anti-alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive cells were positive for GFR alpha 1. Thus, GDNF-immunoreactive cells did not include type-III cells, but type-II cells, which are alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive; on the other hand, GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells included type-II and -III cells, and perhaps type-I cells. We conclude that GDNF in the type-II cells may exert trophic actions on type-I, -II, and -III taste bud cells by binding to their GFR alpha 1 receptors.

  16. Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia is associated with altered expression of CLOCK, DUSP and IL-1alpha genes, as well as changes in cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M A Ajabnoor

    Full Text Available During the fasting month of Ramadan, practicing Saudis develop severe disturbances in sleeping and feeding patterns. Concomitantly, cortisol circadian rhythm is abolished, diurnal cortisol levels are elevated and circulating levels of several adipokines are altered favouring insulin resistance.To examine changes in the expression of CLOCK and glucocorticoid-controlled genes, such as DUSP1 and IL-1α in Saudi adults before and during Ramadan, and to investigate possible associations with selected cardiometabolic risk factors.Healthy young volunteers (5 females, 18 males; mean age +SEM = 23.2 +1.2 years were evaluated before Ramadan and two weeks into it. Blood samples were collected at 9 am (±1 hour and twelve hours later for determination of serum lipid profile, high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP, and adiponectin. The expression of CLOCK, DUSP1 and IL-1α was evaluated in circulating leukocytes.Mean levels of GGT and morning adiponectin decreased, while those of LDL-c/ HDL-c and atherogenic index (AI increased significantly in Ramadan compared to Shabaan. There was no significant difference between morning and evening adiponectin during Ramadan, while the diurnal rhythm of hsCRP was lost. CLOCK gene expression mean was significantly higher in morning than in evening during Shabaan. Mean morning and evening DUSP1 mRNA levels showed significant increase during Ramadan compared to Shabaan, however, its diurnal rhythm was maintained. Morning IL-1α mRNA expression remained significantly higher than in the evening during Ramadan, but was markedly decreased compared to Shabaan.Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia is associated with improvements in some cardiometabolic risk factors, such as circulating GGT and hsCRP and leukocyte expression of IL-1α mRNA, suggesting that intermittent fasting might have a beneficial component. These benefits may be offset by the previously reported dysregulation in the circadian rhythm, excess glucocorticoid levels and action

  17. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  18. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Rajabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Features of malignant melanoma (MM vary in the different geographic regions of the world. This may be attributable to environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α in MM in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was planned as a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional investigation. During this study, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of MM was studied for ER-α using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results: In this study, 38 patients (female/male; 20/18 with a definite diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma and mean age of 52.4 ± 11.2 years were investigated. Using envision IHC staining, there were not any cases with ER-α expression. Conclusion: In confirmation to the most previous studies, expression of ER-α was negative in MM. It is recommended to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor beta and other markers in MM.

  19. Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia: Immunohistochemical Analysis. ... Additionally, ER-α was not expressed in either luminal or basal cells in any of the 35 BPH cases. However ... Key Words: ER-α, ER-β, prostate, hyperplasia, premalignant, cancer, immunohistochemistry ...

  20. Expression of human lymphotoxin alpha in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasevec, N.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van de; Komel, R.

    2000-01-01

    A gene-fusion expression strategy was applied for heterologous expression of human lymphotoxin alpha (LTα) in the Aspergillus niger AB1.13 protease-deficient strain. The LTα gene was fused with the A. niger glucoamylase GII-form as a carrier-gene, behind its transcription control and secretion

  1. Developmental expression of the alpha-skeletal actin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Freek J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which exerts a broad range of functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher vertebrates, six primary actin isoforms can be distinguished: alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth muscle, gamma-smooth muscle, beta-cytoplasmic and gamma-cytoplasmic isoactin. Expression of these actin isoforms during vertebrate development is highly regulated in a temporal and tissue-specific manner, but the mechanisms and the specific differences are currently not well understood. All members of the actin multigene family are highly conserved, suggesting that there is a high selective pressure on these proteins. Results We present here a model for the evolution of the genomic organization of alpha-skeletal actin and by molecular modeling, illustrate the structural differences of actin proteins of different phyla. We further describe and compare alpha-skeletal actin expression in two developmental stages of five vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, snake, salamander and fish. Our findings confirm that alpha-skeletal actin is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the heart of all five species. In addition, we identify many novel non-muscular expression domains including several in the central nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that the high sequence homology of alpha-skeletal actins is reflected by similarities of their 3 dimensional protein structures, as well as by conserved gene expression patterns during vertebrate development. Nonetheless, we find here important differences in 3D structures, in gene architectures and identify novel expression domains for this structural and functional important gene.

  2. Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wen-Lan; Liu, Ke-Jian

    2013-07-01

    Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study tests the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-h hypoxic treatment. Although 3-h hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc-concentration-dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3 h remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably, HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate. Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Zafar; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Akhtar, Nahid; Ramamurthy, Sangeetha; Voss, Frank R; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2009-01-01

    The major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) is aging, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are only partly understood. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate chondrocytes and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the present study, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on AGE-modified-BSA (AGE-BSA)-induced activation and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human OA chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage by enzymatic digestion and stimulated with in vitro-generated AGE-BSA. Gene expression of TNFalpha and MMP-13 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFalpha protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activation of NF-kappaB. DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity was determined using an in vitro kinase activity assay. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatin zymography. EGCG significantly decreased AGE-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of EGCG on the AGE-BSA-induced expression of TNFalpha and MMP-13 was mediated at least in part via suppression of p38-MAPK and JNK activation. In addition, EGCG inhibited the phosphorylating activity of IKKbeta kinase in an in vitro activity assay and EGCG inhibited the AGE-mediated activation and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha in the cytoplasm. These novel pharmacological actions of EGCG on AGE-BSA-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide new suggestions that EGCG or EGCG-derived compounds may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing AGE

  4. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Iovine

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively. Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia

  5. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M

    1985-01-01

    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  6. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  7. Liver alpha-amylase gene expression as an early obesity biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojbafan, Marzieh; Afsartala, Zohreh; Amoli, Mahsa M; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture. Control and case groups were fed by normal mouse pellet and high-fat diet respectively, during 8 weeks. After this period, serum biochemical parameters including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and alpha-amylase were assayed. Liver alpha-amylase gene was analyzed by real time PCR, and liver enzyme was assayed with Bernfeld and ELISA methods Hepatocyte cell culture derived from both group were also treated by acarbose and alpha-amylase activity and gene expression was analyzed by above mentioned methods. All biochemical factors showed an increase in obese mice, but the increase in ALT and AST were not statistically significant. Alpha-amylase levels were also increased in obese mice, both at RNA and protein level, while a decrease was seen in obese mice derived hepatocytes after acarbose treatment. Elevated liver alpha-amylase levels may be indicative of initial stages of obesity and the use of acarbose could be considered as a treatment of obesity which could be potentially effective at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  8. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  9. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  10. Prothymosin-alpha and Ki-67 expression in pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA, a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation.Material/Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56% and 12 males (44% with a mean age of 58.6±12 years, who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012. The Ki-67 and PTMA-nuclear (PTMA-n and PTMA-cytoplasmic (PTMA-c indices were determined by immunohistochemical staining. We studied histopathological features, clinical symptoms, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography performed before surgery and one year following surgery to evaluate tumor size and progression.Results: The expression of Ki-67 was revealed in 77.8% of adenomas, PTMA-n in 81.5% and PTMA-c in 92.6%. The mean value of the Ki-67 index was 1.8%, PTMA-n was 1.84%, and PTMA-c was 35.6%. There was a significant positive correlation between Ki-67 and PTMA-n (p=0.009. We did not find any correlation between Ki-67, PTMA-c, and tumor progression. PTMA-n was found to be correlated with tumor size (p=0.045 and was higher in the case of gonadotropinomas (p=0.026.Conclusions: The positive nuclear expression of Ki-67 and PTMA was observed in the majority of pituitary adenomas. Neither the expression of Ki-67 nor that of PTMA-c was related to tumor recurrence or local invasion.

  11. Co-regulation of the atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac myosin light chain-2 genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells. Identification of cis sequences within an embryonic and a constitutive contractile protein gene which mediate inducible expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K U; Baracchini, E; Ross, R S; Harris, A N; Henderson, S A; Evans, S M; Glembotski, C C; Chien, K R

    1991-04-25

    To study the mechanisms which mediate the transcriptional activation of cardiac genes during alpha adrenergic stimulation, the present study examined the regulated expression of three cardiac genes, a ventricular embryonic gene (atrial natriuretic factor, ANF), a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (cardiac MLC-2), and a cardiac sodium channel gene. alpha 1-Adrenergic stimulation activates the expression and release of ANF from neonatal ventricular cells. As assessed by RNase protection analyses, treatment with alpha-adrenergic agonists increases the steady-state levels of ANF mRNA by greater than 15-fold. However, a rat cardiac sodium channel gene mRNA is not induced, indicating that alpha-adrenergic stimulation does not lead to an increase in the expression of all cardiac genes. Studies employing a series of rat ANF luciferase and rat MLC-2 luciferase fusion genes identify 315- and 92-base pair cis regulatory sequences within an embryonic gene (ANF) and a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (MLC-2), respectively, which mediate alpha-adrenergic-inducible gene expression. Transfection of various ANF luciferase reporters into neonatal rat ventricular cells demonstrated that upstream sequences which mediate tissue-specific expression (-3003 to -638) can be segregated from those responsible for inducibility. The lack of inducibility of a cardiac Na+ channel gene, and the segregation of ANF gene sequences which mediate cardiac specific from those which mediate inducible expression, provides further insight into the relationship between muscle-specific and inducible expression during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Based on these results, a testable model is proposed for the induction of embryonic cardiac genes and constitutively expressed contractile protein genes and the noninducibility of a subset of cardiac genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells.

  12. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  13. The MC160 Protein Expressed by the Dermatotropic Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Prevents Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced NF-κB Activation via Inhibition of I Kappa Kinase Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2006-01-01

    The pluripotent cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) binds to its cognate TNF receptor I (TNF-RI) to stimulate inflammation via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. To prevent the detrimental effects of TNF-α in keratinocytes infected with the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), this poxvirus is expected to produce proteins that block at least one step of the TNF-RI signal transduction pathway. One such product, the MC160 protein, is predicted to interfere with this cellular response because of its homology to other proteins that regulate TNF-RI-mediated signaling. We report here that expression of MC160 molecules did significantly reduce TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation in 293T cells, as measured by gene reporter and gel mobility shift assays. Since we observed that MC160 decreased other NF-κB activation pathways, namely those activated by receptor-interacting protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 2, NF-κB-inducing kinase, or MyD88, we hypothesized that the MC160 product interfered with I kappa kinase (IKK) activation, an event common to multiple signal transduction pathways. Indeed, MC160 protein expression was associated with a reduction in in vitro IKK kinase activity and IKK subunit phosphorylation. Further, IKK1-IKK2 interactions were not detected in MC160-expressing cells, under conditions demonstrated to induce IKK complex formation, but interactions between the MC160 protein and the major IKK subunits were undetectable. Surprisingly, MC160 expression correlated with a decrease in IKK1, but not IKK2 levels, suggesting a mechanism for MC160 disruption of IKK1-IKK2 interactions. MCV has probably retained its MC160 gene to inhibit NF-κB activation by interfering with signaling via multiple biological mediators. In the context of an MCV infection in vivo, MC160 protein expression may dampen the cellular production of proinflammatory molecules and enhance persistent infections in host keratinocytes. PMID:16378960

  14. SDF-1 alpha expression during wound healing in the aged is HIF dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Shang A; Chang, Edward I; Galvez, Michael G; Thangarajah, Hariharan; El-ftesi, Samyra; Vial, Ivan N; Lin, Darius A; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2009-02-01

    Age-related impairments in wound healing are associated with decreased neovascularization, a process that is regulated by hypoxia-responsive cytokines, including stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 alpha. Interleukin-1 beta is an important inflammatory cytokine involved in wound healing and is believed to regulate SDF-1 alpha expression independent of hypoxia signaling. Thus, the authors examined the relative importance of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha on SDF-1 alpha expression in aged wound healing. Young and aged mice (n = 4 per group) were examined for wound healing using a murine excisional wound model. Wounds were harvested at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 for histologic analysis, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot. An engineered wild-type and mutated SDF luciferase reporter construct were used to determine HIF transactivation. Aged mice demonstrated significantly impaired wound healing, reduced granulation tissue, and increased epithelial gap compared with young controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated reduced SDF-1 alpha levels in aged wounds that correlated with reduced CD31+ neovessels. Western blots revealed decreased HIF-1 alpha protein in aged wounds. However, both IL-1 beta and macrophage infiltrate were unchanged between young and aged animals. Using the wild-type and mutated SDF luciferase reporter construct in which the hypoxia response element was deleted, only young fibroblasts were able to respond to IL-1 beta stimulation, and this response was abrogated by mutating the HIF-binding sites. This suggests that HIF binding is essential for SDF-1 transactivation in response to both inflammatory and hypoxic stimuli. SDF-1 alpha deficiency observed during aged wound healing is attributable predominantly to decreased HIF-1 alpha levels rather than impaired IL-1 beta expression.

  15. Alpha particles induce expression of immunogenic markers on tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, J.B.; Gouard, S.; Cherel, M.; Davodeau, F.; Gaschet, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The full text of the publication follows. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an approach aiming at targeting the radioelements to tumours, usually through the use of antibodies specific for tumour antigens. The radiations emitted by the radioelements then induce direct killing of the targeted cells as well as indirect killing through bystander effect. Interestingly, it has been shown that ionizing radiations, in some settings of external radiotherapy, can foster an immune response directed against tumour cells. Our research team is dedicated to the development of alpha RIT, i.e RIT using alpha particle emitters, we therefore decided to study the effects of such particles on tumour cells in regards to their immunogenicity. First, we studied the effects of bismuth 213, an alpha emitter, on cellular death and autophagy in six different tumour cell lines. Then, we measured the expression of 'danger' signals and MHC molecules at the cell surface to determine whether irradiation with 213 Bi could cause the tumour cells to be recognized by the immune system. Finally a co-culture of dendritic cells with irradiated tumour cells was performed to test whether it would induce dendritic cells to mature. No apoptosis was detected within 48 hours after irradiation in any cell line, however half of them exhibited signs of autophagy. No increase in membrane expression of 'danger' signals was observed after treatment with 213 Bi, but we showed an increase in expression of MHC class I and II for some cell lines. Moreover, the co-culture experiment indicated that the immunogenicity of a human adenocarcinoma cell line (LS 174T) was enhanced in vitro after irradiation with alpha rays. These preliminary data suggest that alpha particles could be of interest in raising an immune response associated to RIT. (authors)

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha has a key role in hypoxic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Satoshi; Ono, Junichiro; Iwanaga, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Shuhei; Asaga, Takehiko; Chujo, Kosuke; Ueki, Masaaki

    2009-08-01

    Sublethal hypoxia induces tolerance to subsequent hypoxic insults in a process known as hypoxic preconditioning (HP). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key transcription protein involved in the mechanism of HP. In this study, we investigated the effects of HP on tissue oxygenation and expression of HIF-1 alpha gene targets in the brain using neural cell-specific HIF-1 alpha-deficient mice. The animals were exposed to 8% oxygen for 3 hours. Twenty-four hours later, the oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) of brain tissue and gene expression were measured during hypoxia. HP improved the pO(2) of brain tissue during subsequent hypoxia with upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase in wild-type mice, whereas HP had no detectable effect in the mutant mice. Our results indicate that the protective effects of HP may be partially mediated by improving tissue oxygenation via HIF-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  17. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  18. TNF-{alpha} mediates the stimulation of sclerostin expression in an estrogen-deficient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Jun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Jin [Health Promotion Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Young-Sun; Baek, Ji-Eun; Park, Sook-Young [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Min, E-mail: jmkoh@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghi Su [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen deprivation stimulates the bony sclerostin levels with reversal by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increases the activity and expression of MEF2 in UMR-106 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} blocker prevents the stimulation of bony sclerostin expression by ovariectomy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No difference in bony sclerostin expression between sham-operated and ovariectomized nude mice. -- Abstract: Although recent clinical studies have suggested a possible role for sclerostin, a secreted Wnt antagonist, in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the detailed mechanisms how estrogen deficiency regulates sclerostin expression have not been well-elucidated. Bilateral ovariectomy or a sham operation in female C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c nude mice was performed when they were seven weeks of age. The C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered serum (PBS), 5 {mu}g/kg {beta}-estradiol five times per week for three weeks, or 10 mg/kg TNF-{alpha} blocker three times per week for three weeks. Bony sclerostin expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining in their femurs. The activity and expression of myocyte enhancer factors 2 (MEF2), which is essential for the transcriptional activation of sclerostin, in rat UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells were determined by luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Bony sclerostin expression was stimulated by estrogen deficiency and it was reversed by estradiol supplementation. When the UMR-106 cells were treated with well-known, estrogen-regulated cytokines, only TNF-{alpha}, but not IL-1 and IL-6, increased the MEF2 activity. Consistently, TNF-{alpha} also increased the nuclear MEF2 expression. Furthermore, the TNF-{alpha} blocker prevented the stimulation of bony sclerostin expression by ovariectomy. We also found that there was no difference in sclerostin expression between ovariectomized

  19. Vibration induced hearing loss in guinea pig cochlea: expression of TNF-alpha and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Sutinen, Päivi; Toppila, Esko

    2005-04-01

    Transcranial vibration was applied for seven animals at a frequency of 250 Hz for 15 min, and five animals were used as normal controls to investigate cellular and molecular mechanism linked to vibration-induced hearing loss in animal model. Compound action potential (CAP) thresholds were measured by round window niche electrode. The expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors (TNF R1, TNF R2), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGF R1, VEGF R2) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transcranial vibration caused expression of TNF-alpha, TNF R1 and TNF R2 in the cochlea and the expression of TNF R2 was stronger than that of TNF R1. Vibration also induced VEGF and VEGF R2 expression in the cochlea. The average immediate hearing loss was 62 dB and after three days still 48 dB. It is concluded that transcranial vibration as during temporal bone drilling produces cochlear shear stress that is connected with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and its receptors. Also VEGF and VEGF R2 are up-regulated. These responses may be linked to both the damage and repair process of the cochlea.

  20. [Effects of Electroaupuncture Stimulation of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39), etc. on Duodenal Mucosal Injury, Serum Pro-inflammatory Factors Levels and Duodenal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 Expression in Duodenal Ulcer Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Zhang, Hong; Yi, Xi-qin; Wu, Jin-feng

    2016-04-01

    To observe the relatively specific effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39, the lower hesea paint of the small intestine), etc. on the level of serum TNF-alpha, lnterleukin-1 P (IL-1 P) and high mobility group protein B 1 (HMGB 1) contents, and duodenum a7 nicotinic acetyicholine receptor (nAchR) expression in duodenal ulcer rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improving duodenal ulcer. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, Xiajuxu (ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Yanglingquan (GB 34). The duodenal ulcer model was established by subcutaneous injection of 10% Cysteamine Hydrochloride (300 mg/kg), following by giving the rats with access to water containing Cysteamine. EA (10 Hz/50 Hz, 1- 3 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 39, ST 36, ST 37 and GB 34 for 30 min, once daily for 10 days. The ulcer scores (0-5 points) of the duodenal mucosa were assessed according to modified Moraes' methods. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 levels were assayed by ELISA and the expression of neuronal a7 nAchR in the duodenal tissue was detected by Western blot. After modeling, the ulcer score, serum TNF-alpha, IL-i p and HMGB 1 contents were significantly increased (P0.05). EA stimulation of ST 36, ST 37 and ST 39 can reduce ulcer injury in duodenal ulcer model rats, which may be associated with their effects in down-regulating serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 contents and up-regulating alpha7 nAchR expression of the duodenal tissue, possibly by suppressing immune and inflammatory reactions and regulating nicotinic activity.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands on cell proliferation and expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat liver "stem-like" cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Zatloukalová, Jiřina; Machala, M.; Krčmář, P.; Májková, Z.; Hennig, B.; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2007), s. 79-89 ISSN 0388-1350 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : tumor necrosis factor-alpha * xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes * dioxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Cellular localization of transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroogy, K B; Lundgren, K H; Lee, D C; Guthrie, K M; Gall, C M

    1993-05-01

    The cellular localization of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) mRNA in juvenile and adult rat forebrain was examined using in situ hybridization with a 35S-labeled cRNA probe. TGF alpha cRNA-labeled neuronal perikarya were distributed across many forebrain regions including the olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, ventral pallidum, amygdala, hippocampal stratum granulosum and CA3 stratum pyramidale, and piriform, entorhinal, and retrosplenial cortices. TGF alpha cRNA-hybridizing cells were also localized to several thalamic nuclei and to the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. In addition, labeled cells were present in regions of white matter including the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsules, optic tract, and lateral olfactory tract. Thus, both neurons and glia appear to synthesize TGF alpha in normal brain. Hybridization densities were greater in neuronal fields at 2 weeks of age compared with the adult, suggesting a role for TGF alpha in the development of several forebrain systems. Our results demonstrating the prominent and wide-spread expression of TGF alpha mRNA in forebrain, combined with the extremely low abundance of epidermal growth factor mRNA in brain, support the argument that TGF alpha is the principal endogenous ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor in normal brain.

  3. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: nya@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  4. Alpha Power Modulates Perception Independently of Endogenous Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasskia Brüers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing. We propose to disentangle the direct from the indirect causal routes by introducing modulations of alpha power, independently of any fluctuations in endogenous factors. To this end, we use white-noise sequences to constrain the brain activity of 20 participants. The cross-correlation between the white-noise sequences and the concurrently recorded EEG reveals the impulse response function (IRF, a model of the systematic relationship between stimulation and brain response. These IRFs are then used to reconstruct rather than record the brain activity linked with new random sequences (by convolution. Interestingly, this reconstructed EEG only contains information about oscillations directly linked to the white-noise stimulation; fluctuations in attention and other endogenous factors may still modulate brain alpha rhythms during the task, but our reconstructed EEG is immune to these factors. We found that the detection of near-perceptual threshold targets embedded within these new white-noise sequences depended on the power of the ~10 Hz reconstructed EEG over parieto-occipital channels. Around the time of presentation, higher power led to poorer performance. Thus, fluctuations in alpha power, induced here by random luminance sequences, can directly influence perception: the relation between

  5. Proposal of a weight factor for alpha radiation aiming biota radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Goncalves, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Several proposals based on the environmental radioprotection of calculating the absorbed dose in biota have been suggested. The absorbed dose expresses the deposition of energy per mass unit. The differences in biological effects of the absorbed dose can be quantified by applying a correction factor to the absorbed dose. The correction factor for radiation is easier to establish, because radiations exist in smaller number (alpha, beta, neutrons and photons) and can be set for groups of organisms. This work aims to propose a correction factor for radiation, in order to adequate the concept of absorbed dose currently used to the concept of equivalent dose. A survey of the literature on correction factors proposed for alpha radiation was carried out and, when possible, the biological endpoint was identified, as well as the radionuclide and the biological target. A variation of the weight factor for alpha radiation from 1 to 377 was observed and a number of biological endpoints, biological target and alpha emitter radionuclide were identified. Finally we propose a weight value for alpha radiation of 40, and we propose also the name of correction factor for radiation alpha as being ecological radiation weighting factor (WRE) the name 'equivalent dose for flora and fauna' (HTFF) to name of the new dose. (author)

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  7. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  8. Hydrostatic pressure influences HIF-2 alpha expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Tsuchida, Shinji; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Ueshima, Keiichirou; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  9. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  10. Expression and Hydroxylamine Cleavage of Thymosin Alpha 1 Concatemer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1 is an important peptide in the development and senescence of immunological competence in human, and many studies have reported the expression of this peptide. In this study, we designed and synthesized the Tα1 gene according to the E. coli codon usage preference and constructed a 6×Tα1 concatemer. The latter was inserted into an E. coli expression vector pET-22b (+, and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3. After induction with IPTG, the concatemer protein was successfully expressed in E. coli then cleaved by hydroxylamine to release the Tα1 monomer. Gly-SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry confirmed that the recombinant protein was cleaved as intended. The bioactivity of the Tα1 monomer was analyzed by lymphocyte proliferation and by mitochondrial activity in two different tumor cell lines. This study provides a description of the preparation of a bioactive Tα1, which may prove useful in future biomedical research.

  11. Co-receptor choice by V alpha14i NKT cells is driven by Th-POK expression rather than avoidance of CD8-mediated negative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Isaac; Hammond, Kirsten; Sullivan, Barbara A; He, Xi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kappes, Dietmar; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2010-05-10

    Mouse natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant V alpha14-J alpha18 rearrangement (V alpha14 invariant [V alpha14i] NKT cells) are either CD4(+)CD8(-) or CD4(-)CD8(-). Because transgenic mice with forced CD8 expression in all T cells exhibited a profound NKT cell deficit, the absence of CD8 has been attributed to negative selection. We now present evidence that CD8 does not serve as a coreceptor for CD1d recognition and that the defect in development in CD8 transgene homozygous mice is the result of a reduction in secondary T cell receptor alpha rearrangements. Thymocytes from mice hemizygous for the CD8 transgene have a less severe rearrangement defect and have functional CD8(+) V alpha14i NKT cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Th, Poxviruses and Zinc finger, and Krüppel family (Th-POK) is expressed by V alpha14i NKT cells throughout their differentiation and is necessary both to silence CD8 expression and for the functional maturity of V alpha14i NKT cells. We therefore suggest that Th-POK expression is required for the normal development of V alpha14i NKT cells and that the absence of CD8 expression by these cells is a by-product of such expression, as opposed to the result of negative selection of CD8-expressing V alpha14i NKT cells.

  12. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E

    2003-01-01

    decreased responses were seen upon transfer of alpha(1)-deficient activated/memory T cells. Thus, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins on activated T cells is directly functionally important for generation of inflammatory responses within tissues. Finally, the inhibitory effect......Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of alpha(1...

  13. Fano factor evaluation of diamond detectors for alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Yuki [Naraha Remote Technology Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naraha-machi, Futaba-gun, Fukushima, 979-0513 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Mokuno, Yoshiaki [Advanced Power Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Research Institute for Electronics and Photonics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    This report is the first describing experimental evaluation of Fano factor for diamond detectors. High-quality self-standing chemical vapor deposited diamond samples were produced using lift-off method. Alpha-particle induced charge measurements were taken for three samples. A 13.1 ±0.07 eV of the average electron-hole pair creation energy and excellent energy resolution of approximately 0.3% were found for 5.486 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am radioactive source. The best Fano factor for 5.486 MeV alpha particles, calculated from experimentally obtained epsilon values and the detector intrinsic energy resolution, was 0.382 ± 0.007. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  15. Brain region-dependent differential expression of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-04-15

    α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha and Nuclear Factor-kappa B Gene Variants in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Leyla; Atalan, Nazan; Karagedik, E Hande; Ergen, Arzu

    2018-01-20

    The humoral system is activated and various cytokines are released due to infections in tissues and traumatic damage. Nuclear factor-kappa B dimers are encoded by nuclear factor-kappa B genes and regulate transcription of several crucial proteins of inflammation such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha. To investigate the possible effect of polymorphisms on tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels with clinical and prognostic parameters of sepsis by determining the nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) gene polymorphisms and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels. Case-control study. Seventy-two patients with sepsis and 104 healthy controls were included in the study. In order to determine the polymorphisms of nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed no significant differences in tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels between the study groups. In the patient group, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) A allele compared to those without the A allele was found to be statistically significant. Additionally, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) AA genotype compared with patients carrying the AG or GG genotypes was statistically significant. No significant differences were found in these 2 polymorphisms between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Our results showed the AA genotype and the A allele of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) polymorphism may be used as a predictor of elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with sepsis.

  17. Expression of HIF-1{alpha} in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Dimmler, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2007-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1{alpha} (hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1{alpha}-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1{alpha} expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1{alpha} concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue

  18. Calcineurin signaling and PGC-1alpha expression are suppressed during muscle atrophy due to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K; Reddy, Ramesh N; Bailey, James L; Zheng, Bin; Ordas, Ronald; Gooch, Jennifer L; Price, S Russ

    2010-08-01

    PGC-1alpha is a transcriptional coactivator that controls energy homeostasis through regulation of glucose and oxidative metabolism. Both PGC-1alpha expression and oxidative capacity are decreased in skeletal muscle of patients and animals undergoing atrophy, suggesting that PGC-1alpha participates in the regulation of muscle mass. PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled by calcium- and cAMP-sensitive pathways. However, the mechanism regulating PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle during atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the mechanism responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression using a rodent streptozotocin (STZ) model of chronic diabetes and atrophy. After 21days, the levels of PGC-1alpha protein and mRNA were decreased. We examined the activation state of CREB, a potent activator of PGC-1alpha transcription, and found that phospho-CREB was paradoxically high in muscle of STZ-rats, suggesting that the cAMP pathway was not involved in PGC-1alpha regulation. In contrast, expression of calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-dependent phosphatase, was suppressed in the same muscles. PGC-1alpha expression is regulated by two Cn substrates, MEF2 and NFATc. Therefore, we examined MEF2 and NFATc activity in muscles from STZ-rats. Target genes MRF4 and MCIP1.4 mRNAs were both significantly reduced, consistent with reduced Cn signaling. Moreover, levels of MRF4, MCIP1.4, and PGC-1alpha were also decreased in muscles of CnAalpha-/- and CnAbeta-/- mice without diabetes indicating that decreased Cn signaling, rather than changes in other calcium- or cAMP-sensitive pathways, were responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression. These findings demonstrate that Cn activity is a major determinant of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes and possibly other conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.

  19. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  20. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  1. Increased cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain in left atria and decreased myocardial insulin-like growth factor (Igf-I) expression accompany low heart rate in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, N D; Nelson, O L; Robbins, C T; Rourke, B C

    2011-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extended periods of extremely low heart rate during hibernation without developing congestive heart failure or cardiac chamber dilation. Left ventricular atrophy and decreased left ventricular compliance have been reported in this species during hibernation. We evaluated the myocardial response to significantly reduced heart rate during hibernation by measuring relative myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and expression of a set of genes important to muscle plasticity and mass regulation in the left atria and left ventricles of active and hibernating bears. We supplemented these data with measurements of systolic and diastolic function via echocardiography in unanesthetized grizzly bears. Atrial strain imaging revealed decreased atrial contractility, decreased expansion/reservoir function (increased atrial stiffness), and decreased passive-filling function (increased ventricular stiffness) in hibernating bears. Relative MyHC-α protein expression increased significantly in the atrium during hibernation. The left ventricle expressed 100% MyHC-β protein in both groups. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) mRNA expression was reduced by ∼50% in both chambers during hibernation, consistent with the ventricular atrophy observed in these bears. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and Muscle Ring Finger 1 did not increase, nor did expression of myostatin or hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). We report atrium-specific decreases of 40% and 50%, respectively, in MAFBx and creatine kinase mRNA expression during hibernation. Decreased creatine kinase expression is consistent with lowered energy requirements and could relate to reduced atrial emptying function during hibernation. Taken together with our hemodynamic assessment, these data suggest a potential downregulation of atrial chamber function during hibernation to prevent fatigue and dilation

  2. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  3. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  4. Insights into Alpha-Hemolysin (Hla) Evolution and Expression among Staphylococcus aureus Clones with Hospital and Community Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Ana; Nielsen, Jesper B; Boye, Kit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infection, being active against a wide range of host cells. Although hla is ubiquitous in S. aureus, its genetic diversity and variation in expression in different genetic backgrounds...... and SCCmec typing. The internal regions of hla and the hla promoter were sequenced and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Alpha-hemolysin encoding- and promoter sequences were diverse, with 12 and 23 different alleles, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that hla may have...... in the RNAIII binding site were not associated to hla expression. Although expression rates of hla were in general strain-specific, we observed CA clones showed significantly higher hla expression (p = 0.003) when compared with HA clones. CONCLUSION: We propose that the hla gene has evolved together...

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism correlates with deleterious effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincek, V.; Kurimoto, I.; Medema, J. P.; Prieto, E.; Streilein, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Intradermally injected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mimics the effects of UV B light (UVB) radiation and neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibodies abolish the deleterious effects of UVB on induction of contact hypersensitivity suggesting that TNF-alpha is the major mediator of UVB effects on

  6. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR{alpha

  7. Enhanced actions of insulin-like growth factor-I and interferon-alpha co-administration in experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutau, Federico; Rodríguez-Ortigosa, Carlos; Puche, Juan Enrique; Juanarena, Nerea; Monreal, Iñigo; García Fernández, María; Clavijo, Encarna; Castilla, Alberto; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma

    2009-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a diffuse process of hepatic fibrosis and regenerative nodule formation. The liver is the major source of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) whose plasma levels are diminished in cirrhosis. IGF-I supplementation has been shown to induce beneficial effects in cirrhosis, including antifibrogenic and hepatoprotective effects. On other hand, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy seems to suppress the progression of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the co-administration of IGF-I+IFN-alpha to Wistar rats with CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis, exploring liver function tests, hepatic lipid peroxidation and histopathology. The mechanisms underlying the effects of these agents were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, determining the expression of some factors [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen, tissular inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and pregnane X receptor (PXR)] involved in fibrogenesis, fibrolysis and/or hepatoprotection. Both IGF-I and IFN-alpha exerted significant effects on fibrogenesis. IGF-I significantly increased serum albumin and HGF whereas IFN-alpha-therapy did not. The inhibition of TGF-beta expression was only observed by the effect of IFN-alpha-therapy. In addition, only the co-administration of IGF-I and IFN-alpha was able to increase the PXR. The combined therapy with both factors improved liver function tests, hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced fibrosis, inducing a relevant histological improvement, reducing fibrosis and recovering hepatic architecture. The co-administration IGF-I+IFN enhanced all the beneficial effects observed with each factor separately, showing an additive action on histopathology and PXR expression, which is involved in the inhibition of fibrogenesis.

  8. Comparative study of TGF-alpha and P53 markers′ expression in odontogenic keratocyst and orthokeratinaized odontogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Deyhimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is an aggressive cyst and its recurrence is higher than other odontogenic cysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC is a cyst with moderate biological behavior in comparison with OKC, but with the probability of carcinomatous changes. The present study aims to evaluate the quantity and intensity of the expression of P53 protein and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha in OKC and OOC in order to compare the biologic behavior of these two cysts. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The samples include 30 cysts (15 OKC and 15 OOC, all stained immunohistochemically for P53 protein and TGF-alpha by the Novolinke polymer method. Then, all the cases were examined with an optical microscope with Χ400 magnification and the stained cells were counted in the basal and parabasal layers. Finally the results were analyzed by the Mann–and Wilcoxon tests (P value < 0.05. Results: The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.076. The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.003; moreover, the difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.284. The difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.015. Conclusion: Since there was a higher expression of P53 protein and TGF-alpha in OKC compared to those in OOC, the probability of carcinomatous changes was at least theoretically higher in OKC than in OOC.

  9. Exercise preconditioning reduces brain damage and inhibits TNF-alpha receptor expression after hypoxia/reoxygenation: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun-Hong; Mrizek, Michael; Lai, Qin; Wu, Yimin; Reyes, Raul; Li, Jie; Davis, William W; Ding, Yuchuan

    2006-11-01

    Exercise reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat stroke models. We investigated whether gradual increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) reported during exercise down-regulates expression of TNF-alpha receptors I and II (TNFRI and II) in stroke, leading to reduced brain damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 30 minutes of exercise on a treadmill each day for 3 weeks. Then, stroke was induced by a 2-hour middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion using an intra-luminal filament. Expressions of TNFRI and II mRNA in the brain were detected using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein expressions of TNFRI and II were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) in serum and brain homogenates. Spatial distribution of TNF-alpha receptors in brain regions was determined with immunocytochemistry. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), we addressed the causal effect of TNF-alpha pretreatment on TNF I and II expression using ELISA and real-time PCR. In exercised rats after stroke, brain infarct was significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the entire MCA supplied regions, associated with a mild expression of TNFRI and II mRNA and protein. The TNF-alpha receptors were restricted to the ischemic core. In contrast, a robust expression of TNFRI and II molecules was found in non-exercised rats subjected to similar ischemia/reperfusion insults. An in vitro study revealed a causal link between TNF-alpha pretreatment and reduced cellular expression of TNF-alpha receptors under hypoxic/reoxygenated conditions. Our results suggest that reduced-brain damage in ischemic rats after exercise preconditioning may be attributable to the reduced expression of TNF-alpha receptors. Chronically increased TNF-alpha expression was also found to reduce TNFI and II responding to acute ischemia/reperfusion insult.

  10. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: Jqin710@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: dryaojin@yahoo.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  11. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  12. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  13. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  14. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Induction of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression by co-stimulation with interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha is controlled by IkappaB-zeta but neither by C/EBP-beta nor C/EBP-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Joachim R; Borregaard, Niels; Cowland, Jack B

    2010-01-01

    -alpha in the presence of IL-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by the newly discovered subset of CD4(+) T helper cells, T(H)-17. In contrast to the murine NGAL orthologue, 24p3/lipocalin 2, we found no requirement for C/EBP-beta or C/EBP-delta for NGAL induction by IL-17 and TNF-alpha as neither small interfering...

  16. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment.

  17. Epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I upregulate the expression of the epidermal growth factor system in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Vinter-Jensen, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I play a role in connection with the liver. In the present study, the possible interaction of these two growth factor systems was studied by investigating the effect of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor...... I treatment on the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor, and its activating ligands, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor. METHODS: Fifty-five male rats received no treatment, human recombinant epidermal growth factor or human recombinant insulin-like growth.......8+/-1.6 fmol/mg protein epidermal growth factor and 144+/-22 fmol/mg protein transforming growth factor-alpha. Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I treatment increased the expression of mRNA for transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor, as well...

  18. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  19. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF......-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly...

  20. Response of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF ) in blood and spleen mice that vaccinated with P.berghei radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlina; Tur R; Teja K

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is a glycoprotein derived from helper T lymphocytes that play an important role in the body's response against malaria infection. However, TNF-α has double play that is on appropriate levels will provide protection and healing, while at excessive levels which may be a response to hyperparasitemia. Thus investigated the expression of TNF alpha secreted blood lymphocytes and spleen cells the mice that's infected with 1 x 10 7 P.berghei infectious or inactivated by radiation. Levels of TNF alpha serum and spleen cell culture medium was monitored on days 2, 7, 14 post infection. Monitoring of parasite growth every two days for 60 days. Determination of TNF alpha levels were measure using ELISA. The results showed parasitaemia mice infected with 175 Gy irradiated parasites have pre patent period of 16 days longer than the control (non-irradiated parasites) with low parasitaemia. TNF alpha concentration that secreted spleen cells of mice vaccinated higher than control mice. Concentration of TNF alpha that secreted blood lymphocyte of mice vaccinated lower than control mice. It was concluded that the secretion of TNF alpha by blood lymphocytes caused more pathogenic factors of the parasite, while the secretion of TNF alpha in spleen due to an immune response against the parasite. (author)

  1. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  2. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapies attenuate adaptive arteriogenesis in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Sebastian; Hoefer, Imo; Ulusans, Susann; van Royen, Niels; Schirmer, Stephan H.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Bode, Christoph; Piek, Jan J.; Buschmann, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    The specific antagonists of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), infliximab and etanercept, are established therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Although the importance of TNF-alpha in chronic inflammatory diseases is well established,

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nikliński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha and its receptors (TNF-Rs in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC and compare these results with the outcome of 126 patients. Presence of TNF-alpha, TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The proportion of samples positive for TNF-alpha and TNF-R2 was higher in epithelial ovarian cancer patients than in benign ovarian diseases (p<0.001 and p=0.016, respectively. Immunostaining intensity of TNF-R2 were correlated with tumor stage (p<0.001 and with reduced mean survival time (MST (p=0.002. The results of the present study suggested that tissue expression of TNF-R2 in epithelial ovarian cancer was correlated with the highest risk of cancer progression. Thus, the clinical value of activated TNF system in epithelial ovarian cancer needs to be further investigated.

  4. Age-dependent changes in expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors within ventricular myocardium of rats ranging in age from 21 days of fetal life to 24 months after birth was measured from [ 125 I] 2-(β hydroxy phenyl) ethylaminomethyl tetralone binding isotherms. No difference was observed in binding affinity between any of the age groups studied. The number of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors was found to be 60-120% higher in membranes from fetal or immature rats up to 25 days of age when compared with adult animals. The increased expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors in the developing heart relative to that observed in adult heart is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation may modulate protein synthesis and growth in mammalian myocardium

  5. Induction of autocrine factor inhibiting cell motility from murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, J; Ayukawa, K; Ogasawara, M; Watanabe, H; Saiki, I

    1999-03-15

    We have previously reported that neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) successfully inhibited Matrigel invasion and haptotactic migration of B16-BL6 melanoma cells towards both fibronectin and laminin without affecting their growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of tumor cell motility by alpha-MSH. Alpha-MSH significantly blocked the autocrine motility factor (AMF)-enhanced cell motility. However, alpha-MSH did neither prevent the secretion of AMF from B16-BL6 cells nor alter the expression level of AMF receptor (gp78). On the other hand, alpha-MSH induced the secretion of the motility inhibitory factor(s) from B16-BL6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of the motility inhibitor(s) was proportional to increasing levels of intracellular cAMP induced by alpha-MSH as well as forskolin, and the activity was abolished by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA). The motility-inhibiting activity in conditioned medium (CM) from alpha-MSH-treated B16-BL6 cells was found to have a m.w. below 3 kDa after fractionation. This activity was abolished by boiling but insensitive to trypsin. The treatment of tumor cells with cycloheximide reduced the activity in alpha-MSH-stimulated CM. Our results suggest that alpha-MSH inhibited the motility of B16-BL6 cells through induction of autocrine factor(s).

  6. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor in alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Bi, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Li, Yirong

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid factor causes positive interference in multiple immunoassays. Recently, negative interference has also been found in immunoassays in the presence of rheumatoid factor. The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is widely used to determine serum alpha-fetoprotein. However, it is not clear whether the presence of rheumatoid factor in the serum causes interference in the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. Methods Serum alpha-fetoprotein was determined using the ARCHITECT alpha-fetoprotein assay. The estimation of alpha-fetoprotein recovery was carried out in samples prepared by diluting high-concentration alpha-fetoprotein serum with rheumatoid factor-positive or rheumatoid factor-negative serum. Paramagnetic microparticles coated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complexes were used to remove rheumatoid factor from the serum. Results The average recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was 88.4% and 93.8% in the rheumatoid factor-positive and rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples, respectively. The recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was significantly lower in the rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples than in the rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples. In two of five rheumatoid factor-positive samples, a large difference was found (9.8%) between the average alpha-fetoprotein recoveries in the serially diluted and initial recoveries. Fourteen rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples were pretreated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complex-coated paramagnetic microparticles. The alpha-fetoprotein concentrations measured in the pretreated samples increased significantly. Conclusions It was concluded that the alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is susceptible to interference by rheumatoid factor, leading to significantly lower results. Eliminating the incidence of negative interference from rheumatoid factor should be an important goal for immunoassay providers. In the meantime

  7. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Original article Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    Immunohistochemical Analysis ... Seven PCa cases contained foci of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia ... Immunohistochemistry was used to test the protein expression of ER-α and ER-β ... interactions of estrogens and ER as well.

  9. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme: an encouraging target for various inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet S; Silakari, Om

    2010-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha is one of the most common pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for various inflammatory disorders. It plays an important role in the origin and progression of rheumatoid arthritis and also in other autoimmune disease conditions. Some anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies like Enbrel, Humira and Remicade have been successfully used in these disease conditions as antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Inhibition of generation of active form of tumor necrosis factor alpha is a promising therapy for various inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the inhibition of an enzyme (tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme), which is responsible for processing inactive form of tumor necrosis factor alpha into its active soluble form, is an encouraging target. Many tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibitors have been the candidates of clinical trials but none of them have reached in to the market because of their broad spectrum inhibitory activity for other matrix metalloproteases. Selectivity of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibition over matrix metalloproteases is of utmost importance. If selectivity is achieved successfully, side-effects can be over-ruled and this approach may become a novel therapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. This cytokine not only plays a pivotal role in inflammatory conditions but also in some cancerous conditions. Thus, successful targeting of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme may result in multifunctional therapy.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...... function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor...... did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha...

  12. PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced skeletal muscle VEGF expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Hellsten, Ylva; Fentz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1alpha is required for exercise-induced VEGF expression in both young and old mice and that AMPK activation leads to increased VEGF expression through a PGC-1alpha-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO......) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to either 1) 5 wk of exercise training, 2) lifelong (from 2 to 13 mo of age) exercise training in activity wheel, 3) a single exercise bout, or 4) 4 wk of daily subcutaneous AICAR or saline injections. In skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha KO mice, VEGF protein...... expression was approximately 60-80% lower and the capillary-to-fiber ratio approximately 20% lower than in WT. Basal VEGF mRNA expression was similar in WT and PGC-1alpha KO mice, but acute exercise and AICAR treatment increased the VEGF mRNA content in WT mice only. Exercise training of young mice increased...

  13. Expression and regulation of HIF-1 alpha in macrophages under inflammatory conditions; significant reduction of VEGF by CaMKII inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Johanna; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Roosmalen, Ingrid A. M.; Doornbos-van der Meer, Berber; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Macrophages expressing the pro-angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha have been demonstrated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the synovial tissue. Aim of the present study was to investigate intracellular signal transduction regulation of pro-inflammatory

  14. Differential expression of alpha-synuclein in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Taguchi

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein is the major pathological component of synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Recent studies have demonstrated that α-synuclein also plays important roles in the release of synaptic vesicles and synaptic membrane recycling in healthy neurons. However, the precise relationship between the pathogenicity and physiological functions of α-synuclein remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we investigated the subcellular localization of α-synuclein in normal and pathological conditions using primary mouse hippocampal neuronal cultures. While some neurons expressed high levels of α-synuclein in presynaptic boutons and cell bodies, other neurons either did not or only very weakly expressed the protein. These α-synuclein-negative cells were identified as inhibitory neurons by immunostaining with specific antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, parvalbumin, and somatostatin. In contrast, α-synuclein-positive synapses were colocalized with the excitatory synapse marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1. This expression profile of α-synuclein was conserved in the hippocampus in vivo. In addition, we found that while presynaptic α-synuclein colocalizes with synapsin, a marker of presynaptic vesicles, it is not essential for activity-dependent membrane recycling induced by high potassium treatment. Exogenous supply of preformed fibrils generated by recombinant α-synuclein was shown to promote the formation of Lewy body (LB -like intracellular aggregates involving endogenous α-synuclein. GAD-positive neurons did not form LB-like aggregates following treatment with preformed fibrils, however, exogenous expression of human α-synuclein allowed intracellular aggregate formation in these cells. These results suggest the presence of a different mechanism for regulation of the expression of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Furthermore, α-synuclein expression

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases epithelial barrier permeability by disrupting tight junctions in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α on intestinal epithelial cell permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins. Caco-2 cells were plated onto Transwell® microporous filters and treated with TNF-α (10 or 100 ng/mL for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h. The transepithelial electrical resistance and the mucosal-to-serosal flux rates of the established paracellular marker Lucifer yellow were measured in filter-grown monolayers of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The localization and expression of the tight junction protein occludin were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, respectively. SYBR-Green-based real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of occludin mRNA. TNF-α treatment produced concentration- and time-dependent decreases in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance and increases in transepithelial permeability to the paracellular marker Lucifer yellow. Western blot results indicated that TNF-α decreased the expression of phosphorylated occludin in detergent-insoluble fractions but did not affect the expression of non-phosphorylated occludin protein. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that TNF-α did not affect the expression of occludin mRNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TNF-α increases Caco-2 monolayer permeability, decreases occludin protein expression and disturbs intercellular junctions.

  16. Cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate different transcriptional and alternative splicing networks in primary beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Naamane, Najib; Flamez, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha + IFN-gamma in primary rat beta-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified rat beta-cells were exposed to IL-1beta + IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma for 6 or 24 h......-cells, with temporal differences in the number of genes modulated by IL-1beta + IFNgamma or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma. These cytokine combinations induced differential expression of inflammatory response genes, which is related to differential induction of IFN regulatory factor-7. Both treatments decreased the expression...... of genes involved in the maintenance of beta-cell phenotype and growth/regeneration. Cytokines induced hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha, which in this context has a proapoptotic role. Cytokines also modified the expression of >20 genes involved in RNA splicing, and exon array analysis showed cytokine...

  17. TNF-alpha, produced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-infected macrophages, upregulates expression of type II FIPV receptor feline aminopeptidase N in feline macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Toda, Ayako; Tanabe, Maki; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-20

    The pathogenicity of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is known to depend on macrophage tropism, and this macrophage infection is enhanced by mediation via anti-S antibody (antibody-dependent enhancement, ADE). In this study, we found that TNF-alpha production was increased with viral replication in macrophages inoculated with a mixture of FIPV and anti-S antibody, and demonstrated that this culture supernatant had feline PBMC apoptosis-inducing activity. We also demonstrated that the expression level of the FIPV virus receptor, feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN), was increased in macrophages of FIP cats. For upregulation of TNF-alpha and fAPN in macrophages, viral replication in macrophages is necessary, and their expressions were increased by ADE of FIPV infection. It was demonstrated that a heat-resistant fAPN-inducing factor was present in the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages, and this factor was TNF-alpha: fAPN expression was upregulated in recombinant feline TNF-alpha-treated macrophages, and FIPV infectivity was increased in these macrophages. These findings suggested that FIPV replication in macrophages increases TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and the produced TNF-alpha acts and upregulates fAPN expression, increasing FIPV sensitivity.

  18. Neuropathology in mice expressing mouse alpha-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rieker

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (αSN in human is tightly linked both neuropathologically and genetically to Parkinson's disease (PD and related disorders. Disease-causing properties in vivo of the wildtype mouse ortholog (mαSN, which carries a threonine at position 53 like the A53T human mutant version that is genetically linked to PD, were never reported. To this end we generated mouse lines that express mαSN in central neurons at levels reaching up to six-fold compared to endogenous mαSN. Unlike transgenic mice expressing human wildtype or mutant forms of αSN, these mαSN transgenic mice showed pronounced ubiquitin immunopathology in spinal cord and brainstem. Isoelectric separation of mαSN species revealed multiple isoforms including two Ser129-phosphorylated species in the most severely affected brain regions. Neuronal Ser129-phosphorylated αSN occurred in granular and small fibrillar aggregates and pathological staining patterns in neurites occasionally revealed a striking ladder of small alternating segments staining either for Ser129-phosphorylated αSN or ubiquitin but not both. Axonal degeneration in long white matter tracts of the spinal cord, with breakdown of myelin sheaths and degeneration of neuromuscular junctions with loss of integrity of the presynaptic neurofilament network in mαSN transgenic mice, was similar to what we have reported for mice expressing human αSN wildtype or mutant forms. In hippocampal neurons, the mαSN protein accumulated and was phosphorylated but these neurons showed no ubiquitin immunopathology. In contrast to the early-onset motor abnormalities and muscle weakness observed in mice expressing human αSN, mαSN transgenic mice displayed only end-stage phenotypic alterations that manifested alongside with neuropathology. Altogether these findings show that increased levels of wildtype mαSN does not induce early-onset behavior changes, but drives end-stage pathophysiological changes in murine neurons that are

  19. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopic analysis of depolarization-induced expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret

    2007-10-17

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC- 1alpha) is a coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors that regulate several metabolic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, energy homeostasis, respiration, and gluconeogenesis. PGC-1alpha plays a vital role in stimulating genes that are important to oxidative metabolism and other mitochondrial functions in brown adipose tissue and skeleton muscles, but the significance of PGC-1alpha in the brain remains elusive. The goal of our present study was to determine by means of quantitative immuno-electron microscopy the expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons under normal conditions as well as after depolarizing stimulation for varying periods of time. Our results showed that: (a) PGC-1alpha was normally located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, PGC-1alpha was associated mainly with euchromatin rather than heterochromatin, consistent with active involvement in transcription. In the cytoplasm, it was associated mainly with free ribosomes. (b) Neuronal depolarization by KCl for 0.5 h induced a significant increase in PGC-1alpha labeling density in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Pneuronal activity by synthesizing more proteins in the cytoplasm and translocating them to the nucleus for gene activation. PGC-1alpha level in neurons is, therefore, tightly regulated by neuronal activity.

  20. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)alpha expression correlated with EGFR\\/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: The importance of differential cPLA(2)alpha activity in clinical breast cancer was established by relating the expression of cPLA(2)alpha in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, and two microarray-based gene expression datasets to different clinicopathological and therapeutic parameters. RESULTS: High cPLA(2)alpha mRNA expression correlated with clinical parameters of poor prognosis, which are characteristic of highly invasive tumours of the HER2-positive and basal-like subtype, including low oestrogen receptor expression and high EGFR expression. High cPLA(2)alpha expression decreased overall survival in patients with luminal cancers, and correlated with a reduced effect of tamoxifen treatment. The cPLA(2)alpha expression was an independent predictive parameter of poor response to endocrine therapy in the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows a role of cPLA(2)alpha in luminal breast cancer progression, in which the enzyme could represent a novel therapeutic target and a predictive marker.

  1. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) improves neural recovery after spinal cord contusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, A.; Nobakht, M.; Bakhtiyari, M.; Beyer, C.; Kipp, M.; Baazm, M.; Joghataie, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) is an important cytokine, implicated in the control of stem cell trafficking and bone marrow-derived stem cell mobilization. Generally, SDF-1α regulates multiple physiological processes such as embryonic development and organ homeostasis. There is also

  2. Transforming growth factor alpha, Shope fibroma growth factor, and vaccinia growth factor can replace myxoma growth factor in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenorth, A; Nation, N; Graham, K; McFadden, G

    1993-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) homologues encoded by vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, and malignant rabbit fibroma virus have been shown to contribute to the pathogenicity of virus infection upon inoculation of susceptible hosts. However, since the primary structures of these growth factors and the disease profiles induced by different poxvirus genera vary substantially, the degree to which the various EGF homologues perform similar roles in viral pathogenesis remains unclear. In order to determine whether different EGF-like growth factors can perform qualitatively similar functions in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits, we created recombinant myxoma virus variants in which the native growth factor, myxoma growth factor (MGF), was disrupted and replaced with either vaccinia virus growth factor, Shope fibroma growth factor, or rat transforming growth factor alpha. Unlike the control virus containing an inactivated MGF gene, which caused marked attenuation of the disease syndrome and substantially less proliferation of the epithelial cell layers in the conjunctiva and respiratory tract, the recombinant myxoma virus strains expressing heterologous growth factors produced infections which were both clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from wild-type myxomatosis. We conclude that these poxviral and cellular EGF-like growth factors, which are diverse with respect to primary structure and origin, have similar biological functions in the context of myxoma virus pathogenesis and are mitogenic for the same target cells.

  3. The role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha in development and progression of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jinlian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has a high expression level in mature hepatocytes. HNF4α can regulate hepatocyte-specific gene expression at a transcriptional level, promote hepatocyte development and differentiation, participate in establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity, and enhance the synthetic, metabolic, and detoxifying functions of the liver. Through inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and inhibiting the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of hepatoma cells, HNF4α may be involved in the development and progression of various liver diseases including liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. This paper elaborates on the biological functions of HNF4α, and summarizes and analyzes the research advances in the mechanisms of action of HNF4α in the pathological process of liver diseases, in order to provide references for further investigation of the potential targeted therapies for liver diseases.

  4. Expression of active recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin in transgenic rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    A DNA construct containing the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene including 1.5 and 4 kb of 5' and 3' flanking sequences, was microinjected into the pronucleus of rabbit embryos. The recombinant human protein was (a) expressed in the blood circulation of F0 and F1 transgenic rabbits at an average

  5. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction on alpha(1)- and beta-Adrenoceptor Expression and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Frazier, Elfaridah P.; Vrydag, Wim; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To explore possible changes in expression and/or function of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes as a cause for bladder dysfunction in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Methods: BOO was induced in rats by partial urethral ligature. Contraction and relaxation experiments

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases myocardial microvascular transport in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høyer, S

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a primary mediator in the pathogenesis of tissue injury, and high circulating levels of TNF-alpha are found in a variety of pathological conditions. In open-chest anesthetized dogs, the effects of intracoronary recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha; 100...... in cardiac output and was associated with the appearance of areas with myocardial necrosis in the regional left ventricular wall. The myocardial plasma flow rate and maximum plasma flow rate in response to a 30-s coronary occlusion were not influenced by rTNF-alpha, although a decrease in the myocardial...... ng/kg for 60 min) on myocardial microvascular transport of a small hydrophilic indicator was examined by the single-injection, residue-detection method. Intracoronary infusion of rTNF-alpha increased myocardial microvascular transport after 120 min. This increase was preceded by a sustained decline...

  7. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV, which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs. We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF. SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen.Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins.Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral reactivation leading to

  8. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates human in vivo lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P; Ibfelt, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of most lifestyle-related chronic diseases. Enhanced TNF-alpha concentrations have been implicated in the development of hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that an acute elevation of TNF-alpha in plasma would cause an increase...... in lipolysis, increasing circulatory free fatty acid (FFA) levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a randomized controlled, crossover design, healthy young male individuals (n = 10) received recombinant human (rh) TNF-alpha (700 ng/m(-2).h(-1)) for 4 h, and energy metabolism was evaluated using a combination...... of tracer dilution methodology and arterial-venous differences over the leg. RESULTS: Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased from 0.7 +/- 0.04 to 16.7 +/- 1.8 pg/ml, and plasma IL-6 increased from 1.0 +/- 0.2 to 9.2 +/- 1.0 pg/ml (P alpha infusion. Here, we demonstrate that 4-h rhTNF-alpha...

  10. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E

    1992-05-15

    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes.

  11. Expression and characterization of a recombinant maize CK-2 alpha subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Dobrowolska, G

    1993-01-01

    to support the immunological data also by biochemical and biophysical experiments the availability of a recombinant CK-2 alpha from maize was a prerequisite. A maize cDNA clone of maize CK-2 alpha was expressed in the bacterial strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity; its......CKIIB, one of the CK-2 like enzymes which have been isolated from maize, has been shown to be a monomeric enzyme that cross-reacts with anti CK-2 alpha specific antibodies suggesting a possible relationship between the two proteins (Dobrowolska et al. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 299-303). In order...... molecular mass on one-dimensional SDS PAGE was estimated to be 36.5 kDa. The calculated molecular mass according to the amino acid composition is 39,228 Da (332 amino acids). The recombinant maize CK-2 alpha (rmCK-2 alpha) exhibited mostly the same properties as the recombinant human CK-2 alpha (rhCK-2...

  12. CXC chemokine receptor 4 expression and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced chemotaxis in CD4+ T lymphocytes are regulated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    -10. IL-4 and IL-10 up- or down-regulated CXCR4 mRNA expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Scatchard analysis revealed a type of CXCR4 with affinity (Kd approximately 6.3 nM), and approximately 70....... The regulation of CXCR4 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes by IL-4 and IL-10 could be blocked by a selective inhibitor of protein kinase (staurosporine) or by a selective inhibitor of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (H-8), indicating that these cytokines regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes via both c......AMP and cGMP signalling pathways. The fact that cyclosporin A or ionomycin were able to independently change the CXCR4 expression and block the effects of IL-4 and IL-10 on CXCR4 expression implied that the capacity of IL-4 and IL-10 to regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes is not linked to calcium...

  13. Identification of distal regulatory regions in the human alpha IIb gene locus necessary for consistent, high-level megakaryocyte expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Michael A; Zhang, Chunyan; Kowalska, Maria A; Poncz, Mortimer

    2002-11-15

    The alphaIIb/beta3-integrin receptor is present at high levels only in megakaryocytes and platelets. Its presence on platelets is critical for hemostasis. The tissue-specific nature of this receptor's expression is secondary to the restricted expression of alphaIIb, and studies of the alphaIIb proximal promoter have served as a model of a megakaryocyte-specific promoter. We have examined the alphaIIb gene locus for distal regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between the human (h) and murine (m) alphaIIb loci revealed high levels of conservation at intergenic regions both 5' and 3' to the alphaIIb gene. Additionally, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I sensitivity mapping defined tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites that coincide, in part, with these conserved regions. Transgenic mice containing various lengths of the h(alpha)IIb gene locus, which included or excluded the various conserved/HS regions, demonstrated that the proximal promoter was sufficient for tissue specificity, but that a region 2.5 to 7.1 kb upstream of the h(alpha)IIb gene was necessary for consistent expression. Another region 2.2 to 7.4 kb downstream of the gene enhanced expression 1000-fold and led to levels of h(alpha)IIb mRNA that were about 30% of the native m(alpha)IIb mRNA level. These constructs also resulted in detectable h(alpha)IIb/m(beta)3 on the platelet surface. This work not only confirms the importance of the proximal promoter of the alphaIIb gene for tissue specificity, but also characterizes the distal organization of the alphaIIb gene locus and provides an initial localization of 2 important regulatory regions needed for the expression of the alphaIIb gene at high levels during megakaryopoiesis.

  14. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  15. Effect of apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol on the gene expression and protein secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in RAW-264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz-Wrobel, Marta; Borkowska, Paulina; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Fila-Danilow, Anna; Suchanek-Raif, Renata; Kowalski, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Polyphenols such as apigenin, kaempferol or resveratrol are typically found in plants, including fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, which have a wide range of biological functions such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilative, anticoagulative and proapoptotic. Discovering such multifunctional compounds in widely consumed plant-based products - ones that both inhibit the release of TNF-α from tissue macrophages and at the same time enhance the secretion of IL-10 - would be an important signpost in the quest for effective pharmacological treatment of numerous diseases that have an inflammatory etiology. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of biologically active polyphenols such as apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol on gene expression and protein secretion of IL-10 and TNF-α in line RAW-264.7. Cells were cultured under standard conditions. IL-10 and TNF-α genes expression were examined using QRT-PCR and to assess cytokines concentration ELISA have been used. Apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol at a dose 30μM significantly decrease the TNF-α expression and secretion. Apigenin decrease the IL-10 expression and secretion. Furthermore, increase in IL-10 secretion after administration of kaempferol and resveratrol were observed. In the process of administration of tested compounds before LPS, which activate macrophages, decrease of TNF-α secretion after apigenin and kaempferol and increase of IL-10 secretion after resveratrol were observed. The results of present work indicate that 1) apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol may reduce the intensity of inflammatory processes by inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and resveratrol and kaempferol additionally by increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 2) the studies indicate the potentially beneficial - anti-inflammatory - impact of diet rich in products including apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  16. Differential expression of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptor isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2004-04-15

    The expression levels of three estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma were quantified in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) liver, ovary, brain, and pituitary tissues. ER alpha and beta expression predominated in the liver, while ERs beta and gamma predominated in the other tissues. Temporally in females, ER alpha was highly up-regulated, ER gamma was slightly up-regulated, and ER beta levels remained unchanged in the liver when plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) levels were elevated in the spring. In ovarian tissue from these same fish, all three ERs were maximally expressed in the fall, during early oocyte development and prior to peak plasma E2 levels. When males were injected with E2, ER alpha was highly inducible, ER gamma was moderately up-regulated, and ER beta levels were not affected. None of the ER isotypes were induced by E2 in gonadal tissues. These results combined suggest that the ERs themselves are not regulated in the same manner by E2, and furthermore, do not contribute equally to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fish reproduction such as Vtg.

  17. A pragmatic approach to estimate alpha factors for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassija, Varun; Senthil Kumar, C.; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of coefficients in alpha factor model for common cause analysis. • A derivation of plant specific alpha factors is demonstrated. • We examine sensitivity of common cause contribution to total system failure. • We compare beta factor and alpha factor models for various redundant configurations. • The use of alpha factors is preferable, especially for large redundant systems. - Abstract: Most of the modern technological systems are deployed with high redundancy but still they fail mainly on account of common cause failures (CCF). Various models such as Beta Factor, Multiple Greek Letter, Binomial Failure Rate and Alpha Factor exists for estimation of risk from common cause failures. Amongst all, alpha factor model is considered most suitable for high redundant systems as it arrives at common cause failure probabilities from a set of ratios of failures and the total component failure probability Q T . In the present study, alpha factor model is applied for the assessment of CCF of safety systems deployed at two nuclear power plants. A method to overcome the difficulties in estimation of the coefficients viz., alpha factors in the model, importance of deriving plant specific alpha factors and sensitivity of common cause contribution to the total system failure probability with respect to hazard imposed by various CCF events is highlighted. An approach described in NUREG/CR-5500 is extended in this study to provide more explicit guidance for a statistical approach to derive plant specific coefficients for CCF analysis especially for high redundant systems. The procedure is expected to aid regulators for independent safety assessment

  18. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G(alpha

  19. Change of expression of renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor subtypes with aging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Cao, Xiao-Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Peng; Shi, Shu-Tian

    2010-04-01

    It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little information has been available concerning alpha1-AR and ATR expression variations over the entire aging continuum. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue during the spectrum running from young adulthood, to middle age, to the presenium, and to the senium. Semiquantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot were used to quantify the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue in 3-month-old (young adult), 12-month-old (middle age), 18-month-old (presenium) and 24-month-old (senium) Wistar rats. alpha1A-AR expression decreased gradually with aging: it was decreased during middle age, the presenium and the senium, compared, respectively, with young adult values (page and in the senium with respect to the presenium. alpha1B-AR and alpha1D-AR expression were unmodified during senescence. AT1R expression was unaffected by aging during young adulthood and middle age, but exhibited a remarkable downregulation in the presenium and senium periods (prenal alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes during aging. alpha1A-AR expression downregulation may account for the reduced reactivity of renal alpha1-AR to vasoconstrictors and to renal function decline in the senium. Both the downregulation of AT1R and the upregulation of AT2R may be influential in maintaining normal physiological renal function during aging.

  20. Transcription Factor NF-IL6 (C/EBPbeta) Activates the Expression of the Mouse MHC Class I H2-Kb Gene in Response to TNF-alpha via the Intragenic Downstream Regulatory Element

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatina, J.; Jansa, Petr; Reischig, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2002), s. 741-749 ISSN 1079-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Mouse MHC Class I Gene, Intragenic Downstream Regulatory Element Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.885, year: 2002

  1. Phenotypic differences between oral and skin fibroblasts in wound contraction and growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Diane B; McKeown, Scott T W; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Irwin, Chris R

    2006-01-01

    Wounds of the oral mucosa heal in an accelerated fashion with reduced scarring compared with cutaneous wounds. The differences in healing outcome between oral mucosa and skin could be because of phenotypic differences between the respective fibroblast populations. This study compared paired mucosal and dermal fibroblasts in terms of collagen gel contraction, alpha-smooth muscle actin expression (alpha-SMA), and production of the epithelial growth factors: keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF). The effects of transforming growth factor -beta1 and -beta3 on each parameter were also determined. Gel contraction in floating collagen lattices was determined over a 7-day period. alpha-SMA expression by fibroblasts was determined by Western blotting. KGF and HGF expression were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oral fibroblasts induced accelerated collagen gel contraction, yet surprisingly expressed lower levels of alpha-SMA. Oral cells also produced significantly greater levels of both KGF and HGF than their dermal counterparts. Transforming growth factor-beta1 and -beta3, over the concentration range of 0.1-10 ng/mL, had similar effects on cell function, stimulating both gel contraction and alpha-SMA production, but inhibiting KGF and HGF production by both cell types. These data indicate phenotypic differences between oral and dermal fibroblasts that may well contribute to the differences in healing outcome between these two tissues.

  2. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2009-01-01

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial β-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of β-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPARα and found that PPARα induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPARα regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  3. Serum and Urinary Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Ciftci, Hayriye; Demir, Erol; Savran Karadeniz, Meltem; Tefik, Tzevat; Yazici, Halil; Nane, Ismet; Savran Oguz, Fatma; Aydin, Filiz; Turkmen, Aydin

    2017-12-18

    Allograft rejection is an important cause of early and long-term graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes T-cell activation, the key reaction leading to allograft rejection. Here, we investigated whether serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels can predict allograft rejection. This study included 65 living related-donor renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 26 ± 9 months. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured at pretransplant and at posttransplant time points (days 1 and 7 and months 3 and 6); serum creatinine levels were also monitored during posttransplant follow-up. Standard enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to detect tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Clinical variables were monitored. Nine of 65 patients (13.8%) had biopsy-proven rejection during follow-up. Preoperative serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were not significantly different when we compared patients with and without rejection. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were significantly higher in the allograft rejection versus nonrejection group at day 7 (11.5 ± 4.7 vs 15.4 ± 5.8; P = .029) and month 1 (11.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.8 ± 10.9; P =.003). Urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were also elevated in the allograft rejection versus the nonrejection group at days 1 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 14.1 ± 6.8; P = .002) and 7 (9.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 2.7; P tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a role in diagnosing renal transplant rejection. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels may be a possible predictor for allograft rejection.

  4. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusin...

  5. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  6. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  7. Localization of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (KDR/Flk-1) in cutaneous and oral melanomas of dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, N G; Simko, E; Bebchuk, T; Caldwell, S J; Singh, B

    2003-07-01

    Melanomas are common neoplasms of dogs and arise from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes or melanoblasts. Melanomas of skin are often easily cured by surgical excision, but those of oral mucosa are aggressive, metastasize to the regional lymph nodes and lungs, and respond poorly to conventional therapy. Tumor growth is sustained by proliferation of microvessels via a process called angiogenesis. Integrin alpha(v)beta3 is expressed in proliferating but not in quiescent microvessels suggesting a role in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) manifests its mitogenic and angiogenic effects mainly via VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1). We conducted this immunocytochemical study to investigate the expression of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and VEGFR-2 in archival and fresh samples from cases of canine melanomas. Results show that integrin alpha(v)beta3 was expressed in 72% and 88% of cutaneous and oral melanomas, respectively, and the expression was restricted to and immediately around the melanocytes and endothelial cells. VEGFR-2 staining of selected cases of melanoma revealed that its expression overlapped with the alpha(v)beta3 integrin. Dual immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed co-localization of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and VEGFR-2 in melanocytes and endothelial cells. These data demonstrate expression and co-localization of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and VEGFR-2 in cutaneous and oral melanomas of dogs.

  8. Estimation of the Alpha Factor Parameters Using the ICDE Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, M. J.; Han, S. H

    2007-04-15

    Detailed common cause failure (CCF) analysis generally need for the data for CCF events of other nuclear power plants because the CCF events rarely occur. KAERI has been participated at the international common cause failure data exchange (ICDE) project to get the data for the CCF events. The operation office of the ICDE project sent the CCF event data for EDG to the KAERI at December 2006. As a pilot study, we performed the detailed CCF analysis of EDGs for Yonggwang Units 3 and 4 and Ulchin Units 3 and 4 using the ICDE database. There are two onsite EDGs for each NPP. When an offsite power and the two onsite EDGs are not available, one alternate AC (AAC) diesel generator (hereafter AAC) is provided. Two onsite EDGs and the AAC are manufactured by the same company, but they are designed differently. We estimated the Alpha Factor and the CCF probability for the cases where three EDGs were assumed to be identically designed, and for those were assumed to be not identically designed. For the cases where three EDGs were assumed to be identically designed, double CCF probabilities of Yonggwang Units 3/4 and Ulchin Units 3/4 for 'fails to start' were estimated as 2.20E-4 and 2.10E-4, respectively. Triple CCF probabilities of those were estimated as 2.39E-4 and 2.42E-4, respectively. As each NPP has no experience for 'fails to run', Yonggwang Units 3/4 and Ulchin Units 3/4 have the same CCF probability. The estimated double and triple CCF probabilities for 'fails to run' are 4.21E-4 and 4.61E-4, respectively. Quantification results show that the system unavailability for the cases where the three EDGs are identical is higher than that where the three EDGs are different. The estimated system unavailability of the former case was increased by 3.4% comparing with that of the latter. As a future study, a computerization work for the estimations of the CCF parameters will be performed.

  9. Epidermal growth factor regulation of glutathione S-transferase gene expression in the rat is mediated by class Pi glutathione S-transferase enhancer I.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB) induce class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI), which is required for the stimulation of GSTP1 expression by PenCB, also mediates EGF and TGF alpha stimulation of GSTP1 gene expression. However, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin did no...

  10. [Cloning of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene and extracellular expression in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masaharu; Kikuchi, Maho; Komoriya, Tomoe; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kouno, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that widely propagets in the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals. This bacteria causes food poisoning, gas gangrene and other various range of infectious diseases. But there is no standard diagnosis method of C. perfringens. In order to develop a new type of immunoassay for clinical purpose, we studied expression and extracellular secretion of recombinant alpha-toxin having enzyme activity in E. coli expression system. Cloning was carried out after PCR amplification from C. perfringens GAI 94074 which was clinical isolate. Three kinds of fragment were cloned using pET100/D-TOPO vector. These fragments coded for ribosome binding site, signal peptide, and alpha-toxin gene respectively. Recombinant pET100 plasmid transformed into TOP 10 cells and the obtained plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells. Then, the transformants were induced expression with IPTG. In conclusion, we successfully cloned, expressed and exteracellular secreted C. perfringens alpha-toxin containing signal peptide. Biologically, the obtained recombinant protein was positive for phospholipase C activity.

  11. Unintended changes in protein expression revealed by proteomic analysis of seeds from transgenic pea expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hancai; Bodulovic, Greg; Hall, Prudence J; Moore, Andy; Higgins, Thomas J V; Djordjevic, Michael A; Rolfe, Barry G

    2009-09-01

    Seeds of genetically modified (GM) peas (Pisum sativum L.) expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI1) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) exhibit resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). A proteomic analysis was carried out to compare seeds from GM pea lines expressing the bean alphaAI1 protein and the corresponding alphaAI1-free segregating lines and non-GM parental line to identify unintended alterations to the proteome of GM peas due to the introduction of the gene for alphaAI1. Proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the presence of alphaAI1, 33 other proteins were differentially accumulated in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines compared with their non-GM parental line and these were grouped into five expression classes. Among these 33 proteins, only three were found to be associated with the expression of alphaAI1 in the GM pea lines. The accumulation of the remaining 30 proteins appears to be associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation events. Sixteen proteins were identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 56% of the identified proteins with altered accumulation in the GM pea were storage proteins including legumin, vicilin or convicilin, phaseolin, cupin and valosin-containing protein. Two proteins were uniquely expressed in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and one new protein was present in both the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and their alphaAI1-free segregating lines, suggesting that both transgenesis and transformation events led to demonstrable changes in the proteomes of the GM lines tested.

  12. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  13. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  14. Lack of co-ordinate expression of the alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen genes in fibroblast clonal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Crane, S; Zhou, L; Ochoa, S M; Falanga, V

    2000-12-01

    Several extracellular matrix genes, most notably alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen, are reported to be co-ordinately expressed in cultures of dermal fibroblasts. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of these genes is truly co-ordinate or whether it may be the result of averaging the phenotypic expression of different fibroblast subpopulations present within each culture. Objectives To determine by Northern analysis the correlation between alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA levels in clonal populations of human dermal fibroblasts. As previously described, clonal cultures were derived from parent strains of human dermal fibroblasts by a microscopically controlled dilution technique and by stimulation of single cells with low oxygen tension in the early phases of clonal growth. In agreement with previous reports, we found that baseline steady-state levels of alpha1(I) procollagen mRNA were co-ordinately regulated with the alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA in 26 parent strains (r = 0. 9003; P ordinate regulation observed in non-clonal cultures, suggesting that these two genes operate under different sets of regulatory controls. This clonal heterogeneity may provide additional flexibility to the process of tissue repair and fibroblast clonal expansion.

  15. Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFerla Frank M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by a temporal and spatial progression of beta-amyloid (Aβ deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and synaptic degeneration. Inflammatory processes have been implicated in initiating and/or propagating AD-associated pathology within the brain, as inflammatory cytokine expression and other markers of inflammation are pronounced in individuals with AD pathology. The current study examines whether inflammatory processes are evident early in the disease process in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and if regional differences in inflammatory profiles exist. Methods Coronal brain sections were used to identify Aβ in 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic control mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on microdissected entorhinal cortex and hippocampus tissue of 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice. Microglial/macrophage cell numbers were quantified using unbiased stereology in 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic entorhinal cortex and hippocampus containing sections. Results We observed human Aβ deposition at 3 months in 3xTg-AD mice which is enhanced by 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed a 14.8-fold up-regulation of TNF-α and 10.8-fold up-regulation of MCP-1 in the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice but no change was detected over time in the hippocampus or in either region of non-transgenic mice. Additionally, this increase correlated with a specific increase in F4/80-positive microglia and macrophages in 3xTg-AD entorhinal cortex. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for early induction of inflammatory processes in a model that develops amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Additionally, our results link inflammatory processes within the entorhinal cortex, which represents one of the earliest AD-affected brain regions.

  16. Imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by a bifunctional chimeric RGD peptide not cross-reacting with alpha(v)beta(5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetti, Antonella; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Iommelli, Francesca; Del Gatto, Annarita; De Luca, Stefania; Zaccaro, Laura; Papaccioli, Angela; Sommella, Jvana; Panico, Mariarosaria; Speranza, Antonio; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2009-08-15

    To test whether a novel bifunctional chimeric peptide comprising a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp pentapeptide covalently bound to an echistatin domain can discriminate alpha(v)beta(3) from alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, thus allowing the in vivo selective visualization of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by single-photon and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The chimeric peptide was preliminarily tested for inhibition of alpha(v)beta(3)-dependent cell adhesion and competition of 125I-echistatin binding to membrane of stably transfected K562 cells expressing alpha(v)beta(3) (Kalpha(v)beta(3)) or alpha(v)beta(5) (Kalpha(v)beta(5)) integrin. The chimeric peptide was then conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and labeled with 111In for single-photon imaging, whereas a one-step procedure was used for labeling the full-length peptide and a truncated derivative, lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids, with 18F for PET imaging. Nude mice bearing tumors from Kalpha(v)beta(3), Kalpha(v)beta(5), U87MG human glioblastoma, and A431 human epidermoid cells were subjected to single-photon and PET imaging. Adhesion and competitive binding assays showed that the novel chimeric peptide selectively binds to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and does not cross-react with alpha(v)beta(5). In agreement with in vitro findings, single-photon and PET imaging studies showed that the radiolabeled chimeric peptide selectively localizes in tumor xenografts expressing alphavbeta3 and fails to accumulate in those expressing alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. When 18F-labeled truncated derivative was used for PET imaging, alphavbeta3- and alpha(v)beta(5)-expressing tumors were visualized, indicating that the five C-terminal amino acids are required to differentially bind the two integrins. Our findings indicate that the novel chimeric Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, having no cross-reaction with alphavbeta5 integrin, allows highly selective alphavbeta3 expression imaging and monitoring.

  17. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fen-Pi [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsuan, Shu-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Kun [E-Chyun Dermatology Clinic, No.70, Sec. 3, Jhonghua E. Rd., East District, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Hsien [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody (infliximab) therapy profoundly down-regulates the inflammation in Crohn's ileocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, F. J.; D'Haens, G. R.; Peeters, M.; Hiele, M. I.; Schaible, T. F.; Shealy, D.; Geboes, K.; Rutgeerts, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody treatment (infliximab) reduces clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Crohn's disease. The effects of infliximab on mucosal histopathologic abnormalities in Crohn's ileocolitis were studied. Thirteen patients with steroid-refractory Crohn's

  19. Targeted BMI1 inhibition impairs tumor growth in lung adenocarcinomas with low CEBP alpha expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yong, K.J.; Basseres, D.S.; Welner, R.S.; Zhang, W.C.; Yang, H.; Yan, B.; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Zhang, J.; de Figueiredo-Pontes, L.L.; Battelli, C.; Hetherington, C.J.; Ye, M.; Zhang, H.; Maroni, G.; O'Brien, K.; Magli, M.C.; Borczuk, A.C.; Varticovski, L.; Kocher, O.; Zhang, P.; Moon, Y.C.; Sydorenko, N.; Cao, L.; Davis, T.W.; Thakkar, B.M.; Soo, R.A.; Iwama, A.; Lim, B.; Halmos, B.; Neuberg, D.; Tenen, D.G.; Levantini, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 350 (2016), č. článku 350ra104. ISSN 1946-6234 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21307 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ccaat/enhancer-binding-protein * acute myeloid-leukemia * factor-c/ebp-alpha * posttranscriptional control * adjuvant chemotherapy * cell-proliferation * down-regulation * drug discovery * gene signature * self-renewal Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 16.796, year: 2016

  20. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  1. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency level was not in cervical cancer, but in the persistent HPV subclinical infection group (OR 11.33). There was

  2. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  3. PGC-1{alpha} is required for AICAR induced expression of GLUT4 and mitochondrial proteins in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that repeated activation of AMPK induces mitochondrial and glucose membrane transporter gene/protein expression via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor Upsilon co-activator (PGC)-1alpha dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild...... GLUT4, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)I and cytochrome (cyt) c protein expression ~10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of the WT mice, but not of the PGC-1alpha KO mice. In line, GLUT4 and cyt c mRNA content increased 30-60% 4h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline only in WT mice. One...... and PGC-1alpha KO mice. In conclusion, we here provide genetic evidence for a major role of PGC-1alpha in AMPK mediated regulation of mitochondrial and glucose membrane transport protein expression in skeletal muscle....

  4. hnRNP L regulates differences in expression of mouse integrin alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Yann; Kunicki, Thomas J

    2006-06-01

    There is a 2-fold variation in platelet integrin alpha2beta1 levels among inbred mouse strains. Decreased alpha2beta1 in 4 strains carrying Itga2 haplotype 2 results from decreased affinity of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L) for a 6 CA repeat sequence (CA6) within intron 1. Seven strains bearing haplotype 1 and a 21 CA repeat sequence at this position (CA21) express twice the level of platelet alpha2beta1 and exhibit an equivalent gain of platelet function in vitro. By UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation, hnRNP L binds more avidly to CA21, relative to CA6. By cell-free, in vitro mRNA splicing, decreased binding of hnRNP L results in decreased splicing efficiency and an increased proportion of alternatively spliced product. The splicing enhancer activity of CA21 in vivo is abolished by prior treatment with hnRNP L-specific siRNA. Thus, decreased surface alpha2beta1 results from decreased Itga2 pre-mRNA splicing regulated by hnRNP L and depends on CA repeat length at a specific site in intron 1.

  5. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  6. Induction of human airway hyperresponsiveness by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevich, S Z; Hughes, J M; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1995-09-15

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma; however, little is known of its direct effect on smooth muscle reactivity. We investigated the effect of TNF alpha on the responsiveness of human bronchial tissue to electrical field stimulation in vitro. Incubation of non-sensitized tissue with 1 nM, 3 nM and 10 nM TNF alpha significantly increased responsiveness to electrical field stimulation (113 +/- 8, 110 +/- 4 and 112 +/- 2% respectively) compared to control (99 +/- 2%) (P 0.05) nor were responses to exogenous acetylcholine (93 +/- 4% versus 73 +/- 7%, n = 3, P = 0.38). These results show that TNF alpha causes an increase in responsiveness of human bronchial tissue and that this occurs prejunctionally on the parasympathetic nerve pathway. This is the first report of a cytokine increasing human airway tissue responsiveness.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha in association with radiotherapy in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetta, A.; Lucci, J.; Soopikian, J.; Granger, G.; Berman, M.L.; DiSaia, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been speculated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may decrease the cytotoxicity of radiotherapy by increasing the scavenging of toxic superoxide radicals. Because of the possible clinical implications, the cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha in combination with radiotherapy (RT) was compared with that of RT alone in a human ovarian cancer cell line. NIH:OVCAR-3 cells were incubated with TNF-alpha at 10.0, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 microgram/ml. Plates were divided into two groups; one received 150 cGy of radiotherapy and the other received no further therapy. Seventy-two hours later, supernatants were aspirated and viable cells were stained with a 1% solution of crystal violet. Survival of cells treated with RT plus TNF-alpha was expressed as a percentage of surviving irradiated controls. Analysis of results revealed minimal additive cell killing effect between TNF-alpha and radiotherapy at all concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, with the greatest difference noted in the group treated with 10 micrograms/ml TNF-alpha. A continued radiotherapy dose-response study with TNF-alpha showed a similar additive, not radioprotective, effect. This may have implication as a potentiator of RT in some human tumors

  8. Prolactin, TNF alpha and nitric oxide expression in nitroso-N-methylurea-induced-mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegh Irene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-Nitrosomethylurea breast cancer model induced in rats is used for the study of carcinogenesis in mammary cancer, prostate, pancreas, etc. This model is very similar to human neoplastic disease. Methods The present experimental study was designed to assess whether metoclopramide administration has any effect on development of MNU-induced tumours, and evaluate the treatment of goserelin acetate on PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression. NMU was administered to female Wistar rats on 2 occasions (5 mg/100 g body w/rat. PRL and TNF alpha were performed by immune-assay. Nitric Oxide by semi automated-assay and ploidy analyses by flow cytometry. Results The administration of metoclopramide made the induction time shorter and increased the incidence and average of tumours per rat. Tumours development was inhibited by a goserelin chronic administration. The ploidy of adenocarcinoma was polyploid-aneuploid type (average S = 60%. It was higher basal PRL plasma levels in rats with NMU induced tumours than in basal controls without tumour (p Conclusion The increase of blood PRL levels in NMU-induced rats may be an indicator of a poor prognosis of mammary cancer evolution. The metoclopramide administration accelerates tumour growth. However goserelin administration achieves regression in tumour development associated to inhibition PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression.

  9. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    fibres that possess unique patterns of protein and gene expression, producing different capillarization and energy metabolism systems. In this work, we analysed HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression related to the fibre-type composition in untrained human skeletal muscle by obtaining muscle biopsies...... from triceps brachii (characterized by a high proportion of type II fibres), from soleus (characterized by a high proportion of type I fibres) and from vastus lateralis (characterized by an equal proportion of type I and II fibres). The hypothesis was that type I muscle fibres would have lower HIF-1......alpha protein level. Interestingly, none of the HIF-1alpha target genes, like the most studied angiogenic factor involved in muscle angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exhibited a muscle fibre-specific-related mRNA expression at rest in normoxia. However, soleus presented...

  10. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC

  11. A review of the alpha-1 foundation: its formation, impact, and critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John W; Snider, Gordon L; Stoller, James K

    2006-05-01

    Patient-advocacy organizations have proliferated because they can be an effective method to advance research and clinical care for those with the index condition, and can produce substantial benefits for the affected community, especially when the condition is uncommon. To clarify critical success factors in organizing a patient-advocacy organization and to provide a blueprint for others, including the respiratory-care advocacy community, this report examines features of one highly successful organization, the Alpha-1 Foundation, which is committed to helping those with the genetic condition alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Features of the Alpha-1 Foundation that underlie its success include: consistently creating partnerships with key stakeholders, including the scientific and clinical communities, government, and pharmaceutical manufacturers; bringing passion to the cause (eg, by assuring that organizational leadership is provided by individuals affected by alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); and developing strategic business partnerships, as with a company that administers alpha-1 antitrypsin treatment (so-called intravenous augmentation therapy) and employs individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Funds allocated by the company help to underwrite the foundation's research-funding commitment. The foundation also recruits and retains talent, including alpha-1 patients, to leadership roles (eg, on the board of directors) and has a voluntary group of committed scientists and clinicians. We believe that attention to these factors can help assure the success of patient-advocacy groups.

  12. Detailed Analysis of the Expression of an Alpha-gliadin Promoter and the Deposition of Alpha-gliadin Protein During Wheat Grain Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Riley, M.; Sparks, C.; Jones, H.D.; Gritsch, C.; Dekking, E.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Shewry, P.R.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Alpha-gliadin proteins are important for the industrial quality of bread wheat flour, but they also contain many epitopes that can trigger celiac (c¿liac) disease (CD). The B-genome-encoded -gliadin genes, however, contain very few epitopes. Controlling -gliadin gene expression

  13. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  14. Epidermal growth factor and active caspase-3 expression in the levator ani muscle of dogs with and without perineal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F; Argüelles, J C; Iglesias-Núñez, M; Oliveira, K S; De La Muela, M Sánchez

    2011-07-01

    To perform a histological and immunohistochemical study of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and their receptor, as well as the apoptotic signal active caspase-3 in the levator ani muscle of dogs with and without perineal hernia. Biopsy specimens of the levator ani muscle were obtained from 25 dogs with perineal hernia and 4 non-affected dogs and were processed for Masson and immunohistochemical staining. The affected dogs exhibited myopathological features, internalised nuclei, destruction and abnormal size of muscle fibres, which were replaced by collagen. The immunohistochemical study revealed active caspase-3, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in the levator ani. Compared to the healthy muscle, transforming growth factor-alpha staining intensity was lower in the affected muscle, whereas epidermal growth factor receptor and active caspase-3 staining were higher. Pelvic diaphragm muscle weakening is the leading cause of perineal hernia in the dog. Survival and death signals expressed in these muscles may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. This study reports epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemical expression in the skeletal muscle and suggests that perineal hernia in the dog is accompanied by levator ani muscle atrophy, increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, caspase-3 activation, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-alpha. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. [Effects of feixin decoction on the contents of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jun; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2012-05-01

    To explore the effects of Feixin Decoction (FXD) on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and to study its mechanisms for treating HPH. Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i. e., the normal control group, the HPH model group, the FXD group, and the Nifedipine group, 10 rats in each group. The HPH rat model was prepared using normal pressure intermittent hypoxia method. Except the normal control group, rats in the rest groups were fed in a self-made hypoxic plexiglass cabin, with the poor oxygen condition for 8 h daily for 14 successive days. Then the distilled water (at 30 mL/kg) was given by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group and the HPH model group. FXD (at 28 g/kg) and Nifedipine (at 20 mg/kg) were given by gastrogavage to rats in the FXD group and the Nifedipine group respectively, once daily, for 14 successive days. Besides, hypoxia was continued for 14 days while medicating. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected on the second day after the last medication. The morphology of the pulmonary arteriole was detected. The ratio of pulmonary artery wall area and tube area (WA%) was determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique. Compared with the normal control group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the HPH model group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly decreased in the FXD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). FXD down-regulated the expression of VEGF through decreasing the expression of HIF-1alpha. One of its mechanisms for treating HPH might be partially due to reversing the remodeling of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

  16. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A

    2007-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  18. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  19. Hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha is induced during reperfusion after renal ischemia and is critical for proximal tubule cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conde

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α, using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant.

  20. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Feng

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  1. Thy-1 attenuates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts via Src family kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shan

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous surface expression of Thy-1 in fibroblasts modulates inflammation and may thereby modulate injury and repair. As a paradigm, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with pathologic features of chronic inflammation, demonstrate an absence of Thy-1 immunoreactivity within areas of fibrotic activity (fibroblast foci in contrast to the predominant Thy-1 expressing fibroblasts in the normal lung. Likewise, Thy-1 deficient mice display more severe lung fibrosis in response to an inflammatory injury than wildtype littermates. We investigated the role of Thy-1 in the response of fibroblasts to the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Our study demonstrates distinct profiles of TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1 positive (Thy-1+ and negative (Thy-1- subsets of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. TNF-alpha induced a robust activation of MMP-9, ICAM-1, and the IL-8 promoter driven reporter in Thy-1- MEFs, in contrast to only a modest increase in Thy-1+ counterparts. Consistently, ectopic expression of Thy-1 in Thy-1- MEFs significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression. Mechanistically, TNF-alpha activated Src family kinase (SFK only in Thy-1- MEFs. Blockade of SFK activation abrogated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1- MEFs, whereas restoration of SFK activation rescued the TNF-alpha response in Thy-1+ MEFs. Our findings suggest that Thy-1 down-regulates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression via interfering with SFK- and NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation. The current study provides a novel mechanistic insight to the distinct roles of fibroblast Thy-1 subsets in inflammation.

  2. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is a key factor related to depression and physiological homeostasis in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a common psychiatric disorder that involves marked disabilities in global functioning, anorexia, and severe medical comorbidities. MDD is associated with not only psychological and sociocultural problems, but also pervasive physical dysfunctions such as metabolic, neurobiological and immunological abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these factors have yet to be determined in detail. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and dysregulation of physiological homeostasis, including immunological function as well as lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity in the brain. We generated depression-like behavior in mice using chronic mild stress (CMS as a model of depression. We compared the gene expression profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of CMS and control mice using microarrays. We subsequently categorized genes using two web-based bioinformatics applications: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. We then confirmed significant group-differences by analyzing mRNA and protein expression levels not only in the PFC, but also in the thalamus and hippocampus. These web tools revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a may exert direct effects on various genes specifically associated with amine synthesis, such as genes involved in serotonin metabolism and related immunological functions. Moreover, these genes may influence lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity. We also confirmed the significant effects of Hnf4a on both mRNA and protein expression levels in the brain. These results suggest that Hnf4a may have a critical influence on physiological homeostasis under depressive states, and may be associated with the mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and the dysregulation of

  3. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fe...

  4. Transcription regulation of the alpha-glucanase gene agn1 by cell separation transcription factor Ace2p in fission yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; de Haan, Annett; Hochstenbach, Frans

    2006-01-01

    During the final stage of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, transcription factor Ace2p activates expression of genes involved in the separation of newly formed daughter cells, such as agn1+, which encodes the alpha-glucanase Agn1p. The agn1 promoter contains

  5. p55PIK regulates alpha-fetoprotein expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoguo; Sun, Ge; Cheng, Zhikui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Kanghong; Xia, Xianmin; Zhou, Yin

    2017-12-15

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is regarded as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulation of AFP expression in HCC remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AFP expression is regulated by p55PIK, an isoform of PI3K. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Huh-7) were treated with p55PIK specific competitive inhibitor or shRNA, or p55PIK overexpression vector, in the absence or presence of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. AFP expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. NF-κB responsive elements in AFP enhancer region were characterized by luciferase reporter assay. p55PIK significantly stimulated the expression of AFP by activating NF-κB signaling pathway in HCC cells. Furthermore, two NF-κB binding sites in AFP enhancer region were identified to be primarily responsible for p55PIK mediated upregulation of AFP expression. p55PIK/NF-κB signaling plays an important role in the upregulation of AFP expression in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Tae Yong; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  7. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  8. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits malignant mesothelioma by disrupting the fibroblast growth factor autocrine loop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stapelberg, M.; Gellert, N.; Swettenham, E.; Tomasetti, M.; Witting, P. K.; Procopio, A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 27 (2005), s. 25369-25376 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : alpha-tocopheryl succinate * malignant mesothelioma * fibroblast growth factor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  9. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced...Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702,1 and Department of Microbiology , Mount Sinai...34–36. 32. Prescott , J., C. Ye, G. Sen, and B. Hjelle. 2005. Induction of innate immune response genes by Sin Nombre hantavirus does not require

  10. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 in chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation with response to interferon alfa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Hochhaus, A; König-Merediz, S A; Brendel, C; Proba, J; Hoppe, G J; Wittig, B; Ehninger, G; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A

    2000-10-01

    Mice experiments have established an important role for interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members in hematopoiesis. We wanted to study the expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in various hematologic disorders, especially chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its association with response to interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment in CML. Blood samples from various hematopoietic cell lines, different leukemia patients (70 CML, 29 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 10 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [CMMoL], 10 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 10 chronic lymphoid leukemia patients), and 33 healthy volunteers were monitored for IRF4 expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Then, with a focus on CML, the IRF4 level was determined in sorted cell subpopulations from CML patients and healthy volunteers and in in vitro-stimulated CML cells. Furthermore, IRF4 expression was compared in the CML samples taken before IFN-alpha therapy and in 47 additional CML samples taken during IFN-alpha therapy. IRF4 expression was then correlated with cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha. IRF4 expression was significantly impaired in CML, AML, and CMMoL samples. The downregulation of IRF4 in CML samples was predominantly found in T cells. In CML patients during IFN-alpha therapy, a significant increase in IRF4 levels was detected, and this was also observed in sorted T cells from CML patients. The increase seen during IFN-alpha therapy was not due to different blood counts. In regard to the cytogenetic response with IFN-alpha, a good response was associated with high IRF4 expression. IRF4 expression is downregulated in T cells of CML patients, and its increase is associated with a good response to IFN-alpha therapy. These data suggest IRF4 expression as a useful marker to monitor, if not predict, response to IFN-alpha in CML.

  11. Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulaev, Najmoutin G. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Zhang Cheng; Dinh, Andy [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States); Ngo, Tony; Bryan, Philip N. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Brabazon, Danielle M. [Loyola College in Maryland, Department of Chemistry (United States); Marino, John P. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States)], E-mail: marino@carb.nist.gov; Ridge, Kevin D. [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Heterologous expression systems are often employed to generate sufficient quantities of isotope-labeled proteins for high-resolution NMR studies. Recently, the interaction between the prodomain region of subtilisin and an active, mutant form of the mature enzyme has been exploited to develop a cleavable affinity tag fusion system for one-step generation and purification of full-length soluble proteins obtained by inducible prokaryotic expression. As a first step towards applying high-resolution NMR methods to study heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit (G{sub {alpha}}) conformation and dynamics, the utility of this subtilisin prodomain fusion system for expressing and purifying an isotope-labeled G{sub {alpha}} chimera ({approx}40 kDa polypeptide) has been tested. The results show that a prodomain fused G{sub {alpha}} chimera can be expressed to levels approaching 6-8 mg/l in minimal media and that the processed, mature protein exhibits properties similar to those of G{sub {alpha}} isolated from natural sources. To assay for the functional integrity of the purified G{sub {alpha}} chimera at NMR concentrations and probe for changes in the structure and dynamics of G{sub {alpha}} that result from activation, {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra of the GDP/Mg{sup 2+} bound form of G{sub {alpha}} obtained in the absence and presence of aluminum fluoride, a well known activator of the GDP bound state, have been acquired. Comparisons of the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra reveals a number of changes in chemical shifts of the {sup 1}HN, {sup 15}N crosspeaks that are discussed with respect to expected changes in the protein conformation associated with G{sub {alpha}} activation.

  12. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism G-308A with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Pakistani population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Rana, N.; Akhtar, F.; Hollander, A.I. den; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene polymorphism G-308A and total serum immunoglobulin E (TsIgE) levels in the onset of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) in Pakistani patients. METHODS: The TNF-alpha polymorphism

  13. Canine placental prostaglandin E2 synthase: expression, localization, and biological functions in providing substrates for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Fox, Barbara; Büchler, Urs; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-12-01

    The prepartum output of PGF2alpha in the bitch is associated with increased placental PGE2-synthase (PTGES) mRNA levels. Contrasting with this is a decreased expression of PGF2alpha-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3) in uteroplacental compartments during prepartum luteolysis, suggesting an involvement of alternative synthetic pathways in PGF2alpha synthesis, for example, conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha. However, because the expression and possible functions of the respective PTGES proteins remained unknown, no further conclusion could be drawn. Therefore, a canine-specific PTGES antibody was generated and used to investigate the expression, cellular localization, and biochemical activities of canine uteroplacental PTGES throughout pregnancy and at prepartum luteolysis. Additionally, the biochemical activities of these tissues involved in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha were investigated. The endometrial PTGES was localized in the uterine surface epithelium at preimplantation and in superficial and deep uterine glands, endothelial cells, and myometrium throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Placental signals were mostly in the trophoblast. The biochemical properties of recombinant PTGES protein were confirmed. Additionally, expression of two PGE2-receptors, PTGER2/EP2 and PTGER4/EP4, revealed their decreasing expression during luteolysis. In contrast, the uteroplacental expression of prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was strongly elevated prior to parturition. These localization patterns resembled that of PTGES. The increased expression of PTGES and PGT at parturition, together with the accompanying decreased levels of PGE2-receptors and the capability of canine uterine and placental homogenates to take part in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha, as found in this study, suggest that PGE2 could be used locally as a substrate for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis in the dog. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Hu, Yu; Xi, Ning; Song, Jie; Huang, Wenjing; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Yiting; Liu, Xianying; Xie, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO 2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO 2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO 2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development ( P < 0.05). The levels of pO 2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 ( P < 0.05). Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO 2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  15. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2 is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20, and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development (P<0.05. The levels of pO2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 (P<0.05. Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  16. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell......-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However......, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell...

  17. Regulation of the intronic promoter of rat estrogen receptor alpha gene, responsible for truncated estrogen receptor product-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausi, Diane; Tiffoche, Christophe; Thieulant, Marie-Lise

    2003-07-01

    We have characterized the intronic promoter of the rat estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene, responsible for the lactotrope-specific truncated ER product (TERP)-1 isoform expression. Transcriptional regulation was investigated by transient transfections using 5'-deletion constructs. TERP promoter constructs were highly active in MMQ cells, a pure lactotrope cell line, whereas a low basal activity was detected in alphaT3-1 gonadotrope cells or in COS-7 monkey kidney cells. Serial deletion analysis revealed that 1) a minimal -693-bp region encompassing the TATA box is sufficient to allow lactotrope-specific expression; 2) the promoter contains strong positive cis-acting elements both in the distal and proximal regions, and 3) the region spanning the -1698/-1194 region includes repressor elements. Transient transfection studies, EMSAs, and gel shifts demonstrated that estrogen activates the TERP promoter via an estrogen-responsive element (ERE1) located within the proximal region. Mutation of ERE1 site completely abolishes the estradiol-dependent transcription, indicating that ERE1 site is sufficient to confer estrogen responsiveness to TERP promoter. In addition, ERalpha action was synergized by transfection of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. EMSAs showed that a single Pit-1 DNA binding element in the vicinity of the TATA box is sufficient to confer response by the TERP promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time, that TERP promoter regulation involves ERE and Pit-1 cis-elements and corresponding trans-acting factors, which could play a role in the physiological changes that occur in TERP-1 transcription in lactotrope cells.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-L; Tsai, F-J; Tsai, C-H; Huang, C-M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (promoter-590 and intron 3) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter-308 genes are markers of susceptibility to or clinical manifestations of gout in Taiwanese patients. The study included 196 Taiwanese patients with gout and 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. Polymorphisms of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha (promoter-308) genes were typed from genomic DNA. Allelic frequencies and carriage rates were then compared between gout patients and control subjects. The correlation between allelic frequencies, carriage rates and clinical manifestations of gout were evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies and carriage rates of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Furthermore, the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha genotypes were not found to be associated with the clinical and laboratory profiles in gout patients. However, there was a significant difference in the TNF-alphapolymorphism genotype between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.001, xi2=11.47, OR=10.3, 95%CI=3.57-29.7). The results of our study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-4 (promoter-590 and intron 3) and TNF-alpha promoter-308 genes are not related to gout in Chinese patients in Taiwan.

  19. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  20. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase-Dependent Stimulation of Renal Klotho Expression by Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klotho, a transmembrane protein, protease and hormone mainly expressed in kidney, is required for the suppression of 1,25(OH2D3-generating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1 by FGF23. Conversely, 1,25(OH2D3 stimulates, by activating the vitamin D3 receptor (Vdr, the expression of klotho, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. Klotho protects against renal and vascular injury. Klotho deficiency accelerates aging and early death, effects at least partially due to excessive formation of 1,25(OH2D3 and subsequent hyperphosphatemia. Klotho expression is inhibited by aldosterone. The present study explored the interaction of aldosterone and DOCA as well as the moderately selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on klotho expression. Methods: mRNA levels were determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 or in renal tissues from mice without or with prior mineralocorticoid (aldosterone or DOCA and/or spironolactone treatment. In HEK293 cells, protein levels were determined by western blotting. The experiments in HEK293 cells were performed without or with silencing of CYP27B1, of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR or of mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2. Results: In HEK293 cells aldosterone and in mice DOCA significantly decreased KLOTHO gene expression, effects opposed by spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone treatment alone significantly increased KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in HEK293 cells (24 hours and mice (8 hours or 5 days. Moreover, spironolactone significantly increased klotho and CYP27B1 protein levels in HEK293 cells (48 hours. Reduced NR3C2 expression following silencing did not significantly affect KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in presence or absence of spironolactone. Silencing of CYP27B1 and VDR significantly blunted the stimulating effect of spironolactone on KLOTHO mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Besides blocking the effects of

  1. Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol moieties. Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteheart, S.W.; Shenbagamurthi, P.; Chen, L.; Cotter, R.J.; Hart, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), an important eukaryotic translation factor, transports charged aminoacyl-tRNA from the cytosol to the ribosomes during poly-peptide synthesis. Metabolic radiolabeling with [ 3 H] ethanolamine shows that, in all cells examined, EF-1 alpha is the major radiolabeled protein. Radiolabeled EF-1 alpha has an apparent Mr = 53,000 and a basic isoelectric point. It is cytosolic and does not contain N-linked oligosaccharides. Trypsin digestion of murine EF-1 alpha generated two major [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled peptides. Three peptides were sequenced and were identical to two distinct regions of the human EF-1 alpha protein. Blank sequencing cycles coinciding with glutamic acid in the human cDNA-derived sequence were also found to release [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and compositional analysis of these peptides confirmed the presence of glutamic acid. Dansylation analysis demonstrates that the amine group of the ethanolamine is blocked. These results indicate that EF-1 alpha is posttranslationally modified by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine via an amide bond to at least two specific glutamic acid residues (Glu-301 and Glu-374). The hydroxyl group of the attached ethanolamine was shown by mass spectrometry and compositional analysis, to be further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit. This novel posttranslational modification may represent an important alteration of EF-1 alpha, comparable to the regulatory effects of posttranslational methylation of EF-1 alpha lysine residues

  2. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Perrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1 gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies.

  3. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Joël; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2017-03-17

    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1) gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot) were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Alpha Defensin 5 Expression in the Human Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Edith; Bevins, Charles L.; DiRosario, Julianne; Becknell, Brian; Wang, Huanyu

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood. Recent studies have implicated the importance of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Here, we characterize the expression and relevance of the AMP human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5) in the human kidney and urinary tract in normal and infected subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RNA isolated from human kidney, ureter, and bladder tissue, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to show that DEFA5, the gene encoding HD5, is constitutively expressed throughout the urinary tract. With pyelonephritis, DEFA5 expression significantly increased in the kidney. Using immunoblot analysis, HD5 production also increased with pyelonephritis. Immunostaining localized HD5 to the urothelium of the bladder and ureter. In the kidney, HD5 was primarily produced in the distal nephron and collecting tubules. Using immunoblot and ELISA assays, HD5 was not routinely detected in non-infected human urine samples while mean urinary HD5 production increased with E.coli urinary tract infection. Conclusions/Significance DEFA5 is expressed throughout the urinary tract in non-infected subjects. Specifically, HD5 is expressed throughout the urothelium of the lower urinary tract and in the collecting tubules of the kidney. With infection, HD5 expression increases in the kidney and levels become detectable in the urine. To our knowledge, our findings represent the first to quantitate HD5 expression and production in the human kidney. Moreover, this is the first report to detect the presence of HD5 in infected urine samples. Our results suggest that HD5 may have an important role in maintaining urinary tract sterility. PMID:22359618

  5. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, R. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Characterization of receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human placental membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyer, R.A.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) were identified on membranes prepared from full term human placenta. Highly purified rhTNF-alpha iodinated by the iodogen method was found to bind placental membranes in a displaceable manner with an approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 1.9 nM. The membrane bound TNF-alpha receptor could be solubilized by several detergents with optimum extraction being obtained with 1% Triton X-100. The binding of 125I-rhTNF-alpha to the solubilized receptor was found to be time and temperature dependent, yielding maximum binding within 1 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C, respectively. However, the maximum binding obtainable at 4 degrees C was only 40% of that at 37 degrees C. The binding 125I-rhTNF-alpha to solubilized placental membrane extracts was displaceable by unlabeled rhTNF-alpha, but not by a related protein recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-beta (rhTNF-beta; previously called lymphotoxin). This is similar to the behavior of TNF-alpha receptors derived from detergent-solubilized cell extracts, although on intact cells, both rhTNF-alpha and rhTNF-beta bind with equal affinity to TNF receptors. The Scatchard analysis of the binding data of the solubilized receptor revealed high affinity binding sites with a KD of approximately 0.5 nM and a receptor concentration of about 1 pmole/mg protein. Gel filtration of the solubilized receptor-ligand complexes on Sephacryl S-300 revealed two different peaks of radioactivity at approximate molecular masses of 50,000 Da and 400,000 Da. The 400,000 dalton peak corresponded to the receptor-ligand complex. Overall, our results suggest that high affinity receptors for TNF-alpha are present on human placental membranes and provide evidence that these receptors may be different from that of rhTNF-beta

  7. Functional defect of truncated hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee, E-mail: S_kooptiwut@hotmail.com [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sujjitjoon, Jatuporn [Department of Immunology and Immunology Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Plengvidhya, Nattachet [Department of Immunology and Immunology Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapapron [Department of Immunology and Immunology Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Semprasert, Namoiy [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio [The First Department, Wakayama Medical University (Japan); Banchuin, Napatawn [Department of Immunology and Immunology Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology, Medicine Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-05-22

    A novel frameshift mutation attributable to 14-nucleotide insertion in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (HNF-1{alpha}) encoding a truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) with 76-amino acid deletion at its carboxyl terminus was identified in a Thai family with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} proteins were expressed by in vitro transcription and translation (TNT) assay and by transfection in HeLa cells. The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} could similarly bind to human glucose-transporter 2 (GLUT2) promoter examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, the transactivation activities of mutant HNF-1{alpha} on human GLUT2 and rat L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) promoters in HeLa cells determined by luciferase reporter assay were reduced to approximately 55-60% of the wild-type protein. These results suggested that the functional defect of novel truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) on the transactivation of its target-gene promoters would account for the {beta}-cell dysfunction associated with the pathogenesis of MODY.

  8. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biom......The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...... and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted...... in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon...

  9. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  10. Inhibition of the release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in experimental endotoxemia by an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; ten Cate, H.; Gallati, H.; ten Cate, J. W.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in endotoxemia was investigated. The appearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors was assessed in four healthy volunteers following an intravenous injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  11. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production in irradiated cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Bognar, G.; Kubasova, T.

    1994-01-01

    Normal and tumor cell lines were used to investigate tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) production and its radiation sensitivity. The cells were irradiated with gamma rays using different doses from 0.25 Gy up to 5 Gy. The number of plated cells, changes of proliferation and TNFα production were determined during the following four post-irradiation days. For TNFα quantity measurement immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA) and enzyme amplified sensitivity assay (EASIA) was used. The results suggest that though gamma irradiation decreased cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner, the quantity produced in the post-irradiation period increased considerably in each irradiated sample. (N.T.) 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) on proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha ... 1Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025,. China. 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chaoyang Hospital, Huainan, Anhui, China. 3Department of Neurosurgery ...

  13. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Sandberg-Wollheim, M

    1990-01-01

    The NcoI tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) polymorphism was studied in relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis and monosymptomatic optic neuritis. The frequency of the NcoI marker phenotypes did not differ between healthy controls and the two disease groups. No extra or missing DNA fragments were...

  14. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha infusion on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce...

  15. Systemic side effects of isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, Jan Harm

    1997-01-01

    The main function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), a small polypeptide shared by all mammals, is probably protection against invading bacteria, parasites and viruses; killing of these microorganisms is facilitated in the presence of TNF-a. However, as its name suggest, TNF-a is also capable

  16. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  17. The upregulation of receptor activator NF-kappaB ligand expression by interleukin-1alpha and Porphyromonas endodontalis in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-C; Huang, F-M; Lee, S-S; Li, M-Z; Chang, Y-C

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) in osteoblastic cells stimulated with inflammatory mediators. The expression of RANKL in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha and black-pigmented bacteria Porphyromonas endodontalis was investigated by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The significance of the results obtained from control and treated groups was statistically analysed by the paired Student's t-test. IL-1alpha was found to upregulate RANKL production in U2OS cells (P endodontalis also increased RANKL expression in U2OS cells after 4-h incubation period demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA (P endodontalis may be involved in developing apical periodontitis through the stimulation of RANKL production.

  18. Spectroscopic factors of the alpha decay of isoscalar giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.F.; Chuvil'skij, Yu.M.

    1983-01-01

    A system which enables to connect Ssub(α) spectroscopic factors (SF) for α-decay of the isoscalar giant resonance (GR) states E0 and E2 with SF values for ground and low lying nucleus states has been developed. This method permits to consider initial nucleus GR decay with a transition to the residual nucleus-GR. It is necessary to know only SF for GR decay to the daughter nucleus ground state with the emission of an excited cluster in the common case. The above method is based on properties of infinitesimal operators of Sp(2, R), Sp(6, R) groups and uses SU(3)-symmetry of wave functions of initial nucleus, cluster and residual nucleus, Values of ratios of α-particle SF are presented for 8 Be, HH2C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 40 Ca, 44 Ti nuclei and Ssub(α) transitions to GR states of residual nucleus for 16 O, 20 Ne and 40 Ca nuclei. Noticeable Ssub(α) values for virtual α-decay of an initial nucleus ground state to residual nucleus GR poins out that α-particle knock out processes may be also accompanied by the final nucleus GR excitation

  19. Alterations of type IV collagen alpha chains in patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies: mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Martorana, Davide; Cravedi, Paolo; Maggiore, Umberto; Alinovi, Rossella; Bovino, Achiropita; Mattei, Silvia; Orlandini, Guido; Gatti, Rita; Savi, Mario; Sado, Yoshikazu; Neri, Tauro M; Allegri, Landino

    2007-01-01

    Type IV collagen is a major structural component of the normal kidney glomerulus. However, its role in chronic acquired glomerulopathies has been only partially elucidated. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3 and col(IV)alpha5 collagen chains were analyzed in 107 patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies. In a subgroup of 33 patients, tissue mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary excretion were evaluated for all col(IV)alpha chains, from col(IV)alpha1 to col(IV)alpha5. The renal specimens were examined to get a semiquantitative score of the acute and chronic activity of the histological lesions. Urines obtained from 13 healthy subjects and 10 normal renal tissue samples were used as controls. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha5 chains were significantly higher in patients than in controls [p < 0.01 for all], while only col(IV)alpha1 and col(IV)alpha3 urinary excretion correlated with the degree of chronic histological damage [col(IV)alpha1 R = 0.44, p < 0.001; col(IV)alpha3: R = 0.47, p < 0.001]. Compared with controls, patients showed a renal expression of mRNA for col(IV)alpha5 chain significantly higher [p = 0.001], while having a significantly lower protein expression of col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha4 and col(IV)alpha5 chains [p < 0.01 for all]. Patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies show important alterations in the col(IV)alpha chain network mimicking some molecular features of the X-linked Alport's syndrome. Further studies are needed to show whether urinary levels of the col(IV)alpha chains may be used as markers for monitoring renal injury. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  1. Correlation between spontaneous apoptosis and the expression of angiogenic factors in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, M; Cai, J; Fukuda, K; Oka, S; Katano, K; Tsujitani, S; Maeta, M; Kaibara, N

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether angiogenic factors influence the occurrence of spontaneous apoptosis in advanced gastric cancer. The apoptotic indices (AIs) of 97 tumors from 97 patients with advanced gastric cancer (pT3, pN0, pM0, Stage II) were analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Intratumoral microvessel densities (IMVDs) of tumors stained with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody were quantified under x 200 magnification using computer-assisted image analysis. The expressions of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and p53 were analyzed immunohistochemically and compared with IMVDs and AIs. The mean IMVD of the 97 tumors was 365/mm2 (range 147-990/mm2). The mean AI of tumors was 2.1% (range 0-11.3%). A significant inverse correlation between the AIs and the IMVDs was shown (p = -0.278, P = 0.0064). The mean IMVDs of tumors with high expressions of dThdPase, TGF-alpha, or p53 were significantly higher than those of tumors with low expressions of these factors. The mean AI of tumors with high expressions of dThdPase was significantly lower than that of tumors with low expressions of dThdPase (P = 0.023). However, no significant correlations were detected between AIs and the expression levels of VEGF, TGF-alpha, or p53. In gastric cancer, dThdPase may play an important role in tumor progression by increasing microvessels and by suppressing apoptosis of cancer cells.

  2. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha specifically inhibits insulin-increased prolactin gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, K K; Sap, J; Stanley, F M

    1998-01-01

    A physiologically relevant response to insulin, stimulation of prolactin promoter activity in GH4 pituitary cells, was used as an assay to study the specificity of protein-tyrosine phosphatase function. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) blocks the effect of insulin...... is specific by two criteria. A number of potential RPTPalpha targets were ruled out by finding (a) that they are not affected or (b) that they are not on the pathway to insulin-increased prolactin-CAT activity. The negative effect of RPTPalpha on insulin activation of the prolactin promoter is not due...... to reduced phosphorylation or kinase activity of the insulin receptor or to reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 or Shc. Inhibitor studies suggest that insulin-increased prolactin gene expression is mediated by a Ras-like GTPase but is not mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent...

  3. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5 g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-(ΔΔC)T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.

  4. Estradiol upregulates calcineurin expression via overexpression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Li Lin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women (9:1 compared with men. To investigate the influence of female sex hormone estrogen on the development of female-biased lupus, we compared the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα gene and protein levels as well as expression of T-cell activation gene calcineurin in response to estrogen in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from SLE patients and normal controls. PBLs were isolated from 20 female SLE patients and 6 normal female controls. The amount of ERα protein in PBL was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of ERα and calcineurin messenger RNA was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by calcineurin assay kit. The expression of ERα messenger RNA and ERα protein was significantly increased (p=0.001 and p=0.023, respectively in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls. In addition, the basal calcineurin in PBL from SLE patients was significantly higher (p=0.000 than that from normal controls, and estrogen-induced expression of calcineurin was increased (p=0.007 in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls, a 3.15-fold increase. This increase was inhibited by the ERα antagonism ICI 182,780. The effects of ER antagonism were also found in calcineurin activity. These data suggest that overexpression of ERα gene and enhanced activation of calcineurin in response to estrogen in PBL may contribute to the pathogenesis of female dominant in SLE.

  5. Self-absorption alpha particle factor in water: interest in the monitoring of specific military sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazoulat, A.; Lecompte, Y.; Bohand, S.; Gerasimo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Self-absorption alpha particle factor validation in water: Interest in the monitoring of specific military sites. The population internal intake prevention by radionuclides present in water needs to monitor the radioactive Level of this water. The French public health legislation introduces four radiological parameters for monitoring water, such as the gross alpha radioactivity. Regarding the alpha particle characteristics, a self-absorption factor has to be established beforehand, not to underestimate the real alpha radioactivity in water samples. The aim of this paper is to describe the procedure used by the laboratory of the French army radioprotection service to determine this f factor, which depends on the water residue mass m after evaporation. The relation is f = 0.0253 m + 1.2813. This formula can be employed for such waters used in this experiment and for masses between 0 and 100 mg. The uncertainty associated is about 11% (k = 2). Some water monitoring examples are given. It is specially the case of depleted uranium shells experiment centres, localized in Gramat and Bourges. (authors)

  6. Epitope mapping of alpha-transforming growth factor: evidence of an immunodominant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, P.; Dedman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits and sheep against both full-length synthetic rat alpha-transforming growth factor and peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal 17 amino acids. These antisera were used to develop a peptide based radioimmunoassay of alpha-TGF. All antisera reacted only with a restricted region of the alpha-TGF corresponding to the 8 residues (43-50) at the carboxy-terminus: Cyslt. slash43, Glult. slash44, Hislt. slash45, Alalt. slash46, Asplt. slash47, Leult. slash48, Leult. slash49, Alalt. slash50. A series of synthetic peptides presenting deletions or substitutions of amino acids in this carboxy-terminal region were tested for competition with 125 I-alpha-TGF. All changes in the above peptide sequence resulted in a marked reduction in competition. All of the polyclonal antisera demonstrated similar specificity whether they were produced against the 50 amino acid, full-length alpha-TGF, against shorter 17 amino acid and 8 amino acid carboxy-terminal sequences

  7. Epitope mapping of alpha-transforming growth factor: evidence of an immunodominant region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, P.; Dedman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits and sheep against both full-length synthetic rat alpha-transforming growth factor and peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal 17 amino acids. These antisera were used to develop a peptide based radioimmunoassay of alpha-TGF. All antisera reacted only with a restricted region of the alpha-TGF corresponding to the 8 residues (43-50) at the carboxy-terminus: Cyslt. slash43, Glult. slash44, Hislt. slash45, Alalt. slash46, Asplt. slash47, Leult. slash48, Leult. slash49, Alalt. slash50. A series of synthetic peptides presenting deletions or substitutions of amino acids in this carboxy-terminal region were tested for competition with /sup 125/I-alpha-TGF. All changes in the above peptide sequence resulted in a marked reduction in competition. All of the polyclonal antisera demonstrated similar specificity whether they were produced against the 50 amino acid, full-length alpha-TGF, against shorter 17 amino acid and 8 amino acid carboxy-terminal sequences.

  8. Loss of hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4alpha affects colonic ion transport and causes chronic inflammation resembling inflammatory bowel disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Darsigny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hnf4alpha, an epithelial specific transcriptional regulator, is decreased in inflammatory bowel disease and protects against chemically-induced colitis in mice. However, the precise role of this factor in maintaining normal inflammatory homeostasis of the intestine remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sole role of epithelial Hnf4alpha in the maintenance of gut inflammatory homeostasis in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that specific epithelial deletion of Hnf4alpha in mice causes spontaneous chronic intestinal inflammation leading to focal areas of crypt dropout, increased cytokines and chemokines secretion, immune cell infiltrates and crypt hyperplasia. A gene profiling analysis in diseased Hnf4alpha null colon confirms profound genetic changes in cell death and proliferative behaviour related to cancer. Among the genes involved in the immune protection through epithelial barrier function, we identify the ion transporter claudin-15 to be down-modulated early in the colon of Hnf4alpha mutants. This coincides with a significant decrease of mucosal ion transport but not of barrier permeability in young animals prior to the manifestation of the disease. We confirm that claudin-15 is a direct Hnf4alpha gene target in the intestinal epithelial context and is down-modulated in mouse experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the critical role of Hnf4alpha to maintain intestinal inflammatory homeostasis during mouse adult life and uncover a novel function for Hnf4alpha in the regulation of claudin-15 expression. This establishes Hnf4alpha as a mediator of ion epithelial transport, an important process for the maintenance of gut inflammatory homeostasis.

  9. PET imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression in tumours with Ga-68-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Yim, Cheng-Bin; Franssen, Gerben M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Luurtsema, Gert; Liu, Shuang; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    Due to the restricted expression of alpha(v)beta(3) in tumours, alpha(v)beta(3) is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the alpha(v)beta(3)-binding characteristics of Ga-68-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD peptides were determined and compared with their

  10. Molecular genetics and phenotypic characteristics of MODY caused by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha mutations in a large European collection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, E.R.; Pruhova, S.; Tack, C.J.J.; Johansen, A.; Castleden, H.A.; Lumb, P.J.; Wierzbicki, A.S.; Clark, P.M.; Lebl, J.; Pedersen, O.; Ellard, S.; Hansen, T.; Hattersley, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heterozygous mutations in the gene of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) are considered a rare cause of MODY with only 14 mutations reported to date. The description of the phenotype is limited to single families. We investigated the genetics and

  11. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  12. Functional discrepancies between tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alpha explained by trimer stability and distinct receptor interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuchmann, M; Hess, S; Bufler, P

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) are closely related cytokines which bind with nearly identical affinities to the same pair of cell surface receptors, p55 and p75TNFR. Therefore it is assumed that TNF and LT alpha are redundant cytokines. This study, however......, demonstrates that TNF and LT alpha differ significantly with regard to their mitogenic and cytotoxic potentials. LT alpha's superior mitogenic effect could be explained by its formation of a more stable trimer. In contrast to the TNF trimer, which disintegrated under physiological conditions into biologically...... inactive monomers, the LT alpha trimer remained stable for several days. Accordingly, LT alpha more effectively induced fibroblast growth which demands long-term presence of the cytokine. TNF's superior cytotoxicity, which requires only short-term impact of the cytokine, could be attributed to a distinct...

  13. Charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Antonov, A.N.; Spasova, K.; Anagnostatos, G.S.; Ginis, P.; Giapitzakis, J.

    1999-01-01

    The transition densities and form factors of 0 + , 2 + , and 3 - states in 12 C are calculated in alpha-cluster model using the triangle frame with clusters in the vertices. The wave functions of nucleons in the alpha clusters are taken as they were obtained in the framework of the models used for the description of the 4 He form factor and momentum distribution which are based on the one-body density matrix construction. They contain effects of the short-range NN correlations, as well as the d-shell admixtures in 4 He. Calculations and the comparison with the experimental data show that visible effects on the form and magnitude of the 12 C form factors take place, especially at relatively large momentum transfers

  14. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of solute carrier transporters in alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakata, Takaaki; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Ogane, Naoki; Kameda, Yoichi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Takeda, Risa; Naka, Ayano; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Hayashi, Yurie; Kuwao, Sadahito

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive tumour with high rates of liver metastasis and poor prognosis, and for which a validated chemotherapy regimen has not been established. Drug uptake by solute carrier (SLC) transporters is proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to develop important insights into effective chemotherapeutic regimens for AFP-producing GC. We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression levels of a panel of SLC transporters in 20 AFP-producing GCs and 130 conventional GCs. SLC transporters examined were human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT6 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The rates of high expression levels of hENT1 (hENT1 high ) and OAT2 (OAT2 high ) were statistically higher in AFP-producing GC, compared with conventional GC. When analysing hENT1 and OAT2 in combination, hENT1 high /OAT2 high was the most particular expression profile for AFP-producing GC, with a greater significance than hENT1 or OAT2 alone. However, no significant differences in OCT2, OCT6 or OATP1B3 levels were detected between AFP-producing and conventional GCs. However, immunoreactivity for hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 tended to be increased in GC tissues compared with non-neoplastic epithelia. Because hENT1 and OAT2 are crucial for the uptake of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, our results suggest that patients with AFP-producing GC could potentially benefit from gemcitabine/fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy. Increased expression of hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 may also be associated with the progression of GC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inhibition of ribosome recruitment induces stress granule formation independently of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity, an RNA helicase required for the ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, induces SG formation and that this event is not dependent on eIF2alpha phosphorylation. We also show that inhibition of eIF4A activity does not impair the ability of eIF2alpha to be phosphorylated under stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed SG assembly upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation after poliovirus infection. We propose that SG modeling can occur via both eIF2alpha phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways that target translation initiation.

  16. Type-I interferon receptor expression: its circadian rhythm and downregulation after interferon-alpha administration in peripheral blood cells from renal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masahiro; Nonomura, Norio; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakayama, Masashi; Takayama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nishimura, Kazuo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the regulation of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) receptor expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after IFN-alpha administration. Blood sampling was carried out in eight patients with metastatic RCC and six healthy volunteers. Flow-cytometric analysis using a monoclonal antibody against the active subunit of the type-I IFN-alpha receptor (IFNAR2) was carried out to examine the circadian rhythm of IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as its downregulation after IFN-alpha administration. According to its circadian rhythm IFNAR2 in PBMC had a peak expression at night. Once IFN-alpha is administered, IFNAR2 levels in PBMC showed downregulation within 48 h and recovered within another 48 h. Our findings might support the establishment of an optimal schedule for IFN-alpha administration.

  17. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha- (α- particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  18. CD44 and Bak expression in IL-6 or TNF-alpha gene knockout mice after whole lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Minako; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Ohta, Toshie; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Imai, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie radiation pneumonitis, we examined whether knockout of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or the interleukin (IL)-6 gene could give mice an inherent resistance to radiation in the acute phase of alveolar damage after thoracic irradiation. The temporal expression of inflammation (CD44) and apoptosis (Bak) markers in lung after thoracic irradiation was measured to determine the degree of alveolar damage. At 4 weeks post-irradiation (10 Gy), small inflammatory foci were observed in all mice, but there were no obvious histological differences between control (C57BL/6JSlc), TNF-alpha knockout (TNF KO), and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. However, immunohistochemical analysis of CD44 and Bak expression over a time course of 2 weeks highlighted significant differences between the three groups. C57BL/6JSlc and TNF KO mice had increased numbers of both CD44-positive and Bak-positive cells after irradiation, while the IL-6 KO mice showed stable levels of CD44 and Bak. In conclusion, the radioresistant status of IL-6 KO mice in the acute phase of alveolar damage after irradiation suggested an important role for IL-6 in radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  19. Inducible alpha-synuclein expression affects human Neural Stem Cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasso, Jacopo; Mastad, Ahmed; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Conti, Luciano

    2018-04-19

    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step. Here we present a novel human Tet-on hNSC cell line, in which aSyn timing and level of expression can be tightly experimentally tuned. Induction of aSyn in self-renewing hNSCs leads to progressive formation of aSyn aggregates and impairs their proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, aSyn induction during the neuronal differentiation process results in reduced neuronal differentiation and increased number astrocytes and undifferentiated cells in culture. Finally, acute aSyn induction in hNSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures results in cell toxicity. This novel conditional in vitro cell model system may be a valuable tool for dissecting of aSyn pathogenic effects in hNSCs and neurons and in developing new potential therapeutic strategies.

  20. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, D; Peeters, W; Nickel, K; Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response

  1. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, D [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peeters, W [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, GA (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response.

  2. Alpha-tryptophan synthase of Isatis tinctoria: gene cloning and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, M; Boccardi, T M; Sani, E; Bernardi, R; Tozzi, S; Pugliesi, C; Durante, M

    2008-07-01

    Indole producing reaction is a crux in the regulation of metabolite flow through the pathways and the coordination of primary and secondary product biosynthesis in plants. Indole is yielded transiently from indole-3-glycerol phosphate and immediately condensed with serine to give tryptophan, by the enzyme tryptophan synthase (TS). There is evidence that plant TS, like the bacterial complex, functions as an alpha beta heteromer. In few species, e.g. maize, are known enzymes, related with the TS alpha-subunit (TSA), able to catalyse reaction producing indole, which is free to enter the secondary metabolite pathways. In this contest, we searched for TSA and TSA related genes in Isatis tinctoria, a species producing the natural blue dye indigo. The It-TSA cDNA and the full-length exons/introns genomic region were isolated. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that It-TSA is more closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana At-T14E10.210 TSA (95.7% identity at the amino acid level) with respect to A. thaliana At-T10P11.11 TSA1-like (63%), Zea mays indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (54%), Z. mays TSA (53%), and Z. mays indole synthase (50%). The It-TSA cDNA was also able to complement an Escherichia coli trpA mutant. To examine the involvement of It-TSA in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolism compounds, It-TSA expression was tested in seedling grown under different light conditions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed an increase in the steady-state level of It-TSA mRNA, paralleled by an increase of indigo and its precursor isatan B. Our results appear to indicate an involvement for It-TSA in indigo precursor synthesis and/or tryptophan biosynthesis.

  3. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  4. Delayed changes in gene expression in human fibroblasts after alpha irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, A.; Peraelae, M.; Mustonen, R.; Kadhim, M.; Marsden, S.; Sabatier, L.; Martins, L.

    2003-01-01

    endpoints with radiation-induced cancer. Gene expression changes in human fibroblast cells at delayed time points after alpha particle irradiation were studied. The aim was to identify genes playing pivotal role in inducing genomic instability. (orig.)

  5. Expression and Regulation of the Bile Acid Transporter, OST alpha-OST beta in Rat and Human Intestine and Liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Ansar A.; Chow, Edwin C. Y.; Porte, Robert J.; Pang, K. Sandy; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The regulation of the OST alpha and OST beta expression was studied in the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver and in human ileum and liver by ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) using precision cut tissue

  6. Choosing an alpha radiation weighting factor for doses to non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Osborne, Richard V.; Garva, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    The risk to non-human biota from exposure to ionizing radiation is of current international interest. In calculating radiation doses to humans, it is common to multiply the absorbed dose by a factor to account for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiation type. However, there is no international consensus on the appropriate value of such a factor for weighting doses to non-human biota. This paper summarizes our review of the literature on experimentally determined RBEs for internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides. The relevancy of each experimental result in selecting a radiation weighting factor for doses from alpha particles in biota was judged on the basis of criteria established a priori. We recommend a nominal alpha radiation weighting factor of 5 for population-relevant deterministic and stochastic endpoints, but to reflect the limitations in the experimental data, uncertainty ranges of 1-10 and 1-20 were selected for population-relevant deterministic and stochastic endpoints, respectively

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates the Hypocretin system via mRNA degradation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuqin; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Anni; Wang, Yuping; Jia, Jianping; Fang, Haotian; Yang, Youfeng; Hu, Meng; Ding, Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the Hypocretin system is regulated by TNF-α. Prepro-Hypocretin and Hypocretin receptor 2 (HcrtR2) can be detected at a very low level in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. In response to TNF-α, Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated, and also HcrtR2 protein level is down-regulated in B35 cells. To investigate the mechanism, exogenous rat Prepro-Hypocretin and rat HcrtR2 were overexpressed in B35 cells. In response to TNF-α, protein and mRNA of Prepro-Hypocretin are significantly decreased (by 93% and 94%, respectively), and the half-life of Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA is decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of HcrtR2 mRNA level is not affected by TNF-α treatment; however, HcrtR2 protein level is significantly decreased (by 86%) through ubiquitination in B35 cells treated with TNF-α. Downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 and -2 (cIAP-1 and -2) abrogates the HcrtR2 ubiquitination induced by TNF-α. The control green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is not affected by TNF-α treatment. These studies demonstrate that TNF-α can impair the function of the Hypocretin system by reducing the levels of both Prepro-Hypocretin and HcrtR2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of alpha methylacyl-coa racemase (amacr) in carcinoma prostate in pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, H.; Ahmed, R.; Muhammad, I.; Afzal, M.S.; Hashmi, S.N.; Hamdani, S.N.R.; Shahid, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of expression of positive diagnostic marker alpha methylacyl-COA RACEMES (AMACR) in the examination of prostate needle biopsy specimens from patients of adenocarcinoma prostate from a subset of Pakistani population. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Apr 2015 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: All specimens of adenocarcinoma prostate diagnosed at Armed forces institute of pathology on the basis of immunohistochemistry and routine histopathology irrespective of age of patient, histological type or grade of the tumor were analyzed. Mean and Standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables like patient's age and frequencies along with percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like AMACR expression. Results: Out of the total 80 cases, 68 (85%) were positive for AMACR while 12 (15%) were negative. Among the cases that were negative 9 (11.3%) showed 1 +- staining (Weak, non-circumferential) and 3 cases (3.8%) displayed 0 staining (No cytoplasmic staining). Conclusion: Positive staining for AMACR can be used to support a diagnosis of cancer on prostate needle core biopsies when the focus in question is <1mm in maximum dimension. The results of AMACR expression in a subset of Pakistani population are comparable to the western studies. AMACR staining must be interpreted in the context of basic haematoxylin and eosin criteria for malignancy along with the results expansion of other supportive markers, such as a basal cell specific marker like p63 or 34 beta E12. (author)

  9. Correlated alpha activity with the facial expression processing network in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Marco; Direito, Bruno; Lima, Joao; Castelhano, Joao; Ferreira, Carlos; Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, Paulo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between EEG and fMRI data is poorly covered in the literature. Extensive work has been conducted in resting-state and epileptic activity, highlighting a negative correlation between the alpha power band of the EEG and the BOLD activity in the default-mode-network. The identification of an appropriate task-specific relationship between fMRI and EEG data for predefined regions-of-interest, would allow the transfer of interventional paradigms (such as BOLD-based neurofeedback sessions) from fMRI to EEG, enhancing its application range by lowering its costs and improving its flexibility. In this study, we present an analysis of the correlation between task-specific alpha band fluctuations and BOLD activity in the facial expressions processing network. We characterized the network ROIs through a stringent localizer and identified two clusters on the scalp (one frontal, one parietal-occipital) with marked alpha fluctuations, related to the task. We then check whether such power variations throughout the time correlate with the BOLD activity in the network. Our results show statistically significant negative correlations between the alpha power in both clusters and for all the ROIs of the network. The correlation levels have still not met the requirements for transferring the protocol to an EEG setup, but they pave the way towards a better understand on how frontal and parietal-occipital alpha relates to the activity of the facial expressions processing network.

  10. Over-expression of two different forms of the alpha-secretase ADAM10 affects learning and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Fahrenholz, Falk; Schroeder, Anja

    2006-12-15

    Members of the ADAM family (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) are the main candidates for physiologically relevant alpha-secretases. The alpha-secretase cleaves in the non-amyloidogenic pathway the amyloid precursor protein within the region of the Abeta peptides preventing their aggregation in the brain. The increase of alpha-secretase activity in the brain provides a plausible strategy to prevent Abeta formation. Concerning this possibility two transgenic mouse lines (FVB/N) have been created: mice over-expressing the bovine form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10) and mice over-expressing an inactive form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10-E348A-HA; ADAM10-dn). For behavioral examination a F1 generation of transgenic mice (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N (tg)) was generated and compared to wild type F1 generation (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N). Behavior was characterized in the following tasks: standard open field, enriched open field, elevated plus-maze, and the Morris water maze hidden platform task. Concerning basal activity, exploration, and anxiety, transgenic mice behaved similar to controls. With respect to learning and memory both transgenic lines showed a significant deficit compared to controls. ADAM10 mice however, showed thigmotaxis with passive floating behavior in the Morris water maze indicating differences in motivation, whereas, ADAM10-dn mice displayed an inconspicuous but limited goal-directed search pattern. Thus variation of the enzymatic activity of alpha-secretase ADAM10 alters learning and memory differentially. Nevertheless, it could be concluded that both, ADAM10 and ADAM10-dn mice are suitable control mice for the assessment of alpha-secretase-related effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. PANP is a novel O-glycosylated PILR{alpha} ligand expressed in neural tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, Amane [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shiratori, Ikuo [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Jing [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Lanier, Lewis L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Arase, Hisashi, E-mail: arase@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST CREST, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} A Novel molecule, PANP, was identified to be a PILR{alpha} ligand. {yields} Sialylated O-glycan structures on PANP were required for PILR{alpha} recognition. {yields} Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. {yields} PANP seems to be involved in immune regulation as a ligand for PILR{alpha}. -- Abstract: PILR{alpha} is an immune inhibitory receptor possessing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic domain enabling it to deliver inhibitory signals. Binding of PILR{alpha} to its ligand CD99 is involved in immune regulation; however, whether there are other PILR{alpha} ligands in addition to CD99 is not known. Here, we report that a novel molecule, PILR-associating neural protein (PANP), acts as an additional ligand for PILR{alpha}. Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. PILR{alpha}-Ig fusion protein bound cells transfected with PANP and the transfectants stimulated PILR{alpha} reporter cells. Specific O-glycan structures on PANP were found to be required for PILR recognition of this ligand. These results suggest that PANP is involved in immune regulation as a ligand of the PILR{alpha}.

  12. Are Ichthyosporea animals or fungi? Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of elongation factor 1alpha of Ichthyophonus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Mark A; Murphy, Colleen A; Rand, Thomas G

    2003-12-01

    Ichthyosporea is a recently recognized group of morphologically simple eukaryotes, many of which cause disease in aquatic organisms. Ribosomal RNA sequence analyses place Ichthyosporea near the divergence of the animal and fungal lineages, but do not allow resolution of its exact phylogenetic position. Some of the best evidence for a specific grouping of animals and fungi (Opisthokonta) has come from elongation factor 1alpha, not only phylogenetic analysis of sequences but also the presence or absence of short insertions and deletions. We sequenced the EF-1alpha gene from the ichthyosporean parasite Ichthyophonus irregularis and determined its phylogenetic position using neighbor-joining, parsimony and Bayesian methods. We also sequenced EF-1alpha genes from four chytrids to provide broader representation within fungi. Sequence analyses and the presence of a characteristic 12 amino acid insertion strongly indicate that I. irregularis is a member of Opisthokonta, but do not resolve whether I. irregularis is a specific relative of animals or of fungi. However, the EF-1alpha of I. irregularis exhibits a two amino acid deletion heretofore reported only among fungi.

  13. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all......-cause mortality in these persons. METHODS: We enrolled 126 subjects at or around the time of their 100th birthday. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, and we determined the associations between the markers of inflammation and mortality during...... the subsequent 5 years. RESULTS: Only 9 subjects were alive after 5 years. Elevated levels of TNF-alpha were associated with mortality in both men and women (hazard ratio = 1.34 per SD of 2.81 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.60, P = 0.001). Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 did not affect survival; levels of C...

  14. Endogenous endophthalmitis in a rheumatoid patient on tumor necrosis factor alpha blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF therapies is a milestone in the therapy of rheumatic diseases. It is of concern whether all potential undesired complications of therapy have been evaluated within clinical trials which have led to treatment approval. Specialists prescribing TNF blockers should be aware of the unusual and severe complications that can occur. We describe a case of endogenous endophthalmitis in a rheumatoid patient on TNF alpha blocker.

  15. Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of 125I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, K.; Hudgins, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125 I-labeled mEGF, 125 I-labeled hEGF, and 125 I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125 I-labeled mEGF and 125 I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125 I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125 I-labeled mEGF and 125 I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125 I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000

  16. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  17. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  18. The repeatability of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein in COPD patients over one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsum, Umme; Roy, Kay; Starkey, Cerys

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many of the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are mediated through increased systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. We assessed the long term repeatability of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein......(i)) and the Bland-Altman method. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the systemic markers at both visits. RESULTS: There was moderate repeatability with a very high degree of statistical significance (p...... (CRP) over one year and examined the relationships between these systemic markers in COPD. METHODS: Fifty-eight stable COPD patients completed a baseline and one-year visit. Serum IL-6, plasma CRP, and plasma TNF-alpha were measured. Repeatability was expressed by intraclass correlation coefficient (R...

  19. The repeatability of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein in COPD patients over one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsum, Umme; Roy, Kay; Starkey, Cerys

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many of the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are mediated through increased systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. We assessed the long term repeatability of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein......(i)) and the Bland-Altman method. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the systemic markers at both visits. RESULTS: There was moderate repeatability with a very high degree of statistical significance (p...... (CRP) over one year and examined the relationships between these systemic markers in COPD. METHODS: Fifty-eight stable COPD patients completed a baseline and one-year visit. Serum IL-6, plasma CRP, and plasma TNF-alpha were measured. Repeatability was expressed by intraclass correlation coefficient (R...

  20. Combinations of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors ablate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) mRNA induction. Evidence for selective destabilization of TNF-alpha transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutault, K; Hazzalin, C A; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-03-02

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.

  1. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma alter tight junction structure and function in the rat parotid gland Par-C10 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Redman, Robert S; Jones, Jonathan E; Seye, Cheikh I; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and dysfunction of salivary glands, resulting in impaired secretory function. The production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is elevated in exocrine glands of patients with SS, although little is known about the effects of these cytokines on salivary epithelial cell functions necessary for saliva secretion, including tight junction (TJ) integrity and the establishment of transepithelial ion gradients. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure of polarized rat parotid gland (Par-C10) epithelial cell monolayers to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma decreases transepithelial resistance (TER) and anion secretion, as measured by changes in short-circuit current (I(sc)) induced by carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, or UTP, a P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor agonist. In contrast, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma had no effect on agonist-induced increases in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) in Par-C10 cells. Furthermore, treatment of Par-C10 cell monolayers with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma increased paracellular permeability to normally impermeant proteins, altered cell and TJ morphology, and downregulated the expression of the TJ protein, claudin-1, but not other TJ proteins expressed in Par-C10 cells. The decreases in TER, agonist-induced transepithelial anion secretion, and claudin-1 expression caused by TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, were reversible by incubation of Par-C10 cell monolayers with cytokine-free medium for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma causes irreversible inhibition of cellular activities associated with fluid secretion in salivary glands. Our results suggest that cytokine production is an important contributor to secretory dysfunction in SS by disrupting TJ integrity of salivary epithelium.

  2. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the rat cerebral cortex during postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2006-05-15

    Mild reduction in the protein content in the diet of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but results in significant changes of the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during postnatal life, together with impaired long-term potentiation and memory formation. Since some central noradrenergic receptors are critically involved in neuroplasticity, the present study evaluated, by utilizing immunohistochemical methods, the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the frontal and occipital cortices of 8- and 60-day-old rats. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a three-fold increase of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in both the frontal and the occipital cortices, as compared to well-nourished controls. At 60 days of age, prenatally malnourished rats showed normal expression levels scores of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor in the neocortex. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha 2C-adrenoceptors during early postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could in part be responsible for neural and behavioral disturbances showing prenatally malnourished animals during the postnatal life.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits insulin's stimulating effect on glucose uptake and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask-Madsen, Christian; Domínguez, Helena; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mechanisms could be involved in the pathogenesis of both insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we aimed at examining whether the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin....../or TNF-alpha were coinfused. During infusion of insulin alone for 20 minutes, forearm glucose uptake increased by 220+/-44%. This increase was completely inhibited during coinfusion of TNF-alpha (started 10 min before insulin) with a more pronounced inhibition of glucose extraction than of blood flow....... Furthermore, TNF-alpha inhibited the ACh forearm blood flow response (Palpha...

  4. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA III induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA III increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA III induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  5. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the quantification of human tumour necrosis factor-alpha using 4 polyclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebenchtchikov, N.J.; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. van der; Pesman, G.J.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the availability of many assays to measure concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in body fluids, these assays often lack specificity or sensitivity and are often of questionable reliability, resulting in inconsistent results. Therefore, we have developed an ELISA that is

  6. The role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha in perfluorooctanoic acid- and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid-induced hepatocellular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, Kevin M., E-mail: kbeggs2@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4052 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McGreal, Steven R., E-mail: smcgreal@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4052 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McCarthy, Alex [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4052 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gunewardena, Sumedha, E-mail: sgunewardena@kumc.edu [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 2027 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Lampe, Jed N., E-mail: jlampe@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4052 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Lau, Christoper, E-mail: lau.christopher@epa.gov [Developmental Toxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Apte, Udayan, E-mail: uapte@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4052 HLSIC, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), chemicals present in a multitude of consumer products, are persistent organic pollutants. Both compounds induce hepatotoxic effects in rodents, including steatosis, hepatomegaly and liver cancer. The mechanisms of PFOA- and PFOS-induced hepatic dysfunction are not completely understood. We present evidence that PFOA and PFOS induce their hepatic effects via targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α). Human hepatocytes treated with PFOA and PFOS at a concentration relevant to occupational exposure caused a decrease in HNF4α protein without affecting HNF4α mRNA or causing cell death. RNA sequencing analysis combined with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of global gene expression changes in human hepatocytes treated with PFOA or PFOS indicated alterations in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis, several of which are regulated by HNF4α. Further investigation of specific HNF4α target gene expression revealed that PFOA and PFOS could promote cellular dedifferentiation and increase cell proliferation by down regulating positive targets (differentiation genes such as CYP7A1) and inducing negative targets of HNF4α (pro-mitogenic genes such as CCND1). Furthermore, in silico docking simulations indicated that PFOA and PFOS could directly interact with HNF4α in a similar manner to endogenous fatty acids. Collectively, these results highlight HNF4α degradation as novel mechanism of PFOA and PFOS-mediated steatosis and tumorigenesis in human livers. - Highlights: • PFOA and PFOS cause decreased HNF4α protein expression in human hepatocytes. • PFOA and PFOS promote changes associated with lipid metabolism and carcinogenesis. • PFOA and PFOS induced changes in gene expression associated with cellular dedifferentiation. • PFOA and PFOS induce expression of Nanog, a transcription factor involved in stem cell development.

  7. Free hemoglobin enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in isolated human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Eddy H; Gordon, Laura E; Richardson, J David; Polk, Hiram C

    2002-03-01

    A systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is seen in approximately 75% of patients with complex blunt liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Many feel this response is caused by blood, bile, and necrotic tissue accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. Our current treatment for these patients is a delayed laparoscopic washout of the peritoneal cavity, resulting in a dramatic resolution of the SIR. Spectrophotometric analysis of the intraperitoneal fluid has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of free hemoglobin (Hb). We hypothesize that free Hb enhances the local peritoneal response by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by monocytes, contributing to the local inflammatory response and SIR. Monocytes from five healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in RPMI-1640 for 24 hours. Treatment groups included saline controls, lipopolysaccharide ([LPS], 10 ng/mL, from Escherichia coli), human Hb (25 microg/mL), and Hb + LPS. Supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test with Mann-Whitney posttest was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 considered significant. Free Hb significantly increased TNF-alpha production 915 +/- 223 pg/mL versus saline (p = 0.02). LPS and Hb + LPS further increased TNF-alpha production (2294 pg/mL and 2501 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.001) compared with saline controls. These data confirm that free Hb is a proinflammatory mediator resulting in the production of significant amounts of TNF-alpha. These in vitro findings support our clinical data in which timely removal of intraperitoneal free hemoglobin helps prevent its deleterious local and systemic inflammatory effects in patients with complex liver injuries managed nonoperatively.

  8. Propagated but Topologically Distributed Forebrain Neurons Expressing Alpha-Synuclein in Aged Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuo Kimura

    Full Text Available In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, alpha-synuclein (α-syn accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB. This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed. In the nigrostriatal or mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the age-dependent increase in α-syn-positive neurons was evident in the striatum or the nucleus accumbens, respectively. Concerning the nigrostriatal pathway, a mediolateral or rostrocaudal gradient was seen in the substantia nigra or the striatum, respectively, and a compensatory increase in dopamine transporter occurred in the striatum regardless of the decreased dopamine level. In the mesocortical dopamine pathway, α-syn-positive neurons appeared in the prefrontal and then motor areas of the frontal lobe. Given that neither LB formation nor clinical phenotype manifestation was detected in any of the monkeys examined in the present study, aged macaques may be useful as a potential presymptomatic model for PD and LB-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Combination of interferon-alpha and 5-fluorouracil inhibits endothelial cell growth directly and by regulation of angiogenic factors released by tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hiroshi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Umeshita, Koji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Noda, Takehiro; Murakami, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Takeda, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    The combination therapy of interferon (IFN)-alpha and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) improved the prognosis of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To determine the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects, we examined the direct anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and indirect effects by regulating secretion of angiogenic factors from HCC cells. The direct effects on HUVEC were examined by TUNEL, Annexin-V assays and cell cycles analysis. For analysis of the indirect effects, the apoptosis induced by the conditioned medium from HCC cell treated by IFN-alpha/5-FU and expression of angiogenic factors was examined. IFN-alpha and 5-FU alone had anti-proliferative properties on HUVEC and their combination significantly inhibited the growth (compared with control, 5-FU or IFN alone). TUNEL and Annexin-V assays showed no apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that IFN-alpha and 5-FU delayed cell cycle progression in HUVEC with S-phase accumulation. The conditioned medium from HuH-7 cells after treatment with IFN/5-FU significantly inhibited HUVEC growth and induced apoptosis, and contained high levels of angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ang-2. Knockdown of Ang-1 in HuH-7 cells abrogated the anti-proliferative effects on HUVEC while knockdown of Ang-2 partially rescue the cells. These results suggested that IFN-alpha and 5-FU had direct growth inhibitory effects on endothelial cells, as well as anti-angiogenic effects through regulation of angiogenic factors released from HCC cells. Modulation of VEGF and Angs secretion by IFN-alpha and 5-FU may contribute to their anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects on HCC

  10. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  11. Tamoxifen induces the expression of maspin through estrogen receptor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zesheng; Shi, Heidi Y; Nawaz, Zafar; Zhang, Ming

    2004-06-08

    Maspin (mammary serine protease inhibitor) is a tumor suppressor gene that plays an important role in inhibiting tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Maspin expression is down regulated at transcription level in primary and metastatic breast tumor cells. Previous studies on hormonal regulation of maspin prompt us to test whether an estrogen antagonist tamoxifen (TAM) can exert its anti-tumor function by up regulating maspin gene expression. For this purpose, we first tested whether maspin promoter could be activated in normal and several breast tumor cells. We then carried out a series of promoter analysis in which estrogen receptors and TAM were reconstituted in an in vitro cell culture system. Here we report our new finding that tumor suppresser gene maspin is one of the TAM target genes. TAM induces a maspin/luciferase reporter in cell culture and this induction requires the presence of (estrogen receptor alpha) ERalpha but not estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta). Maspin promoter deletion and mutation analysis showed that the cis element(s) within a region between -90and+87 bp but not the HRE site (-272 bp) was involved in TAM induction of maspin expression. TAM bound ERalpha may directly control maspin gene expression through the interaction with cofactor (s). Analysis using several ERalpha mutants showed that the N-terminal A/B motif (AF-1) was critical for maspin basal level transcription activation. An ERalpha mutant with point mutations at DNA binding domain abolished estrogen induction of an ERE-luciferase reporter but was still active in activating maspin promoter by TAM. LBD-AF2 domain was required for ERalpha-dependent TAM induction. Deletion of LBD-AF2 or a point mutation in the ERalpha LBD-AF2 region (LBDmtL539A) completely abolished the activation of maspin promoter, suggesting that TAM induction of maspin involves the recruitment of cofactor(s) by ERalpha to the maspin promoter region. This finding indicates that one of the pathways for cancer

  12. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jamalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and serum amyloid A (SAA in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Male patients (n=80 were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Specific inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha activation and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Yuki; Egawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Yoko; Kunimoto, Setsuko; Hirai, Yasuaki; Ida, Yoshiteru; Nose, Kiyoshi

    2003-10-01

    Screening using a reporter under the control of the hypoxia-response element (HRE) identified several flavonoids and homoisoflavonoids that inhibit the activation of HRE under hypoxic conditions. Among various compounds, isorhamnetin, luteolin, quercetin, and methyl ophiopogonanone B (MOB) were effective at 3 to 9 microg/ml in inhibiting the reporter activity. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA during hypoxia was also inhibited by MOB in HepG2 cells, but the effective doses were 10 to 20 microg/ml. MOB caused destabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, as revealed by Western blotting, that was dependent on proteasome activity and the tumor suppressor, p53. The tubular formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was also inhibited by MOB. MOB is expected to act as an inhibitor of angiogenesis.

  14. Interferon-alpha suppressed granulocyte colony stimulating factor production is reversed by CL097, a TLR7/8 agonist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tajuddin, Tariq

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Neutropenia, a major side-effect of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can be effectively treated by the recombinant form of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), an important growth factor for neutrophils. We hypothesized that IFN-alpha might suppress G-CSF production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), contributing to the development of neutropenia, and that a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist might overcome this suppression. METHODS: Fifty-five patients who were receiving IFN-alpha\\/ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were recruited. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), monocyte counts and treatment outcome data were recorded. G-CSF levels in the supernatants of PBMCs isolated from the patients and healthy controls were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following 18 h of culture in the absence or presence of IFN- alpha or the TLR7\\/8 agonist, CL097. RESULTS: Therapeutic IFN-alpha caused a significant reduction in neutrophil counts in all patients, with 15 patients requiring therapeutic G-CSF. The reduction in ANC over the course of IFN-alpha treatment was paralleled by a decrease in the ability of PBMCs to produce G-CSF. In vitro G-CSF production by PBMCs was suppressed in the presence of IFN-alpha; however, co-incubation with a TLR7\\/8 agonist significantly enhanced G-CSF secretion by cells obtained both from HCV patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Suppressed G-CSF production in the presence of IFN-alpha may contribute to IFN-alpha-induced neutropenia. However, a TLR7\\/8 agonist elicits G-CSF secretion even in the presence of IFN-alpha, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for TLR agonists in treatment of IFN-alpha-induced neutropenia.

  15. Analysis of the local kinetics and localization of interleukin-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta, during the course of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pando, R; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Sampieri, A; Larriva-Sahd, J; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    A mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis induced by the intratracheal instillation of live and virulent mycobacteria strain H37-Rv was used to examine the relationship of the histopathological findings with the local kinetics production and cellular distribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The histopathological and immunological studies showed two phases of the disease: acute or early and chronic or advanced. The acute phase was characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the alveolar-capillary interstitium, blood vessels and bronchial wall with formation of granulomas. During this acute phase, which lasted from 1 to 28 days, high percentages of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha immunostained activated macrophages were observed principally in the interstium-intralveolar inflammatory infiltrate and in granulomas. Electron microscopy studies of these cells, showed extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, numerous lysosomes and occasional mycobacteria. Double labelling with colloid gold showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha were present in the same cells, but were confined to separate vacuoles near the Golgi area, and mixed in larger vacuoles near to cell membrane. The concentration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha as well as their respective mRNAs were elevated in the early phase, particularly at day 3 when the bacillary count decreased. A second peak was seen at days 14 and 21-28 when granulomas appeared and evolved to full maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta production and numbers of immunoreactive cells were low in comparison with the advanced phase of the disease. The chronic phase was characterized by histopathological changes indicative of more severity (i.e. pneumonia, focal necrosis and extensive interstitial fibrosis) with a decrease in the TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha production that coincided with the highest level of TGF-beta. The bacillary counts were highest as the macrophages

  16. Oral clefts, tranforming growth factor alpha gene variants, and maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Olsen, Jørn; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    1999-01-01

    Studies in the United States have indicated that maternal first trimester smoking and infant transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus mutations are associated with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and that a synergistic effect of these two risk factors occurs. Based on a Danish case-control......, and no synergistic effect with smoking was observed. The "rare" TGFA allele occurred in 25% of both cases and controls compared with an average of 14% in other white control groups. Furthermore, the frequency of CLP in Scandinavia is among the highest in the world. Hence, it is possible that the previously reported...

  17. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    challenged with phenylephrine (EC(50)=1.61x10(-8) M). From Schild analysis, prazosin, sertindole, risperidone, and haloperidol caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of the cumulative concentration-response curves for phenylephrine in cells expressing human recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...... for human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors compared to haloperidol. These findings are consistent with the observation that risperidone and sertindole have a higher incidence of orthostatic hypotension than haloperidol....

  18. Clinical Significance and Expression of PAF and TNF-alpha in Seminal Plasma of Leukocytospermic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Discuss the changes and roles of PAF in the reproductive tract infection by observing the expression of platelet activating factor (PAF and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in seminal plasma of patients with leukocytospermia. Methods. The seminal plasma was obtained from 22 cases of leukocytospermia and 15 cases of normal males; the peroxidase dyeing method was adopted for seminal plasma white blood count; the ELISA was adopted to test PAF and TNF-α concentration in seminal plasma. Result. PAF concentration ( ng/mL of leukocytospermia group was significantly lower than the normal group ( ng/mL, while TNF-α ( ng/mL was significantly higher than that of normal group ( ng/mL. There was negative correlation between PAF and TNF-α , (, ; the same situation existed in PAF and WBC (, ; but TNF-α was positively correlated to WBC (, . Conclusion. (1 Low expression of PAF and high expression of TNF-α in leukocytospermia affect the sperm motility, which is one of the reasons that leads to infertility. (2 Lower expression of PAF has its particularity during the reproductive tract infection.

  19. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor by HEXIM1 attenuates myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Osamu; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2014-10-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) sustains elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and ultimately leads to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure and death. Recently, proangiogenic factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been known to promote left ventricular myocardial angiogenesis and lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and this would be involved in RV hypertrophy of PH patients. Previously, we revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevents endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and hypertrophic genes expression, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice ameliorates RV hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced PH model. Given these results, here we analyzed the effect of HEXIM1 on the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and on myocardial angiogenesis of RV in PH. We revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α protein and its target genes including VEGF in the cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice repressed RV myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxia-induced PH model. Thus, we conclude that HEXIM1 could prevent RV hypertrophy, at least in part, via suppression of myocardial angiogenesis through down-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF in the myocardium under hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin by squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas: possible relation to invasive potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, K; Dahlstrøm, K K; Mercurio, A M

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the expression of alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, a carcinoma laminin receptor in ten squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and ten basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin in order to examine whether changes in alpha 6 beta 4 integrin expression may be related to invasive and metastatic...... potential. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each subunit were applied on cryosections, using a three step indirect peroxidase technique. In normal epidermis the basal cells expressed both the alpha 6 and the beta 4 subunits, and the expression was polarized against the basement membrane. In SCCs...

  1. Hepatic gene expression profiling using GeneChips in zebrafish exposed to 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.L.; Thomason, R.G.; Lee, D.M.; Brill, J.L.; Price, B.B.; Carr, G.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Versteeg, D.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States)], E-mail: versteeg.dj@pg.com

    2008-04-28

    Concentration and time-dependent changes in hepatic gene expression were examined in adult, female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L of a model androgen, 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT). At 24 and 168 h, fish were sacrificed and liver was extracted for gene expression analysis using custom Affymetrix GeneChip Zebrafish Genome Microarrays. In an effort to link gene expression changes to higher levels of biological organization, blood was collected for measurement of plasma steroid hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T)) and vitellogenin (VTG) using ELISA. Body and ovary weight were also measured. A significant reduction in E2 occurred at 24 h (0.7 and 4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) following MDHT exposure. In contrast, T was significantly increased at 24 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L). 171 and 575 genes were significantly affected in a concentration-dependent manner at either 24 or 168 h by MDHT exposure at p {<=} 0.001 and p {<=} 0.01, respectively. Genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase 8, member A1; retinol dehydrogenase 12), steroid biosynthesis and metabolism (e.g. hydroxysteroid (11{beta}) dehydrogenase 2; hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta-), hormone transport (e.g. sex hormone binding globulin), and regulation of cell growth and proliferation (e.g. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1; spermidinespermine N(1)-acetyltransferase) were affected by MDHT exposure. In this study, we identified genes involved in a variety of biological processes that have the potential to be used as markers of exposure to androgenic substances. Genes identified in this study provide information on the potential mode of action of strong androgens in female fish. In addition, when used for screening of EDC's, these genes may also serve as sensitive markers of exposure to androgenic compounds.

  2. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Dussaud, Sébastien; Billestrup, Nils; Madsen, Ole D; Serup, Palle; Heimberg, Harry; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2009-08-07

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell mass and curing diabetes in animals that have been chemically depleted of beta cells.

  3. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R. [CA Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  4. Thioesterase activity and acyl-CoA/fatty acid cross-talk of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rachel; Kalderon, Bella; Byk, Tamara; Berman, Ina; Za'tara, Ghadeer; Mayer, Raphael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2005-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to catalyze the hydrolysis of bound fatty acyl-CoAs. The free acid pocket, previously reported in the x-ray structure of HNF-4alpha E-domain, entraps fatty acids but excludes acyl-CoAs. The acyl-CoA and free acid sites are distinctive and noncongruent. Free fatty acid products of HNF-4alpha thioesterase may exchange with free acids entrapped in the fatty acid pocket of HNF-4alpha. Cross-talk between the acyl-CoA and free fatty acid binding sites is abrogated by high affinity, nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA ligands of HNF-4alpha that inhibit its thioesterase activity. Hence, HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity is controlled by its two interrelated acyl ligands and two binding sites interphased in tandem by the thioesterase activity. The acyl-CoA/free-acid and receptor/enzyme duality of HNF-4alpha extends the paradigm of nuclear receptors.

  5. Individualized monitoring of drug bioavailability and immunogenicity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with the tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Geborek, Pierre; Svenson, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Infliximab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) antibody, is effective in the treatment of several immunoinflammatory diseases. However, many patients experience primary or secondary response failure, suggesting that individualization of treatment regimens may be beneficial...

  6. Generation of tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-specific affibody molecules capable of blocking receptor binding in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Wållberg, Helena; Herne, Nina; Ståhl, Stefan; Frejd, Fredrik Y

    2009-08-17

    Affibody molecules specific for human TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) were selected by phage-display technology from a library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. TNF-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several inflammatory diseases and, to this day, four TNF-alpha-blocking protein pharmaceuticals have been approved for clinical use. The phage selection generated 18 unique cysteine-free affibody sequences of which 12 were chosen, after sequence cluster analysis, for characterization as proteins. Biosensor binding studies of the 12 Escherichia coli-produced and IMAC (immobilized-metal-ion affinity chromatography)-purified affibody molecules revealed three variants that demonstrated the strongest binding to human TNF-alpha. These three affibody molecules were subjected to kinetic binding analysis and also tested for their binding to mouse, rat and pig TNF-alpha. For ZTNF-alpha:185, subnanomolar affinity (KD=0.1-0.5 nM) for human TNF-alpha was demonstrated, as well as significant binding to TNF-alpha from the other species. Furthermore, the binding site was found to overlap with the binding site for the TNF-alpha receptor, since this interaction could be efficiently blocked by the ZTNF-alpha:185 affibody. When investigating six dimeric affibody constructs with different linker lengths, and one trimeric construct, it was found that the inhibition of the TNF-alpha binding to its receptor could be further improved by using dimers with extended linkers and/or a trimeric affibody construct. The potential implication of the results for the future design of affibody-based reagents for the diagnosis of inflammation is discussed.

  7. Eosinophils from patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus express high level of myeloid alpha-defensins and myeloperoxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuwirth, Aleš; Dobeš, Jan; Oujezdská, Jana; Ballek, Ondřej; Benešová, Martina; Sumnik, Z.; Včeláková, J.; Koloušková, S.; Obermannová, B.; Kolář, Michal; Štechová, K.; Filipp, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 273, č. 2 (2012), s. 158-163 ISSN 0008-8749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : type 1 diabetes * alpha-defensin * myeloperoxidase * granulocyte * eosinophil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2012

  8. Progestin and thrombin regulate tissue factor expression in human term decidual cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, C J; Murk, W; Kayisli, U A; Buchwalder, L F; Huang, S-T; Funai, E F; Krikun, G; Schatz, F

    2009-06-01

    Perivascular cell membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) initiates hemostasis via thrombin generation. The identity and potential regulation of TF-expressing cells at the human maternal-fetal interface that confers hemostatic protection during normal and preterm delivery is unclear. The objective of the study were to identify TF-expressing cells at the maternal-fetal interface in term and preterm decidual sections by immunohistochemistry and evaluate progestin, thrombin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta effects on TF expression by cultured human term decidual cells (DCs). Serial placental sections were immunostained for TF. Leukocyte-free term DC monolayers were incubated with 10(-8) M estradiol (E2) or E2 plus 10(-7) M medroxyprogestrone acetate (MPA) +/- thrombin or TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. ELISA and Western blotting assessed TF in cell lysates. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR measured TF mRNA levels. Immunolocalized TF in DC membranes in preterm and term placental sections displayed higher Histologic Scores than villous mesenchymal cells (P term placental sections, DC-expressed TF exceeds that of other cell types at the maternal-fetal interface and is localized at the cell membranes in which it can bind to factor VII and meet the hemostatic demands of labor and delivery via thrombin formation. Unlike the general concept that TF is constitutive in cells that highly express it, MPA and thrombin significantly enhanced TF expression in term DC monolayers.

  9. Frequency of alpha- and beta-haemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus of bovine and human origin - A comparison between pheno- and genotype and variation in phenotypic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H.D.; Eriksen, N.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The phenotypic expression of haemolysins and the presence of genes encoding alpha and beta-haemolysin were determined in 105 Sraphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis, 100 isolates from the nostrils of healthy humans, and 60 isolates from septicaemia in humans. Furthermore, the possible...... change in expression of haemolysins after subcultivation in human and bovine blood and milk was studied in selected isolates. alpha-haemolysin was expressed phenotypically in 39 (37%) of the bovine isolates, in 59 (59%) of the human carrier isolates, and in 40 (67%) of the isolates from septicaemia. beta......-haemolysin was expressed in 76 (72%) bovine, 11 (11%) carrier, and 8 (13%) septicaemia isolates. Significantly more bovine than human isolates expressed beta-haemolysin and significantly fewer expressed alpha-haemolysin. Genotypically, the gene encoding alpha-haemolysin was detected in all isolates. A significant...

  10. Using different drift gases to change separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury; Hill

    2000-02-01

    The use of different drift gases to alter separation factors (alpha) in ion mobility spectrometry has been demonstrated. The mobility of a series of low molecular weight compounds and three small peptides was determined in four different drift gases. The drift gases chosen were helium, argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These drift gases provide a range of polarizabilities and molecular weights. In all instances, the compounds showed the greatest mobility in helium and the lowest mobility in carbon dioxide; however the percentage change of mobility for each compound was different, effectively changing the alpha value. The alpha value changes were primarily due to differences in drift gas polarizability but were also influenced by the mass of the drift gas. In addition, gas-phase ion radii were calculated in each of the different drift gases. These radii were then plotted against drift gas polarizability producing linear plots with r2 values greater than 0.99. The intercept of these plots provides the gas-phase radius of an ion in a nonpolarizing environment, whereas the slope is indicative of the magnitude of the ion's mobility change related to polarizability. It therefore, should be possible to separate any two compounds that have different slopes with the appropriate drift gas.

  11. Expression and role of fibroblast activation protein-alpha in microinvasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS in breast cancer cases is challenging for pathologist due to a variety of in situ patterns and artefacts, which could be misinterpreted as stromal invasion. Microinvasion is detected by the presence of cytologically malignant cells outside the confines of the basement membrane and myoepithelium. When malignant cells invade the stroma, there is tissue remodeling induced by perturbed stromal-epithelial interactions. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are main cells in the microenvironment of the remodeled tumor-host interface. They are characterized by the expression of the specific fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-α, and differ from that of normal fibroblasts exhibiting an immunophenotype of CD34. We hypothesized that staining for FAP-α may be helpful in determining whether DCIS has microinvasion. Methods 349 excised breast specimens were immunostained for smooth muscle actin SMA, CD34, FAP-α, and Calponin. Study material was divided into 5 groups: group 1: normal mammary tissues of healthy women after plastic surgery; group 2: usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH; group 3: DCIS without microinvasion on H & E stain; group 4: DCIS with microinvasion on H & E stain (DCIS-MI, and group 5: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. A comparative evaluation of the four immunostains was conducted. Results Our results demonstrated that using FAP-α and Calponin adjunctively improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS-MI by 11.29%, whereas the adjunctive use of FAP-α and Calponin improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS by 13.6%. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that immunostaining with FAP-α and Calponin can serve as a novel marker for pathologically diagnosing whether DCIS has microinvasion.

  12. Development of a mouse-feline chimeric antibody against feline tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOKI, Tomoyoshi; TAKANO, Tomomi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2–4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2–4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2–4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2–4 to the constant region of feline antibody. The chimeric mAb 2–4 was confirmed to have fTNF-alpha neutralization activity. Purified mouse mAb 2–4 and chimeric mAb 2–4 were repeatedly administered to cats, and the changes in the ability to induce feline anti-mouse antibody response were investigated. In the serum of cats treated with mouse mAb 2–4, feline anti-mouse antibody production was induced, and the fTNF-alpha neutralization effect of mouse mAb 2–4 was reduced. In contrast, in cats treated with chimeric mAb 2–4, the feline anti-mouse antibody response was decreased compared to that of mouse mAb 2–4-treated cats. PMID:27264736

  13. MicroRNA-212 post-transcriptionally regulates oocyte-specific basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor, factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA, during bovine early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy K Tripurani

    Full Text Available Factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA is an oocyte-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for primordial follicle formation and expression of many genes required for folliculogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic survival. Here we report the characterization of bovine FIGLA gene and its regulation during early embryogenesis. Bovine FIGLA mRNA expression is restricted to gonads and is detected in fetal ovaries harvested as early as 90 days of gestation. FIGLA mRNA and protein are abundant in germinal vesicle and metaphase II stage oocytes, as well as in embryos from pronuclear to eight-cell stage but barely detectable at morula and blastocyst stages, suggesting that FIGLA might be a maternal effect gene. Recent studies in zebrafish and mice have highlighted the importance of non-coding small RNAs (microRNAs as key regulatory molecules targeting maternal mRNAs for degradation during embryonic development. We hypothesized that FIGLA, as a maternal transcript, is regulated by microRNAs during early embryogenesis. Computational predictions identified a potential microRNA recognition element (MRE for miR-212 in the 3' UTR of the bovine FIGLA mRNA. Bovine miR-212 is expressed in oocytes and tends to increase in four-cell and eight-cell stage embryos followed by a decline at morula and blastocyst stages. Transient transfection and reporter assays revealed that miR-212 represses the expression of FIGLA in a MRE dependent manner. In addition, ectopic expression of miR-212 mimic in bovine early embryos dramatically reduced the expression of FIGLA protein. Collectively, our results demonstrate that FIGLA is temporally regulated during bovine early embryogenesis and miR-212 is an important negative regulator of FIGLA during the maternal to zygotic transition in bovine embryos.

  14. Induced expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and IFN-gamma in immunologically activated rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by dexamethasone and cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Coleman, J W

    1995-10-01

    We examined the capacity of purified rat peritoneal connective tissue-type mast cells (PMC) to express mRNA for several cytokines. Stimulation of PMC with anti-IgE for 4 hr induced the expression of mRNA encoding interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Unstimulated PMC expressed detectable mRNA for TNF-alpha but not for the other four cytokines. Incubation of PMC with cyclosporin A (CsA) or dexamethasone (DEX), each at 10(-6) M for 24 hr, significantly inhibited the induced expression of mRNA for each of the five cytokines, and also inhibited release of biologically active TNF-alpha. Throughout these experiments mRNA levels of the housekeeping gene G3PDH were not altered by stimulation with anti-IgE or incubation with CsA or DEX. We conclude that immunological activation of rat PMC induces gene expression of several cytokines and that expression of these genes can be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs.

  15. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha impairs neuronal differentiation but not proliferation of hippocampal neural precursor cells: Role of Hes1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Aoife; Ryan, Sinead; Maloney, Eimer; Sullivan, Aideen M; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere cultures, nor did it affect cell fate towards either an astrocytic or neuronal lineage when cells were then allowed to differentiate. However, when cells were differentiated in the presence of TNFalpha, significantly reduced percentages of newly born and post-mitotic neurons, significantly increased percentages of astrocytes and increased expression of TNFalpha receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, as well as expression of the anti-neurogenic Hes1 gene, were observed. These data indicate that exposure of hippocampal NPCs to TNFalpha when they are undergoing differentiation but not proliferation has a detrimental effect on their neuronal lineage fate, which may be mediated through increased expression of Hes1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the primary interaction between the mating pheromone, alpha-factor, and its receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raths, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Alpha-factor is a peptide of thirteen amino acids which is required for mating between the haploid mating types, a and α, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An analogue of alpha-factor, DHP 8 DHP 11 Nle 12 tridecapeptide, was catalytically reduced in the presence of 3 H gas for production of a radiolabeled pheromone suitable for use in binding studies. Incorporation of tritium resulted in 3 H-alpha-factor with high specific activity, purity, biological activity and long shelf-life. Binding studies revealed that alpha-factor interacts with its receptor via a simple, reversible process which obeys the law of mass action. Association and dissociation kinetics indicate values of 2.92 x 10 6 M/sup /minus/1/ min -1 for k 1 and between 4 and 7 x 10/sup /minus/2/ min/sup /minus/1/ for k/sub /minus/1/. Saturation binding studies reveal an equilibrium dissociation constant equal to 2.32 x 10/sup /minus/8/ M which approximate the kinetically-derived K/sub D/ of 2.12 x 10/sup /minus/8/ M. Scatchard and Hill analyses as well as dissociation behavior in the presence of excess unlabeled ligand indicate alpha-factor interacts with a homogeneous population of binding sites which do not interact and exhibit one affinity for the alpha-factor pheromone

  17. [Cardiovascular exercise on obese women: effects on adiponectine, leptine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros-Olvera, Erick; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther; Lavalle-González, Fernando; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Salazar González, Bertha Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of hormones adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipose tissue on the atherogenic process is one of the most promising models in preventive medicine. The numerous tests performed to identify the effect of exercise on these hormones have not been clear on the type of exercise routine and physical effort calculated to contribute to changing plasma concentrations in obese women. Analyze controlledcardiovascular exercise effect on serum level of adiponectin, leptin, and tumournecrosis factor-alpha in obese young women. A simple blind clinical essay. The intervention covered a 10-week controlled, cardiovascular exercise program by 34 women (cases n=17, controls n=17) with a body mass index>27kg/m(2). Molecular analysis was performed by immune-fluorescence. Following the intervention, cases and controls means were as follows: adiponectin 19.0 vs. 12.2μ/ml (P=.008); leptin 20.0 vs. 28.0μ/L (P=.02); and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 4.7 vs. 5.1pg/ml (P=.05). The established exercise (5 sessions a week of exercise of 40min each for 10 weeks with a heart rate reserve of 40 to 80%) improved plasma concentrations of these hormones in the expected direction. This finding highlights an unpublished amount of exercise, controlled by the reserve cardiac frequency that might contribute the cardiovascular and metabolic protection to obese women. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. A network of hydrophobic residues impeding helix alphaC rotation maintains latency of kinase Gcn2, which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárriz, Andrés; Qiu, Hongfang; Dey, Madhusudan; Seo, Eun-Joo; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2009-03-01

    Kinase Gcn2 is activated by amino acid starvation and downregulates translation initiation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). The Gcn2 kinase domain (KD) is inert and must be activated by tRNA binding to the adjacent regulatory domain. Previous work indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2 latency results from inflexibility of the hinge connecting the N and C lobes and a partially obstructed ATP-binding site in the KD. Here, we provide strong evidence that a network of hydrophobic interactions centered on Leu-856 also promotes latency by constraining helix alphaC rotation in the KD in a manner relieved during amino acid starvation by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation of Thr-882 in the activation loop. Thus, we show that mutationally disrupting the hydrophobic network in various ways constitutively activates eIF2alpha phosphorylation in vivo and bypasses the requirement for a key tRNA binding motif (m2) and Thr-882 in Gcn2. In particular, replacing Leu-856 with any nonhydrophobic residue activates Gcn2, while substitutions with various hydrophobic residues maintain kinase latency. We further provide strong evidence that parallel, back-to-back dimerization of the KD is a step on the Gcn2 activation pathway promoted by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation. Remarkably, mutations that disrupt the L856 hydrophobic network or enhance hinge flexibility eliminate the need for the conserved salt bridge at the parallel dimer interface, implying that KD dimerization facilitates the reorientation of alphaC and remodeling of the active site for enhanced ATP binding and catalysis. We propose that hinge remodeling, parallel dimerization, and reorientation of alphaC are mutually reinforcing conformational transitions stimulated by tRNA binding and secured by the ensuing autophosphorylation of T882 for stable kinase activation.

  19. Regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) by dynamic lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Magnus E; Małecki, Jędrzej; Falnes, Pål Ø

    2018-01-01

    Lysine methylation is a frequent post-translational protein modification, which has been intensively studied in the case of histone proteins. Lysine methylations are also found on many non-histone proteins, and one prominent example is eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A). Besides its...... essential role in the protein synthesis machinery, a number of non-canonical functions have also been described for eEF1A, such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the promotion of viral replication. The functional significance of the extensive lysine methylations on eEF1A, as well as the identity...

  20. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  1. Critical roles of mucin-1 in sensitivity of lung cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menglin; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Mucins are glycoproteins with high molecular weight, responsible for cell growth, differentiation, and signaling, and were proposed to be correlated with gene heterogeneity of lung cancer. Here, we report aberrant expression of mucin genes and tumor necrosis factor receptors in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with normal tissues in GEO datasets. Mucin-1 (MUC1) gene was selected and considered as the target gene; furthermore, the expression pattern of adenocarcinomic cells (A549, H1650, or H1299 cells) was validated under the stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) or dexamethasone (DEX), separately. MUC1 gene interference was done to A549 cells to show its role in sensitivity of lung cancer cells to TNFα and DEX. Results of our experiments indicate that MUC1 may regulate the influence of inflammatory mediators in effects of glucocorticoids (GCs), as a regulatory target to improve therapeutics. It shows the potential effect of MUC1 and GCs in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), which may help in LADC treatment in the future.

  2. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  3. Lateralisation effect in comprehension of emotional facial expression: a comparison between EEG alpha band power and behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Asymmetry in comprehension of facial expression of emotions was explored in the present study by analysing alpha band variation within the right and left cortical sides. Second, the behavioural activation system (BAS) and behavioural inhibition system (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of a motivational/emotional variable on alpha activity. A total of 19 participants looked at an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) in random order. The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and parietal sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right and left side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right frontal activity for negative, aversive emotions vs an increased left response for positive emotion. Finally, whereas higher BIS participants generated more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, surprise, and disgust), BAS participants were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Motivational significance of facial expressions was considered to elucidate cortical differences in participants' responses to emotional types.

  4. [Cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchang; Du, Shunda; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Chi, Tianyi; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Mao, Yilei

    2014-11-18

    To systemically explore the cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells with bioinformatics tools. Published microarray dataset of TNF-α-induced HepG2, human transcription factor database HTRI and human protein-protein interaction database HPRD were used to construct and analyze the signal transduction network. In the signal transduction network, MYC and SP1 were the key nodes of signaling transduction. Several genes from the network were closely related with cellular adhesion.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a possible key gene of effectively regulating cellular adhesion during the induction of TNF-α. EGFR is a possible key gene for TNF-α-induced metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  6. Polymorphisms in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha gene in Mexican patients with preeclampsia: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava-Salazar Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, recent work suggests that changes in circulating angiogenic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. In the trophoblast of women with preeclampsia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α is over-expressed, and induces the expression of non-angiogenic factors and inhibitors of trophoblast differentiation. This observation prompted the study of HIF-1α and its relation to preeclampsia. It has been described that the C1772T (P582S and G1790A (A588T polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene have significantly greater transcriptional activity, correlated with an increased expression of their proteins, than the wild-type sequence. In this work, we studied whether either or both HIF1A variants contribute to preeclampsia susceptibility. Results Genomic DNA was isolated from 150 preeclamptic and 105 healthy pregnant women. Exon 12 of the HIF1A gene was amplified by PCR, and the genotypes of HIF1A were determined by DNA sequencing. In preeclamptic women and controls, the frequencies of the T allele for C1772T were 4.3 vs. 4.8%, and the frequencies of the A allele for G1790A were 0.0 vs. 0.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion The frequency of the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene is very low, and neither polymorphism is associated with the development of preeclampsia in the Mexican population.

  7. 17-AAG, a Hsp90 inhibitor, attenuates the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK in mouse RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Qing; Zhang, Xiao Mei; Wang, Xiao Dan; Wang, Bin Jie; Wang, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in response to hypoxia, and the effect of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, on the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK. RPE cells were cultured with 200 micromol/L cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) for different times (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h) to imitate chemical hypoxia. Pretreatment of 17-AAG was 1 h prior to hypoxic insult. Cellular viability after 17-AAG treatment was assessed by MTT assay, and the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Up-regulation of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in response to hypoxia was observed. One hour pretreatment of 17-AAG could remarkably decreased the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in vitro. Our results indicated that SDF-1alpha and ILK involved in the hypoxic response of RPE cells, and 1 h pretreatment of 17-AAG had an inhibitive effect on the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression.

  8. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  9. Human CRF{sub 2} {alpha} and {beta} splice variants: pharmacological characterization using radioligand binding and a luciferase gene expression assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardati, A. [Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Cardiovascular Biology, NW4, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA (United States); Goetschy, V.; Gottowick, J.; Henriot, S.; Deuschle, U.; Kilpatrick, G.J. [Central Nervous System, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland); Valdenaire, O. [Cardiovascular Research, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland)

    1999-03-14

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are classified into two subtypes (CRF{sub 1} and CRF{sub 2}). Both receptors are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase but they have a distinct pharmacology and distribution in brain. Two isoforms belonging to the CRF{sub 2} subtype receptors, CRF{sub 2{alpha}} and CRF{sub 2{beta}}, have been identified in rat and man. The neuropeptides CRF and urocortin mediate their actions through this CRF G protein-coupled receptor family. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characterization of the recently identified hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor. We have used radioligand binding with [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine and a gene expression assay in which the firefly luciferase gene expression is under the control of cAMP responsive elements. Association kinetics of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine binding to the hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor were monophasic while dissociation kinetics were biphasic, in agreement with the kinetics results obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed two affinity states in HEK 293 cells with binding parameters in accord with those determined kinetically and with parameters obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. A non-hydrolysable GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p, reduced the high affinity binding of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine to both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms in a similar manner. The rank order of potency of CRF agonist peptides in competition experiments was identical for both hCRF{sub 2}{alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)}oCRF). Similarly, agonist potency was similar for the two isoforms when studied using the luciferase gene reporter system. The peptide antagonist {alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)} exhibited a non-competitive antagonism of urocortin-stimulated luciferase expression with both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that the

  10. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF-alpha...... in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels...... of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period...

  11. Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogai, Yuichi; Matsuo, Miki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Kato, Fuminori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces many virulence factors, including toxins, immune-modulatory factors, and exoenzymes. Previous studies involving the analysis of virulence expression were mainly performed by in vitro experiments using bacterial medium. However, when S. aureus infects a host, the bacterial growth conditions are quite different from those in a medium, which may be related to the different expression of virulence factors in the host. In this study, we investigated the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus grown in calf serum. The expression of many virulence factors, including hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, and iron acquisition factors, was significantly increased compared with that in bacterial medium. In addition, the expression of RNA III, a global regulon for virulence expression, was significantly increased. This effect was partially restored by the addition of 300 μM FeCl₃ into serum, suggesting that iron depletion is associated with the increased expression of virulence factors in serum. In chemically defined medium without iron, a similar effect was observed. In a mutant with agr inactivated grown in serum, the expression of RNA III, psm, and sec4 was not increased, while other factors were still induced in the mutant, suggesting that another regulatory factor(s) is involved. In addition, we found that serum albumin is a major factor for the capture of free iron to prevent the supply of iron to bacteria grown in serum. These results indicate that S. aureus expresses virulence factors in adaptation to the host environment.

  12. Expression and kinetic properties of a recombinant 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzyme of human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyashiki, Y; Tamada, Y; Miyabe, Y; Nakanishi, M; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1995-08-01

    Human liver cytosol contains multiple forms of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and multiple cDNAs for the enzymes have been cloned from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand the relationship of the multiple enzyme froms to the genes, a cDNA, which has been reported to code for an isoenzyme of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme showed structural and functional properties almost identical to those of the isoenzyme purified from human liver. In addition, the recombinant isoenzyme efficiently reduced 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5 beta-dihydrocortisone, the known substrates of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and chlordecone reductase previously purified, which suggests that these human liver enzymes are identical. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic data for NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation by the recombinant isoenzyme were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first. Phenolphthalein inhibited this isoenzyme much more potently than it did the other human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, and was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 20 nM) that bound to the enzyme-NADP+ complex.

  13. Interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio is a predictive biomarker in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio in steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Reem M; Mahmoud, Mona F; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala M

    2008-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance (IR) as an investigative biomarker is only concerned with fatty liver that results from DM type 2 associated with metabolic syndrome. Irrespective of IR, DM is generally characterized by overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas action of the latter is modulated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using TNF-alpha alone or IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio compared to IR, as a promising biomarker for fatty liver assessment in DM. Furthermore, we hypothesized that using garlic as an immunomodulator may decrease TNF-alpha and increase IL-10 production to improve steatohepatitis. DM was induced metabolically by a high-fat diet to bring about IR, or chemically by alloxan, producing insulin deficiency, in male albino rats. Garlic powder was supplemented (15 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Fatty liver was depicted histologically and biochemically (aspartic aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, HOMA-IR, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio). We found that, in contrast to obese rats, garlic decreased IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio, despite decreasing TNF-alpha in alloxan diabetic rats in agreement with the histology, which revealed more prominent improvement in the obese group. Moreover, the effect of garlic was not linked to improvement of IR in obese rats. We conclude that IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio may be considered as a convenient biomarker for investigation of fatty liver of different grades, apart from being associated with IR, and immunomodulation of this ratio in favor of increasing it may exert significant improvement.

  14. Evaluation of angiopoietin 1 and 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Burcu Tahire; Ozbek, Ozlem Yilmaz; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is associated with structural changes termed airway remodeling. Recently, cytokines/mediators that augment inflammation have been attracting attention in this field. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha values, which have important roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, and remodeling in asthmatic children. We also documented correlations between demographic features, duration of asthma, and pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters. Randomly selected 40 children (20 male and 20 female children, aged 6-16 years) with mild or moderate persistent asthma and 32 healthy children (15 male and 17 female children, aged 6-16 years) enrolled in the study. All asthmatic children had been using inhaled corticosteroids at least for the last 3 months. Serum Ang-1 levels were significantly lower in asthmatic children than those in normal controls. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio was also significantly lower in asthmatic children compared with those in normal controls (p < 0.01). However, serum Ang-2, VEGF, and TNF-alpha levels were similar in the two groups. A significant positive correlation was found between VEGF and duration of asthma. No correlation between serum Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF values, and PFT parameters was obtained. On the other hand, significant negative correlation was detected between serum TNF-alpha and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We have shown that serum Ang-1 levels and Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio were significantly reduced and balance was toward Ang-2 in asthmatics children. This process may lead to inflammation, destabilization of blood vessels, and trigger remodeling.

  15. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eletxigerra, U. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Martinez-Perdiguero, J. [CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Merino, S. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Campuzano, S., E-mail: susanacr@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL{sup −1} (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL{sup −1} (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application.

  16. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletxigerra, U.; Martinez-Perdiguero, J.; Merino, S.; Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M.; Campuzano, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H 2 O 2 as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL −1 (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL −1 (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application

  17. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  18. MicroRNA-195 induced apoptosis in hypoxic chondrocytes by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, R; Zhao, A-Q; Zhao, Z-Q; Liu, W-L; Jian, D-M

    2015-02-01

    The chondrocytes, the resident cells of cartilage, are maintained and take effects in the whole life upon chronic hypoxic exposure, which hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) play pivotal roles in response to. Dysregulation of some microRNA (miRNAs) have also been identified to be involved in hypoxia-related physiologic and pathophysiologic responses in some tissues or cell lines. However, the mechanism of miRNAs reponse to hypoxia remain largely unknown in chondrocytes, including the microRNA-195 (miR-195). AIM To investigate the effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) on chondrocytes in physiologic environment. We compared the expression of miR-195 and HIF-1α mRNA on hypoxia with that on normoxia in ATDC 5 cells by qRT-PCR. Further experiments was performed to confirmed the relationships of miR-195 and HIF-1α by bioinformatics analysis and dual reporter gene assay. we also assessed the effect of miR-195 on apoptosis in hypoxic ATDC 5 cells by transfect with miR-195 mimics. It was found the downregulated miR-195 and upregulated HIF-1α were present in hypoxic ATDC 5 cells. miR-195 negatively regulated HIF-1α by targeting its 3'-untranslated region. Moreover, the founding indicated miR-195 greatly increased apoptosis and downregulated HIF-1α mRNA occurred simultaneously in hypoxic chondrocytes. We concluded that miR-195 induced apoptosis in hypoxic chondrocytes by directly targeting HIF-1α.

  19. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Helena; Storgaard, Heidi; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic...... glucose uptake remained unchanged as well. Beta-cell function tended to improve. CONCLUSION: Although short-term etanercept treatment had a significant beneficial effect on systemic inflammatory markers, no improvement of vascular or metabolic insulin sensitivity was observed....

  20. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  1. Secretion of mature mouse interleukin-2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: use of a general secretion vector containing promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, A; Bond, M W; Otsu, K; Arai, K; Arai, N

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a general expression vector which allows the synthesis and secretion of processed gene products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This vector contains yeast DNA, including the promoter of the mating pheromone (alpha-factor), its downstream leader sequence, and the TRP5 terminator. A cDNA [encoding mature mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2); Yokota et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82 (1984) 68-72] was fused immediately downstream to the alpha-factor leader sequence. The resulting recombinant plasmid directed the synthesis of mature mouse IL-2 in S. cerevisiae, with most of the T-cell growth-factor (TCGF) activity secreted into the culture fluid and extracellular space. TCGF activities in the cell extract, as well as in the culture fluid, increased in parallel with cell growth. Production of mature mouse IL-2 was inhibited by tunicamycin (TM), with precursor molecules accumulating in the cell extract. The precursor was processed accurately at the junction between the alpha-factor peptide leader sequence and the coding sequence downstream, yielding mature IL-2. The Mr of the secreted mouse IL-2 determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was 17 kDal, a value expected for the mature mouse IL-2 polypeptide based on the nucleotide (nt) sequence.

  2. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  3. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  4. Negative feedback regulation of human platelets via autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Havnen, O K; Heldin, C H; Holmsen, H

    1994-05-13

    Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in their alpha-granules which is released during platelet exocytosis. We show by immunoprecipitation and 125I-PDGF binding experiments that human platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, but not beta-receptors. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) was identified as a 170-kDa glycosylated protein-tyrosine kinase as found in other cell types. Stimulation of platelets with 0.1 unit/ml thrombin resulted in a significant increase (2-5-fold) of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha, as determined by immunoprecipitation with phosphotyrosine antiserum as well as with PDGFR-alpha antiserum. The observed thrombin-induced autophosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing monoclonal PDGF antibody. Thus, our results suggest that the platelet PDGFR-alpha is stimulated in an autocrine manner by PDGF secreted during platelet activation. Preincubation of platelets with PDGF inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and secretion of ATP + ADP and beta-hexosaminidase. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was also reversed when PDGF was added 30 s after thrombin stimulation. Inhibition of the autocrine PDGF pathway during platelet activation by the PDGF antibody led to a potentiation of thrombin-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Thus, the PDGFR-alpha takes part in a negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Our demonstration of PDGF alpha-receptors on human platelets and its inhibitory function during platelet activation identifies a new possible role of PDGF in the regulation of thrombosis.

  5. Application of semiempirical expressions to the alpha and beta radiometry of environmental depositions samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tamayo, L.

    1996-01-01

    Were applied two semiempirical equations exponential beta absorption and Bragg-Kleeman approximation complementary to experimental corrections for beta backscattering and auto absorption of beta and alpha radiations in measurements of environmental depositions samples In the first case was verified the validity of mentioned corrections with an application boundary to mass greater than 300 Pb-210 (0.015 mg/cm 2 ) In the second case, the Bragg-Kleeman approximation combined with the experimental beta corrections, bring a judgment to determine the fundamental alpha and beta emisors samples which results the Pb-210 group

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression requires PI 3-kinase activity and correlates with Akt1 phosphorylation in invasive breast carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, E.H.; Groot, A.J.; Derks van de Ven, T.L.P.; Groep, P. van der; Verlaan, I.; Laar, T. van; Diest, P.J. van; Wall, E. van der; Shvarts, A.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1a) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 and the key factor in cellular response to low oxygen tension. Expression of HIF-1a protein is associated with poor patient survival and therapy resistance in many types of solid

  7. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3′-modified hTNFα gene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases.

  8. Low level tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects cardiomyocytes against high level tumor necrosis factor-alpha: brief insight into a beneficial paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Minotti, Giorgio; Afeltra, Antonella; Menna, Pierantonio

    2014-12-01

    Whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) caused beneficial or detrimental cardiovascular effects remains poorly defined. Anti-TNFα agents improved cardiac end points in chronic rheumatic diseases characterized by progressive deterioration of cardiac function. In contrast, anti-TNFα agents did not always improve but actually worsened cardiac function in non-rheumatic patients with heart failure (HF), in spite of that HF usually accompanies with high circulating levels of TNFα. To shed light on these mixed findings, we characterized the effects of TNFα in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of TNFα, hydrogen peroxide, aminotriazole, or etoposide. Posttreatment cell viability was assessed by antimycin A-inhibitable reduction of 3-(4,dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and the IC50 value of each test compound was defined. H9c2 cells were also preconditioned with a low non-toxic concentration of TNFα and then re-challenged with increasing concentrations of TNFα and other stressor agents. In re-challenge experiments, all of the IC50 values increased significantly, with the IC50 value of TNFα increasing approximately 16-fold. TNFα preconditioning increased cardiomyocytes shedding of the external portion of transmembrane type 1 and type 2 TNFα receptors [(soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR)]. Levels of survival-oriented soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) always exceeded those of death-oriented sTNFR1. When exposed to TNFα at its IC50 value, preconditioned cardiomyocytes showed an increased release of sTNFR2 but not sTNFR1. These results denoted that preconditioning by "low TNFα" helped cardiomyocyte to withstand toxicity from "high TNFα" or other agents. These results also suggested that beneficial or detrimental effects of anti-TNFα agents might well depend on whether these agents spared or intercepted discrete amounts of TNFα that preconditioned cardiomyocytes and made them more resistant to high

  9. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, A. van; Sweers, M.A.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Bloemendal, H.

    2003-01-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster alphaA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  11. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Choi, Yong Jun; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates inflammatory processes. We have examined if hypoxic stress modulates the TLR activity of macrophages. Hypoxia and CoCl(2) (a hypoxia mimetic) enhanced the expression of TLR4 messenger RNA and protein in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), whereas the messenger RNA of other TLRs was not increased. To determine the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the regulation of TLR4 expression. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced and CoCl(2)-induced TLR4 expression in macrophages, while over-expression of HIF-1alpha potentiated TLR4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HIF-1alpha binds to the TLR4 promoter region under hypoxic conditions. In addition, deletion or mutation of a putative HIF-1-binding motif in the TLR4 promoter greatly attenuated HIF-1alpha-induced TLR4 promoter reporter expression. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress enhanced the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, resulting in increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10. These results demonstrate that TLR4 expression in macrophages is up-regulated via HIF-1 in response to hypoxic stress, suggesting that hypoxic stress at sites of inflammation enhances susceptibility to subsequent infection and inflammatory signals by up-regulating TLR4.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits differentiation of myogenic cells in human urethral rhabdosphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mayuka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Kiyono, Tohru; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-06-01

    To examine the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on myogenic differentiation of human urethral rhabdosphincter cells. A rhabdosphincter sample was obtained from a patient who underwent total cystectomy. To expand the lifespan of the primary cultured cells, rhabdosphincter myogenic cells were immortalized with mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1 and telomerase. The differential potential of the cells was investigated. The transfected human rhabdosphincter cells were induced for myogenic differentiation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α and/or the tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist etanercept at different concentrations, and activation of signaling pathways was monitored. Human rhabdosphincter cells were selectively cultured for at least 40 passages. Molecular analysis confirmed the expression of myosin heavy chain, which is a specific marker of differentiated muscle cells, significantly increased after differentiation induction. Although tumor necrosis factor-α treatment reduced the myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner, etanercept inhibited this suppression. Tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38, whereas etanercept pretreatment promoted phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits differentiation of urethral rhabdosphincter cells in part through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α might be a useful strategy to treat stress urinary incontinence. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  14. Relationship among expression of basic-fibroblast growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship among expression of basic-fibroblast growth factor, MTDH/Astrocyte elevated gene-1, adenomatous polyposis coli, matrix metalloproteinase 9,and COX-2 markers with prognostic factors in prostate carcinomas.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Jing; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Thomson, Brian; Padyukov, Leonid; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Nititham, Joanne; Hughes, Laura B.; de Vries, Niek; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wedrén, Sara; Ding, Bo; Guiducci, Candace; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J. Bart A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Herenius, Marieke; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Worthington, Jane; Batliwalla, Franak; Kern, Marlena; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, Kimme; Seldin, Michael F.; Moreland, Larry W.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Bridges, S. Louis; Toes, Rene E. M.; Barton, Anne; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to test established RA genetic risk factors to determine whether the same alleles also influence the response to anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: A total

  16. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha blockers: potential limitations in the management of advanced endometriosis? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Khashayar; Falcone, Tommaso

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels are increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, with correlation between TNF-alpha concentrations and the degree of disease. It is also likely that elevation of peritoneal fluids' TNF-alpha levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of infertility associated with endometriosis. Use of drugs such as etanercept, a TNF-alpha receptor immunoglobulin fusion protein which inhibits TNF-alpha activity, showed in an animal study to reduce the severity of the disease, and the size of endometriotic foci. TNF-alpha blockers were recommended as a possible new line of therapy for endometriosis. Our case involved a 35-year-old Para 0, with rheumatic arthritis and stage 4 endometriosis. After 6 years of constant use of etanercept, she showed no improvement of endometriosis as demonstrated at laparoscopy. However, she underwent a successful IVF after the first attempt. TNF-alpha-blocker medications might not be beneficial for patients with advanced endometriosis. However, we cannot exclude the possible effect of these medications on early-stage endometriosis, and further study is required. Some of the immunologic abnormalities in the pelvis of patients with endometriosis could be the consequence of the disease and not the cause, and possibly suppression of immune cells and their products may not have a major effect on endometriotic lesions at an advanced stage. This also could explain why suppression of TNF-alpha showed no effect on infertility. However, use of TNF-alpha-blockers before IVF might increase the success rate in advanced endometriosis.

  17. Predicting death from tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in 80-year-old people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H; Ladelund, S; Pedersen, A N

    2003-01-01

    Ageing is associated with low-grade inflammation and markers such as IL-6 possess prognostic value. Tumour necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) initiates the inflammatory cascade and has been linked to several age-associated disorders. It remains, however, unknown if TNF-alpha is associated with mortality...... in old populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if serum levels of TNF-alpha were associated with all-cause mortality independently of interleukin (IL)-6 in a prospective study of 333 relatively healthy 80-year-old people. A Cox regression model was used to explore effects of TNF......% of the variability in IL-6 and effects of the two cytokines were independent of each other as well as of other traditional risk factors for death [smoking, blood pressure, physical exercise, total cholesterol, co-morbidity, body mass index (BMI) and intake of anti-inflammatory drugs]. These findings indicate...

  18. Predicting death from tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in 80-year-old people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Ladelund, S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann

    2003-01-01

    Ageing is associated with low-grade inflammation and markers such as IL-6 possess prognostic value. Tumour necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha ) initiates the inflammatory cascade and has been linked to several age-associated disorders. It remains, however, unknown if TNF-alpha is associated with mortality...... in old populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if serum levels of TNF-alpha were associated with all-cause mortality independently of interleukin (IL)-6 in a prospective study of 333 relatively healthy 80-year-old people. A Cox regression model was used to explore effects of TNF......% of the variability in IL-6 and effects of the two cytokines were independent of each other as well as of other traditional risk factors for death [smoking, blood pressure, physical exercise, total cholesterol, co-morbidity, body mass index (BMI) and intake of anti-inflammatory drugs]. These findings indicate...

  19. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  20. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic functions and survival.

  1. Reoxygenation of human coronary smooth muscle cells suppresses HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and augments radiation-induced growth delay and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, T.; Arab, A.; Bode, C.; Hehrlein, C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany); Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Catheter-based coronary brachytherapy with {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation is an evidence-based method to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation, but the outcome may be PTCA are hypoxic. A lack of oxygen decreases the effect of low LET (linear energy transfer) irradiation. The authors assumed that reoxygenation of hypoxic human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMCs) improves the results of coronary brachytherapy. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) gene, and the rates of growth and apoptosis of hypoxic and reoxygenated HCSMCs after {gamma}-iradiation were therefore analyzed. Material and Methods: An in vitro model of megacolonies of HCSMCs was developed. After exposure to chronic hypoxia the HCSMCs were irradiated with graded doses of 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy using a {sup 60}Co source either under hypoxia (pO{sub 2}<3 mmHg) or after reoxygenation (pO{sub 2}{approx}150 mmHg). RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis was used to quantify HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and the growth of HCSMC megacolonies was measured serially. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculate from the specific growth delay. Apoptosis of HCSMCs was quantified by counting cells with specific DNA strand breaks using the TUNEL assy. Results: HIF-1{alpha} gene expression was markedly suppressed in reoxygenated cells versus hypoxic cells 30 min after {gamma}-irradiation at all radiation doses (158{+-}46% vs. 1,675{+-}1,211%; p<0.01). Apoptosis was markedly increased in reoxygenated HCSMCs. The OER was 1.8(95% CI[confidence interval]1.3-2.4). Therefore, reoxygenated HCSMCs require 44% less radiation dose to achieve the equivalent biological radiation effect compared to hypoxic HCSMCs. Conclusion: Reoxygenation of coronary smooth muscle cells should be considered an option to increase efficacy of coronary brachytherapy. This could be used to reduce radiation dose

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avidin-biotin complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. Results: VEGF immuno-expression was positive in 51.9% of CRC, while it was 18.2% in the normal colonic tissue (p<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade of colonic malignancy (p<0.05). Conclusion: ...

  3. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizik G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Bizik,1 Petr Bob,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Josef Pavlat,1 Jana Uhrova,2 Hana Benakova,2 Tomas Zima2 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40, and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively, and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years. The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01, SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01, and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01, but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. Keywords: depression, dissociation, TNF-alpha, traumatic stress

  4. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  5. Inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha diminishes desmoplasia and inflammation to overcome chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianda; Fan, Wei; Xu, Zhigao; Chen, Honglei; He, Yuyu; Yang, Gui; Yang, Gang; Hu, Hanning; Tang, Shihui; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Peipei; Yu, Mingxia

    2016-12-06

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common cancer death reasons. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibodies have shown promising effects in PDAC pre-clinical models. However, the prognostic values of TNF-α, underlying mechanisms by which anti-TNF-α treatments inhibit PDAC, and potential synergistic effects of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy are still unclear. To identify the targeting values of TNF-α in PDAC, we measured TNF-α expression in different stages of PDAC initiation and evaluated its prognostic significance in a pancreatic cancer cohort. We found that TNF-α expression elevated in PDAC initiation process, and high expression of TNF-α was an independent prognostic marker of poor survival. We further evaluated anti-tumor effects of anti-TNF-α treatments in PDAC. Anti-TNF-α treatments resulted in decreased cell viability in both PDAC tumor cells and pancreatic satellite cells in similar dose in vitro. In vivo, anti-TNF-α treatments showed effects in reducing desmoplasia and the tumor promoting inflammatory microenvironment in PDAC. Combination of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy partly overcame chemoresistance of PDAC tumor cells and prolonged the survival of PDAC mouse model. In conclusion, our findings indicated that TNF-α in PDAC can be a prognostic and therapeutic target. Inhibition of TNF-α synergized with chemotherapy in PDAC resulted in better pre-clinical responses via killing tumor cells as well as diminishing desmoplasia and inflammation in PDAC tumor stroma.

  6. Experimentally nonylphenol-polluted diet induces the expression of silent genes VTG and ER{alpha} in the liver of male lizard Podarcis sicula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Prisco, Marina; Andreuccetti, Piero [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Aniello, Francesco [Department of Biological Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Limatola, Ermelinda, E-mail: limatola@unina.it [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) with estrogen-like properties i.e nonylphenol (NP) induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in males of aquatic and semi-aquatic specie. In the oviparous species VTG is a female-specific oestrogen dependent protein. Males are unable to synthesize VTG except after E{sub 2} treatment. This study aimed to verify if NP, administered via food and water, is able to induce the expression of VTG even in males of vertebrates with a terrestrial habitat such as the lizard Podarcis. By means of ICC, ISH, W/B and ELISA we demonstrated that NP induces the presence of VTG in the plasma and its expression in the liver. VTG, undetectable in untreated males, reaches the value of 4.34 {mu}g/{mu}l in the experimental ones. Expression analysis and ISH in the liver showed that an NP-polluted diet also elicits the expression of ER{alpha} in the liver which is known to be related to VTG synthesis in Podarcis. - Highlights: > Nonylphenol (NP) polluted diet induces VTG synthesis in a terrestrial vertebrate. > VTG and ER{alpha} genes are unexpressed in the liver of untreated male lizards Podarcis. > In the liver cells of NP-treated males the expression of both VTG and ER{alpha} occurs. > In treated males VTG synthesis is coupled with ER{alpha} expression as in breeding females. - NP-polluted diet induces the expression of ER{alpha} and VTG in the liver.

  7. Astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-3 and interferon-alpha causes region-specific changes in metallothionein expression in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giralt, M; Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing IL-3 and IFN-alpha under the regulatory control of the GFAP gene promoter (GFAP-IL3 and GFAP-IFNalpha mice) exhibit a cytokine-specific, late-onset chronic-progressive neurological disorder which resemble many of the features of human diseases such as multiple sclerosis...... was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. MT-III immunoreactivity was present in cells that were mainly round or amoeboid monocytes/macrophages and in astrocytes. MT-I+II induction was more generalized in the GFAP-IFNalpha (GIFN12 and GIFN39 lines) mice, with significant increases in the cerebellum, thalamus...

  8. Increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Shergill, Uday; Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D

    2010-08-01

    A mouse model of renal insufficiency with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and venous stenosis was created. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is increased gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha); vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, -2); matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2); and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin-1 (ADAMTS-1) at the venous stenosis. Nineteen male C57BL/6 mice underwent a left nephrectomy and a surgical occlusion of the right upper pole to induce renal function characterized in eight animals. Twenty eight days later, an AVF (n = 11) was created from the right carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein, and the mice were killed at day 7 (n = 4) and day 14 (n = 4). The outflow and control veins were removed for gene expression. Three mice were killed at day 28 for histologic analysis. The mean serum blood urea nitrogen level remained significantly elevated for 8 weeks when compared with baseline (P < .05). By day seven, there was a significant increase in the expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein, with HIF-1alpha and TIMP-1 levels significantly elevated at day 14 (P < .05). By day 28, the venous stenosis was characterized by a thickened vein wall and neointima. A mouse model of renal insufficiency with AVF was developed that had increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with venous stenosis by day 28. Copyright (c) 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insufficient intake of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (18:3n-3 during pregnancy and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Garcia VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze alpha-linolenic fatty acid intake in two cohorts of pregnant women, and to identify factors associated with alpha-linolenic acid intake. Methods: This is a cohort study involving pregnant women with low obstetric risk (N=353 in public health system from a municipality of São Paulo state, Brazil. In each trimester, two 24-hour food recalls were collected. Descriptive analyses of dietary lipid profiles were performed, followed by a multiple comparison test. According to the trimester of pregnancy, differences were assessed using the mean difference test. To evaluate the adequacy of linoleic fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid intake, the adequate intake test was used. The association between alpha-linolenic acid intake adequacy and maternal characteristics was investigated using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Total lipids intake and the percentage contribution to dietary energy met recommended levels. One-third of the diets demonstrated a lower than daily recommended intake of alpha-linolenic acid. Overweight pregnant women were twice as likely to have inadequate alpha-linolenic acid intake. Pregnant women from a more disadvantaged socioeconomic situation had greater risks of inadequate intake. Conclusion: Over-intake of lipids is not problematic, but quality is an issue, with one third of the pregnant women and their fetuses exposed to adverse effects due to low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, indicating important nutritional vulnerability in this population.

  10. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  11. Protective specific immunity induced by cyclophosphamide plus tumor necrosis factor alpha combination treatment of EL4-lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C M; Verstovsek, S; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D; Ehrke, M J

    1995-06-01

    A combination treatment protocol initiated 12 days after tumor injection, when the tumor was large, by administering cyclophosphamide (CY, 150 or 250 mg/kg) intraperitoneally followed by intravenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha, 1000 units injection) on days 13, 16, 18, 21, and 23, resulted in about 60% long-term survival (i.e., survival for at least 60 days) in the syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse/EL4 lymphoma model system. The establishment of a specific antitumor immune memory and its possible therapeutic relevance was verified by reinjecting 60-day survivors with EL4 cells; all 60-day survivors that had received the combination treatments rejected the implants and survived for a further 60 days. Thymic cellularity was reduced during treatment and its recovery appeared to correlate with long-term survival and immunity. Thymocytes from mice treated with the combination were found to express significant levels of specific anti-EL4 cytolytic activity following a 4-day stimulation culture with X-irradiated EL4 cells and low concentrations of interleukin-2. This response could not be generated with thymocytes from naive animals. In each case the effect seen with the combination of a moderate CY dose (150 mg/kg) with TNF alpha was better than that seen with either dose of CY alone and equal to or better than that seen with the higher dose of CY combined with TNF alpha. These results indicate that treatment with a single moderate dose of CY in combination with TNF alpha is effective against a large, established tumor in this murine model. Furthermore, all the long-term survivors induced by this treatment developed protective immunity against reimplanted tumor and demonstrated a long-term specific immune memory in the thymus.

  12. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is ubiquitous in humans and plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, development, proliferation and differentiation. As the endometrium of fertile women is characterized by proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesize a role for the EGF system....... Fourteen premenopausal women had endometrial samples removed on day 6 +/- 1 and day 6 +/- 1 and 12 +/- 1 after ovulation during one menstrual cycle. RNA was extracted and analysed by real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the components of the EGF system. Human EGF Receptor 1...... (HER1) showed highest expression during the proliferative phase, HER2 and HER4 during the early and HER3 during the late secretory phase. Amphiregulin (AR) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) expression is highest in proliferative phase. Heparin binding (HB)-EGF and betacellulin (BCL) show...

  13. Intraspecific variation in estrogen receptor alpha and the expression of male sociosexual behavior in two populations of prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Bruce S; Razzoli, Maria; Murphy, Anne Z; Epperson, Pamela M; Le, Wei-Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E

    2004-08-06

    Estrogen (E) regulates a variety of male sociosexual behaviors. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the distribution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the degree of male social behavior. To test this hypothesis, ERalpha immunoreactivity (IR) was compared in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) from Illinois (IL), which are highly social, and Kansas (KN), which are less social. The expression of androgen receptors (AR) in males also was compared between populations. The expression of ERalpha and AR were compared in brains from KN and IL males and females using immunocytochemistry (ICC). There were significant intrapopulational differences, with males expressing less ERalpha-IR than females in the medial preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus, ventrolateral portion of the hypothalamus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). IL males also displayed less ERalpha-IR in the medial amygdala (MeA) than IL females. While IL males expressed significantly less ERalpha-IR in the BST and MeA than KN males, there was no difference in AR-IR. Differences in the pattern of ERalpha-IR between KN and IL males were behaviorally relevant, as low levels of testosterone (T) were more effective in restoring sexual activity in castrated KN males than IL males. The lack of difference in AR combined with lower expression of ERalpha-IR in IL males suggests that behavioral differences in response to T are associated with aromatization of T to E and that reduced sensitivity to E may facilitate prosocial behavior in males.

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Trigeminal Ganglion Contributes to Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Masseter Muscle During Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Reio; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Urata, Kentaro; Lee, Jun; Maruno, Mitsuru; Soma, Kumi; Okada, Shinji; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iwata, Koichi

    To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFα-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFα-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFα signaling in the TG.

  15. Electrical remodeling of cardiac myocytes from mice with heart failure due to the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Kirova, Polina S; Gursoy, Erdal; Mehdi, Haider; McTiernan, Charles F; London, Barry; Salama, Guy

    2006-05-01

    Mice that overexpress the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the heart (TNF mice) develop heart failure characterized by atrial and ventricular dilatation, decreased ejection fraction, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and increased mortality (males > females). Abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, prolonged action potential duration (APD), calcium alternans, and reentrant atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were previously observed with the use of optical mapping of perfused hearts from TNF mice. We therefore tested whether altered voltage-gated outward K+ and/or inward Ca2+ currents contribute to the altered action potential characteristics and the increased vulnerability to arrhythmias. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of K+ currents from left ventricular myocytes of TNF mice revealed an approximately 50% decrease in the rapidly activating, rapidly inactivating transient outward K+ current Ito and in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow1, an approximately 25% decrease in the rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier current IK,slow2, and no significant change in the steady-state current Iss compared with controls. Peak amplitudes and inactivation kinetics of the L-type Ca2+ current ICa,L were not altered. Western blot analyses revealed a reduction in the proteins underlying Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Kv1.5. Thus decreased K+ channel expression is largely responsible for the prolonged APD in the TNF mice and may, along with abnormalities in Ca2+ handling, contribute to arrhythmias.

  16. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Methods Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. Results In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. Conclusion These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the

  17. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajiv G; Sudhakar, Deepthi; Hogue, Claire P; Amici, Stephanie; Gordon, Lynn K; Braun, Jonathan; Notterpek, Lucia; Goodglick, Lee; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2011-04-25

    PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the expression of α6 integrin. We predict that this may be important for the

  18. Temporary reversal by topotecan of marked insulin resistance in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome: case report and possible mechanism for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, M O; Krell, K E; Armour , W E; Liljenquist, J E

    2001-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes through its ability to decrease the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor. We report here a remarkable degree of insulin resistance in a patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome and myelodysplasia.

  19. Expansion of microsatellite in the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene linked to increased receptor expression and less aggressive thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onda, Masamitsu; Li, Daisy; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the THRA1 microsatellite, which resides in a noncoding portion of the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene, affects receptor expression and is linked to clinicopathological parameters in thyroid cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN......: In 30 cases of surgically resected sporadic thyroid cancer, the length of the THRA1 microsatellite was determined by DNA sequence analysis, and expression of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 was assessed immunohistochemically in thin sections cut from tumor blocks. The length of THRA1 and expression...... of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 were also assessed in seven cancer cell lines. Regression analysis was used to gauge the correlation between the size of THRA1 and receptor expression. Multivariate analysis was used to test for links to the clinical parameters of gender, age, histology, stage, nodal...

  20. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  1. Expression of β-catenin protein in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relationship with alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ya-Jun; Huang, Tao; Yu, Hong-Lu; Zhang, Li; He, Qian-Jin; Xiong, Zhi-Fan; Peng, Hua

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its relationship with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of β-catenin in normal liver tissues (n=10), liver cirrhosis tissues (n=20), and primary HCC tissues (n=60). The relationship between β-catenin expression and clinical parameters of HCC was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin in the liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 transfected with a plasmid encoding AFP, and also the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were measured in the liver cancer cell line Huh7 before and after the transfection with AFP shRNA plasmids. The results showed that β-catenin was only expressed on the cell membrane in normal liver tissues. Its localization to the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells was observed in a small proportion of cirrhotic tissues or adjacent HCC tissues, and such ectopic expression of β-catenin was predominant in HCC tissues. The abnormal expression of β-catenin was correlated with serum AFP levels, cancer cell differentiation and vascular invasion (P<0.05). Additionally, the increased expression of AFP resulted in the upregulation of β-catenin mRNA and protein levels, while knockdown of AFP with AFP shRNA led to significantly decreased β-catenin mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). It was suggested that the abnormal expression of β-catenin is implicated in hepatic carcinogenesis and development. AFP can lead to increased expression of β-catenin, which may account for the poor prognosis of AFP-associated HCC patients.

  2. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  3. Generation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 chronically infected monkey B cell line expressing low levels of endogenous TRIM5alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Barbara; Catone, Stefania; Sgarbanti, Marco; Sernicola, Leonardo; Battistini, Angela; Parolin, Cristina; Titti, Fausto; Borsetti, Alessandra

    2009-12-01

    Several innate cellular antiviral factors exist in mammalian cells that prevent the replication of retroviruses. Among them, the tripartite motif protein (TRIM)5alpha has been shown to block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in several types of Old World monkey cells. Here we report a novel HIV-1 chronically infected monkey B cell line, F6/HIV-1, characterized by very low levels of TRIM5alpha expression that allows HIV-1 to overcome the restriction. Virus produced by F6/HIV-1 cells fails to infect monkey cells but retains the ability to infect human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T cell lines, although with a reduced infectivity compared to the input virus. Ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of budding virions at the F6/HIV-1 cells plasma membrane characterized by a typical conical core shell. To our knowledge F6/HIV-1 is the first monkey cell line chronically infected by HIV-1 and able to release infectious particles thus representing a useful tool to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  4. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  5. Sulforaphane and alpha-lipoic acid upregulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase through c-jun and Nrf2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Cheng, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chen, Haw-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-05-01

    The anticarcinogenic effect of dietary organosulfur compounds has been partly attributed to their modulation of the activity and expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. Our previous studies indicated that garlic allyl sulfides upregulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) through the activator protein-1 pathway. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of sulforaphane (SFN) and alpha-lipoic acid (LA) or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on GSTP expression in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Cells were treated with LA or DHLA (50-600 micromol/L) or SFN (0.2-5 micromol/L) for 24 h. Immunoblots and real-time PCR showed that SFN, LA, and DHLA dose dependently induced GSTP protein and mRNA expression. Compared with the induction by the garlic organosulfur compound diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the effectiveness was in the order of SFN > DATS > LA = DHLA. The increase in GSTP enzyme activity in cells treated with 5 micromol/L SFN, 50 micromol/L DATS, and 600 micromol/L LA and DHLA was 172, 75, 122, and 117%, respectively (P GPEI) was required for GSTP induction by the organosulfur compounds. Electromobility gel shift assays showed that the DNA binding of GPEI to nuclear proteins reached a maximum at 0.5-1 h after SFN, LA, and DHLA treatment. Super-shift assay revealed that the transcription factors c-jun and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were bound to GPEI. These results suggest that SFN and LA in either its oxidized or reduced form upregulate the transcription of the GSTP gene by activating c-jun and Nrf2 binding to the enhancer element GPEI.

  6. Transplastomic expression of bacterial L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase enhances photosynthesis and biomass production in response to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, W M; Altpeter, F

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic engineering for beta-alanine over-production in plants is expected to enhance environmental stress tolerance. The Escherichia coli L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (AspDC) encoded by the panD gene, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate to generate beta-alanine and carbon dioxide. The constitutive E. coli panD expression cassette was co-introduced with the constitutive, selectable aadA expression cassette into the chloroplast genome of tobacco via biolistic gene transfer and homologous recombination. Site specific integration of the E. coli panD expression cassette into the chloroplast genome and generation of homotransplastomic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively, following plant regeneration and germination of seedlings on selective media. PanD expression was verified by assays based on transcript detection and in vitro enzyme activity. The AspDC activities in transplastomic plants expressing panD were drastically increased by high-temperature stress. beta-Alanine accumulated in transplastomic plants at levels four times higher than in wildtype plants. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence on plants subjected to severe heat stress at 45 degrees C under light verified that photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic plants had higher thermotolerance than in wildtype plants. The CO(2) assimilation of transplastomic plants expressing panD was more tolerant to high temperature stress than that of wildtype plants, resulting in the production of 30-40% more above ground biomass than wildtype control. The results presented indicate that chloroplast engineering of the beta-alanine pathway by over-expression of the E. coli panD enhances thermotolerance of photosynthesis and biomass production following high temperature stress.

  7. Advances toward DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species using elongation factor-1 alpha gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    The translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships among 30 previously characterized isolates representing ten North American Armillaria species: A. solidipes (=A. ostoyae), A. gemina, A. calvescens, A. sinapina, A. mellea, A. gallica, A. nabsnona, North American biological species X, A. cepistipes, and A. tabescens. The...

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade in severe persistent asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, Sally E.; Barnes, Peter J.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Bousquet, Jean; Busse, William; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Holgate, Stephen T.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Antczak, Adam; Baker, James; Horvath, Ildiko; Mark, Zsuzsanna; Bernstein, David; Kerwin, Edward; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Lo, Kim Hung; Watt, Rosemary; Barnathan, Elliot S.; Chanez, Pascal; Chanez, P.; Tunon-de-Lara, M.; Antczak, A.; Pierzchala, W.; Bukowczan, Z.; Trawinska, E.; Baker, J.; Wenzel, S. E.; Katial, R.; Bernstein, D.; Kerwin, E.; Bensch, G.; Castro, M.; Noonan, M.; Nayak, A.; Chupp, G.; Kline, J.; Busse, W.; Kavuru, M. S.; Lang, D.; Wolfe, R.; Baughman, R.; Korenblat, P.; Mansfield, L.; Bleecker, E.; Lisberg, E.; Liu, M.; Panettieri, R.; Spangenthal, S.; Bel, E. H.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: The treatment effect of golimumab, a human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in severe persistent asthma is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of golimumab in a large population of patients with uncontrolled, severe persistent asthma.

  9. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  10. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 inhibits Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and signalling in beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Christine; Heding, Peter E; Rønn, Sif G

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). TNFalpha in combination with interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) and/or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) induces specific destruction...

  11. Interleukin-4 inhibits both paracrine and autocrine tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced proliferation of B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, C.; Rensink, I.; Aarden, L.; van Oers, R.

    1992-01-01

    The proliferative response of purified malignant B cells from 26 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was investigated in vitro. In the majority of these patients, a proliferative response could be induced by the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and PMA. The concentration

  12. Hepatic expression of proteasome subunit alpha type-6 is upregulated during viral hepatitis and putatively regulates the expression of ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier, a proviral host gene in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, R; Trippler, M; Werner, M; Real, C I; Megger, D A; Bracht, T; Schweinsberg, V; Sitek, B; Eisenacher, M; Meyer, H E; Baba, H A; Weber, F; Hoffmann, A-C; Gerken, G; Schlaak, J F

    2016-05-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. ISG15-regulated proteins have previously been identified that putatively affect this proviral interaction. The present observational study aimed to elucidate the relation between ISG15 and these host factors during HCV infection. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed using liver samples of HCV-infected (n = 54) and uninfected (n = 10) or HBV-infected controls (n = 23). Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were treated with Toll-like receptor ligands, interferons and kinase inhibitors. Expression of ISG15 and proteasome subunit alpha type-6 (PSMA6) was suppressed in subgenomic HCV replicon cell lines using specific siRNAs. Comparison of hepatic expression patterns revealed significantly increased signals for ISG15, IFIT1, HNRNPK and PSMA6 on the protein level as well as ISG15, IFIT1 and PSMA6 on the mRNA level in HCV-infected patients. In contrast to interferon-stimulated genes, PSMA6 expression occurred independent of HCV load and genotype. In PHH, the expression of ISG15 and PSMA6 was distinctly induced by poly(I:C), depending on IRF3 activation or PI3K/AKT signalling, respectively. Suppression of PSMA6 in HCV replicon cells led to significant induction of ISG15 expression, thus combined knock-down of both genes abrogated the antiviral effect induced by the separate suppression of ISG15. These data indicate that hepatic expression of PSMA6, which is upregulated during viral hepatitis, likely depends on TLR3 activation. PSMA6 affects the expression of immunoregulatory ISG15, a proviral factor in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Therefore, the proteasome might be involved in the enigmatic interaction between ISG15 and HCV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mathew

    Full Text Available Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10, in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  14. Preliminary characterisation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 responses to Chlamydia pecorum infection in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine.

  15. MutY DNA Glycosylase Protects Cells From Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, An Hue Vy; Han, Se Hee; Kim, Joon; Grasso, Francesca; Kim, In San; Han, Ye Sun

    2017-07-01

    Numerous studies have implied that mutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) is involved in the repair of post-replicative mispairs and plays a critical role in the base excision repair pathway. Recent in vitro studies have shown that MYH interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD), a key effector protein of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) signaling. The association between MYH and TRADD is reversed during tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis, and enhanced during TNF-α-induced survival. After investigating the role of MYH interacts with various proteins following TNF-α stimulation, here, we focus on MYH and TRADD interaction functions in necroptosis and its effects to related proteins. We report that the level of the MYH and TRADD complex was also reduced during necroptosis induced by TNF-α and zVAD-fmk. In particular, we also found that MYH is a biologically important necrosis suppressor. Under combined TNF-α and zVAD-fmk treatment, MYH-deficient cells were induced to enter the necroptosis pathway but primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were not. Necroptosis in the absence of MYH proceeds via the inactivation of caspase-8, followed by an increase in the formation of the kinase receptor- interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-RIP3 complex. Our results suggested that MYH, which interacts with TRADD, inhibits TNF-α necroptotic signaling. Therefore, MYH inactivation is essential for necroptosis via the downregulation of caspase-8. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1827-1838, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Factors associated with asthma expression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians. Variables showing p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used for variable selection. Results: We evaluated 375 adolescents, 124 (33.1% of whom had asthma symptoms. The final multivariate analysis model revealed that asthma symptoms were associated with birth weight < 2,500 g (p < 0.001, day care center or nursery attendance (p < 0.002, maternal history of asthma (p < 0.001, contact with animals during the first year of life (p < 0.027, current contact with animals outside the home (dogs, cats, or farm animals; p < 0.005, and more than 20 cigarettes per day smoked by parents or other household members (p < 0.02. Conclusions: Exposure to animals in and outside the home is associated with asthma symptoms, as is environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Families, health professionals, and administrators of health care facilities should take that into account in order to prevent asthma and reduce asthma morbidity.

  17. Time-differential observation of alpha -particle perturbed angular distribution; g-factor measurements for /sup 217/Ac/sup gs/ and /sup 217/Ac/sup m/

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Grawe, H; Kluge, H

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in /sup 217/Ac using the DPAD method with alpha -decay are described. The results of gamma -ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by alpha - gamma and gamma - gamma coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the alpha - particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (13 refs).

  18. Xanthophylls increased HDLC level and nuclear factor PPARγ, RXRγ and RARα expression in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Peng, H; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Ji, J; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of xanthophylls on serum lipid profile (triglyceride, TG; cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC) and nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1α; retinoid X receptor gamma, RXRγ; and retinoic acid receptor alpha, RARα) gene expression of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Blood was sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of trial. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 days of trial. Results showed that serum HDLC level of hens was increased after dietary 40 mg/kg xanthophyll addition for 21, 28 and 35 days, while serum TG, CHO and LDLC were not affected. Xanthophyll addition also increased PPARγ expression in jejunum, RXRγ expression in duodenum and jejunum, and RARα expression in liver and duodenum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 days. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls elevated PPARγ in duodenum and jejunum, and RXRγ and RARα in liver of chicks mainly within 1 week after hatching, while dietary xanthophylls increased serum HDLC level and PPARγ and RXRγ in liver from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, our research suggested xanthophylls can regulate serum lipid profile and nuclear factor expression in hens and chicks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from rat pulmonary leukocytes exposed to ultrafine cobalt: in vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Kusaka, Yukinori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Wang Deweng; Donaldson, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine cobalt (Uf-Co), one of the new category of ultrafine particles, is generated in some industrial situations and it also exists in environmental particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of rat pulmonary leukocytes to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after exposure to Uf-Co in vivo and in vitro. Rats were intratracheally instilled with 1 mg of Uf-Co, and then wet lung weight and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BASF) profile were analysed 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days later. The effects of Uf-Co on indices that can be presumed to reflect epithelial injury and permeability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein (TP)) were increased throughout the 30 day post-exposure period. Furthermore, at 3 days after exposure, leukocytes were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). After 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation, TNF-alpha in supernatants were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that TNF-alpha secretion by activated leukocytes from rats instilled with Uf-Co was significantly higher than that of the controls. BAL leucocytes from the lung of exposed rats revealed time-and dose-related increases in TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, our results reveal, for the first time to our knowledge, that exposure to Uf-Co can stimulate leukocytes to secrete TNF-alpha. These data suggest that the TNF-alpha release from pulmonary leukocytes probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of 'cobalt lung'. (author)

  20. Orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E modulate gene expression in cultured equine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lyn M; Bodaan, Christa J; Mercer, Andrew A; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Wounds in horses often exhibit sustained inflammation and inefficient vascularization, leading to excessive fibrosis and clinical complications such as "proud flesh". Orf virus-derived proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E and interleukin (ovIL)-10, enhance angiogenesis and control inflammation and fibrosis in skin wounds of laboratory animals. The study aimed to determine if equine dermal cells respond to VEGF-E and ovIL-10. Equine dermal cells are expected to express VEGF and IL-10 receptors, so viral protein treatment is likely to alter cellular gene expression and behaviour in a manner conducive to healing. Skin samples were harvested from the lateral thoracic wall of two healthy thoroughbred horses. Equine dermal cells were isolated using a skin explant method and their phenotype assessed by immunofluorescence. Cells were treated with recombinant proteins, with or without inflammatory stimuli. Gene expression was examined using standard and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell behaviour was evaluated in a scratch assay. Cultured cells were half vimentin(+ve) fibroblasts and half alpha smooth muscle actin(+ve) and vimentin(+ve) myofibroblasts. VEGF-E increased basal expression of IL-10 mRNA, whereas VEGF-A and collagenase-1 mRNA expression was increased by ovIL-10. In cells exposed to inflammatory stimulus, both treatments dampened tumour necrosis factor mRNA expression, and ovIL-10 exacerbated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein. Neither viral protein influenced cell migration greatly. This study shows that VEGF-E and ovIL-10 are active on equine dermal cells and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects that may enhance skin wound healing in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Transcriptional activation of transforming growth factor alpha by estradiol: requirement for both a GC-rich site and an estrogen response element half-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhlidal, C; Samudio, I; Kladde, M P; Safe, S

    2000-06-01

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) induces transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) gene expression in MCF-7 cells and previous studies have identified a 53 bp (-252 to -200) sequence containing two imperfect estrogen responsive elements (EREs) that contribute to E2 responsiveness. Deletion analysis of the TGFalpha gene promoter in this study identified a second upstream region of the promoter (-623 to -549) that is also E2 responsive. This sequence contains three GC-rich sites and an imperfect ERE half-site, and the specific cis-elements and trans-acting factors were determined by promoter analysis in transient transfection experiments, gel mobility shift assays and in vitro DNA footprinting. The results are consistent with an estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)/Sp1 complex interacting with an Sp1(N)(30) ERE half-site ((1/2)) motif in which both ERalpha and Sp1 bind promoter DNA. The ER/Sp1-DNA complex is formed using nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells but not with recombinant human ERalpha or Sp1 proteins, suggesting that other nuclear factor(s) are required for complex stabilization. The E2-responsive Sp1(N)(x)ERE(1/2) motif identified in the TGFalpha gene promoter has also been characterized in the cathepsin D and heat shock protein 27 gene promoters; however, in the latter two promoters the numbers of intervening nucleotides are 23 and 10 respectively.

  2. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyad Bendardaf

    2017-02-28

    Feb 28, 2017 ... The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on survival of ... Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; cFaculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, ..... interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal.

  3. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH) genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Alexander; Knuechel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar; Veeck, Juergen; Bektas, Nuran; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kristiansen, Glen; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra; Del Maestro, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5), contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas) using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA), semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA) could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36). Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between ITIH2 expression and estrogen receptor (ER) expression indicating that ER may be involved in the regulation of this ECM molecule. Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies

  4. Interleukins 1alpha and 1beta secreted by some melanoma cell lines strongly reduce expression of MITF-M and melanocyte differentiation antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmanskikh, Olga; van Baren, Nicolas; Brasseur, Francis; Ottaviani, Sabrina; Vanacker, Julie; Arts, Nathalie; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Coulie, Pierre; De Plaen, Etienne

    2010-10-01

    We report that melanoma cell lines expressing the interleukin-1 receptor exhibit 4- to 10-fold lower levels of mRNA of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M) when treated with interleukin-1beta. This effect is NF-kappaB and JNK-dependent. MITF-M regulates the expression of melanocyte differentiation genes such as MLANA, tyrosinase and gp100, which encode antigens recognized on melanoma cells by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes. Accordingly, treating some melanoma cells with IL-1beta reduced by 40-100% their ability to activate such antimelanoma cytolytic T lymphocytes. Finally, we observed large amounts of biologically active IL-1alpha or IL-1beta secreted by two melanoma cell lines that did not express MITF-M, suggesting an autocrine MITF-M downregulation. We estimate that approximately 13% of melanoma cell lines are MITF-M-negative and secrete IL-1 cytokines. These results indicate that the repression of melanocyte-differentiation genes by IL-1 produced by stromal cells or by tumor cells themselves may represent an additional mechanism of melanoma immune escape.

  5. Expression and localization of sterile alpha motif domain containing 5 is associated with cell type and malignancy of biliary tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yagai

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a type of relatively rare neoplasm in adenocarcinoma. The characteristics of CCs as well as biliary epithelial cells are heterogeneous at the different portion of the biliary tree. There are two candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree, i.e., biliary tree stem/progenitor cell (BTSC at the peribiliary gland (PBG of large bile ducts and liver stem/progenitor cell (LPC at the canals of Hering of peripheral small bile duct. Although previous reports suggest that intrahepatic CC (ICC can arise from such stem/progenitor cells, the characteristic difference between BTSC and LPC in pathological process needs further investigation, and the etiology of CC remains poorly understood. Here we show that Sterile alpha motif domain containing 5 (SAMD5 is exclusively expressed in PBGs of large bile ducts in normal mice. Using a mouse model of cholestatic liver disease, we demonstrated that SAMD5 expression was upregulated in the large bile duct at the hepatic hilum, the extrahepatic bile duct and PBGs, but not in proliferating intrahepatic ductules, suggesting that SAMD5 is expressed in BTSC but not LPC. Intriguingly, human ICCs and extrahepatic CCs exhibited striking nuclear localization of SAMD5 while the normal hilar large bile duct displayed slight-to-moderate expression in cytoplasm. In vitro experiments using siRNA for SAMD5 revealed that SAMD5 expression was associated with the cell cycle regulation of CC cell lines.SAMD5 is a novel marker for PBG but not LPC in mice. In humans, the expression and location of SAMD5 could become a promising diagnostic marker for the cell type as well as malignancy of bile ducts and CCs.

  6. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha stabilization for regenerative therapy in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushfiquddin Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called concussion, initiates sequelae leading to motor deficits, cognitive impairments and subtly compromised neurobehaviors. While the acute phase of TBI is associated with neuroinflammation and nitroxidative burst, the chronic phase shows a lack of stimulation of the neurorepair process and regeneration. The deficiency of nitric oxide (NO, the consequent disturbed NO metabolome, and imbalanced mechanisms of S-nitrosylation are implicated in blocking the mechanisms of neurorepair processes and functional recovery in the both phases. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α, a master regulator of hypoxia/ischemia, stimulates the process of neurorepair and thus aids in functional recovery after brain trauma. The activity of HIF-1α is regulated by NO via the mechanism of S-nitrosylation of HIF-1α. S-nitrosylation is dynamically regulated by NO metabolites such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and peroxynitrite. GSNO stabilizes, and peroxynitrite destabilizes HIF-1α. Exogenously administered GSNO was found not only to stabilize HIF-1α and to induce HIF-1α-dependent genes but also to stimulate the regeneration process and to aid in functional recovery in TBI animals.

  7. Chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (infliximab in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the pathogenesis of psoriasis have provided opportunities to target key steps in the disease process. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a being crucial to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, monoclonal antibodies against this cytokine have proved useful in its treatment. Aim: To study the efficacy of chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNF-a (infliximab in Indian patients with recalcitrant psoriasis vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Three patients with recalcitrant psoriasis vulgaris were studied. Baseline haemogram, biochemical parameters, chest radiograph and Mantoux skin test were performed. A loading dose regimen of 5 mg/kg infliximab was administered at weeks 0, 2 and 6. PASI assessment, adverse drug event monitoring and laboratory assessments were carried out at 2-week intervals until week 10. Patients were followed up until week 22 for relapse. Results: Infliximab was well tolerated. The mean PASI was 25.4 at presentation and declined to 5.5 at 10 weeks. PASI 75 was attained at a mean of 9.6 weeks. Relapse occurred at a mean of 18.6 weeks after the first infusion. Conclusions: This study on Indian patients brings out the importance of cytokine-based therapies in psoriasis. Indigenous production could make these therapies a viable therapeutic option for psoriasis patients in the near future.

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Targeting Can Protect against Arthritis with Low Sensitization to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmellat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α blockade is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and other inflammatory diseases, but in patients, it is associated with reduced resistance to the infectious agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, among others. Our goal was to model infection and arthritis in mice and to compare etanercept, a currently used anti-TNF-α inhibitor, to an anti-TNF-α vaccine. We developed a murine surrogate of the TNF-α kinoid and produced an anti-murine TNF-α vaccine (TNFKi composed of keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugated to TNF-α, which resulted in anti-TNF-α antibody production in mice. We also used etanercept (a soluble receptor of TNF commonly used to treat RA as a control of TNF neutralization. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, TNFKi protected against inflammation similar to etanercept. In a mouse model of acute L. monocytogenes infection, all TNFKi-treated mice showed cleared bacterial infection and survived, whereas etanercept-treated mice showed large liver granulomas and quickly died. Moreover, TNFKi mice infected with the virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis showed resistance to infection, in contrast with etanercept-treated mice or controls. Depending on the TNF-α blockade strategy, treating arthritis with a TNF-α inhibitor could result in a different profile of infection suceptibility. Our TNFKi vaccine allowed for a better remaining host defense than did etanercept.

  9. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values in elk neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Johnson, C.R.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Serological indicators of general condition would be helpful for monitoring or assessing ungulate wildlife. Toward that end, we report the 1st reference values for 2 cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??), in neonatal elk (Cervus elaphus). We obtained blood samples from 140 calves ??? 6 days old in Yellowstone National Park during summer 2003-2005. TL-6 values ranged from 0 to 1.21 pg/ml with a median of 0.03 pg/ml. TNF-?? values ranged from 0 to 225.43 pg/ml with a median of 1.85 pg/ml. IL-6 and TNF-?? concentrations were not significant predictors of elk calf survival through 21 days. Development of ungulate-based IL-6 and TNF-?? assays that provide greater sensitivity than cross-reacting human-based assays could be helpful in monitoring ungulate condition and health status comparisons among herds. Such information could provide indirect assessments of range quality or environmental influences among herds. 

  10. Genetically engineered bacteriophage delivers a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist coating on neural electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jun; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Jin, Young-Hyun; Stieglitz, Thomas; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the formation of anti-inflammatory surface coating on a neural electrode. The surface coating is realized using a recombinant f88 filamentous bacteriophage, which displays a short platinum binding motif and a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNF-α antagonist) on p3 and p8 proteins, respectively. The recombinant bacteriophages are immobilized on the platinum surface by a simple dip coating process. The selective and stable immobilization of bacteriophages on a platinum electrode is confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope. From the in vitro cell viability test, the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced cell death was prevented by presenting recombinant bacteriophage coating, albeit with no significant cytotoxic effect. It is also observed that the bacteriophage coating does not have critical effects on the electrochemical properties such as impedance and charge storage capacities. Thus, this approach demonstrates a promising anti-apoptotic as well as anti-inflammatory surface coating for neural implant applications. (paper)

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  12. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  13. Increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic macrophage/microglial reactivity, and demyelination in transgenic mice producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taupin, V; Renno, T; Bourbonnière, L

    1997-01-01

    are a target of immune attack. TNF-alpha also regulates macrophage activity which could contribute to autoimmune inflammation. We have expressed TNF-alpha at disease-equivalent levels in the central nervous system of transgenic mice, using a myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter. These mice were normal...

  14. Transcription Factor EB Expression in Early Breast Cancer Relates to Lysosomal/Autophagosomal Markers and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Disrupting the autophagic balance to trigger autophagic death may open new strategies for cancer therapy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and may play a role in cancer biology and clinical behavior. The expression of TFEB and the lysosomal cancer cell content (expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a [LAMP2a] and cathepsin D) was studied in a series of 100 T1-stage breast carcinomas. Expression patterns were correlated with autophagy/hypoxia-related proteins, angiogenesis, and clinical outcome. The effect of hypoxic/acidic conditions on TFEB kinetics was studied in the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Overexpression of TFEB in cancer cell cytoplasm and the perinuclear/nuclear area was noted in 23 (23%) of 100 cases. High LAMP2a and cathepsin D expression was noted in 30 (30%) of 100 and 28 (28%) of 100 cases, respectively. TFEB expression was directly linked with LAMP2a (P factor 2-alpha (HIF-2α) (P = .01, r = 0.25) expression and inversely with progesterone receptor (P = .01, r = 0.22). High vascular density was directly linked with LAMP2a (P = .05, r = 0.18) and cathepsin D (P = .005, r = 0.28). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, TFEB and cathepsin D expression were related to an ominous prognosis (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TFEB expression sustained its independent prognostic significance (P = .05, hazard ratio 2.1). In in vitro experiments, acidity triggered overexpression of TFEB and nuclear translocation. Intense TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis, evident in one fourth of early breast carcinomas, define poor prognosis. Tumor acidity is among the microenvironmental conditions that trigger TFEB overactivity. TFEB is a sound target for the development of lysosomal targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha genotypes with various biochemical parameters of normal, over weight and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.; Chaudhary, B.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been associated with obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism were associated with insulin resistance or obesity related traits in non-diabetic and diabetic patients visiting Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Fatima Hospital and Irfan Clinic in Sargodha. In non diabetic subjects the AA allele carriers, compared with homozygous G allele carriers had significantly lower (28%) triglyceride values and 15% higher HDL yal ues, whereas other parameters tested 81id not show any significant variation. In diabetic patients the AA allele carriers, compared with GG allele carriers, besides having 31 % higher FBS and 26% higher creatinine, had 20% higher cholesterol and 34% higher triglycerides. The HDL values were 14% less, compared to GG allele carriers. In normal subjects (BMI 22.85:1:0.25 kgim2), the AA allele carriers showed 132%, 125%, 65% and 112% higher triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL values compared with GG allele carriers. The HDL and creatinine did not show any significant change. In the overweight subjects (BMI: 27.17+-0.17 kgim/sup 2/) all these values were lower than in AA allele carriers compared with GG allele carriers. The AA allele carries had FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL 28%, 48%, 14% and 14% lower than in the GG allele' carriers, respectively. In obese subjects, (BMI: 36.73+-0.78kgm/sup 2/), however, the FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine values were 5%, 8%, 7% and 14% higher in AA allele carries compared to GG allele carriers, respectively. The LDL content was 8% lower in AA allele carrier as compared with the respective GG allele carriers, It is concluded that replacement of G at -308 with A leads to reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subject, whereas in diabetic patients this mutation-increases the risk of CVD. Using BMI as index of obesity, it was

  16. Hematologic interactions of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1, and adrenal hormones and the hematologic effects of TNF alpha in Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, T R; del Castillo, J; Ni, R X; Bikhazi, N

    1989-06-01

    Endotoxin reduces the release among other cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) and causes peripheral lymphopenia and a dose-response-dependent initial neutropenia followed by a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF alone induces lymphopenia and an initial neutropenia followed by a biphasic neutrophilia. IL-1 alone induces lymphopenia and a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF-plus-IL-1 caused a greater lymphopenia than either monokine alone, suggesting that both monokines contribute to LPS-induced lymphopenia. TNF-plus-IL-1 induced neutropenia similar in magnitude to that induced by TNF alone and induced a neutrophilia significantly greater than that induced by either monokine alone, suggesting that LPS-induced neutropenia is caused by TNF, while LPS-induced neutrophilia is due to the combined effects of TNF and II-1. TNF and IL-1 were administered together with LPS to simulate the in vivo condition of endogenous monokine release during gram-negative bacteremia. TNF combined with LPS increased both the duration and magnitude of LPS-induced lymphopenia, LPS-induced neutropenia, and LPS-induced neutrophilia. TNF-plus-LPS treated rats at 2 hours after injection exhibited a striking 93% decrease in bone marrow neutrophils even though no peripheral neutrophilia was yet apparent, suggesting that the subsequent neutrophilia was due to demargination and recirculation of neutrophils sequestered in the peripheral vasculature immediately after their release from the bone marrow. Epinephrine, which causes neutrophilia by demargination but not by release of marrow neutrophils, reversed the initial neutropenia in TNF-plus-LPS-treated rats and increased the neutrophilia. IL-1 combined with LPS increased LPS-induced neutrophilia, suggesting that endogenous IL-1 also contributed to LPS-induced neutrophilia. Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats with hyperplasia of the monocyte-macrophage system and treated with TNF differed from naive rats treated with TNF in that the

  17. Expression of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha in the developing pituitary gland of male sheep lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Bo; Yuan, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-01

    To explore the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the developing pituitary of male lamb, we detected AR and ERα expression in the anterior pituitary of lambs aged 2-7 months old by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that both AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) and ERα immunoreactivity (ERα-ir) were localized in the nuclei of anterior pituitary cell. The percentage of the anterior pituitary cells expressing ERα fluctuated from 8.79±0.02% to 11.80±0.04% during the examined stages, but fell significantly to the lowest level at 6 months. While the proportion of AR-ir showed significant changes, it was in 11.52±1.26% at 2 months, it firstly increased to 19.86±1.03% at 3 months, and then significantly decreased to 8.18±1.17% at 6 months (Panterior pituitary cells. These results indicate that both AR and ERα are important in regulation of secretary function of anterior pituitary in sheep lamb, although the related mechanism needs to be elucidated further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Astrocytes expressing ALS‐linked mutant FUS induce motor neuron death through release of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Azadeh; McAvoy, Kevin; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Trotti, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. While it is established that astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons in ALS, the specific contribution of mutant FUS (mutFUS) through astrocytes has not yet been studied. Here, we used primary astrocytes expressing a N‐terminally GFP tagged R521G mutant or wild‐type FUS (WTFUS) and show that mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes undergo astrogliosis, damage co‐cultured motor neurons via activation of an inflammatory response and produce conditioned medium (ACM) that is toxic to motor neurons in isolation. Time lapse imaging shows that motor neuron cultures exposed to mutFUS ACM, but not WTFUS ACM, undergo significant cell loss, which is preceded by progressive degeneration of neurites. We found that Tumor Necrosis Factor‐Alpha (TNFα) is secreted into ACM of mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes. Accordingly, mutFUS astrocyte‐mediated motor neuron toxicity is blocked by targeting soluble TNFα with neutralizing antibodies. We also found that mutant astrocytes trigger changes to motor neuron AMPA receptors (AMPAR) that render them susceptible to excitotoxicity and AMPAR‐mediated cell death. Our data provide the first evidence of astrocytic involvement in FUS‐ALS, identify TNFα as a mediator of this toxicity, and provide several potential therapeutic targets to protect motor neurons in FUS‐linked ALS. PMID:29380416

  19. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  20. Effects of stem cell factor on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha accumulation in human acute myeloid leukaemia and LAD2 mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard F Gibbs

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a hematopoietic growth factor that exerts its activity by signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptor known as Kit or CD117. SCF-Kit signalling is crucial for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage. Furthermore, since myeloid leukaemia cells express the Kit receptor, SCF may play an important role in myeloid leukaemia progression too. However, the mechanisms of this pathophysiological effect remain unclear. Recent evidence shows that SCF triggers accumulation of the inducible alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 in hematopoietic cells--a transcription complex that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. However, it is unknown how SCF impacts on HIF-1α accumulation in human myeloid leukaemia and mast cells. Here we show that SCF induces HIF-1α accumulation in THP-1 human myeloid leukaemia cells but not in LAD2 mast cells. We demonstrated that LAD2 cells have a more robust glutathione (GSH-dependent antioxidative system compared to THP-1 cells and are therefore protected against the actions of ROS generated in an SCF-dependent manner. BSO-induced GSH depletion led to a significant decrease in HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylase (PHD activity in THP-1 cells and to near attenuation of it in LAD2 cells. In THP-1 cells, SCF-induced HIF-1α accumulation is controlled via ERK, PI3 kinase/PKC-δ/mTOR-dependent and to a certain extent by redox-dependent mechanisms. These results demonstrate for the first time an important cross-talk of signalling pathways associated with HIF-1 activation--an important stage of the myeloid leukaemia cell life cycle.

  1. Epidermal growth factor regulation of glutathione S-transferase gene expression in the rat is mediated by class Pi glutathione S-transferase enhancer I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    2000-07-01

    Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB) induce class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI), which is required for the stimulation of GSTP1 expression by PenCB, also mediates EGF and TGF alpha stimulation of GSTP1 gene expression. However, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin did not stimulate GPEI-mediated gene expression. On the other hand, the antioxidant reagents butylhydroxyanisole and t-butylhydroquinone, stimulated GPEI-mediated gene expression, but the level of GSTP1 mRNA was not elevated. Our observations suggest that EGF and TGF alpha induce GSTP1 by the same signal transduction pathway as PenCB. Since the sequence of GPEI is similar to that of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), some factors which bind to ARE might play a role in GPEI-mediated gene expression.

  2. Attenuation of alpha2A-adrenergic receptor expression in neonatal rat brain by RNA interference or antisense oligonucleotide reduced anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, G T; Kalinina, T S; Dygalo, N N

    2004-01-01

    Brain alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) have been implicated in the regulation of anxiety, which is associated with stress. Environmental treatments during neonatal development could modulate the level of brain alpha2-AR expression and alter anxiety in adults, suggesting possible involvement of these receptors in early-life programming of anxiety state. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the reduction of the expression of A subtype of these receptors most abundant in the neonatal brain affects anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. We attenuated the expression of alpha2A-ARs during neonatal life by two different sequence specific approaches, antisense technology and RNA interference. Treatment of rats with the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide or short interfering RNA (siRNA) against alpha2A-ARs on the days 2-4 of their life, produced a marked acute decrease in the levels of both alpha2A-AR mRNA and [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the brainstem into which drugs were injected. The decrease of alpha2A-AR expression in the neonatal brainstem influenced the development of this receptor system in the brain regions as evidenced by the increased number of [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the hypothalamus of adult animals with both neonatal alpha2A-AR knockdown treatments; also in the frontal cortex of antisense-treated, and in the hippocampus of siRNA-treated adult rats. These adult animals also demonstrated a decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze as evidenced by an increased number of the open arm entries, greater proportion of time spent in the open arms, and more than a two-fold increase in the number of exploratory head dips. The results provide the first evidence that the reduction in the brain expression of a gene encoding for alpha2A-AR during neonatal life led to the long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. The data suggests that alterations in the expression of the receptor-specific gene during critical periods of brain

  3. Fluctuating levels of reprogramming factor expression in cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although human undifferentiated keratinocytes (HUKs) can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency and rapid kinetics by transducing reprogramming factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ...

  4. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  5. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Jo?l; Tremblay, Jacques P.

    2016-01-01

    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested t